Advice to the Muslim Woman : Shaykh Fawzaan

Shaikh Saalih bin Fawzaan Al-Fawzaan
Al-Ibaanah.com

Advice to the Muslim Woman – Download PDF

About the Book:

This book is a complete translation of a transcribed lecture from Shaikh Saalih Al-Fawzaan entitled: Naseehah Lil-Mar’at-il-Muslimah (Advice to the Muslim Woman). The source used for this translation was the book Muhaadaraat fil-‘Aqeedah wad-Da’wah, a large compilation of over 25 transcribed lectures from Shaikh Saalih Al-Fawzaan on issues of Creed and Methodology (vol. 3, pg. 281-299, Markaz Fajr, 2003 Edition)

In this particular lecture, Shaikh Saalih Al-Fawzaan covers many important topics related to women, such as veiling, being in privacy with male-strangers, traveling without a mahram and other things that are critical for a Muslim woman to understand and implement.

This treatise will be included as the fourth essay in the forthcoming second publication of the veiling book published by Al-Ibaanah Book Publishing, which will be entitled “Four Essays on the Obligation of Veiling” by the Will of Allaah. May Allaah facilitate its publication.

Excerpts from the Book:

“Both a man and a woman must cover their private parts with ample coverings, since this preserves morals. As for shamelessness and nudity, these are things that lead to the corruption of morality, the loss of honor, and the spreading of lewdness. But when the private parts are concealed with the covering that Allaah has instructed the men and women to abide by, this protects the private parts from fornication and homosexuality and it protects the private parts from the unlawful things that Allaah has prohibited.”

“Allaah ordered that the women be asked from behind a Hijaab. What is meant by the word Hijaab is: Anything that covers a woman whether a garment, a wall, a door or any other object that can be used to screen a woman from a man when he is talking to her or asking her about something or handing her something. All of these should be done from behind a Hijaab, i.e. from behind a screen or covering. So he should not make any contact with her while she is unscreened or lacking covering and exposed. Rather, she must be behind a screen that covers her, regardless if it is her garment, her door, a wall or so on. This is since this is ‘purer for your hearts and their hearts’ from temptation. If women screen themselves by way of a Hijaab and the gaze of men does not fall upon them, the hearts of both the men and women will be saved from temptation and enticement. This is clearly visible in the Muslim societies that strictly adhere to the Hijaab.”

“As for what we hear about today from some ignoramuses that a husband’s brother, paternal uncle or other male relative can greet his wife, shake her hand, be alone with her and enter into her presence – this is baseless. It is not permissible for a non-mahram to enter into the presence of a woman (without Hijaab), nor to shake her hand, nor to be alone in privacy with her unless there is someone else in the house through which the privacy will be removed. But as for him entering into a house that has no one in it but her, and he is not one of her mahaarim, then this is the forbidden type of privacy and it is dangerous.”

If a woman has a need to speak to a man that is not one of her mahaarim, she may speak to him, but with a casual tone that has no softness or gentleness in it and not in a joking or laughing manner. Rather, her speech must be ordinary and in accordance with what necessity dictates – i.e. a question and an answer – as per the need only. She must not speak in a tone that appears friendly, laughing or teasing, or in a mellow or beautified voice, thus stirring the desires of the one who has a disease in his heart. This is based on Allaah’s saying: ‘But rather speak in an honorable manner.’ [Surah Al-Ahzaab: 32]”

Short Articles extracted from this Book:

Woman travelling accompanied by a group of other women without a mahram – Shaykh Fawzan

The look is one of the poisonous arrows of the Devil – Shaykh Saalih Fawzan

Devil Swore: “And indeed I will order them to alter the creation of Allaah.” – Shaykh Fawzan

Beware of entering in the presence of women – Shaykh Salih Al Fawzan

When is the Night of Al-Qadr? Imaams Al-Albaanee and Ibn Al-‘Uthaimeen

Source: al-ibaanah.com
Translator: isma’eel alarcon

The Night of Al-Qadr occurs in the last ten nights of Ramadaan during an odd night (i.e. 21st, 23rd, 25th, 27th or 29th). However the scholars differ as to if it is fixed to one of these odd nights every year or if it changes every year to a different odd-numbered night. Below are the sayings of two of our great scholars, Muhammad Ibn Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen and Muhammad Naasir-ud-Deen Al-Albaanee (may Allaah have mercy on both of them).

The Night of Al-Qadr has a Fixed Date:

The best night in Ramadaan is the Night of Al-Qadr, based on the Prophet’s saying: “Whoever performs the night prayer on the Night of Al-Qadr with firm faith and while seeking reward, his past sins will be forgiven.” [1]

It is on the twenty-seventh night of Ramadaan according to the strongest opinion. A majority of the ahaadeeth comply with this, including the hadeeth of Zurr Ibn Hubaysh who said: “I heard Ubay Bin Ka’ab (raa) say when it was said to him that ‘Abdullaah Ibn Mas’ood (raa) said “Whoever performs the night prayer (every night) throughout the year will achieve the Night of Al-Qadr.” He (Ubay Bin Ka’ab) said: “May Allaah have mercy on him, his intention was that the people not (grow lazy) and depend solely (on just one night). By the One of whom there is no deity worthy of worship beside Him, it is indeed in Ramadaan. And by Allaah I know on which night it is. It is on the night that Allaah’s Messenger (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) commanded us to perform the Night Prayer. It is on the twenty-seventh night. Its sign is that the sun rises on its following morning bright with no rays.”

In one report this is raised to being a saying of the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam). [2]

[Imaam Al-Albaanee in his book Qiyaam Ramadaan (pg. 18-19)]

The Night of Al-Qadr is to be sought:

The Night of Al-Qadr is in the last ten nights of Ramadaan, based on the saying of the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam): “Search for the Night of Al-Qadr in the last ten nights of Ramadaan.” [Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim] And it falls in one of the odd nights more likely than on the even nights, based on the Prophet’s (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) saying: “Search for the Night of Al-Qadr in the odd nights of the last ten nights of Ramadaan.” [Al-Bukhaaree] And it is closer to the last seven nights, based on the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Umar (raa) that: “Some men from the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) saw the Night of Al-Qadr in a dream during the last seven nights (of Ramadaan). So the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) said: ‘I see that all of your dreams agree that it (the Night of Al-Qadr) is in the last seven nights. So whoever wants to search for it, then let him search for it in the last seven nights.'” [Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim] And it is also based on the hadeeth in Muslim from Ibn ‘Umar (raa) that the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) said: “Look for it in the last ten nights. But if one of you becomes weak or is unable, then do not let the remaining (last) seven nights overcome him.”

Amongst the odd nights in the last seven nights, it is closest to the twenty-seventh night due to the hadeeth of Ubay Bin Ka’ab (raa) who said: “By Allaah, I know which night it is. It is on the night that Allaah’s Messenger (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) commanded us to perform the Night Prayer. It is on the twenty-seventh night.” [Muslim]

The Night of Al-Qadr is not specified to one fixed night throughout all the years. Rather, it constantly changes. So one year it could occur on the twenty-seventh night for example and on another year it could occur on the twenty-fifth night, according to Allaah’s Will and Wisdom. What directs us to this is the Prophet’s (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) saying: “Look for it (i.e. the Night of Al-Qadr) when there remain nine nights, when there remains seven nights, or when there remains five nights (i.e. 21st, 23rd, and 25th respectively without mention of 27th).”

Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajr said in Fath-ul-Baaree: “The most strongest opinion is that it is on an odd night in the last ten nights and that it constantly changes.”

Allaah has hidden knowledge of its occurrence from His servants out of mercy for them so that they can increase their actions in the search for it during these honorable nights, by praying, making dhikr and supplicating. So they grow and increase in the nearness to Allaah and His reward. And He also kept it hidden from them as a test for them to distinguish who amongst them struggles and makes an effort to find it and who is lazy and negligent. This is since whoever constantly strives for something, he will exert himself in his search for it and trouble himself in finding it and achieving it.

And perhaps Allaah discloses the time of its occurrence to some of His servants through signs and signals, which one is able to see, just as the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) saw its sign that he would be prostrating in mud on its following morning. So it rained on that night and he prayed the (following) morning (Fajr) prayer in mud.

[Imaam Muhammad Ibn Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen in his book Majaalis Shahr Ramadaan (pg. 106-107)]


Footnotes:

[1] Reported by Al-Bukhaaree, Muslim and others from the narration of Abu Hurairah (raa) and by Ahmad (5/318) from the narration of ‘Ubaadah Ibn As-Saamit (raa). The addition to it in […] belongs to him and to Muslim from Abu Hurairah.

[2] Reported by Muslim and others and it is referenced in Saheeh Abee Dawood (1247)

What is Prohibited and Disliked for the one Fasting : Shaikh Saalih Al-Fawzaan

Ittihaaf Ahlil-Eemaan bi-Duroos Shahri Ramadaan

Al-Ibaanah.com

All praise be to Allaah for His blessings and kindness. And may the peace and blessings be upon our prophet Muhammad, his family, Companions, and those who follow his guidance and stick to his Sunnah until the Day of Judgement. To proceed:

Know that there are certain manners to fasting that must be abided by and adhered to so that the fast could proceed in the way it was prescribed so that one could achieve its benefits, fulfill its objective and not find it discomforting and without benefit. This is as the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Perhaps all a person fasting derives from his fast is hunger and thirst.”

So fasting is not just the abandonment of food and drink only. Rather, it also entails abandoning improper statements and actions that are forbidden or disliked.

One of the Salaf once said: “The least form of fasting is leaving off food and drink.” This is since drawing near to Allaah by abandoning allowable things cannot be complete unless after drawing nearer to Him by abandoning what Allaah has prohibited under every circumstance. Even though a Muslim is obligated to abandon the unlawful at all times, it is even more binding upon him while he is fasting.

If one commits the unlawful in times other than when he is fasting, he is sinning and worthy of being punished. But if he commits it while fasting, then on top of being sinful and deserving of punishment, this affects his fast by it being either deficient or nullified.

So the person who truly observes the fast is he who withholds his stomach from food and drink, refrains his limbs from sins, restricts his tongue from vile and evil speech, restrains his ears from listening to songs, musical instruments, backbiting and gossip, and holds back his eyes from looking at the forbidden.

The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Whoever does not abandon false speech and acting upon it, then Allaah is not in need of him abandoning his food and drink.” [Reported by Al-Bukhaaree]

The person who is fasting must avoid backbiting, gossip and insulting others, based on what the two Shaikhs (Al-Bulkhaaree and Muslim) reported from Abu Hurairah (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) that he said, and it was raised as being a saying of the Prophet: “Fasting is armor. So if it is a day in which one of you is fasting, then he should not be vile in speech nor should he be sinful nor should he be ignorant. And if someone reviles him, then he should say: ‘I am a person that is fasting.’”

The word junnah (armor) is that which protects the one who wears it from the weapon of his opponent causing harm to him.

So fasting protects a person from falling into sins whose consequences are punishment in this world and the next. The word rafath in the hadeeth refers to lewd and immoral speech. Imaam Ahmad reported in marfoo’ form that the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Verily, fasting is armor so long as it is not pierced.” It was said: “What causes it to be pierced?” He (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Lying and Backbiting.”

This is proof that backbiting pierces the fast or makes a dent in it. When armor is pierced it is of no more use to the one wearing it. So in the same manner, when one’s fast is pierced, it is no longer any benefit to the one performing it.

Backbiting is as the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) explained it, and that is mentioning about your brother what he hates. It has been reported in the Musnad of Imaam Ahmad that this breaks the fast:

“Two women were once fasting during the lifetime of Allaah’s Messenger and they almost died of thirst. This was mentioned to the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) but he turned away from (allowing) them (to break the fast). Then they were mentioned to him again, so he called for them and ordered them to vomit, i.e. throw up, what was in their stomachs. So they both vomited and filled up a bowl with puss, blood and pieces of flesh. Then the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: ‘These two fasted by refraining from what Allaah made lawful for them. but they broke their fast by doing what Allaah made unlawful for them. One of them sat with the other and they began to eat from the flesh of people.’”

What transpired with these two women in the presence of the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) from their vomiting vile and disgusting things – this was from the miracles that Allaah allowed to occur at the hand of His Messenger so that he could show the evil effects of backbiting to the people. Allaah says: “And do not backbite one another. Would one of you love to eat the flesh of his dead brother?” [Surah Al-Hujuraat: 12]

This hadeeth shows that backbiting breaks the fast. This is in the figurative sense, meaning it nullifies the reward of fasting.

May Allaah send His peace and blessings on our prophet, Muhammad, his family and Companions.

The Wisdom Behind Fasting : Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen

Bismillaah

Author:Imaam Muhammad Ibn Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen
Source:Majaalis Shahr Ramadaan [pgs. 41-43] Abridged
Translator:isma’eel alarcon (al-manhaj.com)

From the wisdom of fasting is that: It is an act of worship done for Allaah, in which the ‘abd (servant) draws closer to His Lord by abandoning the things that he loves and desires, such as food, drink and sexual intercourse. So because of this, the truthfulness of his Faith and the completeness of his servitude to Allaah become apparent, as well as his love for Allaah and his longing for what Allaah has prepared for him (of good). This is since the one who fasts does not abandon something that is beloved to him except for that which is greater to him than it (which is Allaah). When the believer knows that Allaah’s contentment lies in the fasting – which is abandoning those desires that he naturally loves – he will give his Lord’s contentment precedence over his desires. So he abandons his desires no matter how much he longs and yearns for them, because his delight and the tranquility of his soul lies in his abandoning all that for the sake of Allaah.

And from the wisdom behind fasting is that it is a means of attaining Taqwaa, as Allaah says: “O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, in order that you gain Taqwaa.” This is since a person who is fasting is commanded to do the obligatory duties and to avoid sinful acts. The Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) said: “Whoever does not abandon false speech, acting upon that (false speech) and (acts of) ignorance (i.e. sins), then Allaah has no need of him abandoning his food and drink.” [Reported by Al-Bukhaaree] So when a person is fasting, every time he desires to do a sinful act, he will remember that he is fasting and thus withhold himself from that. This is why the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) ordered the person who is fasting, when cursed at and abused, to say: “I am fasting”, cautioning him (the reviler) that a person fasting is commanded to refrain from cursing and reviling, and reminding himself that he is fasting and cannot react with cursing.

And from the wisdom behind fasting is that the heart opens to contemplation and remembrance (of Allaah). This is since fulfilling one’s desires leads to heedlessness and perhaps the heart becomes hardened and blinded from the truth. This is why the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) advised us to eat and drink little, where he said: “The Son of Aadam does not fill a vessel worse than his stomach.” [Reported by Ahmad, An-Nasaa’ee and Ibn Maajah]

And in Saheeh Muslim, Handhala Al-Usaidee (radhi Allaahu anhu), who was one of the scribes of Allaah’s Messenger, said to the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam): “Handhala has become a hypocrite.” So Allaah’s Messenger (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) said: “Why is that?” He said: “O Messenger of Allaah, when we are with you, you remind us of the Hellfire and Paradise, as if we see them with our own eyes. But when we depart from you, we meet our wives and our children and our homes and we forget much (of what we heard from you).” In the last part of the hadeeth, the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) said to him: “But O Handhala, there is a time for this and a time for that (three times).” Abu Sulaymaan Ad-Daraanee said: “Indeed, when the soul hungers and thirsts, the heart softens and becomes pure. And when it is fed, the heart becomes blinded.”

And from the wisdom behind fasting is that the person who has wealth is caused to realize the blessing of wealth that Allaah has bestowed on him, such that Allaah blessed him with food, drink and sexual intercourse. Many people are deprived of these things, so he should praise Allaah for these blessings and thank Him for granting him them. And he should remember his brother who is poor and who probably goes through the day starved and hungry. So he should be generous to him and give him charity so that he can clothe his barrenness and satisfy his hunger.

And from the wisdom behind fasting is that it trains one to curb the soul, and it gives one strength to withhold his soul by its bridle, such that one can govern it and lead it towards that which is good for it and what will make it prosper. This is because the soul commands one to do evil, except for those souls that my Lord has mercy on. So when a person undoes and lets go of his (soul’s) bridle, the soul lands him into many dangers. But when he controls it and curbs it, he is able to lead it to the highest of levels and the greatest of goals.

And from the wisdom of fasting is that the soul is broken down and restricted from having pride, to the point that it humbles itself to the truth and softens itself before the creation. This is because eating, drinking and having sexual intercourse with women – all of these things bring about insolence, arrogance, vanity and pride over people and over the truth. The soul preoccupies itself with trying to obtain these things because of its need for them. So when it obtains these things, the soul feels like it has conquered what it desired and so it falls into the happiness and proudness that is condemned. And this is a cause for its destruction. Only those whom Allaah protects are saved from this.

And from the wisdom behind fasting is that the passageways of blood (in the body) become narrow due to hunger and thirst, so therefore the passageways of the Devil in the human body also become narrower. This is since the Devil flows through the son of Adam like the flowing of blood, as is authentically recorded in the two Saheeh collections. So by fasting, the whisperings of the Devil are subdued and the strength of one’s desires and anger are subjugated. This is why the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) said: “O young men! Whoever amongst you can afford it, should get married, for it is the best means for lowering one’s gaze and the best way of keeping (one’s) private parts chaste. But whoever is not able to marry, then let him fast, for it has protection.”

And from the wisdom behind fasting are the health benefits that come as a result of it, which are attained by in-taking little food, allowing the digestive system to rest for a specified time, which lets excess wastes and excrements that are harmful to the body be discharged.

So how great and profound is the wisdom of Allaah, and how beneficial are His commandments to His creatures!

O Allaah, give us comprehension of Your Religion and allow us to understand the inner secrets of Your commandments. Rectify for us the affairs of our Religion and our worldly life. And forgive us and our parents and all the Muslims, by Your mercy, O Most Merciful. And may the peace and blessings of Allaah be on Muhammad (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) and on his family and all his Companions.

