الرَّحْمَان Ar-Rahmaan & الرَّحِيم  Ar-Raheem

 الرَّحْمَان Ar-Rahmaan (the Extremely Merciful), the Merciful One Who has as His attribute mercy, the One possessing tremendous and extensive mercy.

 الرَّحِيم  Ar-Raheem (the Bestower of mercy), the One Who has mercy upon the creation.

As the verifier has mentioned, the difference between Ar-Rahmaan and Ar-Raheem is Ar-Rahmaan is with regard to the attribute of Allaah’s self, the attribute He has Himself of extreme mercy and Ar-Raheem is His bestowing mercy upon the creation with regard to His action.

[SourceThe Ninety-Nine Names of Allaah – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En] & Transcribed PDF]

ar-Rahmaan (The One Who is Most Merciful): This is one of Allaah’s particular names and which denotes the attribute of very great and extensive mercy that exists with Him.

[See Ibnul Qayyim’s Badaai’ Al-Fawaa’id (Beirut, Lebanon: Daarul Khayr, 1st. ed. 1414/1994)], vol. 1, pp. 23-24, and Ibn ‘Uthaymeen’s Sharhul ‘Aqeedah Al-Waasitiyyah, ibid.]

ar-Raheem (The One Who Bestows Mercy): This name denotes that the attribute is related to the marhoom (i.e. the one whom Allaah chooses to receive His Rahmah (Mercy).

So, the difference between ar-Rahmaan and ar-Raheem is that in the case of the former, ar-Rahmah is His attribute, and in the latter, ar-Rahmah is His act, meaning that He is the One Who bestows ar-Rahmah upon others. So, when both names come together [i.e. ar-Rahmaan, ar-Raheem], then the meaning in this context is that Allaah’s Mercy is very great and extensive, and that His Mercy reaches His creation. This is what is meant by those who say that ar-Rahmaan is the One Whose Mercy encompasses everything (general Mercy), and ar-Raheem is the One who has Mercy upon the believers (special Mercy). Since Allaah’s Mercy upon the kaafir is a special one in this life only, then it is as if they have no mercy upon them, because in the Hereafter when they will ask Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) to save them from Hell and admit being wrong, Allaah will deal with them with His Justice, not His Mercy, Saying:

اخْسَئُوا فِيهَا وَلَا تُكَلِّمُونِ
“Remain you in it [Hell] with ignominy! And speak not to Me!”
[Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Mu’minoon (23:108)].

The name ar-Raheem is applied to Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) and may be applied to others. Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) has described His Messenger Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) as Raheem (Soorat At-Tawbah, 9:128).

Ibn Katheer (رحمه االله) said:

“Some of the names of Allaah تعالى are restricted to Him only like the names: Allaah, ar-Rahmaan, al-Khaaliq, ar-Raaziq and so forth. Some other names, however, may be applied to other than Him.”

[See Badaai’ Al-Fawaa’id, p. 24, Sharhul ‘Aqeedah Al-Waasitiyyah, pp. 38-39, Lum’atul I’tiqaad, p. 29, Tafseer Ibn Katheer (1:21), Sharh Thalaathat Al-Usool within Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen’s Majmoo’ Fataawaa (Riyadh, KSA: Daar Ath-Thuraya, 1st. ed. 1414/1993)], vol. 6, p. 11.

Source : From the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi – By Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen (rahimahullah). With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

Related Link : https://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/

البَرّ al-Barr (The Most Benign and Kind): One of the Names of Allaah

One of the Names of Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) is  البَرّ al-Barr:

البَرّ al-Barr: The One Who is Most Subtle, Kind, Courteous, and Generous; the One Who is ample in goodness and beneficence; Who gives manifold increase of reward to the righteous, and Who overlooks many of the faults of the wrong-doers with gracious forgiveness; whoever brings a good deed, Allaah, al-Barr, rewards him ten times the like thereof to his credit, and whoever brings an evil deed He (تعالى) decrees for him only the recompense of the like thereof, and they will not be wronged. If somebody intends to do a good deed and he does not do it, then Allaah, al-Barr, will write for him a full good deed in his account with Him; and if he intends to do a bad deed and he does not do it, then Allaah will write a full good deed in his account with Him. He loves piety towards Him, goodness, justice, righteousness, honesty, truthfulness, benevolent regard or conduct to parents and others, as well as every incumbent duty.

[Source : From the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi – By Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen (rahimahullah). With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)]

البَرّ  Al-Barr with a baa and a raa and a shaddah on the raaAl-Barr (the Most Benign and Kind), the One Who treats the creation in an excellent and kind manner, Who does not interrupt His fine treatment of them and Who rectifies their affairs for them.

[SourceThe Ninety-Nine Names of Allaah – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En] & Transcribed PDF]

Related Link: https://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/

They will never compass anything of Allaah’s Knowledge except that which He wills – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

Bismillaah

The following is excerpted from the Shaykh Uthaymeen’s explanation of Aayatul-Kursi, Translated by Dr. Saleh as-Saleh rahimahullaah

[Six]: In the sixth statement, Allaah (تعالى) said:

وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ مِّنْ عِلْمِهِ إِلَّا بِمَا شَاءَ
And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that which He wills.
[Qur’aan, Aayatul-Kursi , Surah Al-Baqarah 2:255]

The pronoun of the verb { يُحِيطُونَ } “compass” refers to either all that is in the heavens and the earth or to the letter haa’ (ـهـ) in Allaah’s saying:

{ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ ] “What happens to them [the creatures] in the future and what happened to them in the past.” In the latter case, the meaning would be “Those who Allaah knows what happens to them in the future and what happened to them in the past, will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that which He Wills.”

In this statement, Allaah (تعالى) makes clear the perfection of His knowledge and the imperfection of the creature’s knowledge.

And thus, He (تعالى) compares His Attributes to that of His ‘ibaad in order that His perfection and the imperfection of the creatures become clearly evident. This is also clear in His saying:

كُلُّ مَنْ عَلَيْهَا فَانٍ
وَيَبْقَىٰ وَجْهُ رَبِّكَ ذُو الْجَلَالِ وَالْإِكْرَامِ

Whatsoever on it (the earth) will perish. And the Face of your Rabb, full of Majesty and Honour will abide forever. [Qur’aan, Soorat Ar-Rahmaan (55:26-27)].

As far as the word ‘ilm (knowledge) in His saying:

عِلْمِهِ ]
His Knowledge,”

it is an infinitive (verbal noun) denoting either

(a) the ‘ilm of His thaat (Essence) and sifaat (Attributes), or
(b) His ma’loom (What Allaah Knows).

Accordingly, the meaning of the aayah: {وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ مِّنْ عِلْمِهِ إِلَّا بِمَا شَاءَ} “And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that which He wills“, means either

(a) that we do not know anything about Allaah, His thaat, and His sifaat except that which He willed for us to know, or

(b) that we do not know of what Allaah knows except that which He willed to be known.

The aayah implies both meanings, and both are correct since we do not know of Allaah’s thaat or sifaat except that which He willed for us to know. Indeed, He is the One Who made it known to us that He ascended upon the ‘arsh (Throne); and He is the One Who taught us on the tongue of His Messenger [Muhammad صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم] that He descends to the lowest heaven [in the last third of the night]; and this is the case with the rest of His sifaat: We have no knowledge of them except that He wills. Similarly, what Allaah knows regarding what is in the heavens and what is on the earth, our knowledge thereof is restricted to that which He willed for us to know. After all, He is the One Who informed us of the existence of the angels in the heavens and that there are seven heavens. So it is with respect to the rest of what Allaah knows, we are aware of that which He willed for us to know.

Even that which He has made known, many of us are unaware of it; the knowledge thereof are attained only if He wills. In the human being, there are many things which people [i.e. scientists] are not yet fully aware of. They gradually attained the knowledge that they knew not before. So, the aayah comprises both of the meanings discussed above.

Thus we do not know anything of what Allaah knows even that which concerns ourselves except that which He wills, and that we do not compass anything about Allaah’s thaat and sifaat except that which He wills. Therefore, whatever Allaah wills for His creatures to know, whether in relation to His thaat, sifaat, asmaa’ (Names), or Actions; or with respect to His creation or His legal ways which He revealed to His Messengers, then He (تعالى) will make it known for them.

Source : From the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi – By Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen (rahimahullah). With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

Related Link: https://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/

Allaah Knows what happens to His creatures in this world, and what will happen to them in the Hereafter – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

Bismillaah

The following is excerpted from the Shaykh Uthaymeen’s explanation of Aayatul-Kursi, Translated by Dr. Saleh as-Saleh rahimahullaah

[Five]: Then Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى ) said in the Fifth Statement:

 يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ
And Allaah Knows what happens to them (His creatures) in this world, and what will happen to them in the Hereafter.
[Qur’aan, Aayatul-Kursi , Surah Al-Baqarah 2:255]

Knowledge, according to the scholars of usool (the fundamental principles of deen), is the definitive comprehension of a thing in conformity with its true nature.Thus, the lack of comprehension is ignorance, the indecisive comprehension is doubt, and the assertive comprehension that does not concur with reality is compounded ignorance.

For example, if you were asked, “When did the expedition of Badr [59] take place?” And you say, “I do not know,” then this is ignorance. If you were asked the same question and you said, “It happened in the second or the third year of hijrah,” then this is doubt.[60] And if your answer to the same question was, “The fifth year,” then this is compounded ignorance.[61]

Allaah, the Most Mighty and Most Majestic, knows things comprehensively and with perfection, overall and in detail. His knowledge is unlike the knowledge of ‘ibaad. That is why He said:

 يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ
And Allaah knows what happens to them [the creatures] in the future and what happened to them in the past.[62]

The conjunctive noun {ما} is a form of generalization (gram.) This comprises everything be it small or great, or whether it is from the actions of Allaah or from the creatures’ deeds.

Knowing what happens to them in the future implies that Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) is not unaware of the future, and that His knowledge of the past necessitates that He does not forget the past. That is why when Fir’awn said to Mûsa (alaihissalam):

قَالَ فَمَا بَالُ الْقُرُونِ الْأُولَىٰ
“What about the generations of the old?” [Qur’aan, Soorat Taha (20:51)].

Mûsa (alaihissalam) replied:

قَالَ عِلْمُهَا عِندَ رَبِّي فِي كِتَابٍ ۖ لَّا يَضِلُّ رَبِّي وَلَا يَنسَى

The knowledge thereof is with my Rabb, in a Record. My Rabb is neither unaware nor He forgets. [Qur’aan, Soorat Taha (20:52)].

This means that Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) is neither unaware of the future nor does He forget the past.

Footnotes:

[59] The Battle of Badr occurred between the army of the believers lead by Prophet Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) and the polytheists of Quarysh and it took place on the 17th of Ramadaan of the second year of Hijrah.

[60] Because you give another answer, which you think has the same possibility of being the truth.

[61] This is known as al-jahlul-murakkab, which is to comprehend something in a way contrary to its true reality. [See Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen’s Sharh Thalaathat Al-Usool (Burmingham, UK: Al-Hidaayah Publication, 1st. ed. 1418/1997)], p. 37.

[62] This is one of the meanings of this great aayah. It signifies that Allaah’s knowledge encompasses everything in the past, present, and the future; nothing escapes Allaah’s knowledge.

Note: One of the Names of Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) is العليم al-‘Aleem:

The One Who knows what has been and what will be; Who ever has known, and ever will know, what has been and what will be; His knowledge comprehends all things, the covert and the overt, the small thereof and the great, the possible and the impossible, the lofty and lower spheres, etc. in the most complete manner. Nothing is concealed from Him in the earth or in the heavens.

[See Shaykh as-Sa’dee’s Tayseer Al-Kareem Ar-Rahmaan fee Tafseeri Kalaamil-Mannaan [‘Unayzah, Saudi Arabia: Saalih bin Saalih Center Publish. 1412/1992)], vol. 5, p. 299.

Source : From the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi – By Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen (rahimahullah). With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

Related Links:
https://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/

Allaah’s kursi extends over the heavens and the earth encompassing them all – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

Bismillaah

The following is excerpted from the Shaykh Uthaymeen’s explanation of Aayatul-Kursi, Translated by Dr. Saleh as-Saleh rahimahullaah

[Seven]: Then Allaah, the Most High, said:

وَسِعَ كُرْسِيُّهُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ ۖ وَلَا يَئُودُهُ حِفْظُهُمَا ۚ وَهُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْعَظِيمُ

His kursi extends over the heavens and the earth encompassing them all, He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them. And He is the Most High, the Most Great.

The kursi [literally: footstool] is mawdi’ul qadamayn (place of the Feet) of Allaah, Most Mighty and Most Majestic, and it is before the ‘arsh like a front to it. This was authentically related by ibn ‘Abbaas (رضي االله عنهما) in a mawqoof [63] type of narration. This is agreed upon by the majority of ahlussunnah wal jamaa’ah. In fact, this is asserted by Shaykh-ulIslam Ibn Taymeeyah, [Imaam] Ibnul Qayyim, and others from the people of knowledge and from the verifying scholars.

Some have said that al-kursi is the ‘arsh itself. However, this is not true because the ‘arsh is greater, more spacious, and more profound in its extent of encompassing than al-kursi. It has also been narrated on the authority of ibn ‘Abbaas (رضي االله عنهما) that al-kursi represents Allaah’s Knowledge. But I do not think that this narration is authentic because this meaning (i.e. knowledge) is not the true meaning for the word al-kursi in the classical Arabic language nor in the common (‘urfi) language. In fact, it is very unlikely that this transmission from ibn ‘Abbaas (رضي االله عنهما) is an authentic one [64]. Hence, al-kursi is mawdi’ul qadamayan.

The greatness of al-kursi is clearly stated in the hadeeth in which the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“The seven heavens and the seven earths by the side of al-kursi are naught but as a ring thrown down in a desert land, and such is al-kursi with respect to al-’Arsh (the Throne).” [65]

This hadeeth indicates the vastness of these immense creations and which are, with respect to us, from the world of al-ghayb. That is why Allaah سبحانه و تعالى says:

أَفَلَمْ يَنظُرُوا إِلَى السَّمَاءِ فَوْقَهُمْ كَيْفَ بَنَيْنَاهَا وَزَيَّنَّاهَا وَمَا لَهَا مِن فُرُوجٍ

Have they not looked at the heavens above them, how We have made it and adorned it, and there are no rifts in it. [Qur’aan, Soorat Qaaf (50:6)].

