It is for someone to say: If my action is Pre-decreed by Allaah ( عز و جل), then why should I be punished on committing a sin when it is something already Pre-decreed by Allaah?
The response to this is to say:
You have no proof in using Allaah’s Pre-decree as an excuse for the sin you committed, because Allaah ( عز و جل) did not compel you to commit such sin; and that when you embark on committing it, you do not have the knowledge that it is Pre-ordained upon you, because man does not know of what was Pre-decreed except after it is manifested. So before committing the sin, why did you not take into consideration that Allaah has Pre-decreed obedience on you and therefore you obey Him?
Just as in your worldly affairs you strive to take care of that which you consider good, and you turn away from that which you see as evil, then why do you not treat yourself accordingly in affairs pertaining to the Hereafter?
And I believe that there is nobody after being told that there are two roads that lead to Makkah, one is safe and facilitated and the other is dangerous and difficult, would take the dreadful and difficult road and then say that: “this has been Pre-decreed for me”! He will certainly take the safe and easy road. Consequently, there is no difference if you are told that there is a road to Paradise and another to the Fire. So, if you take the road to the Fire, then you are like the one who took the dreadful and rough road to Makkah. Yourself will criticize this man who took such a road. So, why do you accept for yourself to take the road to the Fire of Hell and turn away from the road to bliss? And if man has a proof in Pre-decree for committing sins, then it would not be removed by sending the Messengers. 
 Since their sinful acts after the sending of the Messengers would still be according to the Pre-decree of Allaah.
Translated by Dr Saleh as Saleh rahimahullaah
There remains a brief statement regarding al-Qadar, and it pertains to the fact that belief in Pre-decree produces magnificent fruits affecting the conduct and the heart of man.
Because if you believe that everything occurs by the Pre-decree of Allaah, then at times of delight you will give thanks to Allaah, The Mighty and Majestic, and you do not become amazed with your own self. You do not also think that this matter occurred by your own power and strength. You do, however, believe that it is just a cause– in case you have done the necessary mean by which you have attained that which delights you–and that all the good is in the Hand of Allaah. So you will be more thankful for the blessing granted by Allaah, The One free of all imperfection, The Most High. This will motivate you to carry on the obedience to Allaah in accordance with that which He commanded you, and that you do not regard your own self having a favor upon Allaah. Rather, you see that the favor is His, The One free of all imperfection, The Most High. He, The Exalted, says:
They regard as favor upon you (O Muhammad Sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam) that they have embraced Islaam. Say: “Count not your Islaam as a favor upon me. Nay, but Allaah has conferred a favor upon you, that He has Guided you to the faith, if you indeed are true.” [Qur’aan, soorat al-Hujuraat (49): 17].
Similarly, if a calamity befalls you, you believe in Allaah and submit without being regretful or afflicted with grief on that. Have you not given thought to the saying of the Prophet (Sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam):
“A strong believer is better and is more lovable to Allaah than a weak believer, and there is good in every one of them. Cherish that which gives you benefit and seek help from Allaah and do not lose heart, and if anything (in the form of trouble) comes to you, do not say: If I had not done that, it would have not happened so and so, but say: Allaah did that which He had Pre-decreed, and He does whatever He Wills, and that “if” opens the way for the acting of Shaytan [by casting opposition to Allaah’s Pre-decree in the heart].” 
So, in the belief in the Pre-decree there is rest to the soul and heart and absence of grief at that which escaped, and of worry and distress at that which is to come. Allaah, The Most High, Says:
No calamity befalls on the earth or in yourselves but it is inscribed in the Book of Decrees (al-Lawh al-Mahfooth) before we bring it into existence. Verily, that is easy for Allaah. In order that you may not grieve at the things that you fail to get, not to rejoice over things which has been given to you.” [Qur’aan, soorat al-Hadeed (57): 22-23].
As to the one who does not believe in al-Qadar, there is no doubt that he will grieve and regret at times of calamities, and the Shaytaan will open up for him every new way or possibility [to confuse him and keep him dissatisfied]. And That he will be pleased and become proud and deluded if prosperity befalls him. The Eemaan in the Pre-decree, however, prevents all of this.
 Reported by Muslim in his Saheeh, vol.4, no.644. The statement between the brackets,“[…]”, is the explanation of al-Qaadee ‘Iyaad in Sharh Saheeh Muslim by An-Nawawee.
Translated by Dr Saleh as Saleh rahimahullaah
Source : Understanding Worship – Fiqh ul-‘Ibadah – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen – Page 93
- 01– Pre-Decree – Introduction – 18:11
- 02- Pre-Decree – First Rank – Al-‘Ilm (The Knowledge of Allaah) – 39:37
- 03- Pre-Decree – Second Rank – Al-Kitaba (The Writing) – 38:40
- 04- Pre-Decree – Third Rank – The Mashee’ah (The will of Allah) – 14:39
- 05- Pre-Decree – Discussion After Rank Three – 17:04
- 06- Pre-Decree – Is Man Endowed With a Free Will? – 40:13
- 07- Pre-Decree – Fourth Rank – Al-Khalq (The Creation) – 58:03
- 08- Pre-Decree – Evil Is Not Attributable To Allaah – 40:17
- 09- Pre Decree – Universal Will and Legal Will – 32:24
- 10- Pre-Decree – The Mashee’ah (The Will of Allaah) – 40:44
- 11- Pre-Decree – Last Lecture – 52:38
Based upon Sh. Ibn Al ‘Uthaymeen (rahimahullaah)
Point of clarification based on the hadeeth
“The creation of everyone of you is collected for the first forty days in his mother’s womb in the form of a Nutfah after which it turns into a Alaqa for an equal period. Then it becomes a Mudhqah for a similar period and then Allaah sends an angel with four words recording: the person’s provision, his life term, his deeds, or whether he will be of the wretched or the blessed (in the Hereafter).”