The Wisdom and Benefits behind Fasting : Imaam Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyyah

Author:Imaam Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyyah
Source:Abridged from his book Zaad al-Ma’aad [Al-Muntaqaa Newsletter: 1/9]
Translator:abu maryam
Produced by:al-manhaj.com

The objective behind fasting is to restrain the soul from (its) desires and to prevent it from those things, which are beloved to it. And its purpose is to control the soul’s strength, so that it can be prepared to attain what is found in it (the fast) from success and joy for the soul. Through the fast, one curbs his hunger and thirst and is reminded of the condition of the hungry stomachs of needy people.

Through fasting, one narrows the passages the Devil has inside the servant (of Allaah) by narrowing the passages of food and drink. Also, it prevents the forces of the limbs from getting too accustomed to things that are harmful to it in this world and the hereafter. And each of the soul’s body limbs and energies can cease their rebelliousness (to Allaah) and be harnessed by its bridle.

So therefore, the fast is the bridle of those who fear and obey Allaah and the shield of those wage war (against desires). And it is a garden for the righteous and devoted servants of Allaah. And it is for the Lord of the worlds, over all other actions (done to please Allaah). This is since the person who fasts, in fact does nothing. He only abandons his desire and his food for the sake of the One whom he worships.

So fasting is an abandonment of those things that the soul loves and desires, preferring instead Allaah’s love and contentment. And it is a secret kept between the servant and his Lord – no one else is aware of it.

Fasting has an amazing effect in preserving one’s outer limbs and inner capacities as well as protecting the soul from being overtaken by destructive components, which can ruin and destroy it. And it has a remarkable effect in causing all the harmful things that prevent the soul from being healthy to be emptied out. So fasting guards and protects the health of the person’s heart and body limbs. And it returns the soul all that the hands of the desires has taken from it. So it is from the greatest ways of improving one’s Taqwaa, as Allaah says: “O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you in order that you attain Taqwaa.” [Surah Al-Baqarah: 185]

The Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) said: “Fasting is a shield.” And he commanded those who had intense desires for marriage but were not able to marry, to observe fasting, making it a shield against those desires (of marriage).

When the benefits of fasting are born witness to by sensible minds and upright intuitions, one will come to realize that Allaah prescribed it as a mercy for mankind, goodness to them and a protection and shield for them. The Prophet’s (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) guidance concerning it was the most perfect of guidance, and the best for reaching the desired objective and the easiest on the soul.

Since restraining the soul from what it loves and desires is from the most difficult and hardest of things, its obligation was delayed until the middle of Islaam, after the Hijrah. This was at the point when the Tawheed and the Prayer had become firmly established in the souls of the Muslims and when they loved the commands of Allaah. So their souls were lead to its obligation in gradual steps. It became obligatory in the second year of Hijrah.

When the Messenger of Allaah (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) died, he had fasted nine Ramadaans in total. Originally, it was obligated as an option left to the people to choose whether they wanted to fast or to feed needy people for every day. Then that option was transferred into the final obligatory fasting. And the matter of feeding people was left only for the old men and women who did not have the ability to fast.

Fasting had three stages. The first stage was its being obligated with the option of fasting or feeding a needy person. In the second stage, only the fasting was allowed, but if the person fasting slept before breaking his fast, he was forbidden from eating and drinking until the following night. This was abrogated in the third stage. And this is the stage at which the Religion has settled with until the Day of Judgement.

The Way to Perform the Night Prayer : Shaykh al-Albanee

Author:Imaam Muhammad Naasir-ud-Deen Al-Albaanee
Source:Qiyaam Ramadaan (pg. 28-30)
Translator:isma’eel alarcon (for al-manhaj.com)

I spoke in detail about this subject in my book Salaat at-Taraaweeh (pg. 101-115), so I felt that I should abridge that discussion here in order to make it easy for the reader and to remind him:

The First Manner: consists of thirteen rak’aat, which is commenced with two short rak’aat. According to the most correct opinion, these are the two rak’aat of Sunnah prayer offered after ‘Ishaa, or they are two specific rak’aat by which one begins the Night Prayer, as has been stated previously. Then one prays two very long rak’aat (after that). Then two more rak’aat are prayed, and then another two rak’aat are prayed. Then two more rak’aat are prayed and another set of two rak’aat are prayed. Then witr is made with one rak’ah.

The Second Manner: consists of thirteen rak’aat. There are eight rak’aat within them, in which one makes tasleem after every two rak’aat. Then witr is made with five rak’aat and one does not sit nor make the tasleem except in the fifth rak’ah.

The Third Manner: consists of eleven rak’aat, in which one makes tasleem after every two rak’aat and then prays witr at the end with one rak’ah.

The Fourth Manner: consists of eleven rak’aat, in which one prays four rak’aat and makes one tasleem after the four. The he prays another four in a similar manner and ends it with three rak’aat (for witr).

Would the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) remain in the sitting position after every two rak’aat, when praying a unit of four rak’aat or a unit of three rak’aat? We do not find a clear answer for this, but remaining in the sitting position (for tashahhud) while doing a unit of three rak’aat is not legislated (in the Religion)!

The Fifth Manner: consists of eleven rak’aat, in which one prays eight rak’aat and does not sit in any of them except for the eighth rak’ah. While sitting (in the eighth rak’ah), he makes the tashahhud and sends Salaat on the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) and then stands up again without making the tasleem. Then he makes witr with one rak’ah and when finished, he makes the tasleem. This consists of nine rak’aat. Then he prays two rak’aat after that while in the sitting position.

The Sixth Manner: One prays nine rak’aat, in which he does not sit except after the sixth rak’ah. Then he makes the tashahhud and sends Salaat on the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) and then stands again without making the tasleem. Then he makes witr with three rak’aat and when finished, he makes the tasleem, etc. (the rest is the same as the previous manner)

These are the manners in which it is reported that the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) performed the Night Prayer. It is possible to add other types of manners to it, by subtracting what one wishes from each set of rak’aat until he cuts it down to one rak’ah, acting on the previously mentioned hadeeth of Allaah’s Messenger (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam): “So whoever wishes, then let him pray witr with five rak’aat, and whoever wishes, then let him pray witr with three rak’aat, and whoever wishes, then let him pray witr with one rak’ah.”

So if one wants, he can pray these five rak’aat or three rak’aat with one sitting and one tasleem, as is stated in the Second Manner. And if he wants, he can make tasleem after every two rak’aat, as is stated in the Third Manner, and this is preferred.

As for praying the set of five rak’aat or three rak’aat by sitting after every two rak’aat and not making the tasleem, then we did not find any authentic report that the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) used to do this. The asl (foundation) is that it is permissible, but since the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) forbade us from praying witr with three rak’aat indicating the reason for that by saying: “And do not liken it to the Maghrib prayer.” [1] So then anyone that prays the witr in three rak’aat must not liken it to the Maghrib prayer. This can be done in two ways:

1. Making the tasleem between the even and odd number rak’ah (i.e. between the second and the third rak’ah). This is what is more strong and preferred.

2. One does not sit between the even and odd number (i.e. he prays three rak’aat straight with one tasleem), and Allaah knows best.


Footnotes:

[1] Reported by At-Tahaawee, Ad-Daraqutnee and others. See At-Taraaweeh (pg. 99 & 110)

Some of the Merits of Ramadaan : Abdullaah bin Saalih Al-Fawzaan

‘Abdullaah bin Saalih Al-Fawzaan
Ahaadeeth As-Siyaam: Ahkaam wa Adaab (pg. 27-29)
Al-Ibaanah.com

Abu Hurairah (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Every deed of the Son of Aadam will be rewarded ten to seven hundred times its worth. Allaah, Mighty and Sublime, said: ‘Except for the fast, for indeed it is for Me, and I will reward it. He leaves off his desires and his food for My sake. There are two times of joy for the one fasting. The time of joy when he breaks his fast and the time of joy when he meets His lord. And the scent coming from the mouth of the one fasting is more pleasant in the sight of Allaah than the smell of musk.'” [1]

This hadeeth is proof for the virtue of fasting and the great station it possesses in the sight of Allaah. Four of its many virtues occur in this hadeeth, and they are:

1. Those who fast will receive their reward in full without any reckoning, for every good deed is rewarded ten to seven hundred times its like in worth, except for the fast. Indeed, its reward is not limited to this number, but rather Allaah will reward it with manifold its likes in worth. This is because the fast is from (the forms of) patience and Allaah has stated:

“Verily, the patient ones will be given their reward in full without any reckoning.” [2]

Al-Awzaa’ee said of this (ayah): “It will neither be weighed for them nor measured, but rather it will simply be served to them as food is served.” [3]

2. Indeed Allaah connected the fast to Himself in conjunctive form, above all other types of deeds. And this conjunction is enough to show its noble status. This, and Allaah knows best, is due its state of encompassing the entirety of the day. Thus, one can find that the individual fasting has neglected his desires, while his soul constantly yearns after them. This, along with its lengthened duration, is not found in anything else besides the fast, especially in the days of summer due to their length and severity in heat. The individual’s abandonment of the things he desires is an act of worship, which will be rewarded. This is because the fast is a secret kept between the servant and his Lord. No one knows of it except Allaah, the most High. It is an inward (hidden) action, which cannot be seen by the creation, thus riyaa’ (showing off) cannot enter into it.

3. When the one who fasts meets his Lord, he will be delighted by his fast due to what he will see in it from its abundance, good standing and his reward by having his fast accepted, which Allaah granted him in the first place.

As for his joy at the time when he breaks the fast, then it is due to the completion of the act of worship and its being free from evil and those things that have been forbidden in it. This is from the praiseworthy types of joy since it is a joy that emanates from the obedience to Allaah and the completion of the fast, due to which great reward has been promised. This is as Allaah says: “Say: By the grace and mercy of Allaah, and by that, then rejoice.” [4]

4. The breath coming from the mouth of the one fasting is more pleasant in the sight of Allaah than the scent of musk. This beautiful smell will be for the Day of Judgement for that is the day when the rewards for deeds will be manifested. This is based on one narration of the hadeeth: “…more pleasant in the sight of Allaah on the Day of Judgement…” [5]

Likewise it will be in the life of this world, since that is the time for the manifestation of the signs of worship, due to the report:

“And the scent coming from the mouth of the one fasting when he breaths out from the food (he ate previously) is more pleasant in the sight of Allaah than the smell of musk” [6]

This scent, although disliked by the people who smell it in this world will, however, be more pleasant in smell in the sight of Allaah than the scent of musk. This is because it is something that originates from the obedience to Allaah.

Ibn Hibbaan (rahimahullaah) said: “The sign that will mark the believer on the Day of Judgement is the brightness (of their faces) due to their ablution (wudoo’) in this world, causing a distinction between them and the rest of the nations. And their mark on the Day of Judgement due to their fasting will be pleasant smelling breath, more pleasant in the sight of Allaah than the scent of musk. This is in order that they may be known amidst that group for that deed. We ask Allaah to grant us blessing on that day.” [7]

And from the merits of Ramadaan is that Allaah has distinguished those who fast with a specific door from the doors of Paradise. No one more righteous than them will enter through it. Sahl Ibn Sa’ad (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) reported that the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Verily, there is a door in Paradise, which is known as Ar-Rayyaan. On the Day of Judgement, the ones who fasted will enter in through it, no one other than them will enter in through it. And when they have entered, it will close, so no one will enter through it (after them).” [8]

And in addition to the wording: “And whosoever enters will be given to drink. And whosoever drinks will never feel thirsty again.” [9]

However, these merits will not be attained except by the one who fasts with sincerity by abstaining from food, drink, intercourse, abstaining from hearing the unlawful, looking towards the prohibited and earning from unlawful means. Thus his body limbs must fast and abstain from sinful acts. His tongue must fast and abstain from lying, foul speech and false swearing. This is the legislated fast, the result of which will be great reward. And if this is not so, then the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) has said: “Whosoever does not abandon false speech and acting upon it, then Allaah has no need for him to abandon his food and drink.” [10]

And Abu Hurairah (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Perhaps, all that one who fasts will get from his fast is hunger and thirst. And perhaps all that one who stands at night in prayer will get from his standing is sleeplessness.


Footnotes:

  • [1] Al-Bukhaaree (4/103) and Muslim (1151)
  • [2] Surat-uz-Zumar: 15
  • [3] Tafseer Ibn Katheer (7/80)
  • [4] Surah Yoonus: 85
  • [5] This wording is found in the hadeeth of Muslim (Book of Fasting: 163)
  • [6] Reported by Ibn Hibbaan and Ahmad
  • [7] See Saheeh Ibn Hibbaan (8/211)
  • [8] Al-Bukhaaree (4/111) and Muslim (1152)
  • [9] This increase to the hadeeth is found in the Saheeh of Ibn Khuzaimah (no. 1903)
  • [10] Al-Bukhaaree (10/473)
  • [11] Reported by Ahmad, Ibn Hibbaan and others with an authentic chain of narration

Spreading the Good News of Ramadaan : Abdullaah Ibn Saalih Al-Fawzaan

Author:’Abdullaah Ibn Saalih Al-Fawzaan
Source:Ahaadeeth As-Siyaam: Ahkaam wa Adaab (pg. 13-15)
Translator:isma’eel alarcon (for al-manhaj.com)

Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allaah (Peace be upon him) said: “Ramadaan has come to you – a blessed month. Allaah has made it obligatory on you to fast in it. During this month, the gates of heaven are open, the gates of the Hellfire are closed and the evil devils are chained. To Allaah belongs a night in it, which is better than a thousand months. Whosoever is prevented from its good, then he has been deprived.” [1]

The hadeeth is a glad tiding to the righteous servants of Allaah, of the coming of the blessed month of Ramadaan. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) informed his Companions of its coming and it was not just a simple relaying of news. Rather, his intent was to give them the glad tidings of a magnificent time of the year, so that the righteous people who are quick to do deeds can give it its due estimate. This is because the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) explained in it (the hadeeth) what Allaah has prepared for His servants from the ways towards gaining forgiveness and His contentment – and they are many. So whoever has forgiveness escape him during the month of Ramadaan, then he has been deprived with the utmost deprivation.

From the great favors and bounties that Allaah has bestowed upon His servants is that He has prepared for them meritous occasions so that they may be of profit to those who obey Him and a race for those who rush to compete (for good deeds). These meritous occasions are times for fulfilling hopes by exerting in obedience and uplifting flaws and deficiencies through self-rectification and repentance. There is not a single occasion from these virtuous times, except that Allaah has assigned in it works of obedience, by which one may draw close to Him. And Allaah possesses the most beautiful things as gifts, which He bestows upon whomsoever He wills by His Grace and Mercy.

So the one who achieves true happiness is he who takes advantage of these virtuous months, days and hours and draws closer to His Guardian in them, by doing what is prescribed in them from acts of worship.

Thus perhaps he will be showered with one of the many blessings of those occasions and be helped by it, with an assistance that is enough to save him from the Fire and what it contains, such as its blazing heat. [2]

Being able to reach Ramadaan is itself a magnificent bounty that is bestowed on the one who reaches it and rises to its occasion, by standing in prayer during its night and fasting during its day. In it, he returns to his Protector — from disobeying Him to obeying Him, from neglecting Him to remembering Him, from remaining distant from Him to turning towards Him in submissive repentance.

A Muslim must be conscious of this bounty and acknowledge its magnitude. For indeed, many people are prevented from fasting, either because they die before they reach it, or because they are not capable of observing it or because they oppose and turn away from it. Thus, the one who fasts must give praise to his Lord for this bounty and should welcome this month with joy and delight that a magnificent time of the year out of all the occasions for performing obedience is welcomed. He should exert himself deeply in doing good deeds. And he should invoke Allaah to grant him the ability to fast and stand in night prayer, and that He provide him with seriousness, enthusiasm, strength, and energy in that month. And that He awaken him from heedless oversleeping so that he may take advantage of these virtuous times of good.

It is unfortunate to find that many people do not know the value of this virtuous occasion, nor do they consider it to be sacred. So the month of Ramadaan no longer becomes a significant time for obedience, worship, reciting the Qur’aan, giving in charity and making remembrance of Allaah. Rather, to some people, it becomes a signifcant time to diversify their foods and drinks and to prepare different types of meals before the month begins. Some other people do not know Ramadaan except as a month of sleeplessness and constant recurring gatherings, while sleeping by day. This is to the point that some among them sleep past the time of the obligatory prayers, thus not praying them in congregation or in their proper times. Other people do not know Ramadaan except as a signifcant time for conducting worldly affairs, not as a significant time for conducting affairs for the Hereafter. Thus, they work busily in it, buying and selling, and they stay in the market areas, consequently abandoning the masaajid. And when they do pray with the people, they do so in such a hurried manner. This is because they find their pleasure in the market places. This is the extent that the notions and views (of Ramadaan) have been changed.

Some of the Salaf used to say: “Indeed Allaah, the Most High, has made the month of Ramadaan as a competition for His creatures, in which they may race with one another to His pleasure, by obeying Him. Thus, one group comes first and so they prosper and another group comes last and so they fail.” [3]

Also, the individual does not know if this is perhaps the last Ramadaan he will ever see in his life, if he completes it. How many men, women and children have fasted with us the past year, and yet now they lie buried in the depths of the earth, relying on their good deeds. And they expected to fast many more Ramadaans. Likewise, we too shall all follow their path. Therefore, it is upon the Muslim to rejoice at this magnificent occasion for worship. And he should not renounce it, but instead busy himself with what will benefit him and what will cause its effect to remain. For what else is it, except numbered days, which are fasted in succession and which finish rapidly.

May Allaah make us, as well as you, from among those who are foremost in attaining good deeds.