He سبحانه و تعالى did not say: “Have they not looked at al-kursi (or al- ‘arsh)…,” because this is something that is not seen by us.

Had it not been that Allaah had informed us about it (al-kursi or al-‘arsh), we would not have known of it.

Allaah’s saying: “His kursi extends over and encompasses the heavens and the earth”, supports the opinion held by Shaykh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymeeyah and by other verifying scholars that the heavens and the earths all have a spherical shape, because this is a matter acknowledged by sensory perception, and through information, though the latter method may have been hidden from many of the preceding people. The proof for this from the Qur’aan is in the saying of Allaah, the Most High:

إِذَا السَّمَاءُ انشَقَّتْ
وَأَذِنَتْ لِرَبِّهَا وَحُقَّتْ
وَإِذَا الْأَرْضُ مُدَّتْ 

When the heaven is split asunder [on the Day of Resurrection], and listens and obeys its Rabb,—and it must do so; And when the earth is stretched forth…[Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Inshiqaaq (84:1-3)].

Allaah’s saying: “And when the earth is stretched forth,” necessitates that it is now unstretched. In addition, the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said that on the Day of Resurrection, the earth will be stretched forth like stretched leather, the example of which is drawn for emphasis. [66]

Another proof is the saying of Allaah, the Most High:

يُكَوِّرُ اللَّيْلَ عَلَى النَّهَارِ وَيُكَوِّرُ النَّهَارَ عَلَى اللَّيْلِ

Yukawwiru the night around the day [making it to be a covering upon the day] and Yukawwiru the day around the night. [Qur’aan, Soorat Az-Zumar (39:5)].

Yukawiru means: “to wind round,”[67] like in our saying, “the akwaar (singl. kawr) of the turban,” meaning the turns of the turban upon the head.

We know that the day and night succeed each other upon earth and in doing so, this entails that the earth is spherical, because a thing would not be wound around in a round form except upon something ball-shaped. Nowadays, it is witnessed that the earth is spherical in form.

The fact that al-kursi extends over and encompasses the heavens and the earth is evidence that it is wound round in a round form.

Regarding al-‘arsh, it has been reported that the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) described it as being like a dome above the heavens.[68] The dome-shape being round but neither fully spherical nor flat, and its middle is high like that of a tent. [69]

Then, Allaah, the Most High, said:

وَلَا يَئُودُهُ حِفْظُهُمَا

And He [Allaah سبحانه و تعالى] feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them [i.e. the heavens and the earths].

This attribute of Allaah [feeling no fatigue] is an Attribute of negation. So, what are the Attributes required for guarding and preserving [the heavens and the earths] such that we know that this negation [of fatigue] is in fact an affirmation of their perfection? It is essential that the guarding and preserving require Life, Knowledge, Ability, Might, Mercy, and possibly other attributes. What is important is that the negation implies the perfection of Allaah’s Knowledge, Ability, Might, and Mercy as well as the other related Attributes that are entailed by His (سبحانه و تعالى) preserving and guarding.

Footnotes:

[63] Mawqoof: lit. “stopped”. It is a narration from a companion only. The hadeeth attributed to the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) is called marfoo’. Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (rahimahullaah) commented, “Had it not been that Ibn ‘Abbaas (رضي االله عنهما) is one whom it is said that he takes from the Israelite transmissions (israa’eeliyyaat: narrations from the traditions of the People of the Book), we would have said that this transmission (regarding al-kursi) takes the form of marfoo’ tradition, because it deals with knowledge of al-ghayb (the world of unperceived realities). When it comes to this kind of knowledge, there is no room for ijtihaad (scholarly deductions). When a sahaabi (companion) says or does something which is not within the scope of ijtihaad, then it takes the marfoo’ type of tradition. The exception, however, is that if the narration from the sahaabi is of the form of akhbaar (news telling, relating information), then, if it is known that a sahaabi narrates from Bani Israa’eel, his transmission would not be marfoo’ because of the possibility that its source may be from Bani Israa’eel (an Israelite transmission). Knowing that the scholars are scrupulous in their inspection of what is attributed to the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), they do not rule that a particular transmission is marfoo’ except when all of the possibilities that may hinder this ruling are ruled out.” Tafseer Aayat Al-Kursi, pp. 19-20.

Note: This report from Ibn ‘Abbaas is related by ‘Abdullaah Ibn al-Imaam Ahmad (As-Sunnah: 586), Ibn Abee Shaybah (al-‘Arsh: 61), Ibn Khuzaymah (At-Tawheed: 248), and by alHaakim (Al-Mustadrak: 2:282) who said it is saheeh according to the conditions of alBukhaari and Muslim. Imaam ath-Thahabi agreed to the authentication of al-Haakim. Ad-Daaraqutni reported it in his book As-Sifaat (36) as mawqoof from Ibn ‘Abbaas.

Shaykh al-Albaani said: “Its isnaad is saheeh, and its narrators are all reliable.” (Mukhtasar Al-’Uluw: 45).

[64] Shaykeh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymeeyah (Al-Fataawaa, 6:584), and Shaykh al-Albaani (AsSilsilah As-Saheehah, no. 109), stated the weakness of this narration from Ibn ‘Abbaas (رضي االله عنهما).

[65] Reported by Ibn Abee Shaybah (Al-‘Arsh, 58), and by Al-Baihaqi (Al-Asmaa’ wasSifaat, 862) with both narrations being from the way of Abee Thar (radhi Allaahu anhu). Shaykh al-Albaani (As-Silsilah As-Saheehah, no. 109) stated that there is no single authentic hadeeth attributed to the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) regarding al-kursi except this one.

[66] Reported by Ibn Jareer at-Tabari (Tafseer at-Tabari, 30:115-116) on the authority of ‘Ali Ibn al-Hussain. The transmission, however, is mursal.

Note: A hadeeth is categorized as mursal when the link between the taabi’ee (successor of the sahaabah) and the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) is missing.

[67] The infinitive noun is takweer, which means to round a thing in a round form.

[68] This has been reported in Sunan Abee Daawood (English Translation), no. 4708 and in the Sunnah by Ibn Abee ‘Aasim, no. 575, and by others. There is disagreement regarding the authenticity of its isnaad. Imaam ath-Thahabai and other scholars of hadeeth including al-Albaani graded its isnaad as weak. Imaam Ibn al-Aye supported its authenticity. The text describing al-‘Arsh as a dome over the heavens is supported by the context of an authentic narration reported by Imaam al-Bukhaari in his Saheeh (Arabic/English), vol. 9, no. 519 and in which the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“There are one-hundred degrees in al-Jannah which Allaah has prepared for those who carry on jihaad in His Cause. The distance between every two degrees is like the distance between the sky and the earth, so if you ask Allaah for anything, ask Him for the Firdaws for it is the middle and highest part of al-Jannah and at its top is al-‘Arsh of ar-Rahmaan (Allaah), and from it gush forth the rivers of al-Jannah.”

The ‘Arsh being the roof of the Firdaws, which is the middle and highest part of alJannah, indicates that it has a dome-shape because a thing cannot be at the middle and at its highest point (peak) unless it is round. [See Shaykh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymeeyah’s Al-Fataawaa, vol. 5, pp. 150-155, and the book of Al-‘Arsh by Muhammad Ibn ‘Uthmaan Ibn Abee Shaybah (Riyadh, KSA: Maktabat ar-Rushd (checked by Dr. Muhammad Ibn Khaleefah at-Tameemi), 1418/1998), p. 333].

[69] This is based upon additional explanation of the translated text which the author, Shaykh Ibn ’Uthaymeen, may Allaah’s Mercy be upon him, directly related to me on Wednesday the 16th of Safar 1419Hj, corresponding to the 10th of June 1998. He stated that this explanation fits with that of the hadeeth on the Firdaws as mentioned above. And Allaah knows best.

Source : From the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi – By Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen (rahimahullah). With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

Related Links:
https://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/

Aayatul-Kursi contains Ismullaahi al-Aa’tham (Allaah’s Most Greatest Name) – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

The following is excerpted from the Shaykh Uthaymeen’s explanation of Aayatul-Kursi, Translated by Dr. Saleh as-Saleh rahimahullaah

The aayah contains ismullaahi al-aa’tham (Allaah’s Most Greatest Name) affirmed in His Saying:

[ الحيُّ الَقيُّوم ]

Allaah, there is no god worthy of worship except He, the one who possesses the perfect living, and Who is established on His Own, Self-subsisting, and by Whom all things subsist.[88]

These two Names were mentioned in three places in the Qur’aan, in the two soorahs known as az-zahraawayn [89] (AlBaqarah and Aal-’Imran), and in Soorat Taha.[90]

The people of ‘ilm (ahlul-‘ilm) said: The Most Great Name of Allaah is only in these two Names since they comprise the Most Beautiful Names in their entirety, and hence the attribute of Perfection is implied in the Name [ الحيُّ ]and the attribute of ihsaan (beauty) is entailed in the Name: [ الَقيُّوم]

Footnotes:

[88] Allaah is the one who sustains, protects, prepares, and runs the affairs of all things as He wills in accordance with His Knowledge, Wisdom, and Justice.

[89] Zahraawayn (dual form of zahra): The bright ones. The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said,

“Recite the Qur’aan, for on the Day of Resurrection it will come as an intercessor for those who recite it. Recite the two bright ones, Al-Baqarah and Soorat Aal-’Imraan, for on the Day of Resurrection they will come as two clouds or two shades, or two flocks of birds in ranks, pleading for those who recite them. Recite Soorat Al-Baqarah, for to take recourse to it is a blessing and to give it up is a cause of grief, and the magicians cannot confront it.”

Reported in Saheeh Muslim (English Translation), vol. 2, no. 1757.

[90] In Al-Baqarah (2:255), in Aal-’Imraan (3:2), and in Taha (20:111).

Abu Umaamah (رضي االله عنه) reported that the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said,

“Allaah’s Most Great Name is in three soorahs in the Qur’aan, in Soorat Al-Baqarah and in Aal-’Imraan and in Soorat Taha.”

Al-Qaasim bin ‘Abdur-Rahmaan, one of the narrators of this hadeeth, searched the Qur’aan and found

Aaytul-Kursi in Soorat Al-Baqarah (2:255):
[ االلهُ لا إله إلاَّ ُ هوَ الحَيُّ القَيُّوم ]

And in Soorat Aal-’Imraan (3:2):
[ اللَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ ]

And in Soorat Taha (20:111)
[ وَعَنَتِ الْوُجُوهُ لِلْحَيِّ الْقَيُّومِ ]

Reported by al-Haakim, Ibn Maajah, at-Tabarani, at-Tahaawi, and others. Shaykh al-Albaani authenticated its isnaad (As-Silsilah As-Saheeha), vol. 2, no. 746.

Source : From the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi – By Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen. With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

Read the below excellent article:

Al Hayy, Al-Qayyoum: Two of Allaah’s names which comprise the perfection of Attributes and Actions – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

Who is it that can intercede with Allaah except with His Permission? – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

Bismillaah

The following is excerpted from the Shaykh Uthaymeen’s explanation of Aayatul-Kursi, Translated by Dr. Saleh as-Saleh rahimahullaah

[FOURTH]: In the fourth statement, Allaah, the Most High, said:

مَن ذَا الَّذِي يَشْفَعُ عِندَهُ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ
Who is it that can intercede with Him except with His Permission?

[Qur’aan, Aayatul-Kursi , Surah Al-Baqarah 2:255]

The word { ْمَن } “Who” is an interrogative noun [46] and the intended use of the interrogation in the sentence is to assert the negation [that there is none who can intercede] as evident in the affirmation phrase which followed it: { ِ إإِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ  } “Except with His Permission.” Whenever a negation takes the form of an interrogative construct, then the statement is infused with the meaning of challenge.

The Intercession (Ash-Shafaa’ah):

Regarding the saying of Allaah, the Most High:

يَشْفَعُ  }
Intercedes,”

know that:

1 . Linguistically, the term “shafaa’ah” means to make an odd number an even one.[47]

2 . Traditionally, it refers to the laying of a petition (interceding, mediating) with someone in favor of another, in procuring a benefit or warding off harm. Thus the shafaa’ah of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) for ahlul-mawqif [48] after the worry and distress which befalls them and which they are unable to bear is an intercession to ward off a harm. On the other hand, the Prophet’s shafaa’ah for ahlul-Jannah [49] to enter al-Jannah is aimed at procuring a benefit.

3. None can intercede except by Allaah’s Permission: { إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ } His Leave is kawni. [50] Even Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) who has the greatest rank with Allaah cannot intercede except with the prior leave from Allaah. He will be granted this permission after he (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) prostrates before Allaah and praises Him with the great praises and glorifications which Allaah guides him to it on that day. Then it will be said:

“ارفع رأسك وقل يُسمَع واشفَعْ تُشَف َّع.”
“Raise your head and speak; you will be listened to, intercede and your intercession will be accepted.” [51]

[It is known] that no one have a rank with Allaah greater than that of the Messenger [Muhammad صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم], nevertheless, he (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) cannot intercede except with the prior leave of Allaah. It is so because of Allaah, Most Majestic and Most High’s, perfection of Authority and hayybah.[52] The more a king’s authority becomes fully established, the more reverent and respected he becomes. People would not even speak in his court unless he speaks. Consider the Prophet’s (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) relation with his companions and which Quraysh’s [53] emissary [‘Urwah bin Mas’oud] described [after finalizing the treaty of AlHudaybiyah]: “And when they spoke to him they would lower their voices.” [54]

All of this is out of respect. You find that if a king is revered by his flock, then no one can speak in his court and in his presence because of the might of his authority. [55]

[The Conditions of Confirmed Intercession]: [56]

Allaah, (تعالى ), has made it clear that He does not permit intercession except for the one whom He approves of and whose word is acceptable to Him, and for the one He is pleased with and on whose behalf intercession shall be made. It is inevitable that Allaah is pleased with ash-shaafi’, the intercessor, and al-mashfoo’i lahu, the one on whose behalf intercession is sought.[57] Consequently, the idols of the polytheists could not intercede on their behalf with Allaah because Allaah does not approve of them. The Prophets and the righteous do not intercede on behalf of the polytheists because the latter are not approved with Allaah.