Sahih al-Bukhari vol.8, p.387, no.593 and Sahih Muslim vol.4, p.1391, no.6390
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AUTHOR: Imaam Muhammad bin Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen
PRODUCED BY: Al-Ibaanah.com
About the Book:
This is a translation of a small booklet called “Al-Qadaa wal-Qadar (The Divine Pre-Decree and Ordainment of Allaah), which is a lecture from Imam Muhammad bin Saalih Al-Uthaimeen that was later transcribed and published. The current translation came from the Maktabat-ul-‘llm edition.
In this treatise, Shaikh Ibn Al Uthaimeen clarifies the correct belief of Ahlus-Sunnah with regard to the Divine Pre-Decree, while refuting the false notions of some groups who deviated with regard to this issue such as the Qadariyyah, who believe that Allaah has no part in a person’s actions, and the Jabariyyah, who believe that a person is forced to do perform his sayings an actions by Allaah. He then lists and discusses the four levels for believing in Allaah’s Divine Pre-Decree, which are: Knowledge, Recording, Will and Creation.
By presenting this treatise, we hope to provide a basic and easy guide for beginning and intermediate students to learn and understand this fundamental aspect of the Religion, which is also one of the Six Pillars of Faith.
Click the below link to read the eBook in PDF format.
The Devine Decree and Pre-Ordainment – by Shaykh Muhammad Saleh Al Uthaymeen [PDF]
Taken from ‘Silsilah Ahadeeth As-Saheehah’
By the Muhaddith, Shaykh, Allamaa’ Muhammad Nasir uddeen al-Albaani
Translated by Abbas Abu Yahya
‘Al-Qadr & the hadeeth that Allaah will take two Handfuls of people is true.
46 – Ibn Umar narrates that the Prophet -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- said about these two Handfuls:
‘These people are for this (Paradise) and these are for that (Hellfire).’
Ibn Umar continues:
‘The people went away and they did not differ regarding Qadr.’
[Collected by al-Mukhalis in ‘al-Fawaid al Muntaqa’, Bazaar and by Tabaraanee in ‘Al-Mu’jam as-Sagheer. Its isnaad is saheeh according to the conditions of Imaam Muslim.]
47 – Anas narrates from the Messenger -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- that he said:
‘Indeed Allaah – Azza wa Jall- took a Handful and said; In Paradise, by My Mercy and took another Handful and said: In the Fire and I am not troubled.’
[Collected by Abu Ya’laa in his ‘Musnad’, al-Uqaylee in ‘Du’afah’, Ibn Adee in ‘al-Kaamil’ and ad-Dulabee in ‘Al-Asma wal-kuna’. The hadeeth is saheeh.]
48 – AbdurRahmaan bin Qatada as-Sulami narrates from the Messenger of Allaah -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- that he said:
‘Indeed Allaah – Azza wa Jall – created Adam then took out the rest of creation from his back and said: These are for Paradise and I am not troubled and these are for the Hellfire and I am not troubled.’
So a person said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah! How should we perform our actions?’
He -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- answered,
‘As and when Qadr happens.’
[Collected by Ahmad, Ibn Sa’d in ‘at-Tabaqaat’, Ibn Hibbaan in his ‘Saheeh’ and al-Haakim. Al-Haakim said it was saheeh, ath-Dhahabi agreed and it is as they said.]
Ibn Jarir collected an additional wording in his ‘Tafseer’ as did al-Aajurree in ‘Ash-Sharee’ah’ as follows:
‘And Allaah made the people testify regarding their own selves.’
49 – Abu Darda narrates from the Messenger of Allaah -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam:
‘Allaah created Adam and when He did, He hit Adam’s right shoulder and extracted offspring who were white, as though they were ears of corn. He hit Adam’s left shoulder and extracted offspring who were black, as though they were charcoal, He said to those from Adam’s right shoulder: To Paradise and I am not troubled and He said to those from Aadam’s left shoulder to Hellfire and I am not troubled.’
[Collected by Ahmad and his son in ‘Zawaid al Musnad’, Bazaar and ibn Asaakir in ‘Tareekh Damishq. I say, its isnaad is saheeh.]
50 – Abu Nadrah said:
A man from the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam-became sick. His friends came to visit him and he began to cry so it was said to him:
‘What makes you cry Abu Abdullaah? Didn’t the Messenger of Allaah -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- say to you:
‘Take from your portion and be settled with that until you meet me.’