Footnotes:

1. This hadeeth is reported by Ahmad and An-Nasaa’ee. See Ahmad Shaakir’s checking of the Musnad (no. 7148) and Saheeh at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb of al-Albaanee (1490) as well as Tamaam-ul-Mannah (395)

2. These are the words of Ibn Rajab in Lataa’if-ul-Ma’aarif: pg. 8

3. Lataa’if-ul-Ma’aarif of Ibn Rajab: page 246

The Ruling on a Sick or Traveling Person Fasting : Imaam ibn Al-‘Uthaimeen

Imaam Muhammad bin Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen
Fusool fis-Siyaam wat-Taraaweeh waz-Zakaat [Upcoming E-Book]
Al-Ibaanah.com

Lesson Three: The Ruling on a Sick or Traveling Person Fasting

Allaah, the Most High, says: And whoever amongst you is sick or on a journey, then (he may make up) the same amount of missed days on other days. Allaah wants ease for you and He doesn’t want to make things difficult for you.” [Surah Al-Baqarah: 185]

A sick person falls into two types:

First: Whoever has an illness that is permanent and there is no anticipation of it being cured (near term), like cancer for example, this person is not required to fast. This is because he does not have a condition in which it is expected that he will be able to do it (i.e. the fast). However, for every day missed, he must feed a needy person whether if it is by him gathering the same amount of needy people as the days he missed and feeding all of them at once as Anas bin Maalik (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) used to do when he was old, or it could be by dividing up the food for the needy people according to the days missed and then giving every needy person a quarter of a Prophetic saa’, i.e. what weighs about half a kilo and 10 grams of good wheat. It is better if one serves meat or fat along with it in order to compliment the meal. The same applies to an elderly person that is not able to fast, in that he should feed a needy person for every day missed.

Second: Whoever has a temporary illness that they will recover from, such as a fever and what resembles that. This kind of illness has three scenarios:

1. Fasting will not burden or cause harm to him. Such a sick person is obligated to fast since he has no excuse to abandon it.

2. Fasting will be difficult on him but it won’t cause any harm to him. In this situation it is detested for him to fast because one is actually refraining from using Allaah’s allowance, while at the same time he is burdening himself.

3. Fasting will harm him. In this situation, it is forbidden for him to fast because of the harm that he will be inflicting upon himself. Allaah says: “And do not kill yourselves. Verily Allaah is All-Merciful to you.”

[Surah An-Nisaa: 29]

And He says: “And do not throw yourselves into destruction with your own hands.” [Surah Al-Baqarah: 195]

And in a hadeeth, the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “There is to be no harming (of others) nor harming (of oneself).” Reported by Ibn Maajah and Al-Haakim, and An-Nawawee said: “Its paths of narrations strengthen one another.”

One can find out if fasting will be harmful to a sick person by (1) that person feeling it to be harmful on himself or by (2) him being informed of it by a trustworthy doctor. When a person who falls under this category of being sick breaks his fast, he must make up the number of days he missed when he recovers. But if he dies before he recovers then making up the missed days is no longer binding upon him, since he is only obligated to fast the number of days missed on other days, which he was not able to reach.

A traveler falls into two types:

First: Whoever intends by traveling to cheat his way out of fasting. It is not permissible for such a person to break his fast, since cheating one’s way out of Allaah’s obligations does not remove those obligations from him.

Second: Whoever does not intend the above by traveling. This person may fall into one of the following three situations:

1. Fasting is extremely difficult upon him. In this case, it is forbidden for him to fast since one time “The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was fasting while on the military expedition to conquer Makkah, when news reached him that the people found it difficult to fast and they were looking at him to see what he would do. So he (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) called for a cup of water after ‘Asr and drank from it while the people were looking at him. Later it was said to him: ‘Some people are still fasting.’ So he (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) replied: ‘Those are the disobedient ones. Those are the disobedient ones.’” [Reported by Muslim]

2. Fasting is difficult upon him, but not so severe. In this situation it is detested (makrooh) for him to fast since he is refraining from one of Allaah’s allowances, while putting a burden upon himself.

3. Fasting is not difficult upon him. In this case he may do whatever is easiest on him – whether it is fasting or choosing not to fast. This is based on Allaah’s statement: “Allaah wants ease for you and He doesn’t want to make things difficult for you.” [Surah Al-Baqarah: 185]

The word “want” here takes on the meaning of love (i.e. He loves ease for you). If there is no difference between fasting or not fasting, then fasting is more preferable, because this is what the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) did, as is reported in Saheeh Muslim from Abud-Dardaa (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) who said: “We went out (on a journey) with the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) during Ramadaan under intense heat conditions to the point that each of us would put his hand over his head (to cover it) due to the severe heat (of the sun). And no one would be fasting among us except for the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and ‘Abdullaah bin Rawaaha.”

A traveler is considered to be traveling from the time he leaves his country to the time he returns to it. And if he takes up residency in the land he travels to for a period of time, he is considered to be traveling as long as he holds the intention that he will never reside there after the objective for which he traveled there for in the first place is fulfilled.

So he is entitled to all of the allowances a traveler has even if the length of his residency extends for a long time. This is since the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) did not mention any time limit defining when a travel ends. And the foundation with regard to this issue is that one remains in a traveler’s state and under its rules until there comes a proof that the travel has ended and that its rules fail to apply.

There is no difference in breaking the fast while traveling between a time-constrained travel, such as Hajj, ‘Umrah, visiting a relative, business travel, and so on and between a continuous travel, such as journeys made by car service drivers such as taxis or other larger forms of transportation (i.e. buses). When these drivers exit from their countries, they all enter into the state of travelers and it is permissible for them to do whatever other travelers are permitted to do, such as not fasting during Ramadaan, shortening the four rak’ah prayers into two rak’ahs, and combining the Dhuhr and ‘Asr prayers and Maghrib and ‘Ishaa prayers, when there is a need for it.

Abstaining from the fast is better for them than fasting, if that is easier for them. And they can make up the days missed during the winter. This is because these car service drivers have their own country, which they ascribe to. So when they are in their country, then they are considered residents and whatever applies for or against all other residents also applies for and against them. And when they travel, they are considered travelers and whatever applies in favor or against travelers also applies in favor or against them.

Reading the Qur’aan in Ramadaan : Abdullaah Ibn Saalih Al-Fawzaan

Author:’Abdullaah Ibn Saalih Al-Fawzaan
Source:Ahaadeeth As-Siyaam: Ahkaam wa Adaab (pg.63-65)
Translator:isma’eel alarcon (al-manhaj.com)

Abu Umaamah (radhi Allaahu anhu) reported that the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) said: “Recite the Qur’aan for indeed it will come on the Day of Judgement as an intercessor for its Ashaab (those who read, memorize and implement it).” [1]

This hadeeth indicates the virtues of reciting the Qur’aan, the greatness of its reward and that it will intercede for its holders on the Day of Judgement towards their entrance into Paradise.

An-Nawaas Ibn Sama’aan (radhi Allaahu anhu) reported: “I heard the Messenger of Allaah (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) say: ‘The Qur’aan will be brought on the Day of Judgement as well as the people who used to act upon it. Surat-ul-Baqarah and Aali ‘Imraan will then approach them.’ The Messenger of Allaah (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) likened them to three examples, which I have not forgotten afterwards. He (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) said: ‘As if they were two clouds or two dark black canopies with light between them both or like two flocks of birds stretching their wings in the air pleading for the one who recited them.'” [2]

‘Abdullaah Ibn ‘Amr (radhi Allaahu anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allaah (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) said: “The fast and the Qur’aan will intercede for the servant on the Day of Judgement. The fast will say: ‘My Lord, I restricted him from food and drink, so allow me to intercede for him.’ And the Qur’aan will say: ‘I prevented him from sleeping at night, so allow me to intercede for him.’ So they will be allowed to intercede.” [3]

Therefore, it is essential for the person fasting to recite the Qur’aan much during these blessed days and honorable nights. For indeed, there is a special virtue for the abundance of recitation in these days, which is not found in any other month. He should take advantage of the nobleness of time during this month, in which Allaah revealed the Qur’aan.

There is a special merit to reciting the Qur’aan in the nights of Ramadaan. For indeed, the night brings an end to the busy daily affairs, the enthusiasm is roused and the heart and the tongue mount upon reflecting. And Allaah is the one in whom we seek assistance.

It is reported that Jibreel used to meet with the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) during each night of Ramadaan and they would study the Qur’aan together. [4] So if making thikr (remembrance of Allaah) were better than the Qur’aan or equal to it (on these nights), they would have done that all the time or at certain times along with constantly gathering for that occasion.

Thus, this hadeeth illustrates the precedence of studying the Qur’aan during Ramadaan and gathering together for that occasion as well as turning towards one who is more prominent in the memorization of it.

The predecessors of this ummah would recite the Qur’aan constantly during Ramadaan. And when they would fast, they would sit in the masaajid and say: “We will guard our fast and not backbite anyone.”

They would recite the Qur’aan in their prayer and out of it. ‘Uthmaan (radhi Allaahu anhu) would complete the recitation of the (whole) Qur’aan once a day. And some of the Salaf would complete it during their qiyaam in Ramadaan every three nights. Some of them would do it every seven days and some every ten days.

Ash-Shaafi’ee would complete the Qur’aan sixty times during Ramadaan, while reciting it outside of prayer. Al-Aswad would recite the whole Qur’aan every two nights of Ramadaan. Qataadah would always compete the Qur’aan every seven days. He would do it every three days in Ramadaan, and during the last ten days, he would do it every night. Their reports concerning that are famous.

Al-Haafidh Ibn Rajab (rahimahullaah) said: “The forbiddance of reciting the Qur’aan in less than three days (as stated in a hadeeth) has only been mentioned in regards to its being done on a normal basis. As for the specific times that are virtuous, such as the month of Ramadaan and especially the nights in which the night of Al-Qadr is sought. Or those places that are virtuous, such as Makkah for the one who enters it without residing there, then it is recommended to recite the Qur’aan a lot in these times and places, seeking the merits connected with their time and place. This is the opinion of Ahmad, Abu Ishaaq and other scholars. And the actions of others indicate that as has been stated previously.” [5]

The person reciting the Qur’aan must observe the proper etiquettes of recitation. Some of them are that: He make his intention sincerely for Allaah, that he recite it whilst being in a state of purity, that he use the Siwaak and that he recite it while pondering on its meaning and observing total consciousness. Allaah says:

“A Book, which We have revealed to you in order that its verses may be pondered upon, so that the people of understanding may be reminded.”

Also, from the etiquettes of the recitation is that one does not stop his reciting in order to speak to someone else. Indeed, when many people sit to recite the Qur’aan, and there are people sitting next to them, a majority of the time, they stop their recitation and speak to their neighbors. This is not proper since it is turning away from the recitation without a valid reason.

And it is on the one who recites, to act upon the Qur’aan, making permissible its Halaal and forbidding its Haraam, so that the Qur’aan can be a proof for him on the Day of Judgement and intercede for him in entering the gardens of bliss.

Footnotes:

[1] Saheeh Muslim [2] Reported by Muslim (804) [3] Saheeh Muslim (804) [4] Al-Bukhaaree (1/30) and Muslim (2308) [5] Lataa’if-ul-Ma’aarif: pg. 102-103

Ramadan A Reminder of Unity : Shaykh al-Albanee

By Imam Muhammad Naasir-ud-Deen Al-Albaanee
Source: Silsilatul-Ahaadeeth As-Saheehah (1/442-445)
Translated by Al-Istiqaamah Newsletter [1]
al-manhaj.com

Abu Hurayrah (radhi Allaahu anhu) related that the Prophet sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said:

“Fast when they fast, end the fast when they end theirs, and sacrifice the day that they sacrifice.” [2]

Al-Bayhaqee relates by way of Abu Haneefah, who said: ‘Alee ibn al-Aqmar related to me, from Masrooq, who said: I entered upon ‘Aaishah on the day of ‘Arafah, so she said: “Serve Masrooq with some gruel, and make it more sweet.” Masrooq said: Nothing prevented me from fasting this day except that I feared that it may be the day of Sacrifice. So ‘Aa’ishah said to me: “The day of Sacrifice is when the people sacrifice, and the day of ending the fast is when the people end their fast.” This chain of narration is jayyid (good) due to what has preceded.

Understanding This Hadeeth:

Imaam at-Tirmidhee says after quoting the hadeeth: “One of the people of knowledge has explained this hadeeth by saying: Its meaning is to fast and end the fast along with the Jamaa’ah and the majority of people.”

As-San’aanee said in Sublus-Salaam (2/72): “In this (hadeeth) is a proof that being in agreement with the people is accepted in establishing ‘Eed, and that the individual person who believes that it is the day of ‘Eed – because of the sighting of the moon – then it is obligatory upon him to be in agreement with the people, and that the ruling of the people – concerning the Prayer, breaking the fast, and sacrificing – is binding upon the individual.”

Ibn al-Qayyim (rahimahullaah) mentioned this meaning in Tahdheebus-Sunan (3/214), and said: “It is said: In it a refutation of those who say that whosoever knows the positions of the moon due to astronomical calculations, then it is permissible for him to fast and end the fast, even if others do not know. It is also said: That the individual witness who sees the moon, but the qaadee (judge) has not accepted his testimony, then there is no fasting for him, just as there is no fasting for the people.”

Abul-Hasan as-Sindee said in Haashiyah ‘alaa Ibn Maajah, after mentioning the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah which was related by at-Tirmidhee: “And its apparent meaning is: That there is no room for individual (opinions) to enter into these affairs, nor to act individually in this. Rather, this affair goes back to the Imaam (the Leader of the Muslims) and the Jamaa’ah (united body of Muslims under the Imaam). It is obligatory upon the individuals to follow the Imaam and the Jamaa’ah. From this is that is an individual sights the moon, but the qaadee rejects his witness, then the individual has no right in these matters, but rather he must follow the Jamaa’ah in this.”

And this is the meaning which is evident from the hadeeth, and which is emphasized by the fact that ‘Aa’ishah (radhi Allahu anha) used it with Masrooq when he prevented himself from fasting on the day of ‘Arafah, fearing that it could be the day of Sacrifice. So she explained to him that there is no weight given to his individual opinion in this, and that he should follow the Jamaa’ah. So she said to him: “The day of Sacrifice is when the people sacrifice, and the day of ending the fast is when the people end their fast.”

Unity is One of the Goals of the Sharee’ah

And this is what is befitting for the easy-natured and tolerant Sharee’ah (Prescribed Islaamic Law), one of the goals of which is uniting the people together, unifying their ranks and keeping away from them all that would split their comprehensive unity – from the individual opinions. So the Sharee’ah does not give any weight to the individual opinion in matters concerning ‘ibaadah jamaa’iyyah (collective acts of worship), such as Fasting, ‘Eed and Prayer in congregation – even if the opinion is correct, from one angle. Do you not see that the Sahaabah (the Companions) – radiallaahu ‘anhum – used to pray behind each other. So from them were those who held the view that touching a woman, or the flowing of blood from the body invalidates the wudhoo’ (ablution), along with those who did not hold this view. From them were those who would complete the Prayer whilst traveling, whilst others shortened. Yet these, and other such differences, did not prevent them from collectively praying behind a single Imaam and deeming it to be acceptable. And this is because they knew that tafarruq (splitting-up) in the Religion is more evil than having ikhtilaaf (differences) in some opinions. Indeed, the matter with one of them reached the extent that he would not even deem acceptable any opinion which differed with the great Imaam in the major gatherings; such as the gathering at Minaa (during Hajj), to the extent that he would totally abandon acting upon his opinion in that gathering – fleeing from that which could result from this evil, because of acting according to his own opinion.

Thus, Abu Daawood relates (1/307) that ‘Uthmaan (raa) prayed four rak’ahs at Minaa, so ‘Abdullaah ibn Mas’ood criticized him saying: “I prayed two rak’ahs with the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) and two rak’ahs with Abu Bakr, and two rak’ahs with ‘Umar, and two rak’ahs with ‘Uthmaan in the beginning of his rule, then he completed it (i.e. by praying four rak’ahs). After that the ways became divided with you all. So I hope from these four rak’ahs, that two of them would be accepted.” Then Ibn Mas’ood prayed four rak’ahs. So it was said to him: You criticized ‘Uthmaan, yet you prayed four? So he said: “Differing is evil.”

Its chain of narration is Saheeh (authentic), and something similar to this is related in the Musnad (5/155) of Imaam Ahmad, from Abu Dharr (radhi Allaahu anhu).

So those who continue splitting-up with regards to the Prayer, and who refuse to follow the local Imaams in some mosques – especially in the witr Prayer during Ramadaan – using as proof that this is against their madhhab (school of thought), then they should reflect upon the above mentioned hadeeth and athar (narration). Likewise, those who claim knowledge of astronomy and who, due to their opinion, fast and end their fast alone – preceding or lagging behind the majority of Muslims, not seeing any problem in doing so – should also reflect upon the previously quoted proofs. So all of them should consider, and reflect upon the knowledge that has been mentioned. Perhaps they will find for themselves a cure for their ignorance and self-delusion, so that they may then become a unified rank along with their Muslim brothers – for indeed the Hand of Allaah Subhanahu wa Taa’ala is over the Jamaa’ah.

Footnotes:

[1] Silsilatul-Ahaadeethus-Saheehah (1/442-445), the hadeeth authentications have been abridged and edited.

[2] Saheeh: Related by at-Tirmidhee (2/37). Shaykh al-Albaanee authenticated it in As-Saheehah (no.224)

 

Concerning the Number of Rak’aat of the Taraaweeh Prayer (Q&A) : Imaam ibn Al-‘Uthaimeen

48 Su’aalan fis-Siyaam (binothaimeen.org)
Al-Ibaanah.com

From the recently released Al-Ibaanah Book publication “Lessons on Fasting, Taraaweeh & Zakaat + 48 Questions & Answers on Fasting”

Question 2

Question: Is there a specific number (of rak’aat) for the Night Prayer or not?

Answer: There is no specific number (of rak’aat) that one is obligated to abide by when performing the Night Prayer. So if a person spends the whole night in prayer, there is no harm in this. And if he prays twenty rak’aat or fifty rak’aat, there is nothing wrong with this either. However, the best number (of rak’aat) to pray is that which the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) used to do, which was either eleven or thirteen rak’aat. This is because when the Mother of the Believers, ‘Aa’ishah, was asked about how the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would pray in Ramadaan, she replied:

“He would not exceed eleven rak’aat whether in Ramadaan or out of it.” [1]

However, these rak’aat must be done in the prescribed manner. One must prolong his recitation, bowing, prostrating, standing after bowing, and sitting between prostrations in it. This is contrary to what the people do today – they pray in a rush and prevent the followers from doing what they are required to do in prayer.