Accordingly, the conditions for the confirmed shafaa’ah are three:

1. Allaah’s permission of it.
2. Allaah being pleased with the shaafi’.
3. His approval of the one on whose behalf intercession is sought (al-mashfoo’i lahu).[58]

Footnotes:

[46] In the grammatical sense, the noun { ْمَن ] is the subject, and the term { ذَا ] is omitted for being redundant. The term { الَّذِي } “he that” is a relative pronoun standing as the predicate of the subject {مَن } “Who.” [Author’s note].

[47] Allaah (تعالى) said: { وَالشَّفْعِ وَالْوَتْرِ  }, [which means], And by the shaf’a (even) and the witr (odd) [of all the creations of Allaah]. [Qur’aan Soorat Al-Fajr (89:3)].

[48] Ahlul-Mawqif: All human beings gathered on one plane on the Day of Resurrection awaiting their accounts to be taken by Allaah. The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said, “The sun will come so close to the people that they will suffer such distress and trouble as they will not be able to tolerate it or to bear it.” The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) intercedes with Allaah to pronounce His Judgment among the people of al-Mawqif. They will be relieved from their long standing by virtue of his interceding with Allaah on their behalf. [See Saheeh alBukhaari (Arabic/English)], vol. 6, no. 236.

[49] Ahlul-Jannah: The believers who will be admitted to reside forever in al-Jannah.

[50] Kawni: Pertaining to the Universal Will of Allaah, the Most Majestic and Most Magnificent, and which is in accordance with His Foreknowledge and Wisdom. Creation, provisions, life, death, permission to intercede, and so forth exists by the Will of Allaah. Everything that Allaah Wills is certain to occur. He Willed that eemaan (belief in Allaah) and kufr (disbelief) occur, although He Loves eemaan and Hates kufr. On the other hand, the Legislative Decree (al-hukm ash-shar’i) comprises the Revealed Laws (sharee’ah) which the Messengers came with and what is stated in the Revealed Scriptures. Under this Decree, Allaah Loves that mankind believe in Him (eemaan) and does not Love for them to commit kufr. Mankind, however, may or may not believe in Allaah. In short, under His Universal Will, everything Allaah Wills is certain to pass while under the Legislative Will, what is beloved to Allaah may or may not take place.

[51] Part of a long and agreed upon hadeeth. [See Saheeh al-Bukhaari (Arabic/ English)], vol. 6, no. 3 and no. 236.

[52] Hayybah: An attribute inspiring reverence, or veneration.

[53] Quraysh is the tribe of the Prophet Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم).

[54]This is part of a long hadeeth detailing the story of the treaty of Al-Hudaybiyah. [See Saheeh al-Bukhaari, vol. 3, hadeeth 891 (English/Arabic).

[55] Kings are in need of intercessors because of the imperfection of their knowledge, might and authority. Allaah, Most Perfect in His Might, Knowledge, and Authority, is in no need for intercessors. That is why intercession with Allaah takes place only if He permits it. With kings, however, intercession is permitted with or without a king’s permission. Those close to the king, for example, may intercede without permission. [See Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen’s Al-Qawlul Mufeed ‘Alaa Kitaabit-Tawheed (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Daarul ‘Aasimah, 1st ed. 1415/1994)], vol. 1, p. 330, 332.

[56]The intercessions permitted by Allaah تعالى are six. The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) will have the privilege of making three of these intercessions. They are:

1. The Prophet’s intercession for ahlul-mawqif. This is known as the Prophet’s greatest shafaa’ah and it is part of the highest station of praise and honour (almaqaam al-mahmood) with which the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) is distinguished, and for which he will be praised by all creatures. It is mentioned in the Qur’aan [17:78].

2. The Prophet’s intercession for ahlul-Jannah to enter al-Jannah.

3. The Prophet’s (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) intercession with Allaah تعالى to reduce the punishment of his uncle, Abu Taalib because of his protection and support of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم). He will be placed in a shallow part of Hell-Fire.

The other intercessions are not restricted to the Prophet Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم). They include:

4. The Prophet’s intercession with Allaah تعالى that He does not cast into Hell the one who deserves it.

5. His intercession of taking out from Hell those admitted to it because of their sins.

6. The intercession to raise the ranks of the believers. This is the du’aa of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) to believers and by the believers for each other.

[See (1) Shaykh bin Baaz’s commentary on Ibn Taymeeyah’s Al-’Aqeedah Al-Waasitiyyah which Shaykh ‘Ali Hasan ‘Abdul Hameed compiled in his verification of Shaykh ‘AbdurRahmaan As-Sa’di’s book At-Tanbeehaat Al-lateefah ‘Ala Al-Waasitiyyah (Dammaam, Saudi Arabia: Daar Ibnul Qayyim, 1409/1989), p. 73, and (2) Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen’s Al-Qawlul-Mufeed, pp. 332-335].

The intercessions mentioned above are the ones approved by Allaah (تعالى). The annulled intercession is any intercession not approved by Allaah(تعالى ).

[57] The conditions are stated in the following aayaat:

1. Allaah (تعالى) says:

مَن ذَا الَّذِي يَشْفَعُ عِندَهُ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ
Who is he that will intercede with Him except by His permission.
[Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Baqarah (2:255)].

2. Allaah (تعالى) says:

يَوْمَئِذٍ لَّا تَنفَعُ الشَّفَاعَةُ إِلَّا مَنْ أَذِنَ لَهُ الرَّحْمَٰنُ وَرَضِيَ لَهُ قَوْلًا
On that day, no intercession shall avail, except the one for whom ar-Rahmaan has given permission and whose word is acceptable to Him. [Qur’aan, Soorat Taha (20:109)].

3. Allaah (تعالى) says:

 وَلَا يَشْفَعُونَ إِلَّا لِمَنِ ارْتَضَىٰ
And they cannot intercede except for him with whom He is pleased. [Qur’aan,Soorat Al-Anbiyaa’ (21:28)].

[58] The case of intercession on behalf of the Prophet’s uncle, Abu Taalib, is excluded and in a very limited sense from the ruling stated in Allaah’s saying:

فَمَا تَنفَعُهُمْ شَفَاعَةُ الشَّافِعِينَ
No intercession of intercessors will be of any use to them [unbelievers, polytheists].[Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Muddathir (74:48)].

Abu Taalib stood in support of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) and protected him from his enemies of Quraysh. The intercession on behalf of Abu Taalib is special for the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم). Other than this special intercession, none is allowed to intercede for a kaafir. Even Abu Taalib is not saved from the Fire of Hell. Had it not been for the intercession of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), Abu Taalib “would have been in the bottom of the (Hell) Fire,” as the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said. “Perhaps my intercession will be helpful to him on the Day of Resurrection so that he may be put in a shallow fire reaching only up to his ankles with which his brain will boil,” he (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) added. [See Saheeh al-Bukhaari, vol. 5, no. 222 and no. 224, and Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen’s Al-Qawlul Mufeed, vol. 1, p. 334].

Source : From the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi – By Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen (rahimahullah). With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

Related Links:
https://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/
https://abdurrahman.org/category/islam/intercession/

To Allaah belongs whatever is in the Heavens and the Earth – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

Bismillaah

The following is excerpted from the Shaykh Uthaymeen’s explanation of Aayatul-Kursi, Translated by Dr. Saleh as-Saleh rahimahullaah

[THIRD]: In the Third statement, Allaah (تعالى) said:

لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ

To Him belongs whatever (maa) is in the heavens [44] and whatever is on the earth. [Qur’aan, Aayatul-Kursi , Surah Al-Baqarah 2:255]

The name {ما} “maa” here is a conjunctive noun (gram. ism mawsool) taking a form of generalization. The term is used in this form in order to indicate that it comprises both the beings and their states. The meaning, therefore, is that Allaah is the One Who masters the affairs of everything in existence in the heavens and the earth: creating, sovereignty-kingship, and management.

The sentence لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ” “To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth” is a declarative clause in which the predicate (gram. khabar) { له } “To Him” has preceded the subject (gram. mubtada’) which is the conjunctive noun {ما} “Whatever”. In this way, there is a grammatical state of hasr (exclusivity, restriction) which signifies that to Him (Allaah) alone belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth. Accordingly, since creating, sovereignty-kingship, and management of affairs belong to Allaah alone, it is incumbent that we should surrender to Him alone because we are His slaves, and a slave must surrender to the One Who Owns and Masters him, Allaah, the One free of all imperfection, the Most High.

In addition, we must stand to persevere Allaah’s pre-decree because we are His possession and anything that is owned by Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, then it follows that is His right to administer its affairs as He Wills. This right is the same whether His pre-decree applies to the person himself, his family, wealth, friends, country, or the rest of mankind. The important thing is that since the dominion belongs to Allaah, then it is His exclusive right to do whatever He Wills.

In the saying of Allaah (which means), “To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth,” the term “heavens” came in the plural form [45] while the word “earth” was stated in the singular though what is meant is the plural. In this regard, the intended usage of the term “earth” refers to the jins (kind).

Footnotes:

[44] From the angels, jinn, and all that which exists, including which we have no knowledge of.

[45] The Qur’aan has stated that there are seven heavens:

قُلْ مَن رَّبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ السَّبْعِ وَرَبُّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ
Say: Who is the Rabb of the seven heavens and the Rabb of the great ‘Arsh?
[Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Mu’minoon (23:86)].

Source : From the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi – By Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen (rahimahullah). With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

Related Link: https://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/

“Verily Allaah does not sleep and it does not befit Him to sleep” – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

Bismillaah

The following is excerpted from the Shaykh Uthaymeen’s explanation of Aayatul-Kursi, Translated by Dr. Saleh as-Saleh rahimahullaah

[ لَا تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلَا نَوْمٌ ]
Neither slumber, nor sleep overtakes Him,
[Qur’aan, Aayatul-Kursi , Surah Al-Baqarah 2:255]

Allaah did not say (what means): “He does not sleep,” instead He said:{ لَا تَأْخُذُهُ } (which means) “does not overtake Him” in order to comprise the sleep that overcomes and that arising by choice. If you say, “Does not sleep,” it would imply that He does not sleep by choice. However, Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, does not sleep neither by ghalabah (overcoming) nor by choice, because sleep is an imperfect attribute which contradicts both the perfection of the Self and the perfection in relation to others.

The person who is given to sleep misses a lot of his work because of His sleeping. Consider, for example, the case of a person who has many people working for him and he sleeps a lot. He is unable to neither reckon with nor manage the business or other related matters. This is an imperfection with respect to others.

As regard to self-perfection, sleep is a deficiency because it indicates that the person’s body got tired and thus he needed the sleep as a rest from what has passed, as well as a means to renew his activity to engage in what will come ahead. That is the why the people of al-Jannah do not sleep—because of the perfection of their lives and bodies. No illness or the like touches them.

If someone says, “We know that the person who does not sleep is unable to do so because of some kind of sickness or a defect, while you say that the lack of sleep is perfection. Explain.”

We say, “This applies to the creature, and in this case perfection is a relative matter [with respect to Allaah it is perfection]. There is no doubt that the person who does not sleep because of an illness has a defect, and that is why he stays always in a state of languor and exhaustion. Thus, his welfare will not be established. This is evident from the saying of Allaah, the Most High:

[ وَجَعَلْنَا نَوْمَكُمْ سُبَاتًا ]
And have made your sleep as a thing for rest
[Qur’aan, Soorat An-Naba’ (78:9)],

meaning that sleep is something that will discontinue the hardship and tiredness. If Allaah would sleep, and far is He above such imperfection, then this would necessitate that He needs to rest. In addition, the creation will be ruined because they are in need of Him; even the sleeping person is in need of Allaah. In fact, the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) used to invoke Allaah at night when he was about to sleep:

فَإِنْ أَمْسَكْتَ نَفْسِي فَارْحَمْهَا، وَإِنْ أَرْسَلْتَهَا فَاحْفَظْهَا، بِمَا تَحْفَظُ بِهِ عِبَادَكَ الصَّالِحِين

“If You take my soul, bestow mercy on it [and forgive it, as in another narration], and if You release it then protect it as You protect your righteous slaves.” [38]

In short, it is impossible that Allaah, the One free of all imperfections and the Most High, sleeps. The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يَنَامُ وَلاَ يَنْبَغِي لَهُ أَنْ يَنَامَ
“Verily Allaah does not sleep and it does not befit Him to sleep.” [39]

The word [ ”لا يَنبَغِي “] does not befit] when used in the Qur’aan and sunnah means “the thing which is absolutely impossible to be,” as Allaah (تعالى ) said:

[ وَمَا يَنبَغِي لِلرَّحْمَٰنِ أَن يَتَّخِذَ وَلَدًا ]

But it is not befitting for (the Majesty of) ar-Rahmaan (Allaah) that He should beget a son (or offspring or children). [Qur’aan, Soorat Maryam (19:92)].

[It should be noted] that Allaah’s saying:

[ لَا تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلَا نَوْمٌ ]
Neither slumber, nor sleep overtakes Him,

signifies as-sifaat as-salbiyyah (attributes of negation: negating any imperfection and implying perfection). The rule with respect to the Names and Attributes of Allaah, the Most High, is that there is no such thing as a pure attribute of negation.[40] Indeed, when as-sifaat as-salbiyyah are mentioned, it is because they imply the perfection of the attributes that are in contradiction to those of negation.[41] So, because of the Perfection of Allaah’s Life and qayyoumiyyah,[42] then neither slumber nor sleep overtake Him.[43]

Footnotes:

[38] Saheeh al-Bukhaari (Arabic/English), vol. 8, no. 332.

[39] Saheeh Muslim (English Translation), vol. 1, no. 343.