The man answered: ‘Of course, but I heard the Messenger of Allaah -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- saying:
‘Indeed Allaah, -Tabaraka wa Ta’ala- took a Handful with His right and said: These are for this [Paradise], and I am not troubled and He took another Handful i.e. with His Other Hand and said: These are for this [Hell-Fire] and I am not troubled.’
The man said: ‘I do not know in which of the two Handfuls I am in.’
[Collected by Ahmad and Bazaar and its isnaad is saheeh.]
‘Many people presume from these Ahadeeth – and there are many ahaadeeth like these – that a person is forced to do the actions he chooses to do, especially since it had been destined for him from old when he was created for either Paradise or Hellfire.
There are others who might presume that the issue is chaotic or by chance i.e. that whoever fell in amongst the Right Handful is from the people of bliss and whoever fell in the other Handful is from the people of misery.
Therefore, it is necessary that all of these people together know that concerning Allaah, He is:
<<There is nothing like unto Him and He is The All-Hearing, The All-Seeing>>
not in His Essence nor in His Attributes.
Therefore, if Allaah takes a Handful, then it is with His Knowledge, His Justice and His Wisdom. So Allaah Ta’ala took a Handful with the Right – those whom He knew would obey Him when He commanded them with obedience to Him – and He took another Handful with the others – of whom His knowledge, of their disobedience to Him preceded them when He commanded them to obey Him.
It is impossible, keeping in mind Allaah’s Justice, that the Handful of the Right could be from those deserving of being from the people of the other Handful and vice-versa. How could that be when Allaah, Azza wa Jall, says:
<<Then will We treat the Muslims like the criminals? What is [the matter] with you? How do you judge?>> [Qalam: 35-36]
Indeed there is none from each of the two Handfuls from the two different Handfuls who is forced to be from the people of Paradise or the people of Hellfire. Rather this aspect of being from the two different Handfuls is a judgement from Allaah –Tabarakawa Ta’ala, this judgment is of what will arise from themselves either of Eemaan which necessitates Paradise, or disbelief which entails the Hell-Fire, and Allaah Ta’ala’s refuge is sought from the Hell-Fire.
Both matters of Eemaan and Kufr (disbelief) are matters of choice, Allaah –Tabarakawa Ta’ala– does not force any single individual from his creation to anyone of these two mattes (Eemaan and Kufr).
<< Then whosoever wills, let him believe; and whosoever wills, let him disbelieve>> [Khaf: 29]
and this is something which can be testified to, and by necessity it is well-known. If there was no freedom to choose, then reward and punishment would be frivolous, and Allaah is far removed from frivolity.
Truly with great regret we hear from many of the people – and sometimes even from Shaykhs – openly saying that humans are forced and do not have a choice! By saying this they impose upon themselves the statement that Allaah allows Himself to oppress the people! Even though Allaah Ta’ala clearly mentions that He does not oppress the people even the weight of an atom, with although He has announced that He –Ta’ala- is capable of oppression, but He –Ta’ala- has far removed Himself from oppression, as it occurs in the well-known Hadeeth Qudsi: ‘O my servant! Indeed I have made oppression haram (prohibited) upon Myself . . . . .’ [Saheeh Muslim]
When they were confronted by this reality of the truth, they hastened to use the saying of Allaah Ta’ala: <<He cannot be questioned as to what He does>> [Anbiya: 23] They say explicitly that Allaah Ta’ala may oppress, but He cannot be asked about it!
Allaah is far removed from the great falsehood the oppressors say!
What escapes them is that this Ayaah is actually an evidence against them; because the meaning of the Ayaah is, as was researched by the great scholar Ibn al-Qayyim in his book ‘Shifa’ al-Aleel’ and by other scholars, that due to Allaah’s wisdom and His Justice in His rulings it is not allowed for anyone to ask Allaah why He does what He does; because all of Allaah Ta’ala’s rulings are clearly just, so there is no need to question.
These are a few quick words regarding the previous Ahadeeth. We tried to remove the doubts of some of the people regarding this issue, if we were successful in this, then this is a blessing, otherwise we refer the reader to extensive research of this dangerous topic, to the likes of the previous book by Ibn Qayyim, and to the books of his Shaykh Ibn Taymeeyah which are comprehensive regarding this important topic.’
[Taken from ‘Silsilah Ahadeeth As-Saheehah’ vol. 1 hadeeth no 82-84 p.164]
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From the Book Explaining the Fundamentals of faith – by Shaykh Muhammad Saleh Al Uthaymeen, Translated by Dr. Saleh as Saleh.
Translation of Sahih Muslim, Book 33:
The Book of Destiny (Kitab-ul-Qadr)
Whether the fate of man is predestined or he himself is the architect of it, is a question which has been very often discussed by scholars of all times. This problem is significantly important as no sensible man. not even the man in the street, can afford to ignore it. Faith in Taqdir (Destiny) has a very deep impact upon our lives and we always find our lives oscillating between determinism and freewill. As a man looks around himself and looks to his own self and within himself, he finds that there are hundred and one things in shaping and reshaping of which he has no hand, e. g. in determining the climate of the land in which he is born, in canalising the courses of rivers which flow therein and in determining the nature of the soil thereof. He finds himself absolutely powerless. As he looks to himself he finds that there are so many things In him which are beyond his control, viz. the measure of intellect he has been endowed with, the shape and form of his physical structure with which he has been sent to this world, and the inclinations and so many other qualities of head and heart which are embedded in his very nature. In all these aspects of life he finds himself helpless before the Great and Mighty Power that created him.