An Imaam is a position of leadership. And when someone is a leader, he must do what is best and most fitting (for the people). As for an Imaam not having any concern except to leave early, this is wrong. Rather, a person should do what the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) used to do, such as prolonging his standing, bowing, prostrating and sitting in accordance to what is mentioned in the texts. He should also lengthen his supplication, recitation of the Qur’aan, glorification of Allaah and so on.

Question 3

Question: If a person prays behind an Imaam that performs more than eleven rak’aat, should he follow the Imaam or separate from him after he completes eleven rak’aat?

Answer: The Sunnah is to follow the Imaam since if he leaves before the Imaam finishes praying, he will not achieve the reward of having prayed the entire night. The Messenger of Allaah said:

“Whoever prays with the Imaam until he finishes, it is recorded for him that he prayed the entire night.” [2]

The Prophet said this in order to encourage us to strive to remain with the Imaam until he finishes.

The Companions even followed their Imaam at a time when he went beyond the prescribed limit for a particular prayer. And that was when ‘Uthmaan bin ‘Affaan finished praying four rak’aat at Minaa during Hajj in spite of the fact that the Prophet, Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Uthmaan (himself) – during the first part of his Khilaafah until eight years had passed – used to pray just two rak’aat.

So he prayed four rak’aat and the Companions criticized him for this even though they had followed him and prayed four rak’aat along with him.

Therefore, if this was the guidance of the Companions – which was striving to follow the Imaam until he finished – then what is wrong with some people who when they see the Imaam going beyond the number of rak’aat that the Prophet used to pray at night, i.e. eleven, they get up to leave in the middle of prayer? And we have even witnessed some people in Al-Masjid-ul-Haraam leaving before the Imaam finishes with the excuse that only eleven rak’aat are legislated in the Religion!

Question 36

Question: What is the ruling on the Taraaweeh Prayer and what is the Sunnah with regard to its number of rak’aat?

Answer: The Taraaweeh Prayer is a Sunnah (recommended act) that the Messenger of Allaah prescribed for his ummah. He (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) led his Companions in prayer three nights then left it off for fear that it would be made obligatory on them. So the Muslims remained in this state (of not praying in congregation) afterward during the rule of Abu Bakr and the start of ‘Umar’s Khilaafah. After this, the Commander of the Believers, ‘Umar, gathered them under Tameem Ad-Daaree and Ubay bin Ka’ab. So thereafter they began to pray (Taraaweeh) in congregation up until this time of ours, all praise be to Allaah. It is recommended to do it in Ramadaan.

As for the number of rak’aat to be prayed in it, then it is either eleven or thirteen. This is the Sunnah with regard to the Night Prayer. However, if one goes beyond this number, there is no harm or wrong in this since there were numerous accounts reported on the Salaf (Predecessors) stating that they would vary in the number of rak’aat – either going over or below this number. And they would not rebuke one another for this. So whoever exceeds the prescribed number should not be rebuked. And whoever limits his prayer to the number mentioned in the texts, this is better.

The Sunnah indicates that there is no harm in exceeding the prescribed number since it has been reported in (Saheeh) Al-Bukhaaree and other Collections from the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Umar t that a man once asked the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) about the Night Prayer, so he responded:

“It is two (rak’aat) by two (rak’aat). Then if one of you fears that the morning (will come upon him), he should pray one (rak’ah), thus making odd (witr) what he prayed.” [3]

The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) did not define a specific number to which one can restrict his prayer. Regardless, what is important with regard to the Taraaweeh Prayer is that one must be submissive, attentive and at ease when bowing, prostrating and getting up from these two positions. And he should not do as some people do by rushing through the prayer in a hurried manner, which prevents those praying (behind him) from doing the recommended acts, not to mention the obligatory acts in prayer, simply because he desires to be the first one out of the masjid so that the large gatherings of people could notice him. This contradicts what is legislated in the Religion.

What is obligatory upon the Imaam is that he fears Allaah with regard to those praying behind him and not prolong the prayer to the point that it burdens his followers and is not in accordance with the Sunnah. He must also not shorten the prayer to the point that those behind him are not able to do what they are obligated or recommended to do while in prayer.

This is why some scholars have stated: “It is disliked for the Imaam to rush through the prayer in such a manner that prevents the one following from doing what is prescribed (in the prayer).”

So if this is the case, then what about those who rush through the prayer in such a manner that prevents the one following from doing what is obligatory (in the prayer)?! This type of rushing is prohibited for the Imaam. We ask Allaah to keep us and our brothers firm and safe.

Question 37

Question: What is the ruling on combining all of the Taraaweeh Prayer or some of it with the Witr in one tasleem?

Answer: Doing such an act invalidates the prayer since the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:

“The Night Prayer is two (units) by two (units).”

So if he combines all of the rak’aat under one tasleem it will not be two by two. And by doing this he will have opposed the command of Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) when he said:

“Whoever does a deed that is not in accordance with our Command (i.e. Sunnah), it is rejected.” [4]

Imaam Ahmad, may Allaah have mercy on him, stated: “Whoever rises for the third rak’ah in the Night Prayer (i.e. without making tasleem), it is as if he has risen up to make a third rak’ah when praying Fajr.”

Meaning: If he continues to stand up after he remembers, his prayer becomes invalidated, as in the case of the Fajr Prayer. So based on this, if he gets up for the third rak’ah during the Night Prayer out of forgetfulness and then remembers, he should go back (to the sitting position) and make tashahhud. Then he should make the two prostrations of forgetfulness after the tasleem. If he does not do this, his prayer is invalid.

There is an issue I would like to discuss here, which is the understanding that some people derive from the hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah when she was asked about how the Prophet would perform the Night Prayer during Ramadaan. She replied:

“He would not exceed eleven rak’aat (for the Night Prayer) whether in Ramadaan or out of it. He would pray four rak’aat, but do not ask about how fine or long they were. Then he would pray another four rak’aat, but do not ask about how fine or long they were. Then he would pray three rak’aat.”

Some people think that based on this, he (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would pray the first four rak’aat with one tasleem, the second set of four rak’aat with one tasleem and the last three rak’aat with one tasleem.

However, even though this hadeeth may imply this meaning, it is also possible that it means that he (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) prayed four rak’aat with two tasleems then sat to rest and regain his energy. Then he prayed four more rak’aat in a similar manner (i.e. with two tasleems). This possible meaning, i.e. that he prayed two rak’aat by two rak’aat, seems more correct. However, he (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would sit after the first four rak’aat to rest and recoup his energy. And likewise with the second set of four rak’aat, he (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would pray them two by two, then sit (again).

What supports this conclusion is the Prophet’s (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) saying: “The Night Prayer is two by two.”

Therefore this conclusion combines both his (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) action as well as his (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) statement. Even though we can derive from the wording that the hadeeth possibly means he would pray these four rak’aat with one tasleem, it is outweighed by the hadeeth we mentioned above, which is that the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “The Night Prayer is two by two.”

If a person wishes to make Witr with three rak’aat, there are two ways of accomplishing this:

1. The first is that he makes the tasleem after the first two rak’aat then prays the third.

2. The second is that he prays all three together with just one tashahhud and one tasleem.

Footnotes:

[1] Reported by Al-Bukhaaree (no. 1147) and Muslim (no. 1670)

[2] Reported by Abu Dawood (no. 1375) and At-Tirmidhee (no. 1806) and authenticated by Al-Albaanee.

[3] Reported by Al-Bukhaaree (no. 990) and Muslim (no. 1695)

[4] Reported by Muslim (no. 4514)

Published on: September 22, 2006

Exerting Oneself During the Last Ten Days of Ramadaan : Abdullaah Ibn Saalih Al-Fawzaan

Author:’Abdullaah Ibn Saalih Al-Fawzaan
Source:Ahaadeeth As-Siyaam: Ahkaam wa Adaab (pg. 133-135)
Translator:isma’eel alarcon (for al-manhaj.com)

‘Aa’ishah (raa) said: “When the last ten days (of Ramadaan) would come, the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) would spend his night in worship, wake his family (at night), exert himself and tighten his Izaar (waistcloth).” [1]This hadeeth is proof that the last ten days of Ramadaan have a special virtue over any other (set of days), in which one should increase in obedience and acts of worship, such as prayer, making dhikr (remembrance) and reciting the Qur’aan.

‘Aa’ishah (raa) has described our Prophet and role model, Muhammad (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam), with four attributes:

1. He (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) would “spend his night in worship”, meaning he would not sleep during it. Thus, he (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) would remain awake throughout it in worship and he would liven his soul by spending the night in sleeplessness. This is since sleep is the brother of death. The meaning of “spend his night” is that he (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) would spend all of it in the state of qiyaam (night prayer) and performing acts of worship that are done for the sake of Allaah, Lord of the worlds. We must remember that the last ten days of Ramadaan are fixed and numbered.

As for what has been reported concerning the forbiddance of spending the entire night in prayer, which has been mentioned in the hadeeth of ‘Abdullaah Ibn ‘Amr (raa), then it is in regards to someone who does that consistently throughout every night of the year.

2. He (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) would “wake up his family” meaning his (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) pure wives, the Mothers of the Believers, so that they may take part in the profiting of good, the dhikr (remembrance) and the acts of worship during these blessed times.

3. He (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) would “exert himself”, meaning he (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) would persevere and struggle in worship, adding more to his deeds than what he had done in the first twenty days (of Ramadaan). He only did this because the night of Al-Qadr occurs during one of these (last ten) days.

4. He (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) would “tighten his Izaar (waistcloth)” meaning he would exert himself and struggle intensely in worship. It is also said that it means he (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) would withdraw from women. This seems to be more correct since it inclines with what was mentioned previously and with the hadeeth of Anas (raa): “He (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) would rollup his bed and withdraw from women (i.e. his wives).” [2]

Also, he (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) would observe ‘Itikaaf in the last ten days of Ramadaan and the person who is in the state of ‘Itikaaf is restricted from interacting (sexually) with women.

So, O Muslim brother, strive to characterize yourself with these attributes. And guard the prayer you make in the depths of the night (tahajjud) with the Imaam in addition to the Taraaweeh prayer (which is prayed in the early parts of the night), so that your exertion in these last ten days may go beyond that of the first twenty. And so that you may achieve the attribute of “spending the night in worship” by praying.

And you must be patient in your obedience to Allaah, for indeed, the tahajjud (night) prayer is difficult, but its reward is great. By Allaah, it is a great opportunity in ones life and a profitable thing to take advantage of, for the one whom Allaah grants it to. And a person does not know if perhaps he will encounter one of Allaah’s many rewards during the night prayer, thus serving as assistance for him in this world and in the Hereafter.

The righteous predecessors of this ummah would lengthen the prayer at night, exerting themselves. As-Saa’ib Ibn Yazeed said: “‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab ordered Ubay Bin Ka’ab and Tameem Ad-Daaree to lead the people in prayer with eleven raka’aat. The reciter would recite one hundred verses, to the point that we had to lean upon wooden staffs due to the long standing. And we would not stop until the early parts of Fajr.” [3]

‘Abdullaah Ibn Abee Bakr reported: “I heard my father (i.e. Abu Bakr) say: ‘During Ramadaan, we would finish (the night prayer) late and we would hurry the servants to present the food (of suhoor) for fear that Fajr (morning) would come upon us.” [4]

There are two struggles of the soul that the believer faces during Ramadaan: the struggle by day with fasting and the struggle by night with qiyaam (night prayer). So whosoever combines these two and fulfills their rights, then he is amongst the patient — those who will “be given their reward in full without any reckoning.” [5]

These ten days are the last part of the month and a person’s actions are based on his last ones. So perhaps, he will encounter the night of Al-Qadr, while standing in prayer for Allaah and thus have all his past sins forgiven.

And one must incite, animate and persuade his family to perform acts of worship, especially in these great times in which no one neglects it except that he has been deprived. What is more incredible than this is that while the people are performing prayer and making tahajjud, some individuals spend their time in forbidden gatherings and sinful events. This is indeed the greatest loss. We ask Allaah for his protection.

Therefore, embarking on these last days means entering into the profiting from righteous deeds in what remains of the month. From the unfortunate matters is to see that some people excel in righteous actions, such as prayer and recitation of the Qur’aan, in the first part of the month, but then signs of fatigue and weariness begin to show on them afterwards, especially when the last ten days of Ramadaan come in. And this is in spite of these last ten days possessing a greater standing than the first ones. Thus, one must persevere in striving and struggling and increase his worship when the end of the month draws near. And we must keep in mind that a person’s actions are based on his last ones.


Footnotes:

[1] Al-Bukhaaree (4/269) and Muslim (1174)

[2] See Lataa’if-ul-Ma’aarif: pg. 219

[3] See Al-Muwatta (Eng. Dar El-Fiker): vol. 1, pg 154

[4] Also in the Muwatta of Imaam Maalik: vol. 1, pg. 156

[5] Surat-uz-Zumar: 15

Concerning ‘Itikaaf : Shaykh al-Albanee

Author:Imaam Muhammad Naasir-ud-Deen Al-Albaanee
Source:Qiyaam Ramadaan (pg. 34-41)
Translator:Al-Manhaj.Com Staff

It’s Prescription:

1. ‘Itikaaf (secluding oneself in the masjid) is a recommended act in Ramadaan as well as any other day in the year. The source for that is found in Allaah’s saying: “…while you are making ‘Itikaaf in the masaajid.” And there are also many authentic ahaadeeth about the Prophet’s (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) ‘Itikaaf and narrations from the Salaf about it also. They are mentioned in the Musannafs of Ibn Abee Shaybah and ‘Abdur-Razzaaq.

It is authentically reported that the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) made ‘Itikaaf in the last ten days of Shawaal,[1] and that ‘Umar (raa) said to the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam): “I made an oath (to Allaah) in the Days of Ignorance that I would make ‘Itikaaf for one night in the Masjid Al-Haraam, (should I do it)?” The Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) responded: “Fulfill your oath.” So he made ‘Itikaaf for one night. [2]

2. Observing it in Ramadaan is established in the hadeeth of Abu Hurairah (raa): “Allaah’s Messenger (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) would make ‘Itikaaf for ten days in every Ramadaan. But when it was the year in which he died, he made ‘Itikaaf for twenty days.” [3]

3. The best time to do it is in the last part of Ramadaan because the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) would make ‘Itikaaf during the last ten days of Ramadaan until Allaah took his soul (in death). [4]

It’s Conditions:

1. It’s observance is not legislated except in the masaajid, based on Allaah’s saying: “And do not have intercourse with them (your wives) while you are making ‘Itikaaf in the masaajid.” [5] And ‘Aa’ishah (raa) said: “The Sunnah for the one doing ‘Itikaaf is that he should not go out (of the masjid) except for some need that he must fulfill. He should not witness a funeral, nor should he touch his wife, or have intercourse with her. And there is no ‘Itikaaf except in a masjid that establishes the Jamaa’ah (congregational prayer). And the Sunnah for the one doing ‘Itikaaf is that he should be fasting (on the day he makes ‘Itikaaf).” [6]

2. The masjid should also hold the Jumu’ah prayers so that he is not forced to leave the masjid to pray the Jumu’ah prayer. This is because going out for it is an obligation, based on ‘Aa’ishah’s saying in one of the narrations from the previous hadeeth: “…and there is no ‘Itikaaf except in a masjid that holds the Jumu’ah prayer.” [7]

Furthermore, I came upon an authentic hadeeth that clearly specifies the “masaajid” mentioned in the previous ayah to mean the three masaajid: Masjid Al-Haraam, Masjid An-Nabawee and Masjid Al-Aqsaa. The hadeeth is: “There is no ‘Itikaaf except in the three masaajid.” [8]

According to what I came across, those among the Salaf who held this opinion were Hudhayfah Ibn Al-Yamaan, Sa’eed Ibn Al-Musayyib and ‘Ataa. However, he (‘Ataa) did not mention Masjid Al-Aqsaa. Others held the opinion that it was any congregating masjid (in which the Jumu’ah prayer is held), without restriction. And yet others disagreed saying it can even be done in the masjid of one’s home. And there is no doubt that adhering to what complies with the hadeeth about it is what deserves to be followed. And Allaah, Glorified and Exalted, knows best.

3. It is from the Sunnah for the one making ‘Itikaaf to observe fasting, as has been stated by ‘Aa’ishah (raa). [9]

What is permissible for the person making ‘Itikaaf:

1. It is permissible for him to leave the masjid in order to fulfill a need. It is also permissible for him to stick his head out of the masjid to have it washed and combed. ‘Aa’ishah (raa) said: “The Messenger of Allaah (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) entered his head in my presence while he was making ‘Itikaaf in the masjid, and I was in my apartment. So I would comb his hair, [and in one narration: I would wash it, even though there was the threshold between me and him, and I would be menstruating], and he (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) would not enter the house unless he had a [human] need, while making ‘Itikaaf.” [10]

2. It is permissible for the one making ‘Itikaaf and others to make wudoo (ablution) in the masjid, based on the saying of a man who would serve the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam): “The Prophet would make a light wudoo (ablution) in the masjid.” [11]

3. He may set up a small tent in the back of the masjid in which to make ‘Itikaaf. This is since ‘Aa’ishah (raa) would set up a khibaa [12] (tent) for the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) when he would make ‘Itikaaf. And this was from his (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) command. [13]

And one time he made ‘Itikaaf in a small tent that had a mat covering its doorway. [14]

The Allowance of a woman to make ‘Itikaaf and visit her husband (who is making ‘Itikaaf) in the masjid:

4. It is permissible for a woman to visit her husband while he is making ‘Itikaaf. And he may walk with her to bid her farewell up to the door of the masjid, based on the saying of Safiyyah (raa):

“The Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) was making ‘Itikaaf in the masjid during the last ten days of Ramadaan, so I went to visit him one night, and his wives were with him. So I spoke to him for an hour, then I got up to leave and he said: ‘Don’t rush, I’ll go out with you.’ So he got up with me to escort me out.” And her dwelling used to be in the home of Usaamah Ibn Zayd. Then they walked until they reached the door of the masjid, which was by the door of Umm Salamah. Then two men from the Ansaar passed by and when they saw the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam), they rushed away. So the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) said: ‘Slow down! This is (my wife) Safiyyah Bint Huyai’ So they said: ‘SubhaanAllaah, O Messenger of Allaah.’ He (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) said: ‘Verily, the Devil flows through the human like the flowing of blood. And I feared lest he put some evil into your hearts.'” [Or he (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) said: “something into your hearts.”] [15]

In fact it is even permissible for a woman to make ‘Itikaaf along with her husband in the masjid or by herself, based on the statement of ‘Aa’ishah (raa): “One of the wives of Allaah’s Messenger (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) made ‘Itikaaf with him while she was in the state of Istihaada (bleeding between periods) [in another narration it states she is Umm Salamah] and she would see red (blood) or yellowish traces (come out of her). And sometimes we put a tray beneath her when she offered the prayer.” [16]

And she also said: “The Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) would observe ‘Itikaaf during the last ten days of Ramadaan, until he died. Then his wives observed ‘Itikaaf after him.” [17]

There is proof in this that it is permissible for the women to make ‘Itikaaf also. And there is no doubt that this is on the condition that their guardians grant them permission to do that. And it is also on the condition that the place is free from any fitnah and intermingling with men, based on the many evidences for that and also on the Fiqh principle: “Preventing an evil takes precedence over bringing about a good.”