[40] This is because mere negation does not denote any attribute, and therefore it is not considered praise. In addition, the attributes of negation are of two kinds:

1. General, and
2. Specific.

The meaning of generality in negation is that Allaah, Most High, negates all imperfections implicitly denoting that all Perfection is His. For example: Allaah, the Exalted, says:

[ لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ ], [which means], “There is nothing like unto Him.” So, there is nothing unto Him in His Knowledge, Ability, Hearing, Seeing, Might, Wisdom, Mercy, and so forth. In this general negation, Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) did not specify the negation. Accordingly, all imperfections are denied and all perfections are denoted, and it is stated that there is nothing like unto Him in all of His Perfection.

On the other hand, the specificity in negation is to negate specific allegations of imperfection. For example to deny that defects and drawbacks like forgetfulness, sleep, ignorance, having son or partner, etc. are associated with Allaah, the Exalted. Again, the Perfection is implied as against the negation. [See Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen’s Sharhul Waasitiyyah], vol. 1, pp. 145-146.

[41] For example, the negation of ignorance stands for the affirmation of Allaah’s unlimited knowledge. The negation of death, which is in contradiction of life, implies the perfection of Allaah’s attribute of Life.

[42] Qayyoumiyyah: The Attribute denoted by Allaah’s Name al-Qayyoum.

[43] The Perfection of His Life negates that Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) needs to sleep and the same is due to the Perfection of His qayyoumiyyah, as the created living creatures due to their imperfection need sleep. Although sleeping and eating may be considered as attributes of perfection with respect to man, as a person who does not sleep or eat is considered ill, they are perfection from one angle and defects from another. They are perfection in the sense that they indicate that the body is sound and healthy, and are defects because the body needs them to function. In reality, therefore, they are defects. Accordingly, the “perfection” in the created is only relevant, i.e. particular to the created, not shared by the Most Perfect, i.e. Allaah. Eating, drinking and sleeping are relative “perfections” with respect to the created and negated defects with respect to Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى).

That is why Allaah, the Most High, said about Himself:

[ وَهُوَ يُطْعِمُ وَلَا يُطْعَمُ ]
And it is He (Allaah) Who feeds and is not fed.
[Qur’aan, Soorat Al-An’aam (6:14)].

Source : From the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi – By Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen (rahimahullah). With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

Related Link: https://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/

Points of Benefit Deduced from Aayatul Kursi – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

Related Points of Benefit from the Shaykh Uthaymeen’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

1. Affirming Five Names of the Names of Allaah.

Allaah, al-Hayy, al-Qayyoum, al-’Aliyy, al-’Atheem. [85]

2. Affirming that Allaah is singled out with all worship (al-uloohiyyah): He is the One Who alone has the right to be worshipped, or that He is the One who is worshipped rightfully and deservingly:

{ لا إلهَ إلاَّ ُ هوَ }
None has the right to be worshipped but He [Allaah].

3. Refuting the claim of the polytheists who affirm other gods beside Allaah.

4. Affirming the sifah (attribute) of hayaat (Life) for Allaah, and that His life is one of perfection, neither preceded by ‘adam nor coming come to naught nor characterized by imperfection. On the contrary, our life originates in ‘adam and will come to an end, and it is accompanied by imperfection. If fact, all of our life is imperfect, and that is why Allaah described it by ad-dunya. [86] The Life of Allaah, however, is perfection from all angles because of His saying: {الْحَيُّ}The Living, where the particle ال is for al-istighraaq, which comprises all the meanings of the qualities of the perfect life, as if He says, “There is no one who is truly living except He.” In fact, this is the case because there is none qualified with the life of perfection except Allaah, the Most Mighty and most Majestic.

5. Affirming the al-qayyoumiyyah [87] for Allaah (عزَّوجَلََّّ) because He said: { القَيُّوم }. Such a description does not apply to the human being. There is not any person who is established on his own nor is there anyone who takes full charge of others by whom they subsist, because there is no human being except that he is in need of others. We need workers, and they need us. We need [our] women and they need us. We need our sons and daughters and they need us. There is no one who is absolutely in full charge (giving them care, maintenance, providing for them, etc.) of others. I may be able to take charge of someone else, but in a limited sense. That is why Allaah تعالى said:

[ أَفَمَنْ هُوَ قَائِمٌ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ نَفْسٍ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ ]

Is He [Allaah] Who takes charge (guards, maintains, provides, etc.) of every person and knows all that he has earned (like any other deities who know nothing)? [Qur’aan, Soorat Ar-Ra’d (13:33)].

6. The aayah contains ismullaahi al-aa’tham (Allaah’s Most Greatest Name) affirmed in His Saying:

[ الحيُّ الَقيُّوم ]

Allaah, there is no god worthy of worship except He, the one who possesses the perfect living, and Who is established on His Own, Self-subsisting, and by Whom all things subsist.[88]

These two Names were mentioned in three places in the Qur’aan, in the two soorahs known as az-zahraawayn [89] (AlBaqarah and Aal-’Imran), and in Soorat Taha.[90]

The people of ‘ilm (ahlul-‘ilm) said: The Most Great Name of Allaah is only in these two Names since they comprise the Most Beautiful Names in their entirety, and hence the attribute of Perfection is implied in the Name [ الحيُّ ]and the attribute of ihsaan (beauty) is entailed in the Name: [ الَقيُّوم]

7. The perfection of Allaah’s Life and qayyoumiyyah such that they are free from the slightest imperfection. The evidence is in His Saying:

[ لَا تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلَا نَوْمٌ ]
Neither slumber, nor sleep overtakes Him.

Perfection may be generalized considering what is predominant or more numerous although it may be deficient in certain aspects. However, negation of imperfection means that the perfection is absolute and in every respect is free from deficiency. In this sense, the negation occurred in His Saying:

[ لَا تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلَا نَوْمٌ ]
Neither slumber, nor sleep overtakes Him.

8. Affirming as-sifaat as-salbiyyah for Allaah because of His saying:

[ لَا تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلَا نَوْمٌ ]
Neither slumber, nor sleep overtakes Him.

and His saying:

[ وَلَا يَئُودُهُ حِفْظُهُمَا ]
He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them.

The sifaat as-salbiyyah are those attributes that Allaah has denied for His Self and which imply affirming the perfection of their opposites.

9. Affirming that Sovereignty of Allaah comprehends everything. The evidence is in His Saying:

[ لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ]
To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth.

10. This Sovereignty is exclusively His. The evidence lies in the same aayah:

[ لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ]

To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth, in which the predicate (gram. khabar) { له } “To Him” has preceded the subject (gram. mubtada’) which is the conjunctive noun { ما } “Whatever”. In this way, there is a grammatical state of hasr (exclusivity, restriction) which signifies that: “To Him (Allaah) alone belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth.”

11. Affirming the heavens and the earth, as in His Saying:

[ لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ]
To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth.

The “heavens” is a number. They are seven in number and similarly is the number of the earths as proven from other texts.[91]

12. The Perfection of the Kingship of Allaah, as evident in His saying:

[ مَن ذَا الَّذِي يَشْفَعُ عِندَهُ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ ]
Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His Permission?

This Kingship of Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى ) is not the same as His all comprehensive Sovereignty. In fact, power and full kingship are more perfect than just all-comprehensive sovereignty.

13. Affirming the intercession that is approved by Allaah as evident in His saying:

[ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ ]

[None can intercede] except by Allaah’s Permission, otherwise, the exception would not be correct. Hence, had the approved intercession been not affirmed, the exception would not be correct.

14. Affirming the “Permission” which is His Command:

[ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ ]
[None can intercede] except by Allaah’s Permission.

15. Affirming the ‘ilm (Knowledge) for Allaah and that His Knowledge comprehends the past, the present, and the future. The evidence is in His Saying:

[ يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ ]

And Allaah Knows what happens to them (His creatures) in the future and what happened to them in the past.

16. Refuting the claims of the extremists from the Qadariyyah[92] by affirming Allaah’s all-encompassing Knowledge as in the statement. This constitutes a rebuttal of the extremist from the Qadariyyah who say that Allaah knows the actions of His salves only after they are carried out, denying that Allaah knowledge comprehends everything.

17. The rebuttal of the two sects, the Khawaarij [93] and the Mu’tazilah [94] by affirming the shafaa’ah. Both sects deny the general intercession approved for the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) and for others and which applies to the people who committed sin. This negation is based upon their doctrine that the person who commits a major sin and die without repenting from it will be punished in the Fire forever. The two sects differed, however, as to whether such a person is considered a kaafir, or neither a believer nor a kaafir.

The Kharijites, courageous against the truth and for it, said, “The one who commits a major sin is kaafir and no longer belongs to the fold of Islam.” The Mu’tazilites were fearful to oppose the people of ahlus-sunnah and the kharijites. They took a cowardly position and said, “We will sit in the middle of the road and say that the one who has committed a grave sin is in a position somewhere between the two; we neither say he is a believer nor a kaafir!” Both sects, however, agreed that in the hereafter he would be in the Fire of Hell forever.

That is why they denied the shafaa’ah (intercession). The generality of the aayah refutes the position held by both sects:

[ مَن ذَا الَّذِي يَشْفَعُ عِندَهُ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِه ]
Who is he that can interceded with Him except with His Permission?

18. None will ever encompass anything of Allaah’s knowledge nor of His Hearing or His Sight:

[ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ مِّنْ عِلْمِهِ إِلَّا بِمَا شَاءَ ]
And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that which He wills.

19. We comprehend no knowledge about Allaah or about His creation except that which He wills for us to know.[95]

20. Forbidding the takyeef (assigning a manner or a “how”) to the Attributes of Allaah, because He did not inform us of the how they are. So if we claim the knowledge of the kayfiyyah (i.e. the condition or the “how”) of His Attributes, then we are lying.

21. Rebutting the Mu’attilah, due to His saying:

[ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ مِّنْ عِلْمِهِ ]
And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge

This is evidence against the Mu’attilah because they say, for example, that Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) has no real Hand. This necessitates that they encompass the negation of one of His Attributes. In this respect, both sects, the Mu’attilah and the people of takyeef (Mukayyifah) lied because Allaah affirmed this Attribute (i.e. the Hand) to Himself. Accordingly, their claim that the true and real Attributes like the Hand, the Face, the Eyes, and so forth do not befit Allaah is false and void. The basis for this fact is that knowledge is of two kinds: (a) Affirmation, and (b) Negation.

Therefore, you cannot negate anything as being a quality of someone (something) except with knowledge, just like you cannot affirm anything for someone (something) except with knowledge. So if those sects would deny the realities of the aforementioned Attributes of Allaah then they must bring forth their proofs, if they are truthful. For example, Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) did not negate that the Attribute of the Hand from His Self, not even in one single aayah in the Qur’aan, nor did the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) negate this Attribute in any hadeeth, nor did the righteous predecessors (as-salaf-us-saalih). Those sects, however, utter the negation of Allaah’s true and real Hand.

22. Rebutting the position of the Mumathilah (those who liken Allaah to His creation). Since the aayah:

[ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ مِّنْ عِلْمِهِ ]
And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge.

implies a rebuttal of the Mukayyifah, then by all reason it is a rebuttal of the Mumathilah.

23. Affirming the mashee’ah (Will) for Allaah because of His saying:

[ إِلَّا بِمَا شَاءَ ]
Except that which he Wills.

24. Rebutting the Qadariyyah and the Mu’tazilah who say that Allaah, the Most High, does not Will anything as far as man is concerned.[96] This is evident in Allaah’s saying:

[ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ ]
And they will never compass…

Knowing that man’s compassing of something is from his qualities and his qualities are a creation of Allaah, [and hence man’s will is not independent from the Will of Allaah].

25. The greatness of the kursi, for His saying:

[ وَسِعَ كُرْسِيُّهُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ ]
His kursi extends over and encompasses the heavens and the earth.

26. The Greatness of the Creator of the kursi because the greatness of the created implies the Greatness of the Creator.

27. The kufr of the person who denies the heavens and the earth because this necessitates accusing Allaah of lying. As far as the earth is concerned, I believe that no one denies it [its existence]. However, as regard to the heavens, there are those who deny them saying that what is above us is boundless and limitless space, and that there is only stars and diffused dust (sadoom) or the like. There is no doubt that the one who holds to this belief is a kaafir, whether he himself believes in this or he imitates those whom he reveres from the people who hold to this belief—while knowing the truth implied from the proofs of the Qur’aan and the sunnah.

28. Affirming the Strength of Allaah, and the proof is His saying:

[ وَلَا يَئُودُهُ حِفْظُهُمَا ]
He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them.

29. Denying the mashaqah (fatigue) from Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, because of His saying:

[ وَلَا يَئُودُهُ ]
He feels no fatigue.

This is one of the sifaat as-salbiyyah just like saying of Allaah:

[ وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ وَمَا مَسَّنَا مِن لُّغُوبٍ ]

And indeed We created the heavens and the earth and all between them in six Days and nothing of fatigue touched us. [Qur’aan, Soorat Qaaf (50:38)].

30. Affirming what is implied by the above statement:

[ وَلَا يَئُودُهُ حِفْظُهُمَا ]
He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them,

from the attributes of Knowledge, Ability, Life, Mercy, Wisdom, and Strength.

31. Affirming that the heavens and the earth are in need for someone who guards them, as stated in Allaah’s saying (which means): He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them. Had it not been for the guarding and preserving of Allaah, they would have been ruined. Allaah Says:

وَلَوْلَا دَفْعُ اللَّهِ النَّاسَ بَعْضَهُم بِبَعْضٍ لَّهُدِّمَتْ صَوَامِعُ وَبِيَعٌ وَصَلَوَاتٌ وَمَسَاجِدُ يُذْكَرُ فِيهَا اسْمُ اللَّهِ كَثِيرًا

Had it not been that Allaah checks one set of people by means of another, monasteries, churches, synagogues, and masaajid (mosques), wherein the Name of Allaah is mentioned much would surely have been pulled down. [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Hajj (22:40)].[97]

And His Saying:

وَيُمْسِكُ السَّمَاءَ أَن تَقَعَ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ
He withholds the heavens from falling on the earth except by His Leave.
[Qur’aan, Sooart Al-Hajj (22:65)].

إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُمْسِكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ أَن تَزُولَا ۚ وَلَئِن زَالَتَا إِنْ أَمْسَكَهُمَا مِنْ أَحَدٍ مِّن بَعْدِهِ

Verily! Allaah grasps the heavens and the earth lest they move away from their places, and if they were to move away from their places, there is not one that can grasp them after Him. [Qur’aan, Sooart Faatir (35:41)].

32. Affirming al-’uluw ath-thaati (the Transcendence of Allaah in His Essence) and al-’uluw as-sifaati (the Transcendence of Allaah’s Attributes) because of His saying:

[ وَهُوَ الْعَلِيُّ ]
And He [Allaah] is the Most High, above everything.

33. Rebutting both the Hulooliyyah [98] and the Mu’atilah who negate this Attribute of Allaah تعالى. The Hulooliyyah say, “Allaah is not above everything but rather He is everywhere.” And the Mu’attilah, the people who deny Allaah’s Attributes, say, “He cannot be described as being High or low, to the left or the right, or as being separated from or associated with His creation.”

34. Warning against transgression upon others because of His saying:

[ وَهُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْعَظِيمُ ]
And He is the Most High, above everything, and He is the Most Great.

That is why Allaah (تعالى) said in Soorat An-Nisaa’ [(4:34)]:

فَإِنْ أَطَعْنَكُمْ فَلَا تَبْغُوا عَلَيْهِنَّ سَبِيلًا ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيًّا كَبِيرًا

And if they [women] return to obedience [to their husbands], then seek not against them means [of annoyance]. Surely, Allaah is ever Most High, above everything, Most Great.

So if you think proudly of yourself, then remember the Highness of Allaah above everything, the Most Mighty and Majestic. And if you think of yourself as being great, then remember the Greatness of Allaah.

35. Affirming the Greatness of Allaah because of His saying:

[ الْعَظِيمُ ]
The Most Great.

36. Affirming the Attribute of Perfection that is implied in the combined Attribute of Transcendence and Greatness.

37. Knowing that the mulk (Sovereignty) belongs to Allaah then:

We must not behave or act in His kingdom except in accordance with that which He is pleased, because of His saying:

[ لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ]
To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth.

The judicial rulings and decreeing amongst the people must be based upon the Judgment of Allaah. Indeed the reliance of man upon the judicial decrees laid by the created and the system of laws laid down by man is one kind of setting up rivals with Allaah (shirk billaah)[99], the Most Mighty and Most Majestic.

Contentment with the Pre-decree of Allaah, the Most Mighty and Most Majestic, because if you know that the Sovereignty exclusively belongs to Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى ) then you would say, “This is the disposal of affairs by a Sovereign in His Kingdom, and He has the right to do whatever He wants.”

[ لَا يُسْأَلُ عَمَّا يَفْعَلُ وَهُمْ يُسْأَلُونَ ]

He cannot be questioned as to what He does, while they [the creation] will be asked. [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Anbiyaa’ (21:23)].

Accordingly, this understanding was part of the condolence of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) to his daughter [following the death of her child] when he said:

“Whatever Allaah takes belongs to Him, and to Him belongs what He grants, and everything with Him has an appointed fixed term [in this world].” [100]

Man should not act conceitedly upon accomplishing something because this accomplishment is from Allaah and the Sovereignty is exclusively His.

Footnotes:

[85]The Shaykh Uthaymeen also stated that he is in doubt whether the word إله is a Name of Allaah because it is an indefinite noun (gram. nakirah).

[86] Ad-Dunya (fem. of adna): Denoting what is low or inferior.

[87] Qayyoumiyyah: One of Allaah’s Attributes implied in His Name Al-Qayyoum.

[88]Allaah is the one who sustains, protects, prepares, and runs the affairs of all things as He wills in accordance with His Knowledge, Wisdom, and Justice.

[89] Zahraawayn (dual form of zahra): The bright ones. The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said,

“Recite the Qur’aan, for on the Day of Resurrection it will come as an intercessor for those who recite it. Recite the two bright ones, Al-Baqarah and Soorat Aal-’Imraan, for on the Day of Resurrection they will come as two clouds or two shades, or two flocks of birds in ranks, pleading for those who recite them. Recite Soorat Al-Baqarah, for to take recourse to it is a blessing and to give it up is a cause of grief, and the magicians cannot confront it.”

Reported in Saheeh Muslim (English Translation), vol. 2, no. 1757.

[90] In Al-Baqarah (2:255), in Aal-’Imraan (3:2), and in Taha (20:111).

Abu Umaamah (رضي االله عنه) reported that the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said,

“Allaah’s Most Great Name is in three soorahs in the Qur’aan, in Soorat Al-Baqarah and in Aal-’Imraan and in Soorat Taha.”

Al-Qaasim bin ‘Abdur-Rahmaan, one of the narrators of this hadeeth, searched the Qur’aan and found

Aaytul-Kursi in Soorat Al-Baqarah (2:255):
[ االلهُ لا إله إلاَّ ُ هوَ الحَيُّ القَيُّوم ]

And in Soorat Aal-’Imraan (3:2):
[ اللَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ ]

And in Soorat Taha (20:111)
[ وَعَنَتِ الْوُجُوهُ لِلْحَيِّ الْقَيُّومِ ]

Reported by al-Haakim, Ibn Maajah, at-Tabarani, at-Tahaawi, and others. Shaykh al-Albaani authenticated its isnaad (As-Silsilah As-Saheeha), vol. 2, no. 746.

[91] The Shaykh (رحمه االله) made the above statement in his explanation of Soorat Al-Kahf, in the month of Rabee’ al-Awwal,1419. Evidence from the Qur’aan is in Soorat AtTalaaq (65:12) and from the sunnah as in the agreed upon hadeeth, “Whoever usurps the land of somebody unjustly, his neck will be encircled with seven earths [on the Day of Resurrection].” [See Saheeh Al-Bukhaari (Arabic/English)], vol. 3, no. 632.

[92] Those who say that whatever man does it is entirely of his own ability and free will, and that Allaah’s mashee’ah (Will) and qudrah (Ability) have no influence whatsoever on what man does. They also claim that the knowledge of Allaah does not comprehend the actions of the creation until after they are executed.

[93] Khaarijites (Ar.Khawaarij, sing. Khaariji). See Appendix B.

[94] The Mu’tazilah (from i’tazala: “to remove oneself” or “to withdraw”). See Appendix C.

[95] See both interpretations of this aayah (which means): And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that which He wills, pp. 60-61.

[96] Meaning that man has a totally independent free will and that Allaah’s Will and Power has no effect in this.

[97] See Appendix D.

[98] Hulooliyyah [from hulool (lit. “settling,” “alighting,” “lodging,” “descent,” and by extension “incarnation”]. The most common definition is that it refers to the doctrine of Divine incarnation in the human form. In mystic sufism, it refers to the Divine incarnation in the sufi saints.

Imaam Ibn Taymeeyah classified the Hulooliyyah into two kinds. The first is the specific hulool like the claim of the Christians that Allaah is incarnated in ‘Eesa (alaihissalam) and like that of the extremist raafidah and sufi mystics who claim that Allaah is incarnated in ‘Ali Ibn Abee Taalib (رضي االله عنه) and in special sufi saints, respectively. The second kind is the general hulool and it is the saying that “Allaah, in His Essence, is everywhere.” [See Al-Fataawaa], vol. 2, pp. 171-172.

[99] It could be a major or a minor form of shirk depending upon the motive behind his reliance. Al-Hamdullilaah, the author, Shaykh Muhammad bin ‘Uthaymeen (رحمه االله ) personally affirmed this explanation to me in Jamaada Al-Aakhirah, 1419Hj.

[100] An agreed upon hadeeth. [See Saheeh al-Bukhaari (Arabic/English)], vol .2, no .237.

Source : From the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi – By Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen. With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

Affirmation of Ar-Ru’yah (Seeing Allaah in the Hereafter) – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lesson 48: Point 79
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

And know that the first ones who will see Allaah, the Most High, in Paradise are the blind then the men then the women with the eyes of their heads just as Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said, “You shall certainly see your Lord just as you see the moon on the night when it is full. You will not have any difficulty in seeing Him. It is obligatory to have eemaan in this and denying it is disbelief.”

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

The topic of affirmation of ar-ru’yah (seeing Allaah, the Most High, in the Hereafter) has preceded and this is re-emphasis of what has preceded and as for this order, which the author mentioned then it needs a proof. [1]

Listen/Read @
The true believers will see their Lord on the Day of Resurrection openly with their eyes

Footnotes:

[1] Translator’s side point: The hadeeth in that regard that we had before in the book with regard to seeing Allaah, the Most High in the Hereafter, not with regard to the order is the hadeeth of Jaabir radiyAllaahu `anhu, reported by Al-Bukhaariyy (554) and Muslim (633).

And on this specific point, the point of this order that those who will see Allaah first are the blind then the men then the women, the one doing the footnotes in one of the versions Khaalid ar-Raddaadi, he said,

“There occurs in this regard a hadeeth which is traced back to the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam but it is not authentic. It was mentioned by Ad-Dailamee in his book Firdaws ul-Akhbaar from Samurah ibn Jundub from him tracing back to the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam but it’s not authentic. And also al-Laalikaa`ee in his book As-Sunnah quoted this with a weak chain of narration as being the saying of Al-Hasan al-Basree; the Taabi`ee.”

Shaykh Saalih as-Suhaymee hafizahullaah said in explanation of this point,

“The author rahimahullaah made clear that whoever denies seeing the Creator has disbelieved. This ruling is a general ruling because whoever denies a matter which is known necessarily from the religion then he’s a disbeliever. As for the person who is overcome by a false doubt (shubhah) and he doesn’t know how to resolve this doubt or he resolves it with a mistake then this is a different matter. Those matters that a person does based upon a false doubt that comes upon him and is not able to arrive at what is correct in the matter then we leave his affair to Allaah. However, if he is a person who knowingly denies these matters then he has disbelieved.”

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

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Affirmation of Attributes of Allaah – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lesson 47: Point 77
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

And Allaah, the Exalted and Most High Hears, Sees and Knows. His two Hands are outstretched. He knew that the creation would disobey Him before He created them. His Knowledge takes effect upon them, however, His Knowledge of them did not prevent Him from guiding them towards Islaam. He favoured them with it out of His Generosity, Munificence and Favour so all praise is for Him.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

His saying, “And Allaah, the Perfect and Most High Hears, Sees and Knows.” This is the third type from the types of Tawheed; to affirm Al-Asma Wa-Sifaat (Names and Attributes) for Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, just as they occur in the Book and the Sunnah, along with believing in their meanings and whatever they indicate and not entering into the kayfiyyah (how they are) because how they are is not known except to Allaah but as for their meaning then it is something known. So, it is obligatory upon you to affirm them and to hold as your creed what they indicate just as Imaam Maalik said, “Allaah, the Most High ascended over His Throne.” The ascending is something known. Known in its meaning and how is unknown.

His saying, “He knew that the creation were going to disobey Him even before He created them.” Allaah has knowledge of everything. He knew what was going to occur – from eemaan (true faith) and from kufr (disbelief) and from obedience and from disobedience; nothing is hidden from Him. He knew it before He created the heavens and the earth.

His saying, “His Knowledge of them did not prevent Him from guiding them towards Islaam.” Even though He knew what they would commit from disbelief and from eemaan (true faith) then Allaah called them to Islaam and He called them to true faith; eemaan and He sent the Messengers and He sent down the Books for their guidance and He knew what they would do. However, from His mercy, He did not just leave them and entrust them to His Knowledge about them. Rather, He established the proof upon them and He gave them ikhtiyaar (choice) and mashee’ah (will) and qudrah (ability). So, they are able to act. So, if they leave action then the sin is their sin and the shortcoming is their shortcoming.

And Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, guides all of the creation; the believers and the disbelievers. With the meaning that He makes the affair clear to all of them. He, the Most High, said:

.. وَأَمَّا ثَمُودُ فَهَدَيْنَاهُمْ 

As for Thamood then We showed them the way ..
(Soorah-Fussilat (41), aayah 17)

We guided them, showed them the way: meaning, We made it clear to them and directed them towards it. However, they did not accept this. They obstinately rejected and were haughty.

فَاسْتَحَبُّوا الْعَمَىٰ عَلَى الْهُدَىٰ فَأَخَذَتْهُمْ صَاعِقَةُ الْعَذَابِ الْهُونِ بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ ..

.. However, they loved blind error over and above guidance so the awful blast of humiliating torment seized them on account of the sins that they used to earn. (Soorah-Fussilat (41), aayah 17)

Meaning, on account of what they earned and it was not just because Allaah knew that and decreed it for them but rather because of what they actually earned by their choice and their will and their action. So, guidance; hidaayah is of two kinds:

  • Hidaayatul Irshaad (the guidance of giving direction) and this is general to the believer and the disbeliever,
  • Hidaayatut-Tawfeeq (the guidance of being granted the success of accepting that guidance). This is specific to the believers, those who accepted the guidance of Allaah and His direction. So, Allaah grants them the success of its attainment and He makes them firm.

His saying, “So He guided them towards Islaam. And He favoured them with it from His Generosity and His Munificence and His Favour. So all praise is for Him.”

“From His Generosity,” meaning that He called them and made clear to them and clarified to them from His Generosity and He bestowed favour because of their need of that. And as for Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, then He has no need at all of them whether they disbelieve or whether they believe, whether they obey or whether they disobey, they will not harm Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, nor will they benefit Him because He is Ghaniyy (independent), He has no need at all of them and this, its benefit or harm only rebounds upon them. So from His mercy upon them, He made clear to them the way of good and the way of evil, and He gave them strength and He gave them ability, and He gave them intellects with which they could distinguish between what harms and what benefits.

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharh as-Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Allaah has favoured some of the servants over others. He has done so justly – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lesson 46: Points 75
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

And you should know that Allaah has favoured some of the servants over others in this world and in the Hereafter, He has done so justly. It cannot be said that He acted unjustly or has shown undue favour. Whoever says that Allaah has favoured the true believer and the disbeliever equally then he is a person upon innovation. Rather, Allaah has favoured the believer over the disbeliever, the obedient one over the sinner and the one He has rendered secure from error over the one who is humiliated; doing so justly. It is His favour, which He bestows upon whomever He wishes and withholds from whomever He wishes.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

His saying, “And you should know that Allaah has favoured the servants; some of them over others in this world and in the Hereafter,” Allaah has favoured some of the people over others. He has bestowed favour upon the believer over the disbeliever with that which Allaah has given him from eemaan on account of his having eemaan and He withheld from the disbeliever on account of his disbelief. And Allaah favoured the believers, some over others and the Messengers (the Rusul); Allaah favoured some of them over others.