On the other hand, there are so many things in which man finds himself quite empowered. As he looks to the marvellous achievements of man despite all odds, he finds it difficult to believe that he is a mere puppet in the mighty hand of Nature. This problem of predestination and freewill, in which man finds his life hanging, has been adequately solved by the Qur’an and the Sunnah. We give below a brief summary of their elucidations.
The first principle which Islam lays down in regard to Taqdir is that man is neither completely the master of his fate nor is he bound to the blind law of predestination. So far as the sovereignty of Allah’s Will is concerned, it is all-pervading and nothing falls outside its orbit. Not even a leaf, therefore, stirs without His Will.
It is His Will that prevails everywhere. To God belongs the sovereignty of Heavens and the Earth. He created what He pleaseth, giving to whom He pleaseth females and to whom He pleaseth males or conjoining them males and females, and He maketh whom He pleaseth barren, verify He hath knowledge and power (xlii. 48).
Men are, therefore, completely subordinate to the overruling power of God, they cannot do anything unless God wills so.
” Whom God guideth he is the rightly-guided. Whom he sendeth stray, thou wilt not find a patron to set him right (xviii. 16).
His mighty grasp is, therefore, over everything. The Almighty Lord, Who has created everything and has determined its nature and course, has in His infinite wisdom and mercy conferred upon man a limited autonomy according to which a man is free to do or not to do a certain thing. It is because of this autonomy enjoyed by man that he is hold accountable for his deeds. The concept of human responsibility and that of his answerability for his deeds and misdeeds becomes meaningless if he is supposed to be deprived of this autonomy. There are, a large number of verses in the Holy Qur’an which make a pointed reference to the autonomy conferred upon man.
Man shall have nothing but that what he strives for (liii. 39).
Allah does not change the condition of a people until they change it themselves (viii. 53; xiii. 11).
Those who strive in His path, are guided in the right path, while those who persist in denial and sinful livifig have their hearts sealed against faith (ii. 7, 26; iv. 155; v;. i. 102).
Allah does not compel belief and leaves the people free to believe or disbelieve (vi. 35, 150; xvi-. 9).
Whoever has done an atorn’s weight of good shall meet with its reward and whoever has done an atom’s weight of evil shall meet with its consequences (xcix. 7-8).
It should be borne in mind in this connection that the word Taqdir used in the Qur’an does not always signify something predestined. It at times implies a measure or the latent potentialities or possibilities with which Allali created man and all things of Nature. For example: He created everything for its Destiny (or its Measure) (xxv. 2). In Sura 54, verse 9 (the words are): We created everything according to a Measure or Destiny. In both these verses Destiny impiies the inward reach of things, their latent potentialities or possibilities.
The idea of Destiny as we find in the hadith that God wrote down the decrees regarding the created world fifty thousand years before He created the Heavens and the Earth does not in any way mean that God created a block Universe, finished off and complete, bound to the iron formulae of Nature. Here the idea behind Taqdir is that the creation of this universe is not accidental but something preplanned and pre-conceived and it was shaped according to the Grand Design of the Greatest Designer. There is no element of chance in the creation of this Universe. Everything is well-set and well-planned.
The idea that Allah has a foreknowledge of everything that He created and the events unfold themselves exactly according to it, does not imply that human beings have been completely deprived of the freedom of action. The foreknowledge of God is an acknowledged fact, but it should not be interpreter in the sense of predestination, for if we do so we shall have to conceive of eternity as a storehouse of ready-made events, from which they drop one by one like particles of sand in a glass hour. If we take the foreknowledge to be a reflecting mirror we shall have to deprive the Creator and the Controller of the Universe of His Creative activity.
Dr Muhammad Iqbal has shed a good deal of light over this problem. He says:” Divine knowledge must be conceived as a living creative activity to which the objects that appear to exist in their own right are organically related. By conceiving God’s knowledge as a kind of reflecting mirror, we no doubt save His fore-knowledge of future events, but it is obvious that we do so at the expense of His freedom. The future certainly pre-exists in the organic whole of God’s creative life, but it pre-exists as an open possibility, not as a fixed order of events with definite outlines.”
We should bear in mind that the idea of put, present and future is something relative and is conceived by the inite wind of man. It is. however, a great now in the eye of the All-Seeing God. The whole expanse of eternity lies before Him in the shape of now. Knowledge is, therefore, an act of creative activity and not the mere reflection of it. When He decrees a thing it happens and He knows it before it happens. God in Islam is not, therefore, a prisoner of necenity. He is a free Creator.