5. Having sexual intercourse nullifies one’s ‘Itikaaf, based on Allaah’s saying: “And do not have sexual relations with them (your wives) while you are making ‘Itikaaf in the masaajid.”

And Ibn ‘Abbaas (raa) said: “If the person making ‘Itikaaf has sexual relations then he nullifies his ‘Itikaaf and must start it over again.” [18] There is no recompense (kaffaarah) that is binding upon him due to a lack of anything being mentioned about that by the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) and his Companions.


Footnotes:

[1] This is a portion of a hadeeth from ‘Aa’ishah reported by Al-Bukharee, Muslim and Ibn Khuzaimah in their Saheeh collections. I have referenced it in Saheeh Sunan Abee Dawood (2127)

[2] Reported by Al-Bukharee, Muslim and Ibn Khuzaimah. The extra addition is from Al-Bukhaaree in one narration as is stated in my abridgment to it (995). And it is referenced in Saheeh Sunan Abee Dawood (2136-2137) also.

[3] Reported by Al-Bukhaaree and Ibn Khuzaimah in their Saheeh collections and it is referenced in the previously mentioned source (2126-2130)

[4] Reported by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim and Ibn Khuzaimah (2223) and it is referenced in Al-Irwaa (966) and Saheeh Abee Dawood (2125)

[5] Surat-ul-Baqarah: 187. Imaam Al-Bukhaaree used this ayah as evidence for hat we have stated above. Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajr said: “The point of evidence found in this ayah is that if it were correct to do ‘Itikaaf in someplace other than a masjid, the forbiddance of having sexual relations would not be specifically mentioned, because sexual intercourse is forbidden during ‘Itikaaf according to the consensus of the scholars. So it is understood through the mentioning of “masaajid” that the meaning is that ‘Itikaaf is not correct except in it the masaajid.

[6] Reported by Al-Baihaqee with an authentic chain, and Abu Dawood with a sound chain. The following narration from ‘Aa’ishah RAA is also form Abu Dawood, and it is referenced in Saheeh Aee Dawood (2135) and Al-Irwaa (966)

[7] Al-Bayhaqee reported on Ibn ‘Abbaas that he said: “Verily, the most hated of things to Allaah are the innovations. And verily from the innovations is making ‘Itikaaf in the masaajid that are located in the houses.”

[8] Reported by At-Tahaawee and Al-Isma’eelee and Al-Baihaqee with an authentic chain of narration on Hudhaifah Ibn Al-Yamaan RAA. And it is referenced in As-Saheehah (no. 2786) along with the narrations from the Sahaabah that comply with it, and all of them are authentic.

[9] Reported by Al-Baihaqee with an authentic chain of narration and Abu Dawood with a sound chain of narration. Imaam Ibn Al-Qayyim said in Zaad Al-Ma’aad: “It is not reported on the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) that he made ‘Itikaaf while not fasting. Rather, ‘Aa’ishah (raa) said: ‘There is no ‘Itikaaf except with fasting.’ And furthermore, Allaah did not mention ‘Itikaaf except with the fast. And the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) did not do it unless he was fasting. So the correct opinion is in the evidence, which the majority of the scholars adhere to: that fasting is a condition for ‘Itikaaf. And this is the opinion that Shaikh-ul-Islaam Abul-‘Abbaas Ibn Tamiyyah favored.” And he adds to this that it is not legislated in the Religion that one who goes out to the masjid for prayer or other than that is supposed to make an intention for the amount of time he will spend in ‘Itikaaf. This is what Shaikh-ul-Islaam clarified in his Ikhtiyaaraat.

[10] Reported by Al-Bukhaaree, Muslim, Ibn Abee Shaybah, and Ahmad, and the first addition belongs to these last two (mentioned). It is referenced in Saheeh Abee Dawood (2131-2132)

[11] Reported by Al-Bayhaqee with a good chain and Ahmad (5/364) in abridged form with an authentic chain of narration.

[12] A khibaa is one type of house of the Arabs made from fur or wool, and it is not from hair. And it is set up on two or three props. See An-Nihaayah.

[13] Reported by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim from the hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah. Her doing it is stated in the report of Al-Bukhaaree and his commanding it is stated in the report of Muslim.

[14] It is part of a hadeeth narrated by Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudree, reported by Muslim and Ibn Khuzaimah in their Saheehs. It is referenced in Saheeh Abee Dawood (1251)

[15] Reported by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim and also Abu Dawood, and the last part of it is form him (Abu Dawood). And I referenced it in Saheeh Sunan Abee Dawood (2133 & 2134).

[16] Reported by Al-Bukhaaree and it is referenced in Saheeh Sunan Abee Dawood (2138). The other narration is from Sa’eed Ibn Mansoor, as is I stated in Fath-ul-Baaree (4/281). However, Ad-Daarimee (1/22) says that she is Zaynab, and Allaah knows best.

[17] Reported by Al-Bukhaaree, Muslim and others.

[18] Reported by Ibn Abee Shaybah (3/92) and ‘Abdur-Razaaq (4/363) with an authentic chain of narration. And what is meant by his saying: “must start it over” is that he must redo his ‘Itikaaf.

Advice for those Fasting in Ramadaan (Q&A) – Shaykh ibn Al-‘Uthaimeen

Imaam Muhammad bin Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen
48 Su’aalan fis-Siyaam (binothaimeen.org)
Al-Ibaanah.com

Selected excerpts from the recently released Al-Ibaanah Book publication “Lessons on Fasting, Taraaweeh & Zakaat + 48 Questions & Answers on Fasting”

Question 5

Question: For many people in Ramadaan, their main focus is only that of basking in food and sleep. So Ramadaan becomes a month of laziness and inactivity. Likewise, some people play all night and then sleep during day. What is your advice to these kinds of people?

Answer: I believe that this in reality consists of a waste of time and a waste of money. If people do not have any other objective than to vary their meals, sleep during the day and spend the night doing things that are of no benefit to them, then this is without doubt a waste of a valuable opportunity, which may not repeat itself again for some people in their lifetimes.

Therefore, the determined one is he who goes through Ramadaan the way it should it be done, which is sleeping in the first part of the night, performing the Taraaweeh Prayer, and then standing in prayer during the last part of the night if one is able to. And one should not go to extremes in eating and drinking.

Those who have the ability should strive to feed those who are fasting (when its time to break the fast) either in the masaajid or in other places. This is since whoever feeds a fasting person, he will receive the same reward as the one fasting. So if a person feeds his brothers who are fasting, he will receive the same reward as them. Therefore, those whom Allaah has granted wealth should taken advantage of this opportunity to obtain a great reward.

Question 14

Question: What is the ruling on fasting in Ramadaan when one does not pray?

Answer: The one who fasts but does not pray, his fasting is of no use to him, nor will it be accepted from him, nor will it free him from his indebtedness (of prayer). In fact, fasting is not required on him so long as he does not pray.

This is since one who does not pray is like a Jew and a Christian. So what do you think about a Jew or a Christian that fasts but yet remains upon his religion – is it accepted from him? No. Therefore, we say to this individual: “Repent to Allaah by praying, and (then) fast.” And whoever turns to Allaah in repentance, Allaah will accept his repentance.

Question 23

Question: Should children below the age of fifteen be ordered to fast as in the case with prayer?

Answer: Yes, children who have not yet reached the age of puberty should be ordered to fast if they are able to do it. This is what the Companions would do with their children.

The scholars have stated that a guardian should order whichever youth he possesses guardianship over to fast so that they could practice it and become attached to it, and so that the foundations of Islaam could become instilled in their souls to the point that it becomes like second-nature to them.

However, they are not required to fast if doing so will be difficult on them or bring harm to them. I would like to point out here an issue that some fathers or mothers do, and that is preventing their children from fasting, in direct opposition to what the Companions used to do.

They claim that they are preventing their children from fasting out of mercy and compassion for them. But the reality is that mercy for one’s children is in ordering them to practice the rites of Islaam and to grow accustomed and attached to them. This without a doubt is from the best and most complete forms of raising and cultivating one’s children.

It is authentically reported that the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:

“Verily a man is a guardian for the members of his household and he will be questioned as to his flock.” [1]

That which is required for guardians with respect to those whom Allaah has given them authority over, such as family members and youth, is that they fear Allaah with regard to them and order them with what they were commanded to order them, such as implementing the rites of Islaam.

Question 27

Question: What is your opinion concerning people who sleep throughout the day in Ramadaan? Some of them pray in congregation while others do not. Is their fast valid?

Answer: The fast of these types of people is valid and they have fulfilled their responsibility. However, it is very deficient and in opposition to what Allaah’s objective is behind fasting. Allaah says:

“O you who believe. Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you in order that you may gain Taqwaa (fear and dutifulness to Allaah).” [Surah Al-Baqarah: 183]

And the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:

“Whoever does not abandon false speech, acting upon that (falsehood) and ignorance, then Allaah has no need of him abandoning his food and drink.”

It is well known that missing the prayer and not showing any concern for it is not from Taqwaa (dutifulness to Allaah) nor is it from abandoning acting on falsehood. So it contradicts what Allaah and His Messenger intended by the obligation of fasting.

It is strange that these people sleep the entire day and then spend the whole night awake. Perhaps they may even spend the night engaged in vain pastimes that have no benefit or in doing something unlawful by which they would be acquiring sin.

So my advice to these individuals and their likes is that they fear Allaah and ask Him to help them observe the fast in the manner that He is pleased with, which is spending the fast engrossed in dhikr (remembrance) of Allaah, recitation of the Qur’aan, praying and showing kindness to the creation as well as doing other things mandated in the Religion.

The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was the most generous of people, and the most generous that he would be was in the month of Ramadaan when Jibreel would meet him and teach him the Qur’aan. So during this time, the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would be more generous in spreading good than a pleasant breeze. [2]

Footnotes:

[1] Reported by Al-Bukhaaree (no. 2409) and Muslim (no. 1829)
[2] Reported by Al-Bukhaaree (no. 1902) and Muslim (no. 2308)

Published on: September 22, 2006

Your Flesh and Blood : The Rights of Children : Shaikh Muhammad Baazmool

Shaikh Muhammad ‘Umar Baazmool
Al-Ibaanah Book Publishing
Al-Ibaanah.com

About the Book:

This book is a complete translation of the concise booklet “Fildhaat-ul-Akbaad Huqooq-ul-Awlaad” (Your Flesh and Blood: A Lecture on the Rights of Children). The source used for the translation was the 2006 Daar-ul-Istiqaamah Edition. The origin of this publication in the Arabic language was a lecture the Shaikh gave which was then transcribed and published in book format. All quotes and narrations are referenced in the original publication.

Although small in size, this booklet presents the readers with a valuable discussion on some of the rights and privileges of children, which parents are obligated to fulfill. Indeed, it is not only the children who will be asked concerning their behavior towards their parents on the Day of Judgement but also the parents will be asked concerning their children and how they raised them. Therefore, we must know the rights of our children and strive to fulfill our duties towards them so that they in turn may serve as righteous deeds for us and benefit us after we die.

Shaikh Muhammad Baazmool is one of the well known people of knowledge in Saudi Arabia. Currently, he serves as a member of the teachers’ committee in the College of Da’wah and Usool-ud-Deen at Umm-ul-Qurraa University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. He has authored numerous books and given many lectures, some of which have been transcribed, as is the case with this booklet.

Excerpts from the Book:

“Allaah has given importance to the caring and maintaining of our flesh and blood since their inception – from the time that a Muslim thinks about getting married. The Messenger ordered every youth to strive towards marriage on the condition that he can accommodate a wife, i.e. he has the ability to fulfill the responsibilities of marriage and the obligations of marital life.”

“Thereafter, he (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) ordered us to choose a righteous wife. This is since the Messenger informed us of the effect that a person’s immediate family has over him in the narration reported by Abu Salamah bin ‘Abdir-Rahmaan who related from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: ‘There is no child except that he is born upon true faith (Fitrah), but it is his parents that make him a Jew or a Christian or a Zoroastrian. Just as an animal gives birth to a baby animal that is whole, do you find it mutilated?’ Then Abu Hurairah recited: ‘…the Fitrah of Allaah which He created mankind upon.’ [Surah Ar-Room: 30]”

“The Messenger of Allaah has instructed us how to expiate this fitnah. Hudhaifah reported: ‘We were sitting one day with ‘Umar when he asked us: ‘Which one of you memorized the words of Allaah’s Messenger concerning trials?’ I replied: ‘I did, just as he said it.’ He said: ‘You are quick to respond!!’ I said: ‘A man’s trials with regard to his family, his wealth, his children and his neighbor are expiated by prayer, fasting, charity, and commanding (good) and forbidding (evil).’

“A Muslim may work and comply with all of the things (we just mentioned) and ask Allaah for success and assistance. However, what occurs may be something other than what you intended. So you must know that this is part of Allaah’s Divine Decree which He has allowed to occur. Just look at the son of the messenger of Allaah, Nooh, and at how he wasn’t righteous. And look at the wife of Loot who also wasn’t righteous, as well as the wife of Nooh, even though they were married to prophets of Allaah. Allaah says: ‘And Nooh called upon his Lord and said: ‘O my Lord, verily my son is of my family! And certainly Your promise is true, and You are the most just of judges. He said: ‘O Nooh! Surely, he is not of your family. Verily, it is an act that is dishonorable. So do not ask Me about that of which you have no knowledge. I admonish you lest you should be one of the ignorant.’ Nooh said: ‘O my Lord! I seek refuge in you from asking You about that which I have no knowledge of. And unless You forgive me and have mercy on me, I would indeed be one of the losers.’ [Surah Hood: 45-47]”

Download PDF :  Your Flesh and Blood – The Rights of Children

The following articles are extracted from the above eBook: 

 

The Duties and Tasks of the Angels : Shaikh Saalih Al-Fawzaan

His booklet: “Al-Eemaan bil-Malaa’ikah
Al-Ibaanah.com

The angels have duties. Each of them has a duty that he is entrusted with, and he does not delay in carrying it out. Rather, he executes it acting on Allaah’s order and He doesn’t disobey Him. Allaah says: “(Hell) Over which are angels stern and severe who do not disobey the Commands they receive from Allaah, but do that which they are commanded.” [Surah At-Tahreem: 6]

Some of their Duties:
First: Those who take charge of the Hellfire. They are known as the Guardians of Hell, meaning, those entrusted with the Hellfire and with tormenting its inhabitants.

Second: Among them are angels that are entrusted with carrying the Throne of Allaah, as He says: “Those who carry the Throne (of Allaah) and those around it glorify the praises of their Lord and believe in Him. And they ask forgiveness for those who believe, (saying): ‘Our Lord! You encompass all things in mercy and knowledge, so forgive those who repent.’” [Surah Ghaafir: 7]

And Allaah says: “And bearing the Throne of your Lord on that Day will be eight (angels).” [Surah Al-Haaqah: 17]

The Number of Angels who will Bear the Throne:
The angels that will carry the Throne are four. Then on the Day of Judgement their number will increase to eight. The Throne of Allaah is the greatest of His creations, which will be carried on the Day of Judgement by eight angels. This shows that they are indeed mighty, since they will carry this magnificent Throne, which is the greatest and mightiest of Allaah’s creations. This indicates their power and their tremendous composures.

Third: Among them are those angels entrusted with revelation. Allaah says: “He sends down the angels with the Rooh (spirit/revelation) from His Command to whomever He wills from His servants, (saying): ‘Warn mankind that there is no deity that has the right to be worshipped except Me, so be dutiful to Me.’” [Surah An-Nahl: 2]

The word Rooh (spirit) here means revelation. It is called Rooh because it is the revelation that brings life to the hearts, just as the rain brings life to the earth. In the same sense, it is the created Rooh (spirit) that brings life to the bodies of animals.

Rooh can also stand for the Qur’aan, as Allaah says: “And thus We have revealed to you (O Muhammad) a Rooh (i.e. Qur’aan) from Our Command.” [Surah Ash-Shooraa: 52]

Rooh here stands for the Qur’aan, since it is that which brings life to the hearts of the believers, just as the earth is brought to life by rain. Such is the case with the hearts of the believers – they are brought to life by way of the Qur’aan.