تِلْكَ الرُّسُلُ فَضَّلْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ

Those Messengers, We favoured some of them over others.
(Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 253)

This is the fadl (favor/bounty) of Allaah, which He gives to whomever He wishes, He, the Perfect and Most High and no-one may raise any objection to Allaah because this is His mulk (kingdom), that which belongs to Him, He, the Perfect, He can give it to whomever He wishes. So, the kingdom belongs to Him, He can give it to whomever He wishes, He, the Perfect. And the favour that is bestowed is His favour, He may give it to whomever He wishes. So, there could be no objection raised against Allaah, the Perfect and Most High.

Whereas, the Mu`tazilah; this deviant sect, they say, “It is obligatory that Allaah treats the people equally and gives them all the same.” This is to show evil manners towards Allaah and is to raise objections against Him, High and Tremendously Exalted is Allaah above that which they say. So, Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, bestows favour on some of His creation over and above others and this is His kingdom, it belongs to Him so there can be no objection to Him. He does not punish anyone except for a crime that He has actually committed since to do so would contradict justice and Allaah does not oppress. So, He does not punish anyone without his having committed a crime or punish anyone for somebody else’s crime.

وَلَا تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ وِزْرَ أُخْرَىٰ ۚ وَإِن تَدْعُ مُثْقَلَةٌ إِلَىٰ حِمْلِهَا لَا يُحْمَلْ مِنْهُ شَيْءٌ وَلَوْ كَانَ ذَا قُرْبَىٰ 

And no bearer of sin will bear the sins of another and if someone weighed down with sins were to call someone else to bear his sins for him then he will not be able to find anyone to bear any of them for him even if it be a close relative. (Soorah-Faatir (35), aayah 18)

So, Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, with regard to the aspect of al-jazaa· (recompense) that He gives then His recompense is adl (just) and as for the aspect of al-ataa· (what He gives freely) then this is fadl (favour) from him, He, the Perfect and Most High and it is not for anyone to raise any objection to it.

His saying, “And whoever says that the favour of Allaah upon the believer and the disbeliever is just the same then he is a person of innovation.” This is the saying of the Mu`tazilah, they say that – “It is obligatory upon Allaah to make all of the people believers and that He should not make just some of them disbelievers and some of them believers. He should make all of them rich, He should make all of them scholars.”

This is to raise an objection against Allaah, the Perfect and Most High because Allaah is Hakeem (All-Wise). And it is not from His wisdom that He should make all of the people the same in knowledge or in riches or in reward and punishment. And it is not from His wisdom that He should make all of mankind wealthy. If all of them were wealthy people then the creation would be ruined because they would not find anyone who would carry out any work and production would cease. And therefore, Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, has favoured some of the people over others with regard to provision. He has made this one rich and this one poor so that the creation can thrive. If they were all rich then they would not produce anything. And if they were all poor then they would not be able to work and produce. So, Allaah has caused them to vary so that the creation should operate and thrive.

وَرَفَعْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ فَوْقَ بَعْضٍ دَرَجَاتٍ لِّيَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُهُم بَعْضًا سُخْرِيًّا

And We raised some of them over others in levels so that some of them should employ others to work. (Sooratuz-Zukhruf (43), aayah 32)

Meaning, some of them employ others to work for wages. So, when that happens then the creation can grow and prosper and benefits are attained.

His saying, “Rather, Allaah has favoured the believer over the disbeliever and the obedient one over the disobedient one of the sinner and the one He has rendered secure from error over the despicable one,” Allaah favoured the believer over the disbeliever and He gave favour to the obedient one over the sinner; this is His justice (adl), He, the Perfect and His fadl (favour) so no-one may raise any objection to Him.[1]

Footnotes:

[1] Translator’s side point:  Briefly with regard to the explanation of Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmee rahimahullaah then he said after some speech, he said at the end,

“Therefore this section, this part here necessitates from us that we have the `aqeedah (creed and belief) that Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, caused His servants to be of different levels as a favour from Him and as justice.

لَا يُسْأَلُ عَمَّا يَفْعَلُ وَهُمْ يُسْأَلُونَ

He is not to be questioned about that which He does. Rather, they are to be questioned. (Sooratul-Anbiyaa· (21), aayah 23)

So, it cannot be said, “Why did He make that one a Messenger and make that one a person who is humiliated and why did He make that one a believer who is granted success of correctness whereas He made that one a rejected one and humiliated?” That should not be said. Rather, it is obligatory that we believe that Allaah is free of committing oppression (dhulm) and that He does whatever He wishes and He decrees whatever He wills. However, all His actions are based upon hikmah (wisdom) and rahmah (mercy) and fadl (favour) and adl (justice). That is what is obligatory upon us to believe with regard to our Lord, the Majestic and Most High. This is the creed that is supported by the texts of the Qur’aan and the Prophetic texts and it is that which the scholars of the Ahlus-Sunnah W`al Jamaa`ah are agreed in consensus upon and Allaah is the one who grants success.”

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

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To have Eemaan that it is Allaah Who Spoke to Moosaa on Mount Toor – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lesson 45: Points 72
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

And to have eemaan (true faith) that it is Allaah who spoke to Moosaa ibn `Imraan `alayhissalaatu wassalaam on the day of the mountain; At-Toor. And Moosaa heard Allaah’s speech, which was with a voice, which he heard from Him not from other than Him. So, whoever says other than this has disbelieved in Allaah, the Tremendous.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Affirming kalaam (speech) for Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, is from the fundamentals of `aqeedah (creed and belief) of the Ahl us-Sunnah W`al Jamaa`ah that Allaah speaks with real speech. Jibreel heard Him and Moosaa `alayhissalaam heard Him when he went towards the fire to take a fire brand and he found that Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, spoke to Him from the bush just as Allaah mentioned in the Qur’aan and Moosaa heard His speech. Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, said:

وَكَلَّمَ اللَّهُ مُوسَىٰ تَكْلِيمًا 

And Allaah spoke to Moosaa with speech.
(Sooratun-Nisaa· (4), aayah 164)

وَلَمَّا جَاءَ مُوسَىٰ لِمِيقَاتِنَا وَكَلَّمَهُ رَبُّهُ 

And when Moosaa came to our appointed place and His Lord spoke to him.(Sooratul-A`raaf (7), aayah 143)

This was a second time when Allaah promised him that He would give him the Tawraat so Moosaa went to the appointed place and his Lord spoke to him and gave him the tablets with the Tawraat written upon them. So, Moosaa heard the speech of Allaah, the Perfect and Most High.

And He spoke to our Prophet Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam on the night of the Mi`raaj (night ascent) and He made the five daily prayers obligatory upon him. So, Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, speaks with speech that is heard and with letters and a voice.

As for the Jahmiyyah and the Mu`tazilah then they say, “Allaah does not speak. Because if we were to affirm speech for Him then we would be causing Him to resemble the created being because the created being speaks.”

And is analogy to be made between the speech of Allaah and the speech of the created being? There is a difference between the speech of Allaah and the speech of the created being. So, those people (Jahmiyyah and the Mu`tazilah) do not make a distinction between Allaah and between the created being, and Allaah’s refuge is sought, as a result of their stupidity in understanding and in intellect.

So, Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, speaks in reality with speech that is heard and the Qur’aan is from the speech of Allaah, the Perfect and Most High. Allaah spoke with it and He spoke with the Tawraat and He spoke with the Injeel and He speaks whenever He wishes if He wishes, He, the Perfect and Most High. So, His speech is from His actions, He, the Majestic and Most High. And His actions have no end and no beginning. He speaks whenever He wishes, when He wishes with whatever He wishes, He, the Majestic and Most High. So, al-kalaam (speech) is an attribute of His from His attributes, which are actions.

His saying, “It was from Him, He, the Perfect, not from anyone besides Him.” Not from the tree/bush, not from the preserved tablet, not from Jibreel and not from Muhammad. So it is speech which emanated from Allaah in reality and Jibreel and Muhammad only conveyed and transmitted from Allaah, the Majestic and Most High.

His saying, “And whoever says other than this then he has disbelieved in Allaah, the Tremendous.” Whoever says that the speech of Allaah is created and that Allaah does not speak and he deprives Allaah of speech then he is a kaafir (disbeliever) because he is denying the truth of what Allaah has said and His Messenger and the consensus of the Muslims unless he is an ignorant person or one who is performing incorrect interpretation or muqallid (blindly following) somebody he has good thoughts about, then this person, it is to be made clear to him and if he then persists then he is judged to be a disbeliever because Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, rebuked the people of shirk for the fact that they worshipped statues, which do not speak. Ibraaheem `alayhissalaam said:

 يَا أَبَتِ لِمَ تَعْبُدُ مَا لَا يَسْمَعُ وَلَا يُبْصِرُ وَلَا يُغْنِي عَنكَ شَيْئًا 

O my father, why do you worship that which cannot hear and not see and cannot benefit you with anything? (Soorah Maryam (19), aayah 42)

And he said to the disbelievers, those who worshipped the idols:

 فَاسْأَلُوهُمْ إِن كَانُوا يَنطِقُونَ 

So ask them if they are able to speak. (Sooratul-Anbiyaa· (21), aayah 63)

And Allaah, the Majestic and Most High said:

وَاتَّخَذَ قَوْمُ مُوسَىٰ مِن بَعْدِهِ مِنْ حُلِيِّهِمْ عِجْلًا جَسَدًا لَّهُ خُوَارٌ ۚ أَلَمْ يَرَوْا أَنَّهُ لَا يُكَلِّمُهُمْ 

And the People of Moosaa after he had departed made from their ornaments the statue of a calf, which produced a mooing sound, could they not see that it could not speak to them? (Sooratul-A`raaf (7), aayah 148)

So this proves that the Lord (Rabb) speaks, He, the Perfect and Most High. And the one who does not speak is not a Lord, how could he then command and how could he prohibit and how could he regulate affairs when he cannot speak? High and Exalted is Allaah above that.

And there occurs in Soorah Taa-Haa:

 أَلَّا يَرْجِعُ إِلَيْهِمْ قَوْلًا وَلَا يَمْلِكُ لَهُمْ ضَرًّا وَلَا نَفْعًا 

It does not say anything to them in return and does not possess any harm or benefit for them. (Soorah Taa-Haa (20), aayah 89)

Can they see that it can’t say anything to them in return? Meaning, it does not respond to them when they address it.

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharh as-Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/

Know that No One will enter Paradise except by the mercy of Allaah – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lesson 41 : Point 65
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

And know that no-one will enter Paradise except by the mercy of Allaah. And that Allaah will not punish anyone except according to the degree of his sins. And if He were to punish all the inhabitants of the heavens and the earth; the righteous and the wicked amongst them, then He will be punishing them without being unjust to them. And it is not permissible to say about Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, that He is unjust since the unjust is the one who takes something that is not his to take, whereas creation and decree is for Allaah. The creation is His creation and the world is His world. He is not to be questioned about what He does but they will be questioned. And it is not to be said, ‘Why?’ and ‘How?’ And no-one can enter between Allaah and His creation.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

His saying, “And you should know that no-one will enter Paradise except by the mercy of Allaah,” Al-Jannah (Paradise) is expensive and exalted and it cannot be reached through deeds, no matter how much a person works and even if he does all the acts of obedience then his deeds will not meet up to the favours that have been bestowed upon him. So, if he were to be brought to account for those favours then no deed would remain for him. This is from one aspect.

The second aspect is that Paradise is expensive and it does not have a price that can be assessed in terms of deeds or wealth or other than that, no-one knows how tremendous it is except for Allaah, the Perfect and Most High. However, Allaah enters the believers into Paradise by His rahmah (mercy) by means of their deeds. So, deeds are just a sabab (means) towards entry into Paradise but they do not necessitate entry into Paradise nor are they the price for Paradise. And therefore, he sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

“No-one from amongst you will enter into Paradise through his deeds.”

This is in order that a person should not become amazed and complacent at his own deeds. It is not stated so that he should abandon performing deeds.

And His saying, He the Most High:

 ادْخُلُوا الْجَنَّةَ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ 

Enter into Paradise on account of that which you used to do.
(Sooratun-Nahl (16), aayah 32)

The Baa here does not show compensation or the price. Rather, the Baa here, “Bimaa Kuntum Ta’maloon” is to show a cause or a means, meaning by means of that which he used to do as is shown by the hadeeth that the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

“None of you will enter into Paradise through his deeds.” So, they said, “Not even you Oh Messenger of Allaah?” So, he said, “Nor even me unless Allaah covers me with His mercy.”[1]

So, a person should not become amazed at his own deeds. However, a person will not enter into Paradise except by means of deeds. So, if a person did not perform any deeds, he will not enter Paradise because he has not carried out the means.

His saying, “And Allaah does not punish anyone except in accordance with the degree of his sins,” Paradise is fadl (a favour) from Allaah, the Majestic and Most High and is through the mercy of Allaah and deeds are a means for entry into it and the People of the Fire will not be punished except in accordance with their sins. They will not be punished because of the sins of other people and they will not be punished whilst not having any sins. So, this is from `adl (justice). So, Paradise is from al-fadl (favour) and the Fire is from al-`adl (justice).

His saying, “And if He were to punish the inhabitants of the heavens and the earth, the righteous ones of them and the wicked ones of them then He will be punishing them without being unjust to them.” This is just as has preceded that a person no matter how many deeds he performs then his deeds will not match up to even a part of the favours of Allaah upon him. If Allaah were to punish him that would be justice because of his falling short in giving thanks for the favours of Allaah upon him. And this speech which he mentioned is the text of a hadeeth from Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam:

“If Allaah were to punish the inhabitants of His heavens and the people of His earth then He would punish them and He would not be unjust to them. And if He were to be merciful to them then His mercy would be better than their deeds deserved.”[2]

Because He would punish the evildoer on account of his evil acts and He would be punishing the righteous person because of the fact that his deeds did not qualify him for entry into Paradise because he did not match the favours of Allaah upon him.