The concept of predestination in Islam, therefore, does not in any way mean helpless abandonment of oneself to otherwise unwelcome fate. It means rather co-operation with God, studying His will and bringing oneself into unison with His Planning Will. Destiny as conceived by Islam is, thus, by no stretch of imagination, fatal to the freedom of conduct and unfoldment of one’s inherent possibilities; it is a source of inspiration and encouragement and opens up vast fields of human activity. It is not a message of despondency and despair, but a source of solace, comfort and inspiration and a powerful means of evoking a sense of piety and humility and self-surrender to the Will of God. It does not inculcate in mind frustration and pessimism, making his life dark and dreary, devoid of hope and promise for the future, but it teaches him to put his heart and soul in the sublime work as assigned to him by his Master.
Chapter 1: THE GROWTH OF A CHILD IN THE WOMB OF A MOTHER AND HIS DESTINY IN REGARD TO HIS LIVELIHOOD, HIS DEEDS, BOTH GOOD AND EVIL
Book 033, Number 6390:
Abdullah (b. Mas’ud) reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) who is the most truthful (of the human beings) and his being truthful (is a fact) said: Verily your creation is on this wise. The constituents of one of you are collected for forty days in his mother’s womb in the form of blood, after which it becomes a clot of blood in another period of forty days. Then it becomes a lump of flesh and forty days later Allah sends His angel to it with instructions concerning four things, so the angel writes down his livelihood, his death, his deeds, his fortune and misfortune. By Him, besides Whom there is no god, that one amongst you acts like the people deserving Paradise until between him and Paradise there remains but the distance of a cubit, when suddenly the writing of destiny overcomes him and he begins to act like the denizens of Hell and thus enters Hell, and another one acts in the way of the denizens of Hell, until there remains between him and Hell a distance of a cubit that the writing of destiny overcomes him and then he begins to act like the people of Paradise and enters Paradise.
Book 033, Number 6391:
This hadith has been reported on the authority of A’mash with the same chain of transmitters and in the hadith transmitted on the authority of Waki’ (the words are):” The creation of any one of you is like this that (semen) is collected in the womb of the mother for forty nights,” and in the hadith transmitted on the authority of Shu’ba (the words are):” Forty nights and forty days.” And in the hadith transmitted on the authority of Jarir and ‘Isa (the words are):” Forty days.”
Book 033, Number 6392:
Hudhaifa b. Usaid reported directly from Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) that lie said: When the drop of (semen) remains in the womb for forty or fifty (days) or forty nights, the angel comes and says: My Lord, will he be good or evil? And both these things would be written. Then the angel says: My Lord, would he be male or female? And both these things are written. And his deeds and actions, his death, his livelihood; these are also recorded. Then his document of destiny is rolled and there is no, addition to and subtraction from it.
Book 033, Number 6393:
‘Abdullah b. Mas’ud reported: Evil one is he who is evil in the womb of his mother and the good one is he who takes lesson from the (fate of) others. The narrator came to a person from amongst the Companion of Allah’s Me ssenger (may peace be upon him) who was called Hudhaifa b. Usaid Ghifari and said: How can a person be an evil one without (cornmittilng an evil) deed? Thereupon the person said to him: You are surprised at this, whereas I have heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saving: When forty nights pass after the semen gets into the womb, Allah sends the angel and gives him the shape. Then he creates his sense of hearing, sense of sight, his skin, his flesh, his bones, and then says: My Lord, would he be male or female? And your Lord decides as He desires and the angel then puts down that also and then says: My Lord, what about his age? And your Lord decides as He likes it and the angel puts it down. Then he says: My Lord, what about his livelihood? And then the Lord decides as He likes and the angel writes it down, and then the angel gets out with his scroll of destiny in his hand and nothing is added to it and nothing is subtracted from it.
Book 033, Number 6394:
This hadith has been narrated on the authority of ‘Abdullah b. Mas’ud through another chain of transmitters.
Book 033, Number 6395:
Abu Tufail reported: I visited Abu Sariha Hudhaifa b. Usaid al-Ghifari who said: I listened with these two ears of mine Allahs Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The semen stays in the womb for forty nights, then the angel, gives it a shape. Zubair said: I think that he said: One who fashions that and decides whether he would be male or female. Then he (the angel) says: Would his limbs be full or imperfect? And then the Lord makes thein full and perfect or otherwise as He desires. Then he says: My Lord, what about his livelihood, and his death and what about his disposition? And then the Lord decides about his misfortune and fortune.
Book 033, Number 6396:
Hadhaifa b. Usaid Ghifari, a Companion of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him), reported it directly from Allah’s Messenger (may peace upon him). as he said: There is an angel who looks after the womb when Allah decides to create any- thing after more than forty nights are over; the rest of the hadith is the same.
Book 033, Number 6397:
Anas b. Malik reported directly from Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) that he said: Allah, the Exlated and Glorious, has appointed an angel as the caretaker of the womb, and he would say: My Lord, it is now a drop of semen; my Lord, It is now a clot of blood; my Lord, it has now become a lump of flesh, and when Allah decides to give it a final shape, the angel says: My Lord, would it be male or female or would he be an evil or a good person? What about his livelihood and his age? And it is all written as he is in the womb of his mother.