The word Rooh is also used to refer to Jibreel, who is the greatest, most honorable and virtuous of all the angels. He is the one who brought the Qur’aan down from Allaah to Muhammad, as Allaah says: “The trustworthy spirit (Jibreel) brought it (i.e. the Qur’aan) down – to your heart (O Muhammad) in order that you may be from the warners – in a plain Arabic language.” [Surah Ash-Shu’araa: 193-195]

So Jibreel brought the Qur’aan down to the heart of the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), and he in turn conveyed it to his ummah. In another ayah, Allaah says: “Say: The holy spirit (Jibreel) brought it down from your Lord.” [Surah An-Nahl: 102]

This is referring to the angel Jibreel – he is the holy spirit.

The Attributes of Jibreel:
Allaah has described Jibreel with great characteristics, as He says: “So verily, I swear by the planets that recede (disappear during the day and appear at night). And by the planets that move swiftly and hide themselves. And by the night as it departs. And by the dawn as it brightens. Verily, this is the Word (brought by) an honorable messenger (i.e. angel) – Possessing power and a high rank with the Lord of the Throne. Obeyed (by the angels), trustworthy there (in the heavens).” [Surah At-Takweer: 15-21]

The First Attribute: Power: Allaah says: “Possessing power and a high rank with the Lord of the Throne.” [Surah At-Takweer: 20] The “Lord of the Throne” here refers to Allaah.

The Second Attribute: Position: Allaah says: “Possessing power and a high rank with the Lord of the Throne.” [Surah At-Takweer: 20] This means that he possesses a high position in the sight of Allaah, which no one else has reached.

The Third Attribute: Obedience: All of the angels obey Jibreel by the Permission of Allaah.

The Fourth Attribute: Trustworthiness: This refers to the revelation, such that he doesn’t make additions or subtractions to it, but rather, He conveys it just the way that Allaah has revealed it to him.

The Prophet Muhammad’s Seeing Jibreel:
Allaah says: “And your companion is not insane.” [Surah At-Takweer: 22] This is what the disbelievers claimed about him (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam). “And indeed he (Muhammad) saw him (Jibreel) in the clear horizon).” [Surah At-Takweer: 23] Muhammad (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) saw Jibreel on the horizon twice.

The First Time: This was in the valley of Makkah. The Prophet Muhammad (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) lifted his head and saw him in the sky and he had 600 wings. Each one of his wings blocked the horizon.

The Second Time: Allaah says: “And indeed he (Muhammad) saw him (Jibreel) at a second descent – near the lote-tree of the utmost boundary.” [Surah An-Najm: 13-14] This occurred during the night in which the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) ascended to the heaven and saw him in his natural state.

These are the attributes of Jibreel. Allaah says: “Verily, this is the Word (brought by) an honorable messenger (i.e. angel).” [Surah At-Takweer: 19]

This means: Even though the Qur’aan is the Speech of Allaah, it is ascribed to Jibreel here, since he is the one who conveyed it to Muhammad. So he is conveying from Allaah, for he dictated it to our messenger, Muhammad, conveying it from Allaah. However, it is the Speech of Allaah. Speech is only attributed to the one who states it originally, not to the one who says it conveying it from someone else. However, the Speech of Allaah has been attributed to Jibreel here from the perspective of his conveying it.

Fourth: There are angels entrusted with other duties: 1. Mikaa’eel: He is responsible for the raindrops that fall down from the sky. He moves them around and causes the rain to descend wherever Allaah commands.

2. Israafeel is responsible for blowing on the Trumpet. This will be at the time when Allaah wants to resurrect the creatures from their graves. The bodies will be brought forth from the graves and reassembled. Then the only thing remaining (to be integrated) will be the soul. It is at this point that Israafeel will blow on this horn, due to Allaah’s Command, and the souls will float to their respective bodies, which had come out and risen from their graves. Then they will walk to where Allaah orders them to go. Allaah says: “The Day when they will come out of the graves quickly as if they were racing to a goal.” [Surah Al-Ma’aarij: 43]

And Allaah says: “They will come forth with humbled eyes from (their) graves as if they were locusts spread about. Hastening towards the caller, the disbelievers will say: ‘This is a hard day.’” [Surah Al-Qamar: 7-8]

These are the three angles that are responsible for life. Jibreel is responsible for bringing the revelation, which brings life into the hearts. And Mikaa’eel is responsible for the raindrops, which bring life to the earth after its death. Israafeel is responsible for blowing on the trumpet, which will bring life to the bodies (on the Day of Resurrection). This is why when the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would get up for prayer at night, after saying the opening Takbeer, he (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would say in his opening supplication: “O Allaah! Lord of Jibreel, Mikaa’eel and Israafeel, Originator of the heavens and the earth…”

These are the greatest angels due to the magnitude of their duties.

Fifth: There are also angels that are put in charge of the fetuses in the mothers’ wombs. This has been reported in the hadeeth of Ibn Mas’ood (radyAllaahu ‘anhu), in which he said: “The Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) narrated to us – and he is the truthful one who is believed – saying: ‘Verily the creation of each of one of you is brought together in his mother’s womb for forty days in the form of a seed, then he is a clot of blood for a like period, then a morsel of flesh for a like period. Then the angel is sent to him and commanded with four matters – to write down his means of livelihood, his life span, his actions, and whether he will be happy or unhappy.’” Allaah sends this angel to him to carry out this great important task.

Sixth: There are angels that are in charge of taking the souls when their prescribed time is over. There is the Angel of Death (Malak-ul-Mawt) about whom Allaah says: “Say: ‘The Angel of Death, who is set over you, will take your souls.’” [Surah As-Sajdah: 11]

The Angel of Death has assistants that will aid him, as Allaah says: “Until when death approaches one of you, Our messengers (i.e. the Angel of Death and his assistants) take his soul, and they never neglect their duty. Then they are returned to Allaah, their Master, the Just Lord.” [Surah Al-An’aam: 61-62] So taking the soul at the time of death is ascribed to the angels, to the Angel of Death and also to Allaah.

“It is Allaah who takes away the souls at the time of their death.” [Surah Az-Zumar: 42] Death is ascribed to Allaah here because He is the One who orders it to occur. It is ascribed to the angels because they are the ones who physically carry that out by gathering the soul and leading it out of the human’s body until it reaches his throat. And it is also ascribed to the Angel of Death – “Say: ‘The Angel of Death, who is set over you, will take your souls’” – because he is the one in charge of seizing the souls after they have been rounded up in the last stage (of death).

Seventh: There are also angels in charge of recording the deeds of the son of Aadam (i.e. humans), as occurs in the hadeeth: “You are constantly being frequented (in successive shifts) by angels at night and angels during the day.” Allaah says: “And verily, there are guardians (i.e. angels recording your deeds) over you – Honorable, recording (your deeds). They know all that you do.” [Surah Al-Infitaar: 10-12]

Every human being has two angels with him:
Every human amongst us has two angels that are responsible over him – an angel on his right side recording his good deeds and another on his left side recording his bad deeds. Allaah says: “When the two receivers receive (i.e. record his deeds) from his right side and his left side, sitting. Not a word does he utter, except that there is a watcher by him ready (to record it).” [Surah Qaaf: 17-18]

These guardian angels accompany a human being whether he is on a journey or sitting at home – they are next to him at all times under all conditions – during his prayer, while he is prostrating, etc. – they accompany him and do not leave him alone except under specific circumstances, such as when the person is relieving himself (in the bathroom). So these angels record his statements and his actions.

The angels record People’s Intentions and Objectives:
It has been related that the angels also record a person’s intentions and inner objectives, which are located in the heart. Whatever he intends to do, they record it. This is why a person is rewarded for having good intention, since it is an action of the heart, while he is punished for evil intentions, since the intention is an action of the heart.

These angels are put in charge of recording a person’s deeds from the time that he reaches the age of puberty – the age of discernment – to the time when Allaah takes his soul in death. And they record against him everything that he does in his life – whether that is in the form of intentions, actions, statements, or other than that.

The Status of the Fajr and ‘Asr Prayers amidst the Other Prayers:
The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “You are constantly being frequented (in successive shifts) by angels at night and angels during the day. And they gather together during the ‘Asr Prayer and during the Fajr Prayer.” This is why these two prayers are the greatest of all prayers. Allaah says: “Verily, the recitation of the Qur’aan in the early dawn (i.e. Fajr Prayer) is witnessed (by the angels).” [Surah Al-Israa: 78] He is referring here to the Fajr Prayer, which the angels of the night and the angels of the day attend. They gather together to witness the Fajr prayer along with the Muslims and listen to the Qur’aan that is recited in prayer. They also gather together during the ‘Asr Prayer, where Allaah asks them, even though He is most knowledgeable of the answer: “In what state did you leave My servants?” The angels reply, saying: “We came to them while they were praying and we left them while they were praying.” This means that they descended while we were praying ‘Asr and they attended the prayer along with us. And then they rose back up (to the heavens) while we were praying Fajr.

Due to this, it has been determined that the ‘Asr Prayer is the “Middle Prayer” that Allaah has encouraged us about, where He says: “Guard strictly the (five daily) prayers, especially the middle prayer (i.e. ‘Asr).” [Surah Al-Baqarah: 238] He means by this the ‘Asr prayer since that is the prayer that the (guardian) angels of the night and the angels of the day attend.

A Call to those who fall short:
So where are those who hold back from attending the Fajr Prayer, sleeping (instead) in their beds and not witnessing this great event every night with the angels of the Most Merciful? This is such that these angels inform about these attendees (of the Fajr Prayer) while in the most highest of gatherings, saying: “We came to them while they were praying and we left them while they were praying.”

What benefit has this person who refrains from going to the Fajr Prayer and instead prefers sleep gained from his actions? And what benefit has this person who misses out on attending the ‘Asr Prayer, due to laziness, preferring sleep or some other deed, gained from his actions?

It is stated in the hadeeth that: “Whoever misses the ‘Asr Prayer, it is as if he lost his family and wealth.” And in another hadeeth it states: “…then he has nullified his actions.” This means that he has taken the prayer out of its proper time. So if he takes it out of its proper time, he has missed it.

Eight: There are also angels that are responsible for protecting humans from perils. A human being is prone to walk into dangers everyday. However, Allaah entrusts angels that guard and protect him from these dangers during his lifetime, which Allaah has ordained for him. This earth, which a human being walks upon everyday, contains many dangers. There are wild beasts, snakes, scorpions, not to mention transgressors from among humans – enemies and oppressors. However, Allaah has placed these angels around the human being. Allaah says: “He has those (angels) who constantly surround him – from before him and behind him, protecting him by the Command of Allaah.” [Surah Ar-Ra’ad: 11]

Therefore, so long as Allaah has decreed that this individual will be safe from harms, these angels will protect and guard him, and no human will be able to harm him. But if Allaah desires to bring an end to his appointed time, He removes them from him – one from before him and one from behind him.

“Verily, Allaah will not change the condition of a people until they (first) change the condition of themselves. And when Allaah desires a bad end for a people, there is no turning it back.” [Surah Ar-Ra’ad: 11] So if Allaah’s Divine Pre-Decree comes to pass and He desires to put an end to this person, the angels that constantly surround him withdraw themselves from him because they do not refrain from carrying out Allaah’s Command. These are the angels that constantly surround a person.

Ninth: There are also angels that have responsibilities in this universe that only Allaah has knowledge of. There are angels that are put in charge of the seas and angels put in charge of the days. There are angels responsible for the winds and angels put in charge of carrying out many other duties.

All of the events that occur in the universe and which constantly transpire within it on a daily basis are only by Allaah’s decreeing that. As for the angels, they carry out whatever tasks Allaah orders them to execute.

The Angels and their Attributes : Shaikh Saalih Al-Fawzaan

The Introduction to his booklet: “Al-Eemaan bil-Malaa’ikah
Al-Ibaanah.com

All praise is for Allaah, Lord of all that exists, and may the peace and blessings be upon our prophet, Muhammad, as well as upon his family and all of his Companions. To proceed:

Indeed, Eemaan (Faith) is a great matter, since it is the foundation upon which success in this life and the next rests on. So it is one of the most important levels of the Religion, for when the angel, Jibreel, came to the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) in the presence of his Companions, he asked him about Islaam, Eemaan, and Ihsaan, saying: “O Muhammad! Inform me about Islaam.” The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) replied: “Islaam is to testify that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah; to establish the prayer; to give the Zakaat; to fast in Ramadaan; and to perform the Hajj to the House (Ka’bah) if you are able to.” So he explained Islaam as being the implementation of these five pillars: (!) The two testimonies of Faith; (2) Establishing the Prayer; (3) Giving the Zakaat; (4) Fasting in Ramadaan; (5) Pilgrimage to the Ka’bah. So the angel Jibreel told him: “You have spoken the truth. Now inform me about Eemaan.” The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “It is to believe in Allaah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Last Day, and to believe in Al-Qadar – the good of it and the bad of it.” So he (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) explained that Eemaan was to believe in these six things: Belief in Allaah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Last Day and Al-Qadar – the good of it and the bad of it.

Jibreel continued: “Inform me about Ihsaan.” So the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) responded: “Ihsaan is to worship Allaah as if you see Him. But if you don’t see Him, then verily, He sees you.” So he (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) clarified that Ihsaan consists of one pillar, which is to worship Allaah as if you see Him. But if you don’t see Him, then verily, He sees you.

These are the three levels of the Religion: Islaam, then Eemaan, then Ihsaan. Each one of these levels has its own set of pillars.

A pillar is the part upon which something stands on. So the pillar of a house refers to the part upon which that house is established. So Eemaan (Faith) rests upon six of these pillars. If one of these pillars is missing, a person is no longer a believer, possessing Faith, since he lacks one of the pillars of Eemaan.

Therefore, Eemaan cannot be established except upon its pillars, just like a building cannot be established except upon its pillars. These six pillars (of Eemaan) are mentioned in the noble Qur’aan. Sometimes they are mentioned altogether and other times they are mentioned separately, as Allaah says: “But rather piety (birr) is he who believes in Allaah, the Last Day, the Angels, the Book and the Prophets.” [Surah Al-Baqarah: 177] Allaah mentions five of the pillars of Eemaan in this ayah.

And He says: “The Messenger (Muhammad) believes in what was revealed to him from his Lord and (so do) the believers – all of them believe in Allaah, His Angels, His Books, and His Messengers. We do not differentiate between any of His Messengers.” [Surah Al-Baqarah: 285]

He mentions four of these pillars here. And sometimes, He just mentions two of these pillars: Belief in Allaah and the Last Day, as He says: “Verily, those who believe and those who are Jews and Christians and Sabians – whoever believes in Allaah and the Last Day.” [Surah Al-Baqarah: 62]

He mentions two pillars in this ayah: Belief in Allaah and the last Day.

As for belief in Al-Qadar (Divine Pre-Decree), then that is mentioned in His statement: “Verily, We created everything with Qadar (Divine Pre-Decree).” [Surah Al-Qamar: 49]

And in His saying: “He has created everything, and assigned its Decree to it.” [Surah Al-Furqaan: 2]

The Meaning of Belief in the Angels:
The subject, which we are focusing on now, is the Belief in the Angels, which is one of the pillars of Eemaan. What Belief in the Angels entails is: Believing in their existence and believing in the duties that they carry out in the universe.

So the angels are one of Allaah’s creations, which He created for the purpose of worshipping Him and carrying out His orders in the universe. Allaah sends His angels in order to execute His Commands. So they are a creation from the world of the Unseen. We don’t see them, yet we believe in them with a firm resolution that doubt cannot penetrate. This is since Allaah has informed us about them, and likewise, His Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) has informed us about them in such a definitive manner that causes us to believe in them.

What were the Angels created From?
The Angels were created from light, as is reported in a hadeeth that Allaah created the angels from light and He created the devils from fire and He created the humans from dirt. So the angels were created from light.

The Attributes of the Angels:
The angels are one of Allaah’s creations from the world of the Unseen. No one knows how many in number they are, their manner of being or their natures except for Allaah.

From their Attributes:
First: They are the greatest of Allaah’s armies. Allaah says: “And to Allaah belongs the armies of the heavens and the earth.” [Surah Al-Fat’h: 4] And whilst talking about the guardians of the Hellfire, He mentioned: “Over it are nineteen (angels).” [Surah Al-Mudaththir: 30] And He says: “And We have set none but angels as guardians of the Hellfire, and We have not made their number (i.e. 19) except as a trial for those who disbelieve.” [Surah Al-Mudaththir: 31]

So this means that there are nineteen angels guarding the Hellfire – they maintain it, guard it, kindle it and are entrusted with its affairs.

When one of the disbelievers heard of the number of angels that are guarding the Hellfire, he said, as if to mock their amount: “I will suffice you over them” – meaning if he enters the Hellfire, he will confront them, overpower them and get out of the Hellfire. He said this in order to mock and ridicule, so Allaah refuted them by saying: “And We have set none but angels as guardians of the Hellfire.” [Surah Al-Mudaththir: 31] This means they will not be from among the humans.

So if this person claims that he is strong and that he is able to fight against a number of humans, he will not be able to fight against even one of the angels. Allaah says: “And We have set none but angels as guardians of the Hellfire.” [Surah Al-Mudaththir: 31] This means: “We did not make them humans or jinn.”

“And We have not made their number (i.e. 19) except as a trial for those who disbelieve, in order that the people of the Scripture may arrive at a certainty and the believers may increase in Faith, and so that no doubts may be left for the people of the Scripture and the believers, and so that those in whose hearts is a disease (of hypocrisy) and the disbelievers may say: ‘What did Allaah intend by this example.’” [Surah Al-Mudaththir: 31]

So they lie and seek to belittle this number. How can this great Hellfire, which contains all of these creatures, only be maintained by nineteen? Allaah says: “And We have not made their number (i.e. 19) except as a trial for those who disbelieve.” [Surah Al-Mudaththir: 31]

So no one knows the greatness of the angels and no one knows what Allaah has with Him from armies in the heavens and the earth except for Allaah. Neither these disbelievers nor anyone else knows.

