By Shaykh ul –Islaam Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah as-Salafi -Rahimullaah-
From his book ‘Madaarij as-Saalikeen’
Translated by Abbas Abu Yahya
Shamsuddeen Muhammad bin Abee Bakr Ibn Qayyim aj-Jawzeeyah (d.751) -Rahimullaah- said:
‘Al-Hayaa (modesty) is divided into 10 subdivisions:
Hayaa Jinayah (the shamefulness of committing a crime), Hayaa Taqseer (the shamefulness of deficiency), Hayaa Ijlaal (the modesty regarding the magnificence of Allaah), Hayaa Karm (modesty in being hospitable), Hayaa Hishmaa (shyness in personal matters), Hayaa Istissghar lilnafs (modesty and humbling one’s soul), Hayaa Muhabbah (bashfulness of love), Hayaa Uboodeeyah (shyness in worship), Hayaa Sharaf wa Izzah (being ashamed of his own nobility and honour) and Hayaa (being shy) of one who is modest from his own self.
1. Al-Hayaa (the shamefulness) of committing a crime:
From this is the Hayaa of Aadam -alaihi salam- when he fled in Paradise.
Allaah Ta’ala said ‘Are you escaping from Me O Aadam?’ he answered: ‘No, my Lord rather being ashamed in front of You.’
2. Hayaa Taqseer (the shamefulness of deficiency):
This is like the Hayaa of the Angels who glorify Allaah day and night and do not disobey Him and when the Day of Judgment comes they say ‘You (O Allaah) are far from imperfection and we did not truly carry out Your worship.’
3. Hayaa Ijlaal (modesty regarding the magnificence of Allaah):
This Hayaa is of having knowledge, it is the level of knowledge a slave has of his Lord – then the level of his Hayaa in this, will be in accordance to his level of knowledge of Allaah.
4. Hayya Karm (modesty in being hospitable):
Like the Hayya of the Prophet –sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam– from the people when they called him to the Walima (wedding party) of Zainab and they sat with him for a very long time and he stood up and was shy from telling them to leave.
5. Hayaa Hishmaa (Shyness regarding personal matters):
Like the Hayya of Ali bin Abi Taalib -radiAllaah anhu – in asking the Prophet regarding the discharge/wetness a man feels when being aroused, due to the status of the Prophet’s –sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam– daughter.
6. Hayaa Istissghar lilnafs (modesty and humbling one’s soul):
Like the Hayaa of the slave of Allaah from His Lord when he asks Him for his needs, whereby he realizes that he is so needy and is humbled by it.
There could be two reasons for this type of Hayaa:
a) The questioner regards himself as small and insignificant and regards his sins as great in number.
b) He (the questioner) regards the One he is asking (Allaah) as Great.
7. Hayaa Muhabbah (bashfulness of love):
This is the Hayaa of the one who loves when he remembers what he feels for his beloved, to such an extent that if this feeling occurs to him in the absence of his beloved then it stimulates the Hayaa in his heart and reaches his face (bashfulness) and he does not know why he feels this is.
8. Hayaa Uboodeeyah (shyness in worship):
This Hayaa is combined with love and fear and one witnesses that his worship of the One being worshipped (Allaah) is not good enough and the worth and value of the One being worshipped is higher and more magnificent than his worship. Thus this worship will certainly obligate his feeling shy of Allaah.
9. Hayaa Sharaf wa Izzah (being ashamed of nobility and honour):
If the value and the goodness of his sacrifice, giving and goodness is less (than he is capable of) then Hayaa emanates from this great and powerful soul and his soul becomes ashamed even though he has sacrificed (but it is not according to the caliber of his capability).
10. As for the Hayaa of the person from his own self:
It is the Hayaa of the honorable, noble and lofty soul, which is not pleased with the deficiency within itself, which is(the deficiency) of being satisfied with less (goodness). So he finds himself being shy from himself to such a degree that it is as though he possesses two souls one soul feels shy from the other.
This is the most complete type of Hayaa, because if a soul feels shyness from his own self then it will obviously feel a greater shyness from other than himself.’
[Summarised from ‘Madaarij as-Saalikeen’ vol.2 p.250-251 as collected in ‘Nadratul Na’eem’ 5/1798]
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