Book 033, Number 6398:
All reported: We were in a funeral in the graveyard of Gharqad that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) came to us and we sat around him. He had a stick with him. He lowered his head and began to scratch the earth with his stick, and then raid: There is not one amongst you whom a scat in Paradise or Hell has not been allotted and about whom it has not been written down whether he would be an evil person or a blessed person. A person said: Allah’s Messenger, should we not then depend npon our destiny and abandon our deeds? Thereupon he said: Acts of everyone will be facilitated in, that which has been created for him so that whoever belongs to the com. pany of the blessed will have good works made easier for himand whoever belongs to the unfortunate ones will have evil acts made easier for him. He then recited this verse (from the Qur’an):” Then, who gives to the needy and guardsagainst evil and accepts the excellent (the truth of Islam and the path of righteousness it prescribes), We shall make easy for him the easy end and who is miserly and considers himself above need, We shall make easy for him the dificult end”. (XCii. 5-10).
Book 033, Number 6399:
This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Mansur with the same chain of transmitters but with a slight variation of wording.
Book 033, Number 6400:
‘Ali reported that one day Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) was sitting with a wood in his hand and he was scratching the ground. He raised his head and said: There is not one amongst you who has not been allotted his seat in Paradise or Hell. They said: Allah’s Messenger. then, why should we perform good deeds, why not depend upon our destiny? Thereupon he said. No, do perform good deeds, for everyone is facilitated in that for which he has been created; then he recited this verse:” Then, who gives to the needy and guards against evil and accepts the excellent (the truth of Islam and the path of righteousness it prescribes), We shall make easy for him the easy end…” (xcii. 5-10).
Book 033, Number 6401:
This hadith has been narrated on the authority of ‘Ali through another chain of transmitters.
Book 033, Number 6402:
Jabir reported that Suriqa b. Malik b. Ju’shuin came and said: Allah’s Messenger, explain our religion to us (in a way) as if we have been created just now. Whosoever deeds we do today, is it because of the fact that-the pens have dried (after recording them) and the destitiles have began to operate or these have effects in future? Thereupon he said: The pens have dried tmd destinies have begun to operate. (Suraqa b. Malik) said: If it Is so, then what is the use of doing good deeds? Zuhair said: Then Abu Zubair said something but I could not understand that and I said. What did he say? Thereupon he said: Act, for everyone is facilitated what he intends to do.
Book 033, Number 6403:
This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Jabir b. Abdullah with the same wording (and includes these words):” Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Every doer of deed is facilitated in his action.”
Book 033, Number 6404:
‘Imran b. Husain repotted that it was said to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him): Has there been drawn a distinction between the people of Paradise and the denizens of hell? He said: Yes. It was again said: (If it is so), then What is the use of doing good deeds? Thereupon he said: Everyone is facilitated in what has been created for him.
Book 033, Number 6405:
This hadith has been narrated through other chains of transmiters with slight variations of wording.
Book 033, Number 6406:
Abu al-Aswad reported that ‘Imran b Husain asked him: What is your view, what the people do today in the world, and strive for, is it something decreed for them or preordained for them or will their fate in the Hereafter be deterrained by the fact that their Prophets brought them teaching which they did not act upon? I said: Of course, it is something which is predetermined for them and preordained for them. He (further) said: Then, would it not be an injustice (to punish them)? I felt greatly disturbed because of that, and said: Everything is created by Allah and lies in His Power. He would not be questioned as to what He does, but they would be questioned; thereupon he said to me: May Allah have mercy upon you, I did not mean to ask you but for testing your intelligence. Two men of the tribe of Muzaina came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and said: Allah’s Messenger, what is your opinion that the people do in the world and strive for, is something decreed for them; something preordained for them and will their fate in the Hereafter be determined by the fact that their Prophets brought them teachings which they did not act upon. and thus they became deserving of punishment? Thereupon, he said: Of course, it happens as it is decreed by Destiny and preordained for them, and this view is confirmed by this verse of the Book of Allah, the Exalted and Glorious:” Consider the soul and Him Who made it perfect, then breathed into it its sin and its piety” (xci. 8).
Book 033, Number 6407:
Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (way peace be upon him) as saying: Verily, a person performs deeds for a long time like the deeds of the people of Paradise. Then his deeds are terminated like the deeds of the people of Hell and, verily, a person performs deeds like the denizens of Fire for a long time, and then this deed of his is ultimately followed by the deeds of the people of Paradise.
Book 033, Number 6408:
Sahl b. Sa’d reported it from Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) that a person performs deeds like the deeds of the people of Paradise apparently before people and he would be amongst the dwellers of Hell and a person acts apparently like the people of Hell, but (in fact) he would be among the dwellers of Paradise.
Chapter 2: THE EXCHANGE OF ARGUMENTS BETWEEN ADAM AND MOSES (ALLAH BE PLEASED WITH BOTH OF THEM)
Book 033, Number 6409:
Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (way peace be upon him) as saying: There was argument between Adam and Moses. Moses said to Adam: You are our father. You did us harm and caused us to get out of Paradise. Adam said to him: You are Moses. Allah selected you (for direct conversation with you) and wrote with His own Hand the Book (Torah) for you. Despite this you blame me for an act which Allah had ordained for me forty years before He created me. Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said:. This is how Adam came the better of Moses and Adam came the better of Moses.