Second: The angels have great physical composure, as Allaah mentioned this about them in His saying: “All praise is for Allaah, the Originator of the heavens and the earth – who made the angels messengers with wings – two or three or four.” [Surah Faatir: 1]

This means that there are some angels that have two wings, some that have three and some that have four. And there are some angels that have more wings than that, for the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) saw the angel Jibreel and he had 600 wings – each wing blocking the horizon. This is just one of the many angels that exist. Allaah described him as being mighty in power, as He says: “He (Muhammad) has been taught (this Qur’aan) by one mighty in power.” [Surah An-Najm: 5] He is referring to Jibreel. “Free from any defect, then he rose (and became stable).” [Surah An-Najm: 6] This means that he possesses strength and a beautiful appearance.

Third: The angels possess great power, by Allaah’s permission. What indicates their great strength is that if Allaah commands just one of them, then indeed he is able to let out an awful cry in the world, thus destroying the creation, as occurred with the people of Thamood, who were seized by a loud scream. Jibreel unleashed one powerful scream upon them: “Verily, We sent against them a single sayhah (awful cry), and they became like the dry straw of fences.” [Surah Al-Qamar: 31]

So their hearts ceased to function within their bodies and as a result they died and became like dry straw. It was from the custom of the Arabs that when they would settle in a place, they would gather sticks of wood and make fences to surround their sheep and cattle. These fences would eventually dry up and become pieces of straw. So in spite of Thamood’s power and might, they became like dried-up straws as a result of one loud cry from one of the angels.

Allaah also commanded Jibreel to raise up the towns of the people of Loot – and they were seven cities in which could be found humans, buildings, goods and animals. He carried them on one side of his wing and raised these cities until the (other) angels heard the barking of dogs and the crowing of roosters. Then he overturned them and Allaah caused the earth to swallow them up.

This is an example of the mighty power of the angels.

There is also the angel Israafeel, the angel that is entrusted with blowing the Trumpet. What is meant by the Trumpet is a horn that will gather the souls of the son of Aadam (i.e. humans), from the first of them to the last of them. Then Israafeel will blow one time on the Trumpet, and the souls will fly about due to this blow of the horn, going back to their bodies. This is known as the Blow of Resurrection (Nafkhat-ul-Ba’ath). Prior to this, he will strike the Blow of Destruction (Nafkhat-us-Sa’aq), so everyone that is in the heavens and in the earth will die except for he whom Allaah wills. Allaah says: “And the trumpet will be blown and all who are in the heavens and in the earth will swoon away except for he whom Allaah wills.” [Surah Az-Zumar: 68]

Swooning away means to die. Then he will blow on the Trumpet again, which is known as the Blow of Resurrection, “and behold, they will be standing, looking.” [Surah Az-Zumar: 68]

This is just one of Allaah’s angels, and this is just one of his duties, which Allaah has ordered him to carry out. So therefore, the angels are one of Allaah’s great creations. He created them so that they may worship Him and carry out His commands. Allaah says: “Rather, they are honorable slaves. They speak not until He has spoken, and they act on His Command. He knows what is before them and what is after them. and they cannot intercede except for him with whom He is pleased. And they stand in awe for fear of Him.” [Surah Al-Anbiyaa: 26-28]

This is a description of the angels.

Forbidden Business Transactions : Shaikh Saalih Al-Fawzaan

A Transcribed Lecture of Shaikh Saalih bin Fawzaan Al-Fawzaan
Translated by abu maryam isma’eel

[Dowload PDF of Forbidden Business Transactions in Islaam- Shaykh Fawzan- Al-Ibaanah.com]

Introduction to the Book

All praise is for Allaah and may the peace and blessings of Allaah be on His Final Messenger, his family and those who follow him in goodness until the Day of Recompense. To Proceed.

This is a translation of a small booklet entitled Al-Buyoo’ al-Munhee ‘anhaa fil-Islaam” [Forbidden Business Transactions in Islaam] by the noble scholar of Saudi Arabia, Shaikh Saalih bin Fawzaan Al-Fawzaan, may Allaah preserve him. The original source for this book was a recording of a lecture he gave in 1411H in a masjid in Saudi Arabia . The book was chosen due to the importance of this topic amongst Muslims in the West. This is because as the number of Muslims in the lands of the West increase and the communities grow, the need for instituting Muslim-owned businesses that will support and benefit these Muslim communities also grows.And since it is not befitting for the Muslims to engage in matters without knowledge, we felt a need to present this small but informative book to our readers for the purpose of providing knowledge on those matters, which Allaah and His Messenger have warned us against and forbidden with regard to everyday business transactions. You will find that this treatise is not only intended for the businessman who buys merchandise and sells to his customers, but also for the purchasers who buy the products. The Shaikh spends much of the time focusing on several products that are forbidden to buy, sell and promote, but yet which have found their way into Muslim communities in large quantities, such as music, alcohol and cigarettes. We hope that every Muslim benefits from this book, by avoiding buying or selling those products that have been forbidden and abstaining from conducting business schemes that are against Islaam.

Written by: isma’eel alarcon on April 26, 2002

In the Name of Allaah, the Most Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy

From the Lecture:

All praise be to Allaah, Lord of the Worlds, and may the peace and blessings be upon the chief of all Messengers and upon his family and all of his Companions.

This is a short treatise on the subject of Prohibited types of business transactions, which has been compiled so that the Muslim can avoid them in his daily affairs – so that his earnings can be from the lawful, which Allaah will benefit him with in this life and the next. Originally, the source for this treatise was a lecture I gave at Masjid Sumoo Walee al-‘Ahd Al-Ameer ‘Abdullaah bin ‘Abdil-‘Azeez Aali Su’ood in Riyadh in the month of Jumaadal-Oolaa 1411H. The following is the transcription of that lecture:

O Brothers! There is no doubt that commerce and business are two things that are required and necessary. This is because Allaah has commanded us to seek after gaining provision and sustenance for ourselves according to the proper channels generally. And specifically, He said concerning commerce (i.e. buying and selling):  “But Allaah has permitted trading and forbidden interest (Ribaa).” [Surah Al-Baqarah: 275]

And He says:  

“O you who believe, when the prayer is called for on the Day of Jumu’ah, then rush to the Remembrance of Allaah and leave off the trading (commerce). That is better for you if you did but know. And when the prayer is finished then spread throughout the land and seek from Allaah’s Bounty and remember Allaah much in order that you may be successful.” [Surah Al-Jumu’ah: 9-10]

And Allaah says, praising those who combine between their seeking of sustenance (rizq) and their performing of worship:

“In houses (masaajid), which Allaah has ordered to be raised, and in which His name is mentioned. He is glorified therein during the mornings and the evenings. Men whom neither business nor commerce diverts them away from the Remembrance of Allaah, nor from performing the Prayer or giving the Zakaat.” [Surah An-Noor: 36-37]

In this ayah, Allaah states that from the attributes of the Muslims is that they buy and sell (i.e. they trade). But when the time for prayer comes, they leave off the buying and selling and head for the prayer.

“Neither trading nor business diverts them away from the Remembrance of Allaah.” [Surah An-Noor: 37]

Allaah has commanded us to seek after the means of sustenance (rizq) along with the command to worship Him, as He says:

“So seek your provision from Allaah and worship Him (alone). And be grateful to Him, to Him you will return.” [Surah Al-‘Ankaboot: 17]

So conducting business by buying and selling or any of the other types of permissible ways of earning provision is something that is required according to the Religion since tremendous benefits will result from that for both the individual and the society.

Buying and Selling, in itself, are both praiseworthy and necessary, so long as they do not cause harm to one’s worship or cause him to delay performing the prayer in congregation in the masaajid.

The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:

The honest and trustworthy businessman will be with the prophets, martyrs and righteous people.”

This means: The businessman who buys and sells while being honest will be with these groups of people on the Day of Judgement. This is a great position, which indicates the nobility of holding such an occupation. And the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was once asked as to which kind of earning was the most purest? So he responded:

A blessed trading (accepted by Allaah) and the labor a man does with his hand. [Reported by At-Tabaraanee]

The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) also said:

“The two persons conducting a business are in a state of goodness so long as they do not separate from one another. So if they are both honest and open with one another, they are blessed in their transaction. But if they lie and conceal (the truth), the blessing of their transaction is wiped out.”

So doing business while being honest and righteous is from the best ways of earning sustenance. As for conducting business with lies, fraud, swindling and deception, then this is from the worst forms of earning sustenance.

The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) once passed by a group of Muslims who were buying and selling in the marketplace of Madeenah. So the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ) said:

“O you gathering of traders!” So they raised their heads waiting to hear what he would say. He said: “Indeed the traders will be resurrected as sinful evil-doers (fujaar) except for those who fear (are dutiful to) Allaah, are righteous and honest.” [Reported by At-Tirmidhee who said it was hasan saheeh]

The Prophet himself (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) engaged in business transactions during the first part of his life, when he used to manage the money of Khadeejah. This was before the advent of his prophethood. And he would buy and sell and gain profit.

This was the same for the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger – they would buy and sell and trade. And there were found wealthy people amongst them who used their wealth to support the Jihaad in Allaah’s Cause, such as ‘Uthmaan bin ‘Affaan (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) who supplied the poor in the army with equipment. And such was ‘Abdur-Rahmaan bin ‘Awf (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) who would donate money to the Muslims at the time of need and at the time of Jihaad.

And such was Abu Bakr as-Sideeq (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) for he would buy and sell and sacrifice his wealth to support Islaam and the Muslims, from the time he was in Makkah before migrating, as well as after migrating. He would give away much and much of his wealth for the Cause of Allaah.

Therefore, seeking the means of sustenance according to the permissible channels the greatest of which are buying and selling – has much good in it.

However, this buying and selling must be set with religious guidelines, so that the Muslim can avoid falling into forbidden transactions and unlawful forms of earning.

The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) has forbidden us from certain types of business transactions due to what they contain from sinful means of earning and what is found in them from dangers to mankind and the taking of wealth unjustly. From these types of prohibited transactions are:

  • When the buying and selling keeps one preoccupied from performing worship , i.e. they take away from the time of the worship, such as when a person is busy buying and selling and holds back from praying in congregation in the masjid, to the point that he misses it or misses part of it. This is forbidden. Allaah says:

“O you who believe, when the prayer is called for on the Day of Jumu’ah, then rush to the Remembrance of Allaah and leave off the trading (commerce). That is better for you if you did but know. So when the prayer is finished then spread throughout the land and seek from Allaah’s Bounty and remember Allaah much in order that you may be successful.” [Surah Al-Jumu’ah: 9-10]

And Allaah says in another ayah:

“O you who believe! Do not let you wealth or your children divert you from the Remembrance of Allaah. And whoever does that, then such are the losers.” [Surah Al-Munaafiqoon: 9]

Take note of Allaah’s saying: “…then such are the losers.” He rules upon them that they are losers even though they may be wealthy, having amassed hoards of money even if they may have many children.This is because their wealth and their children cannot replace what they missed out on from the Remembrance of Allaah. So even if they gain a profit or earn income in this world, they will still be losers in every sense of the word. They can only be profiting in reality if they combine between these two good things. If they were to combine between the seeking of sustenance and the worship of Allaah, by buying and selling when it is time for buying and selling and attending the prayer when it is time for prayer, then they would have combined between the good of this life and the good of the Hereafter. And they would have acted on Allaah’s saying:

 “So seek your provision from Allaah and worship Him (alone)”

and His saying:

 “So when the prayer is finished then spread throughout the land and seek from Allaah’s Bounty.”

 Therefore, commerce is of two types – the commerce of the worldly life and the commerce of the next life (Hereafter). The commerce of this life is with wealth and with earnings while the commerce of the next life is with righteous actions. Allaah says:

“O you who believe, shall I not direct you to a trade (i.e. commerce) that will save you from a painful punishment? Believe in Allaah and His Messenger and strive hard and fight in the Cause of Allaah with your wealth and your lives. That will be better for you, if you but knew! (If you do so), He will forgive you your sins and admit you into Gardens under which rivers flow and pleasant dwellings in the gardens of ‘Adan (i.e. Paradise). That is indeed the great success. And He will also give you another (blessing), which you will love – help from Allaah and a near victory. So give glad tidings to the believers.” [Surah As-Saff: 10-13]

This is the immense commerce, which is profitable. So if the permissible commerce of this worldly life is attached to it, it becomes good upon good. But if a person limits his commerce to solely that of this worldly life while abandoning the commerce of the Hereafter, he becomes a loser, as Allaah says: “…then such are the losers.” [Surah Al-Munaafiqoon: 9]

Therefore, if a person were to turn his attention to performing worship and establishing

the prayer, and if were to remember Allaah much, by doing what Allaah commanded him to do, Allaah would surely open the doors of sustenance for him. As a matter of fact, the prayer is a means for attaining sustenance (rizq), as Allaah says:

“And command your family with prayer and be patient in offering them. We are not asking you to provide Us with sustenance (rizq). (Rather), We will provide for you and the good end is for those who have Taqwaa.” [Surah TaHa: 132]

So the prayer, which some people claim takes time away from them seeking after the rizq (sustenance) and from buying and selling, is in fact the opposite of what they claim. It opens for them the door of provision, comfort and blessing. This is because the sustenance (rizq) is in the Hand of Allaah. So if you were to turn your attention towards remembering Him and worshipping Him, He would facilitate and open the door of sustenance for you. “And Allaah is the best of Providers.” [Surah Al-Jumu’ah: 11]

Allaah says, describing the worship of the believers:

 “In houses (masaajid), which Allaah has ordered to be raised, and in which His name is mentioned. He is glorified therein during the mornings and the evenings. (They are) Men whom neither business nor commerce diverts them away from the Remembrance of Allaah, nor from performing the Prayer or giving the Zakaat. They fear a day when the hearts and the eyes will be overturned out of fear (of the horrors of the Day of Judgement).” [Surah An-Noor: 36-37]

In explanation of this ayah, some of the Salaf said: “They (the Sahaabah) would buy and sell, but when one of them heard the mua’dhin calling to prayer, and the scale was still in his hand, he would drop the scale and head out for the prayer.” So as stated before, the point is that if the buying and selling preoccupies you from performing your prayer, then this commerce is forbidden and futile. And the money earned from it is Haraam (unlawful) and filthy.

  • And from the forbidden types of business is: Selling a forbidden commodity. This is because when Allaah makes something forbidden, He also makes taking money for it forbidden, such as when someone sells something that is forbidden to be sold.

Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) forbade that dead animals, khamr (i.e. wine), swine and statues be sold .So whoever sells dead animals, i.e. meat for which no prescribed Zakaat was given, then he has sold a dead animal and earned unlawful money. This goes the same for selling khamr. What is meant by the word khamr is everything that intoxicates, based on the Prophet’s saying:

 “Every intoxicant is khamr and every kind of khamr is Haraam (unlawful).”

 And he (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) cursed ten people with regard to khamr, as is recorded in the authentic hadeeth:

“Verily Allaah cursed khamr – the one who produces it and the one for whom it is produced, the one who sells it and the one who buys it, the one who drinks it and the one who earns from the sale of it, the one who carries it and the one who it is carried to, and the one who serves it.” [Reported by At-Tirmidhee and Ibn Maajah]

Khamr is every type of intoxicant regardless of whether it is called khamr or alcoholic beverages or liquor or wine or whiskey. It doesn’t matter if it is called by any of these or other names – changing the name does not change the fact that it is khamr. It has been reported in a hadeeth that: “There will come a people during the Last days that will call khamr by another name and drink it.” Also, what is worse than this is selling narcotics, such as hasheesh and opium, as well as other types of drugs, which are being dealt out to the people in these days. So the one who sells it and deals it is a criminal – in the eyes of the Muslims and in the eyes of the whole world. This is because drugs kill people, so it is like a destructive weapon.

Therefore, anyone who sells drugs or distributes it or assists in its distribution all of them fall under the curse of Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam). And taking money from it is from the wickedest of acts and the most detestable of gains. Furthermore, the one who deals drugs deserves to be executed because he is one of those who cause mischief in the land.

The same goes for selling cigarettes and qaat (leaves that are chewed in Arabian lands). Cigarettes are harmful and they cause diseases to occur. In fact, all of the characteristics of khubth (wickedness) are gathered together in cigarettes. There is no benefit in smoking in any way whatsoever. Its harms are many. The one with the worst kind of breath, the most despicable appearance and the most burdensome to accompany out of all people is the one who smokes cigarettes. If he sits next to you or he rides next to you in a car or on a plane, you feel constricted by the smoke he makes and its foul stench. The odor coming from his mouth is bad enough when he breathes in your face, so how much more so if he were to smoke in your presence and the cigarette smoke were to float in your face! The matter would be worse. So smoking is wicked from all perspectives and there isn’t any benefit found in it. Therefore, it is forbidden without any hesitation or doubt. It is unlawful to smoke based on several perspectives, not just one.When one smokes, he throws away money and wastes time. Cigarettes disfigure the face, blacken the lips and stain the teeth. As for the diseases that are caused by it, then they are many. Many people have been afflicted by it and yet they take it lightly and as something trivial. This is even to the point that some are suffering from its effects even though they never smoked and they hate smoking. However, they sold it to the people because they loved to make money any way they could. But these people don’t know that this type of business spoils all of their earnings, because some of them mix the money they make from it with their business and so they spoil it, since (doing this) is forbidden and disobedience (to Allaah). Sustenance is not to be sought from Allaah through disobeying Him. Rather, sustenance and provision are to be sought from Allaah by way of obeying Him. Whatever Allaah has ordained for you from rizq (sustenance) will surely come to you. If you seek after it while being obedient to Allaah (in all that He commands and prohibits), He will facilitate and bless your wealth.

  • Another type of forbidden business is: Selling musical and entertainment instruments in all of their various forms, such as stringed instruments and wind instruments or musical appliances and all of the instruments that are used for that purpose, even if they are called by other names such as “technical apparatuses.”

So it is Haraam (unlawful) for the Muslim to sell these instruments and appliances because it is an obligation to destroy them and not have any of them remain in the lands of the Muslims. So if this is the case, how can they be sold? And how can one take money for them? This is from the forbidden acts!