His saying, “It is not permissible to say about Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, that He is unjust,” Allaah, the Majestic and Most High has declared Himself free of dhulm (oppression, injustice).

وَمَا رَبُّكَ بِظَلَّامٍ لِّلْعَبِيدِ 

And your Lord is not unjust to the servants.
(Soorah Fussillat (41), aayah 46)

لَا ظُلْمَ الْيَوْمَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَرِيعُ الْحِسَابِ

There will be no injustice on this day. Allaah is quick in reckoning.
(Soorah Ghaafir (40), aayah 17)

وَلَا يَظْلِمُ رَبُّكَ أَحَدًا 

And your Lord does not wrong anyone.
(Sooratul-Kahf (18), aayah 49)

وَمَا ظَلَمْنَاهُمْ وَلَٰكِن كَانُوا هُمُ الظَّالِمِينَ 

We did not oppress them. However, they were the wrongdoers.
(Sooratul-Zukhruf (43), aayah 76)

وَمَا ظَلَمْنَاهُمْ وَلَٰكِن كَانُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ 

And We did not oppress them but rather they oppressed their own souls. (Soorah Nahl (16), aayah 118)

The Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam reported the words of his Lord, He the Most High that He said: (Hadeeth Qudsi)

“O My servants I have made oppression forbidden for Myself and I have made it forbidden for you to oppress one another so do not commit oppression.”[3]

So, Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, is a just judge and oppression (dhulm) does not befit Him.

His saying, “And oppression is only one taking that which is not His to take whereas creation and decree is for Allaah.” Adhdhulm (oppression) is to wrongfully take the right of the people. And do the people have any right over Allaah? They have no right upon Allaah and no-one can make anything binding upon Allaah. Rather, the right of the servants with Allaah is that He should not punish one who does not associate anything with Him. This is a right which He, the Perfect, has given as a favour. And oppression (dhulm) is to put something in other than its due place. So, Allaah does not put punishment upon those who deserve bliss and He does not give bliss to those who deserve punishment. Rather, He gives bliss to those who deserve it and He gives punishment to those who deserve it and this is al-`adl (justice) but as for the opposite then that would be oppression. If He were to punish the people of eemaan (true faith) and bestow honour to the people of disbelief, this would be oppression and Allaah is free of that. It is not possible that He will punish the people of eemaan (true faith) and bestow honour upon the people of disbelief and that He will enter the disbelievers into Paradise and enter the believers into the Fire. This does not befit Allaah, the Perfect and Most High.

His saying, “And Allaah; creation and decree are for Him and the creation is His creation and the world is His world.” Allaah, the Most High said:

أَلَا لَهُ الْخَلْقُ وَالْأَمْرُ ۗ تَبَارَكَ اللَّهُ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ 

Is not creating and commanding His? Exalted is Allaah, the Lord and nurturer of the whole of creation. (Sooratul-A`raaf (7), aayah 54)

“Alaa lahul- khalq,” Is creating not His?

And it is to bring things into existence from non-existence. So, all the created being were created by Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, no-one can create along with Allaah.

Allaah, the Most High, said:

اللَّهُ خَالِقُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ 

Allaah is the Creator of everything.
(Sooratuz-Zumar (39), aayah 62)

And He, the Most High, said:

أَمْ جَعَلُوا لِلَّهِ شُرَكَاءَ خَلَقُوا كَخَلْقِهِ فَتَشَابَهَ الْخَلْقُ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ قُلِ اللَّهُ خَالِقُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُوَ الْوَاحِدُ الْقَهَّارُ

Or do they set up partners for Allaah who they claim create with the like of His creation such that the creation is confused for them? Say, Allaah is the Creator of everything and He is the One, the Overpowering Subduer.  (Sooratur-Ra`d (13), aayah 16)

“Or do they set up partners for Allaah who create with the like of His creation such that the creation would be confused for them?” Such that that created by the servant resembles that created by Allaah, this is impossible.

“Say, “Allaah is the Creator of everything and He is the One, the Overpowering Subduer.”’

قُلْ أَرَأَيْتُم مَّا تَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ أَرُونِي مَاذَا خَلَقُوا مِنَ الْأَرْضِ 

Say, “Do you see that which you call upon besides Allaah? Show me what they have created upon the earth.” (Sooratul-Ahqaaf (46), aayah 4)

His saying, al-khalq,” creating is for Allaah alone, w`al-amar,” and the decree and the command is for Him,” al-amar (command/decree) is legislating and sending down legislation. So, the Creator, He is the one who commands and forbids and legislates for His servants whatever is beneficial for them and He it is Who forbids whatever is harmful for them and it is not for anyone to command or forbid or to obligate an act of worship or to prohibit anything without a proof.

أَمْ لَهُمْ شُرَكَاءُ شَرَعُوا لَهُم مِّنَ الدِّينِ مَا لَمْ يَأْذَن بِهِ اللَّهُ

Or do they have partners who legislate things from the religion for them that Allaah has not given permission for. (Soorah ash-Shooraa (42), aayah 21)

So, the amar (decree/command) is for Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, the command relating to what occurs in creation and relating to what is pre-decreed, w’al amrush-shar`ee (and the command relating to what is legislated), He commands and He prohibits, He, the Perfect and Most High.

أَلَا لَهُ الْخَلْقُ وَالْأَمْرُ

Is not the creating and the command for Him?
(Sooratul-A`raaf (7), aayah 54)

And He made a distinction between khalq (creating) and al-amar (commanding). So, this shows the command is not something created and this contains a refutation of the Jahmiyyah; those who said that the Qur·aan is created and that the speech of Allaah is created. So, Allaah had made a distinction between the creating and between the command. The command is from His speech and His legislation and Allaah has made a distinction between the creation and between the command. So, this proves that the speech of Allaah is not created.[4]

His saying, “And the world is His world, He, the Majestic and Most High.”

And the abodes are three;

Firstly, daarud-duniya (the abode of this world),

The second, wa daarul-barzakh (intermediate period in the grave),

And the third one, wa daarul-qaraar wahiyaa al-aakhirah (the abode of permanent residence and it is the Hereafter).

All of them belong to Allaah, the Perfect and Most High.

His saying, “And He will not be asked about what He does but they will be asked,” He cannot be asked about what He does, He, the Perfect and Most High because His actions contain no deficiency and there is no shortcoming in them. So, they are perfect and precise and they never suffer from any deficiency or any shortcoming and questions are only to be asked about one who has deficiencies or shortcomings in his actions. So, Allaah cannot be asked about what He does because His actions are perfect and complete.

Second reason; it is not just on account of His overpowering and His Lordship as is said by those who say it that He cannot be asked because of His tremendousness, He, the Perfect and Most High and because of His Majesty. However, it is not this alone, rather, He is not to be asked also because His actions are perfect and precise. They do not suffer from any deficiency at all or any flaws, contrary to the created being for he will be asked about his actions because he commits errors and his deeds are deficient and observations are to be made concerning him. So, he will be questioned because he is deficient from every aspect except for those who are rendered complete and aided and supported by Allaah. And therefore, he said, “But rather they will be questioned.” This is the difference between the Creator and the created being that Allah is not to be questioned whereas, the created being will be questioned.

His saying, And it is not to be said, ‘Why?’ and ‘How?’ And no-one can enter between Allaah and His creation.No objection is to be raised about Allaah such that it is said, “Why did Allaah create such and such and How did Allaah create these things?” This is not permissible with respect to Allaah, the Perfect and Most High. Rather, it is upon us to submit and to comply and to believe that the actions of Allaah are perfect and complete and do not suffer any deficiency or shortcoming. So, even if some of the points of wisdom or the underlying reasons remain hidden to us then still we do not ask about them, rather, we submit. So, if we understand the wisdom and the underlying reason then this is fine but if we do not understand it then we submit and we do not raise objections to Allaah or withhold from action until we know the wisdom or the underlying reason.

Footnotes:

[1] Reported by al-Bukhaariyy (6463) and Muslim (2,816) from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiyAllaahu `anhu.

[2] Reported by Imaam Ahmad in his Musnad and by Aboo Daawood and Ibn Maajah and Ibn Hibbaan and others from a hadeeth of Zayd Ibn Thaabit radiyAllaahu `anhu and it was declared authentic by Ibn Hibbaan and by Shaykh ul-Islaam Muhammad ibn `Abdul Wahhaab in Kitaab at-Tawheed.

Translator’s side point: Likewise Shaykh al-Albaaniyy declared it saheeh (authentic).

[3] Reported my Muslim (2,577) from a hadeeth of Aboo Tharr radiyAllaahu `anhu. Hadeeth included in the 40 hadeeth of Imaam an-Nawawiyy (24).

[4] Translator’s side point: This is the same point that Imaam Ahmad used in his argument against those who tried to force him to say the Qur’aan was created.

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Benefit: Allah Wrongs Not Even the Weight of a Speck of Dust – Tafseer Ibn Katheer

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَظْلِمُ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ ۖ وَإِن تَكُ حَسَنَةً يُضَاعِفْهَا وَيُؤْتِ مِن لَّدُنْهُ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا

Surely! Allah wrongs not even of the weight of a speck of dust, but if there is any good (done), He doubles it, and gives from Him a great reward. (Surah An-Nisa , aayah 40)

Allah states that He does not treat any of His servants with injustice on the Day of Resurrection, be it the weight of a mustard seed or a speck of dust. Rather, Allah shall reward them for this action and multiply it, if it were a good deed. For instance, Allah said,

(And We shall set up balances of justice) Allah said that Luqman said,

(O my son! If it be (anything) equal to the weight of a mustard seed, and though it be in a rock, or in the heavens or in the earth, Allah will bring it forth). Allah said,

(That Day mankind will proceed in scattered groups that they may be shown their deeds. So whosoever does good equal to the weight of a speck of dust shall see it. And whosoever does evil equal to the weight of a speck of dust shall see it.) The Two Sahihs recorded the long Hadith about the intercession that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri narrated, and in which the Messenger of Allah said,

(Allah then says, “Go back, and take out of the Fire everyone in whose heart you find the weight of a mustard seed of faith”) In another narration, Allah says,

(“Whosoever had the least, least, least speck of faith, take him out of the Fire,” and they will take out many people.) Abu Sa`id then said, “Read, if you will,

(Surely! Allah wrongs not even of the weight of a speck of dust).”

Source: Tafseer Ibn Katheer, Darussalam English Publication

The Knowledge of Allaah Encompasses Everything – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lessons 34 : Point 46
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

And to have eemaan that Allaah, the Most High knew whatever was going to occur from the start of time and whatever was not going to occur. Whatever was going to happen then Allaah fully comprehended and enumerated it. And whoever says that He does not know except what has already occurred or what is occurring then he has disbelieved in Allaah, the Tremendous.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

It is obligatory to affirm the knowledge of Allaah, the Majestic and Most High and its encompassing everything. So, He has full knowledge of everything and He has full ability over everything and His ilm (knowledge) has no beginning and no ending. His ilm (knowledge) is just like the rest of the attributes established for Him forever. So, just as Allaah has no beginning then likewise, there is no beginning for His names and His attributes and His actions, He, the Perfect and Most High. And just as Allaah has no end, then likewise there is no end for His names and His attributes and His actions, He, the Majestic and Most High. So, He along with His names and His attributes is the First One with no beginning and He along with His names and His attributes is the Last One with no ending just as he sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said addressing his Lord, He, the Most High:

“You are Al-Awwal (the First One) so there is nothing before You and
You are  Al-Aakhir (the Last One) so there is nothing after You and
You are Az-Zaahir (the Uppermost One) so there is nothing above You and
You are Al-Baatin (the Closest One) so there is nothing closer than You.”
[1]

His saying, “And to have eemaan that Allaah, the Most High knew whatever was going to be from the start of time and whatever was not going to be and whatever exists, He enumerated it and comprehended it all,” Allaah knew whatever was and has passed away in previous time and He knows whatever will be in the future and He knows whatever will not be, if it were to be; how it will be. So, Allaah’s knowledge comprehends everything and therefore He said:

وَلَوْ رُدُّوا لَعَادُوا لِمَا نُهُوا عَنْهُ 

If they were to be sent back, they will return to doing whatever they had been forbidden from. (Sooratul-An`aam (6), aayah 28)

So, Allaah knew that if they were to be returned to the world, they would return to doing what they had been forbidden from, meaning if they were returned to the world then they would return to disbelief even though their returning to the world would never happen ever.

His saying, “And whoever says that He does not know except what has already occurred or what is occurring then he has disbelieved in Allaah, the Tremendous,” whoever restricts the knowledge of Allaah to events that have already occurred only and that He does not know what is going to occur before it actually happens then he has disbelieved in Allaah because he has denied the knowledge of Allaah, the Majestic and Most High and he has denied the comprehensiveness of the knowledge of Allaah, the Majestic and Most High and He has affirmed for Allaah deficient knowledge so he becomes a disbeliever on account of this, for the knowledge of Allaah cannot be restricted. As for the knowledge of the created being then it is restricted no matter what level it reaches.

وَفَوْقَ كُلِّ ذِي عِلْمٍ عَلِيمٌ 

And above every person possessing knowledge there is one who knows more. (Soorah-Yoosuf (12), aayah 76)

Every person who has knowledge, there will be another person who knows more than him and above all of them is Allaah, the Most High with His knowledge. And He commanded His Messenger to say:

رَّبِّ زِدْنِي عِلْمًا 

Oh my Lord, increase me in knowledge. (Soorah Taa-Haa (20), aayah 114)

So, the person who restricts the knowledge of Allaah and says He knows such and such but He does not know such and such, this one is a disbeliever (kaafir) since he has belittled Him and denied the generality of His knowledge of everything.[2]

Footnotes:

[1] Reported by Muslim (2,713) from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiyAllaahu `anhu.