Book 033, Number 6410:
Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: There was argument between Adam and Moses, and Adam came the better of Moses. Moses said to him: You are the same Adam who misled people, and caused them to get out of Paradise. Adam said: You are the same (Moses) whom Allah endowed the knowledge of everything and selected him amongst the people as His Messenger. He said: Yes. Adam then again said: Even then you blame me for an affair which had been ordained for me before I was created.
Book 033, Number 6411:
Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: There was an argument between Adam and Moses (peace be upon both of them) in the presence of their Lord. Adam came the better of Moses. Moses said: Are you that Adam whom Allah created with His Hand and breathed into himHis sprit, and commanded angels to fall in prostration before him and He made you live in Paradise with comfort and ease. Then you caused the people to get down to the earth because of your lapse. Adam said: Are you that Moses whom Allah selected for His Messengership and for His conversation with him and conferred upon you the tablets, in which everything was clearly explained and granted you the audience in order to have confidential talk with you. What is your opinion, how long Torah would haye been written before I was created? Moses said: Forty years before. Adam said: Did you not see these words: Adam committed an error and he was enticed to (do so). He (Moses) said: Yes. Whereupon, he (Adam) said: Do you then blame me for an act which Allah had ordained for me forty years before He created me? Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: This is how Adam came the better of Moses.
Book 033, Number 6412:
Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: There was an argument between Adam and Moses. Moses said: Are you that Adam whose lapse caused you to get out of Paradise? Adam said to him: Are you that Moses whom Allah selected for His Messengership, for His conversation and you blame me for an affair which had been ordained for me before I was created? This is how Adam came the better of Moses.
Book 033, Number 6413:
Abu Huraira narrated a hadith like this through another chain of transmitters.
Book 033, Number 6414:
This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira through another chain of transmitters.
Book 033, Number 6415:
Abu Huraira reported a hadith like this through another chain of transmitters.
Book 033, Number 6416:
Abdullah b. ‘Amr b. al-‘As reported: I heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Allah ordained the measures (of quality) of the creation fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth, as His Throne was upon water.
Book 033, Number 6417:
This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Abu Hani with the same chain of transmitters, but there is no mention of” His Throne was upon water.”
Chapter 3: ALLAH TURNS THE HEARTS AS HE DESIRES
Book 033, Number 6418:
Abdullah b. Amr b. al-‘As reported that he heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Verily, the hearts of all the sons of Adam are between the two fingers out of the fingers of the Compassionate Lord as one heart. He turns that to any (direction) He likes. Then Allahs Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: 0 Allah, the Turner of the hearts, turn our hearts to Thine obedience.
Chapter 4: THERE IS A MEASURE FOR EVERYTHING
Book 033, Number 6419:
Tawus reported: I found some Companions of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Everything is by measure. And he further said: I heard Abdullah b. ‘Umar as saying: There is a neasure for everything-even for incapacity and-capability.
Book 033, Number 6420:
Abu Huraira reported that the polytheists of the Quraish came to have an argument with Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) in regard to Destiny and then this verse was revealed:” On the day when they are dragged into the Fire upon their faces, taste the touch of Fire. Surely, We have created everything according to a measure” (liv. 48).
Chapter 5: THE MEASURE OF THE SON OF ADAM IN REGARD TO ADULTERY, ETC.
Book 033, Number 6421:
Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying: Verily Allah has fixed the very portion of adultery which a man will indulge in, and which he of necessity must comrriit. The adultery of the eye is the lustful look, and the adultery of the tongue is the licentious speech, the heart desires and yearns, which the parts may or may not put into effect.
Book 033, Number 6422:
Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying. Allah fixed the very portion of adultery which a man will indulge in. There would be no escape from it. The adultery of the eye is the lustful look and the adultery of the ears is listening to voluptuous (song or talk) and the adultery of the tongue is licentious speech and the adultery of the hand is the lustful grip (embrace) and the adultery of the feet is to walk (to the place) where he intends to commit adultery and the heart yearns and desires which he may or may not put into effect.
Chapter 6: EVERYONE IS BORN ACCORDING TO HIS TRUE NATURE AND THE COMMAND PERTAINING TO THE DEMISE OF THE CHILDREN OF THE INFIDELS AND OF THE CHILDREN OF THE MUSLIMS
Book 033, Number 6423:
There is none born but is created to his true nature (Islam). It is his parents who make him a Jew or a Christian or a Magian quite as beasts produce their young with their limbs perfect. Do you see anything deficient in them? Then he quoted the Qur’an., The nature made by Allah in which He has created men there is no altering of Allah’s creation; that is the right religion” (xxx. 33)
Book 033, Number 6424:
This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Zuhri with the same chain of transmitters and there is no mention of his deficiency in limbs.
Book 033, Number 6425:
Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: No child is born but upon Fitra. He then said. Recite: The nature made by Allah in which He created man, there is no altering of Allah’s nature; that is the right religion.”
Book 033, Number 6426:
Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: No babe is born but upon Fitra. It is his parents who make him a Jew or a Christian or a Polytheist. A person said: Allah’s Messenger, what is your opinion if they were to die before that (before reaching the age of adolescence when they can distinguish between right and wrong)? He said: It is Allah alone Who knows what they would be doing.