  • And from the forbidden types of business transactions is: Selling images (i.e.pictures, statues). The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) forbade us from selling statues, and what was intended by statues was (all life) images. This is because originally statues are based on image representations, regardless of whether it is representing horses, birds, animals or human beings. Everything that has a spirit (rooh), then selling an image of it is Haraam, and the money made from it is Haraam.

The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) cursed the image-makers and he informed us that they will be the ones with the worst and most severe punishment on the Day of Judgement. Likewise, it is not permissible to sell magazines that are filled with pictures, especially if these magazines contain immoral pictures (i.e. of naked women). This is because along with the fact that they contains pictures, which are forbidden, they also serve as fitnah (temptation) and an incitement towards doing evil acts. This is since when a man looks at a picture of a beautiful girl who is exposing some of her features or she is uncovering some of her body (i.e. naked), then most of the time this will rouse the man’s desires. And these desires will lead this individual to commit lewd and criminal acts. This is exactly what the devils amongst mankind and the jinn hope for by the distribution and sale of these pictures.

Also, from a higher perspective, is selling immoral movies (i.e. pornographic films), especially videotapes, which the Muslim communities have poured into the arena of their homes. These movies display images of naked women in them as well as images of lewd and immoral sexual acts! These movies tempt and incite the young men and women and cause them to be raised upon loving this kind of immorality.

Therefore, it is not permissible to sell these kinds of lewd films. Rather, it is binding upon you to prevent, destroy and distance these films away from the Muslim environments.

So anyone who opens a store to sell (or rent) these immoral videotapes, he has in fact opened a place for the disobedience of Allaah to be conducted and he has earned unlawful and illegal money, if he uses it or spends it on his family. Rather, he has opened up a place of fitnah (mischief) and a fortress for the Devil.

  • And also from the forbidden types of business transactions is: Selling Tapes in which are recorded immoral songs, with the voices of male and female singers accompanied by music. And these songs consist of words that talk about lust, infatuation and craze for women. So it is forbidden (Haraam) to listen to, record and sell these songs. And taking money for it is considered unlawful earnings and illegal gains, which Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) forbade severely since they spread evil and immorality. And they corrupt one’s manners and transport evil into the homes of the Muslims.
  • And from the forbidden types of business transactions is: Selling something which the buyer will use towards committing Haraam. So if the seller knows that the buyer will use the product he is buying to commit some forbidden act, then selling it to him is forbidden and void. This is because you will be assisting him upon sinfulness and transgression, and Allaah says:

“And help one another towards piety and fearing of Allaah, and do not help one another towards sinfulness and transgression.” [Surah Al-Maa’idah: 2]

So for example, if someone buys grapes or dates for the purpose of making wine from them, or he buys a sword for the purpose of killing Muslims with it or for the purpose of committing highway robbery or to be tyrannical or a troublemaker and so on.

Everyone that will use a product against what Allaah has forbidden or will use it in a way Allaah has forbidden, then selling that product to him is not permissible. This is if one knows for sure that the buyer will do that or he suspects for the most part that he will do that.

  • And from the forbidden types of business transactions is: When a man sells something that he doesn’t own. For example, a man goes to a businessman looking for a specific product, but this businessman doesn’t have this specific product. Yet they both agree to a contract (for the sale of the product) and agree on the extent of the price (on the item) presently or in the future. And all the while, the product is not found in the possession of the businessman or the buyer. Then the businessman goes and buys this product and hands it over to the buyer after they already agreed to a price and they made a contract and determined the value as it relates to present terms or in the future.

So this kind of business transaction is haraam. Why? Because he sold something he didn’t own and he sold something before gaining possession of it, if the product was specified. As for if the product was not specified and its price was delayed, he actually sold a debt on credit. The Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) forbade us from doing that, as was the case when Hakeem bin Hazaam (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) came to him, saying: “O Messenger of Allaah, what if a man comes to me wanting to buy something from me, but I don’t have it. Then I go to the marketplace and buy it for him?” The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Do not sell what you don’t have.” This is a clear cut forbiddance, therefore it is not permissible for a person to sell some specified commodity unless he is in possession of it before making a contract on it, whether he will sell it right there or in the future.

It is not permissible to take this matter lightly. So whoever wants to sell something to the people, then he should store the products in his store or in his shop or in a warehouse or in the trunk of his car or in his office, so that he can have the products ready with him. Then if some people who want to buy the products come to him, he can sell it to them directly or at a later time.

  • And from the forbidden types of business transactions is: The ‘Aynah Transaction.What is the ‘Aynah Transaction? It is when a product is sold to a person for a deferred price (i.e. a raised price to be paid later), then that same product is bought back from him at current value less than the deferred price for which it was given to him. So when the time comes in which the deferred payment is due, he pays his creditor in full. This is what is known as an Al-‘Aynah Transaction. It is called ‘aynah (i.e. derivate of ‘ayn = same) because the same product that was sold is returned back to its owner. This is Haraam because it is deceiving someone into interest (Ribaa). In reality, it is as if you are selling dollars at the current price for deferred dollars (i.e. to be given later), which are more than the original amount. And you are just using the product as a device or means to gaining this interest.

It is an obligation on you if you are owed money by someone, because you sold him some product for a deferred price that you let him sell it to someone else, or that you let him act freely in the matter – if he wishes he can keep it or if he wishes he can sell it to someone else, if he is in need of the money. The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “When you deal with al-‘aynah transactions and you hold onto the tails of cows and you are pleased with the agriculture, Allaah will send humiliation down upon you. He will not remove it from you until you return back to your Religion.” [Reported by Abu Dawood and it has supporting evidences]

  • And from the forbidden types of business transactions is: An-Najash. What is meant by an-Najash is when you display a product for sale in a public auction. Then a person comes and bids up the price of the item, but he doesn’t intend to purchase the item, rather he only wants to raise the price for the customers intending to deceive the buyers. This is the same whether he agreed with the seller to do this or he did it on his own. So whoever bids for a product and he doesn’t want to buy it, rather he only wants to raise its price for the customers, then this person is a Naajish, who has opposed the prohibition of Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam). Doing this is Haraam, as the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “And do not perform Najash on each other.”

1 [Translator’s Note: Another example is if you sell an item that is worth $25 to someone for $50 because he will pay you next month and not now. This may be agreed because perhaps you feel the value of the item will go up by then. But for some reason, the buyer is short of money and wants to sell the item back to you, so he comes to you the next day and you make him sell it to you for the current market price, which is still $25. So when the date, next month, on which you agreed he would pay you the $50 comes, he pays you the money. So altogether you make $25 apart from the item, which is considered interest.]

So a person who has no desire or need for the item, he should not participate in the auction and not bid for it. Instead, he should leave the customers, who really desire the item, to outbid each other.

Perhaps a person may want to help the seller, and sympathy for the seller overcomes him. So he bids up the price of the item for the purpose of helping the seller according to his perception. Or perhaps, the seller may agree with a group of his associates to create a crowd around the item for sale in order to draw the people’s attention. These acts are considered from Najash and are Haraam because they are a means of deceiving the Muslims and a way of taking their money unjustly.

Also, the scholars of Fiqh have stated that what falls under Najash is when a seller tells his customer: “I bought this item for such and such price”, lying about the price, so that the buyer may be fooled and buy the item at an increased value. Or it is when the seller says: “I was given this product at this price” or he says: “I received it for this much”, lying about the price. He only wants to fool the customers into bidding the price up to reach this alleged and false price, which he claims he spent for the item. This is from the Najash, which Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) forbade. It is a treachery and deception of the Muslims, and it is lying and disloyalty, for which he will be accountable for before Allaah. So what is obligatory on the seller is that he reveals the truth if the buyer asks him how much he got it for. He must tell him the truth and not say that he attained it for this much money, lying about the price. What also falls into the definition of An-Najash is if the people of the marketplace or the storeowners agree to not outbid one another when an item is presented for sale, for the purpose of forcing the owner to sell it for a (discounted) cheaper price. So therefore, they are all participating in this act, which is Haraam. And this is from An-Najash. It is also a form of taking the people’s money unjustly.

  • And from the forbidden types of business transactions is: When a Muslim conducts a sale on top of the sale of his brother. The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “And none of you should conduct a sale on top of the sale of his (Muslim) brother.” How is this done? It is done, for example, when a person who wants to buy a certain product comes and buys it from one of the businessmen, who gives him the option to finalize the deal in two or three days or more. So in this case, it is not permissible for another businessman to come and interpose, saying to the buyer: “Leave this product. I will give you the same item, even better than it, for a cheaper price.” This is Haraam because he is conducting a sale on top of the sale of his brother.

Therefore, so long as he sells him the item and gives him the option (to finalize the deal later), let him obtain it and do not interfere in the deal. If he wishes, he will take the product, and if he wishes, he will cancel the deal. So if he calls off the deal due to his own choice (i.e. not being coerced or influenced), then there is nothing preventing you from selling it to him (now). (On the opposite end) conducting a purchase over his purchase is also Haraam. So if a Muslim comes and buys a product from one of the businessmen for a fixed price and is then given the option for a period of time (to finalize the deal), it is not permissible for another buyer to interfere by going to the businessman or the seller, saying: “I will buy that product from you for a higher price than that person bought it from you.” This is Haraam because these kinds of transactions cause harm to the Muslims and violate their rights and puts hatred into their hearts (for one another). This is since if a Muslim comes to know that you interfered in his transaction and you were the cause for ruining the deal that was between the two of them, he will be filled with hatred, spite and abhorrence for you. Or perhaps he may even supplicate against you, because you have oppressed him. And Allaah says: “And work with one another upon piety and fear of Allaah. And do not work with one another upon sin and transgression.” [Surah Al-Maa’idah: 2]

  • And also from the business transactions that are forbidden is: The Deceptive Sale, which is when you deceive your Muslim brother by selling him a product that has defects and you know about these defects yet you do not inform him about them. So this kind of sale is not permissible and it is from deception, swindling and fraud. It is obligatory on the seller to make these defects clear to the seller and to let him know about them. But if he fails to inform him about them, then this is from deception and swindling, which Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) forbade in his saying: “The two persons conducting a business transaction are in a state of goodness for as long as they do not separate from one another. So if they are both honest and open with one another, they are blessed in their transaction. But if they lie and conceal (the truth) from one another, the blessing of their transaction is wiped out.”

So it is obligatory upon us, O servants of Allaah, to be sincere. Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:

“The Religion is sincerity, the religion is sincerity, the religion is sincerity.”

They (the Companions) said: “To who O Messenger of Allaah?” He said: “To Allaah, to His Book, to His Messenger, to the Muslim leaders and the Muslim general masses.”

So the Muslim must be sincere. What is meant when one is sincere towards something is that he is free or absolved from certain things. So being sincere means being free from cheating (for example).

One time the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) passed by a person selling some food in the marketplace who had his food in a pile. So the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) put his noble hand inside the pile of food and found some wet portions in the bottom of the pile. So he said: “What is this O owner of the food?” He said: “The sky has affected it” – meaning the rain has affected some of it. So Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Then won’t you make it visible so that the people can see it? Whoever cheats us (i.e. swindles Muslims) is not from us.”

This hadeeth is considered one of the fundamental principles in conducting business transactions between the Muslims. So it is not permissible for a Muslim to conceal the defects. If his merchandise has a defect then he must make it visible so that the buyer sees it and is aware of it, and so that he could acquire the item for a price that is appropriate for this defect. He must not acquire the item for the price it would be if it were flawless, for then the seller would be deceiving, cheating, fooling and swindling, based on the saying of Allaah’s Messenger: “Then won’t you make it visible so that the people can see it? Whoever cheats us is not from us.”

So O servants of Allaah! How much of swindling do you see in these days? How many times do you see people placing the defective items in the bottom of the containers and cases while placing the good items on the top – whether vegetables or food items? They purposely put the defective item in the bottom while putting the flawless item on the top. This is trickery, which is done intentionally.

We ask Allaah to pardon and forgive us and you, and that He make our rizq (sustenance) Halaal and that He make our earnings Halaal. And we ask Him to provide us from His vast Bounty.

O Allaah suffice us with what You have made Halaal over that which You made Haraam, and (suffice us) with Your Bounty over that of others besides You. And forgive us, have mercy on us and accept our repentance. Verily, You are the One who accepts Repentance, the Bestower of Mercy. And may the peace and blessings of Allaah be on Allaah’s Messenger.

Advice and Guidelines for those Performing Hajj – Shaikh Muhammad Ibn Jameel Zaynoo

Author:Shaikh Muhammad Ibn Jameel Zaynoo
Source:Al-Asaalah Magazine Issue 11 (pg. 45-47) 

Translator:isma’eel alarcon – al-ibaanah.com

Know, my fellow brother, that there are certain etiquettes to the Hajj, which one must abide by and adorn himself with, such as:

1. Maintain cleanliness in your clothes, your tent, the place where you stay, and in your food and drink. This is because keeping clean will aid in preserving your health and in repelling sicknesses.

2. Beware of dropping filth or spoiled food in the roads that people use, for it will cause those performing Hajj to be bothered, and it will cause diseases to spread. So one must remove harmful objects from the road and put them in their proper place (i.e. garbage).

3. Bear the harm that comes from your neighbors with patience, and do not (let that cause you to) harm any of your brothers. Instead, repel their harm in a manner that is better, such as by using kind words.

4. Avoid sexual relations, committing sins, arguing and debating with falsehood, so that your Hajj can be accepted. Listen to the words of Allaah:

“So whoever intends to perform Hajj therein (in the months of Hajj), then he must NOT have sexual relations, nor commit sin, nor debate unjustly during Hajj.” [Surah Al-Baqarah: 197]

And the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) said:

“Whoever goes to Hajj and he does not have sexual relations in it nor does he commit sin, he returns back (from Hajj) like the day when his mother gave birth to him (i.e. free from sins).” [Reported by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]

5. Be lenient in your buying and selling, and show good manners. And do not deal with anyone in a manner that he is not pleased with.

6. Beware of smoking, displaying bad manners and insulting others, for reviling a Muslim is sinfulness and fighting against him is disbelief.

7. Do not waste your time in the market places – buying and selling – or in gossiping with the “he said/she said” talk.

8. Be gentle with those around you when performing Tawaaf, kissing the Stone, the Sa’ee, and when throwing the stones (Ramee) and so on. This is from the gentleness that is required, for Allaah’s Messenger (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) said:

“Whoever is deprived of gentleness, he is deprived of all kinds of good.” [Reported in Saheeh Muslim]

9. Do not raise your voice out loud when making du’aa (supplication) during Tawaaf, because it disturbs the others making Tawaaf.

10. Do not push and shove people, especially when kissing the Black Stone. If it is too crowded and there is too much shoving, it is enough for you to just point in its direction.

And when casting the stones (Ramee), it is not permissible for you to use large stones, because this has been forbidden in the religious texts and because it will cause harm to those standing (in front of you).

Also, do not throw your shoes (instead of rocks) – as some ignorant people do – for this is a reprehensible act!

Avoid touching the glass surrounding the Prophet’s grave, and avoid touching the walls of the Ka’abah. Rather what is to be touched and kissed from it is (only) the Black Stone. The Yemeni Corner is also touched. [1]

11. You must shave your head or cut your hair very short when in the state of Hill (out of Ihraam), but beware of shaving the beard off, for that is forbidden according to the unanimous agreement of the scholars.

Allaah says:

“…with (the hair on) their heads shaven or cut short…”

Allaah’s Messenger (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) said:

“Trim the moustaches and leave the beards to grow – Do the opposite of the Majoos.” {Reported by Muslim]

12. Beware of supplicating and calling out to other than Allaah, such as calling to deceased people or others not present. This is from the types of Shirk that Allaah has forbidden in His saying:

“And do not call besides Allaah that which can neither bring you benefit nor cause you harm. If you do that, then you will be from the wrong-doers.”

What is meant by “wrong-doers” in this ayah are the polytheists (those who commit shirk). If a Muslim commits Shirk, his good deeds become nullified and his Hajj is lost, as Allaah says:

“And if you commit Shirk, We will surely cancel out your good deeds and you will indeed be from the losers.” [Surah Az-Zumar: 65]

13. Beware of Riyaa, which is doing a deed for the sake of being seen or heard.

An example of this when someone goes to Hajj so that it can be said of him “Hajji so and so.” The title Hajji (or Al-Hajj in Arabic) was not a term that was known to the righteous predecessors (Salaf as-Saalih), so we cannot hear from any of them that he said about his brother “Hajji so and so.” Rather, this is from the innovations of those in recent times. So have sincerity in your Hajj and say as Allaah’s Messenger (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) said:

“O Allaah, (this is) a Hajj with no riyaa or sam’ah in it.” [2]

14. Increase in your recitation of the Qur’aan and acting on what is in it, your performing of Tawaaf, your sending of Salaat on the Prophet. And make a lot of supplication, especially at night, because Allaah’s Messenger (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) said:

“Whoever wakes in the night and says when he awakens: ‘Laa Ilaaha IllAllaah wahdahu laa shareeka lahu. Lahul-Mulk wa lahul-Hamd wa Huwa ‘alaa Kulli shay’in Qadeer. SubhaanAllaah wal-Hamdu Lillaah wa Laa Ilaaha IllAllah wa-Allaahu Akbar wa laa Hawla wa laa Quwata Illaa Billaah.’[3]

And then he says: ‘Allaahumma Ighfir Lee’ or some supplication, he will be answered. And if he makes ablution and prays, his prayer will be accepted.” [Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree]

Footnotes:

[1] Translator’s Note: The Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) said:

“Touching the Black Stone and the Yemeni Corner removes sins.”

[Reported by At-Timrimidhee and Ibn Khuzaimah and authenticated by Al-Albaanee in his book on Hajj.

[2] Translator’s Note: Riyaa means doing deeds to be seen and Sam’ah means doing deeds to be heard.

[3] Translator’s Note: This means:

“There is no deity worthy of worship except Allaah – alone and with no partner. To Him belongs the Dominion and the Praise and He is Able over all things. Glory be to Allaah, all praise be to Allaah, and there is no deity worthy of worship except Allaah. And there is no movement nor power except by Allaah’s permission.”

The next phrase means: “O Allaah, forgive me.”

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