[2] Translator’s side point: Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmee rahimahullaah said,

“With regard to this sentence, there appears to be something missing in  the wording here and what is apparent that the meaning is “And He does not know what will be except after it has occurred” and this was the statement of Hishaam ibn Al-Hakam; the head of misguidance, the one who said Allaah does not know things until they actually happen. So, he clearly stated that He, the Perfect does not know anything until He brings about knowledge for Himself of it and this is clear disbelief. Refer to the book Al-Fissal of Ibn Hazm.

I,Shaykh Ahmad, say, the saying that “Allaah does not know things until they have actually happened,” this is the saying of some of the Mu`tazilah and it is a false and futile saying. Whoever believes that then he has disbelieved. So, knowledge (al-ilm) is an attribute of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. Allaah knew whatever was and whatever will not be and whatever is. If something were to occur, how it will be and He wrote it down in the preserved tablet (al-Lawh al-Mahfudh) before He created the heavens and the earth. So, therefore, whoever denies al-ilm (Allaah’s knowledge) then he is a disbeliever. It’s obligatory that his repentance should be sought and he’ll either repent or he’ll be executed for disbelief and apostasy. And the Salaf (predecessors) said with regard to the Qadariyyah, “Argue with them concerning Allaah’s knowledge for if they deny it, they are disbelievers.” And success is granted by Allaah.”

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/

All of the Existence is with the Command of Allaah – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lessons 34 : Point 45
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

And know that reptiles, beasts of prey and all creatures such as the tiniest ant, flies and bees are all acting as they have been commanded and they not do anything except with the permission of Allaah, the Most High.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

The whole of the creation is under orders relating to the creation. The sun proceeds and the moon proceeds and the stars and the planets orbit and the creatures and the bird, everything proceeds upon the order that Allaah has decreed for it.

قَالَ رَبُّنَا الَّذِي أَعْطَىٰ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلْقَهُ ثُمَّ هَدَىٰ – 20:50

He gave everything its due form and nature and created an appropriate mate for it and then He guided it to acquiring its benefit.

(Soorah Taa Haa (20), aayah 50)[1]

So, He ordered the whole of this worldly life and whatever is within it from existing things and beings and planets and heavens and the earth, all of them proceed in accordance with preordainment and predecree of the Creator, the Perfect and Most High and they comply with His commands relating to the creation.

إِنَّمَا أَمْرُهُ إِذَا أَرَادَ شَيْئًا أَن يَقُولَ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ – 36:82

Verily, His Command, when He intends a thing, is only that He says to it, “Be!” and it is! (Soorah Yaaseen (36), aayah 82)

So they precede and pass along in accordance with the command of Allaah, the Perfect and Most High and in accordance with His pre-decree and His creation and His will and His wish in submission to Him, He, the Perfect and Most High.

كُلٌّ يَجْرِي لِأَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى

Each running its course for an appointed time. (Soorah Ra`d (13), aayah 2)

His saying, “And they not do anything except with the permission of Allaah, the Most High,” meaning with the permission of Allaah relating to the creation and it is al-amrul kowniyy (His creational command) and the mashee-ah (His wish), Allaah, the Perfect and Most High. So, they do not proceed on the basis of their own desires or upon control from someone besides Allaah, the Majestic and Most High and therefore when the tyrant king said to Ibraheem `alayhissalaam:

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِي حَاجَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ فِي رَبِّهِ أَنْ آتَاهُ اللَّهُ الْمُلْكَ إِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ رَبِّيَ الَّذِي يُحْيِي وَيُمِيتُ قَالَ أَنَا أُحْيِي وَأُمِيتُ ۖ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْتِي بِالشَّمْسِ مِنَ الْمَشْرِقِ فَأْتِ بِهَا مِنَ الْمَغْرِبِ فَبُهِتَ الَّذِي كَفَرَ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ – 2:258

 “I give life and cause death.” Ibrahim (Abraham) said, “Verily! Allah causes the sun to rise from the east; then cause it you to rise from the west.” So the disbeliever was utterly defeated. And Allah guides not the people, who are Zalimun (wrong-doers, etc.). (Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 258)

So, the actions of Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, no one is able to do them or to copy them. So, He is the one who controls the creation, He, the Perfect and Most High and He orders it in the best and most precise arrangement, it does not alter and it does not change.

مَّا تَرَىٰ فِي خَلْقِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ مِن تَفَاوُتٍ – 67:3

You will not see any gap in that which the Most Merciful has created.(Sooratul-Mulk (67), aayah 3)

So, the sun and the moon and the stars and the heavens and the earth since Allaah created them until Allaah wishes the end of this world, they proceed in accordance with the pre-decreed and divinely arranged order that does not change and does not alter.[2]

Footnotes:

[1] Translator’s side point: Explanation been taken from Tafseer AtTabaree as usual.

[2] Translator’s side point: Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmee rahimahullaah said,

“These created beings, Allaah, the Perfect and Most High created them and for each one of them He appointed ibaadah (worship). So, each one of these creatures and wild animals and reptiles and other than that each one of them carries our ibaadah (worship); the worship that it is being commanded with. He, the Most High said:

أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَالطَّيْرُ صَافَّاتٍ ۖ كُلٌّ قَدْ عَلِمَ صَلَاتَهُ وَتَسْبِيحَهُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِمَا يَفْعَلُونَ 

وَلِلَّهِ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ وَإِلَى اللَّهِ الْمَصِيرُ 

Do you not see that Allaah, whoever is within the heavens and the earth declare His Perfection and the birds spreading their wings. Each one knows its own prayer and glorification of Him and Allaah knows whatever they do and to Allaah belongs the Sovereignty of the heavens and the earth and return will be to Allaah. (Sooratul-Noor (24), aayah 41-42)

And from this aayah, we know that these creatures and birds have different types of worship for which Allaah created them and they carry them out in compliance with command of their Lord. They do not do anything from themselves and Allaah is the One who grants success.”

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/

It is obligatory upon the Muslim to avoid reflecting upon the Self of Allaah – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lessons 34 : Point 44
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

And reflecting about Allaah is an innovation because of the saying of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, “Reflect upon the creation and do not reflect upon Allaah because reflecting about the Lord casts doubt into the heart.”

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

It is obligatory upon the Muslim to avoid reflecting upon the Self of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic and reflecting upon how (kayfiyyah), how of His names and attributes and actions? Because Allaah, the Majestic and Most High says:

يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِهِ عِلْمًا 

He, Allaah knows whatever is in front of them and whatever is behind them and they do not encompass Him with knowledge. (Soorah Taa Haa (20), aayah 110)

So it is upon you to have eemaan in Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic and to venerate the Lord, the Perfect and Most High without reflecting upon His Self and how His names and attributes are.

His saying, “Reflect upon the creation but do not reflect upon Allaah,”[1] reflect upon the things created by Allaah and upon the signs Allaah has put in the creation (aayaat ul-kowniyyah).This will indicate to you the power of Allaah.

Then he mentions some lines of poetry:

“So how can the One truly worshipped be disobeyed

or how can the denier deny Him when in everything

there is a sign for him proving that He is one.”

So you should reflect upon the signs within the creation, in the heavens and the earth and the mountains and the rocks and the trees and the oceans and the created beings to derive proof from them for the tremendousness of the Creator, the Perfect and Most High and reflect upon the aayahs of Allaah in the Qur’aan. But as for your reflecting upon Allaah’s Self and how His names and attributes are, then you will not be able to reach that.

 وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِهِ عِلْمًا 

And they do not encompass Him with knowledge.
(Soorah Taa Haa (20), aayah 110)[2]

Footnotes:

[1] Reported by atTabaraaniyy in his book Al-Awsat and also by al-Laalikaa`ee in his book Sharh Usool al-I’tiqaad from a hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn `Umar and the reality is some of the verifiers point out of those books that the chain of narration of that hadeeth is weak there and the hadeeth is also reported though by Aboo Shaykh in his book Al-Adama and by Abul Qaasim al-Asbahaaniyy in his book AtTargheeb as a hadeeth of Ibn Abbaas radiyAllaahu `anhuma and this hadeeth was declared to be hasan (good) by Shaykh al-Albaaniyy due to its having a number of narrations of support also from  a narration of Aboo Hurayrah radiyAllaahu `anhu and so on. At the end Shaykh al-Albaaniyy mentioned the different narrations. In summary, he said in As-Saheehah no. 1,788, “The hadeeth when its chain of narrations gathered is hasan (good) in my view and Allaah knows best.”

[2] Translator’s side point:

Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmee rahimahullaah said:  “Reflect upon the creation but do not reflect upon Allaah,” The verifier of the book mentioned that the hadeeth has some weakness in it and he mentioned that Shaykh al-Albaaniyy authenticates the hadeeth as being a hadeeth that is hasan (good) due to supports and he gave the reference for that. I (Shaykh Ahmad)  say,

“This hadeeth, its authentication needs examination and it may be the case that it is the speech of some of the Salaf and I say that reflecting upon Allaah meaning with regard to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic’s Self, this is not befitting because a servant if he thinks, he reflects then he will only think and reflect based upon what his intellect pictures and based upon what crosses his mind with regard to things that he’s actually seen or heard or known whereas Allaah, the Perfect and Most High is above all of that. So, it is not befitting that anyone reflects upon His Self, He, the Most High because whenever a person imagines something then Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic will be contrary to it.

What will suffice us is to reflect upon Allaah’s creation and with regard to His tremendous and amazing ability and if a person were to reflect upon his own origin that will suffice him. So, let him reflect upon how Allaah caused that sperm drop to change, which He created him from into this tremendous being. How Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic changed that sperm drop from which He created an animal; one animal from another animal and how Allaah prepared everything from the created beings for that which He intended from it. So, Allaah prepared the cows for cultivation and He prepared the camels for carrying and so on and so forth as we can see and as we know. So, the One who is able to change that sperm drop into a person and a different one into an animal, is He not the Lord who has full ability over everything? Yes indeed and we bear witness over that.

So, what is important is that reflection should be upon the creation of Allaah not about His Self and let us read the saying of Allaah, the Most High:

لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ البَصِيرُ

There is nothing like Him and He is the All-Hearing, the All-Seeing.

(Sooratush-Shooraa (42), aayah 11)

And it is obligatory upon us to submit to this aayah so that our minds do not stumble into things that are not befitting and if it is the case that Paradise contains things that no eye has ever seen and no ear has ever heard of nor have ever crossed the heart, never crossed the mind of any human and it is a created thing created by Allaah then how about the Self of Allaah? And success is granted by Allaah.”

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/

Whoever claims that he saw his Lord in this world then he is a disbeliever in Allaah – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lessons 34 : Point 43
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

ومن زعم أنه يرى ربه في دار الدنيا فهو كافر بالله عز وجل

And whoever claims that he sees his Lord in this world then he is a disbeliever in Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

Whoever claims that anyone can see Allaah in this world, seeing Him with their eyes not seeing Him in a dream then he is a disbeliever; kaafir because Allaah, the Majestic and Most High cannot be seen in this world and therefore when kaleemullaah, the one to whom Allaah spoke, Moosa alayhissalam:

قَالَ رَبِّ أَرِنِي أَنظُرْ إِلَيْكَ ۚ قَالَ لَن تَرَانِي وَلَٰكِنِ انظُرْ إِلَى الْجَبَلِ فَإِنِ اسْتَقَرَّ مَكَانَهُ فَسَوْفَ تَرَانِي

لَمَّا تَجَلَّىٰ رَبُّهُ لِلْجَبَلِ جَعَلَهُ دَكًّا وَخَرَّ مُوسَىٰ صَعِقًا

Moosaa (`alayhissalaam) said, “Oh my Lord, show Yourself to me so that I may look upon You.” So He said, “You will not see Me, however look at the mountain and if it remains settled at its place then you will see Me.”

(Sooratul-A`raaf (7), aayah 143)

So no one can see Allaah in this world (dunya). This is a point of consensus (ijmaa) amongst the scholars. Rather, seeing Allaah will be in the Hereafter because the people in this world are weak, they are not able to see Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic because of their weakness and therefore when Allaah manifested Himself to the mountain, it shattered and became dust. So, how about the son of Aadam who is made of flesh and blood?

But as for in the Hereafter, Allaah will give to the believers strength through which they will be able to see Allaah and they will delight in seeing Him, He, the Perfect and Most High. So, seeing Allaah in the Hereafter is established and is mutawaatir (quoted by a huge number of people at each level of transmission) is established for the believers. But as for in this world then no one will see Allaah with His eyes.

They disagree whether the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam saw Him on the night of the ascent through the Heavens or did not see Him. And what is correct or the great majority are upon is that the Messenger did not see Him with His eye but rather, he saw Him with his heart and with his insight because no one can see Allaah in this life, because Allah is greater than that anyone should see Him in this life and therefore when the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam was asked:

“Did you see your Lord on the night of the ascent (mi`raaj), ascent through the Heavens?” He said, “Noorun Anna Araahu.” (Light, how could I see Him?) ”[1]

Footnotes:

[1] Reported by Muslim hadeeth no. (178) from a hadeeth of Aboo Tharr radiyAllaahu `anh that the Prophet responded:

“Light, how could I see Him?”

And he said:

“His screen is light, if He were to uncover it then the shining light of His face would consume whatever his gaze came upon from His creation.

Hadeeth also reported by Muslim (179) from a hadeeth of Aboo Moosaa radiyAllaahu `anhu.

Translator’s side point:

Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmee rahimahullaah said,

“As for the saying of the author,  ‘Whoever claims that he can see His Lord in the life of this world then he is a disbeliever in Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic’.  I say, this claim has been claimed by many of the heretic Soofees, those who say that they see their Lord and they see the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam and take from him and take from Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic directly and they believe that they are in a station higher than the station of Messengership and whoever claims this claim then he is a kaafir (disbeliever). There is no doubt about his disbelief and Allaah is the one who grants success.”

Shaykh Saalih as-Suhaymee hafizahullaah likewise mentions the same point that,

“This is the claim of the extreme Soofees, those who claim that they can take knowledge directly from Allaah, the Most High by way of Kashf and who claim that they can obtain knowledge of the hidden and unseen (ghaib) directly from Allaah, the Most High, this point refers to the like of them and that claim is disbelief.”

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/