Book 033, Number 6427:
It is reported on the authority of Abu Mu’awiya that (the Holy Prophet) said: Every new-born babe is born on the millat (of Islam and he) remains on this until his tongue is enabled to express himself.
This hadith has been narratted on the authority of Abu Mu’awiya through another chain of transmitters (and the words are):” Every child is born but on this Fitra so long as he does not express himself with his tongue.”
Book 033, Number 6428:
Abu Huraira reported from Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upom him) many ahadith and one amongst them is that he is reported to have said: An infant is born according to his (true) nature. It is his parents Who make him a Jew, a Christian, just as a she-camel gives birth to its young ones. Do you find any deficiency in their limbs? You cut their ears (i. e. after birth). They (the Companions of the Holy Prophet) said: What is your opinion about him who dies in infancy? Thereupon Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: It is Allah alone Who knows best what they would be doing.
Book 033, Number 6429:
Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The mother of every person gives him birth according to his true nature. It is subsequently his parents who make him a Jew or a Christian or a Magian. Had his parents been Muslim he would have also remained a Muslim. Every person to whom his mother gives birth (has two aspects of his life) ; when his mother gives birth Satan strikes him but it was not the case with Mary and her son (Jesus Christ).
Book 033, Number 6430:
Abu Huraira reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) was asked about the children of the polytheists, whereupon he said: It is Allah Who knows best what they would be doing.
Book 033, Number 6431:
This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Shu’aib and Ma’qil with a slight variation of wording.
Book 033, Number 6432:
Abu Huraira reported that Allahs Messenger (way peace be upon him) was asked about the children of the polytheists who die young. Thereupon Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: It is Allah Who knows what they would be doing.
Book 033, Number 6433:
Ibn Abbas reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) was asked about the children of the polytheists, whereupon he said: It is Allah alone Who knows what they would be doing according to their creation.
Book 033, Number 6434:
Ubayy b. Ka’b reported that AUah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: The young man whom Khadir killed was a non-believer by his very nature and had he survived he would have involved his parents in defiance and unbelief.
Book 033, Number 6435:
‘A’isha, the mother of the believers, reported that a child died and I said: There is happiness for this child who is a bird from amongst the birds of Paradise. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Don’t you know that Allah created the Paradise and He created the Hell and He created the dwellers for this (Paradise) and the denizens for this (Hell)?
Book 033, Number 6436:
‘A’isha, the mother of the believers, said that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) was called to lead the funeral prayer of a child of the Ansar. I said: Allah’s Messenger, there is happiness for this child who is a bird from the birds of Paradise for it committed no sin nor has he reached the age when one can commit sin. He said: ‘A’isha, per adventure, it may be otherwise, because God created for Paradise those who are fit for it while they were yet in their father’s loins and created for Hell those who are to go to Hell. He created them for Hell while they were yet in their father’s loins.
Book 033, Number 6437:
This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Yahya with the same chain of transmitters.
Chapter 7: THE SPAN OF LIFE AND LIVELIHOOD DOES NOT INCREASE OR DECREASE BEYOND THAT WHAT IS LAID DOWN
Book 033, Number 6438:
Abdullah reported that Umm Habiba, the wife of Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him), said: 0 Allah, enable me to derive benefit from my husband, the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), and from my father Abu Sufyan and from my brother Mu’awiya. Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: You have asked from Allah about durations of life already set, and the length of days already allotted and the sustenances the share of which has been fixed. Allah would not do anything earlier before its due time, or He would not delay anything beyond its due time. And if you were to ask Allah to provide you refuge from the torment of the HellFire, or from the torment of the grave, it would have good in store for you and better for you also. He (the narrator) further said: Mention was made before him about monkeys, and Mis’ar (one of the narrators) said: I think that (the narrator) also (made a mention) of the swine, which had suffered metamorphosis. Thereupon he (the Holy Prophet) said: Verily, Allah did not cause the race of those which suffered metamorphosis to grow or they were not survived by young ones. Monkeys and swine had been in existence even before (the metamorphosis of the human beings).
Book 033, Number 6439:
This hadith has been reported on the authority of Mis’ar with the same chain of transmitters but with this variation that the hadith transmitted on the authority of Ibn Bishr and Waki’, the torment of the Hell-Fire and the torment of grave have been mentioned together (and there is no conjunction” iw” or” between them).
Book 033, Number 6440:
Ibn Mas’dd reported that Umm Habiba said: 0 Allah, enable me to derive benefit from my husband, Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him), and from my father Abu Sufyan, and from my brother Mu’awiya. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said to her: Verily, you have asked Allah about the durations of life already set, and the steps which you would take, and the sustenances the share of which is fixed. Nothing would take place earlier than its due time, and nothing would be deferred beyond that when it is due. So, if you were to ask Allah about your safety from the torment of Hell-Fire and from the torment of the grave, it would have been better for you. A person said: Allah’s Messenger, what about those apes and swine which suffered metamorphosis? Thereupon Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: Verily, Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, did not destroy a people or did not torment a people, and let their race grow. Apes and swine had been even before that (when the deniers of truth were tormented and suffered metamorphosis). This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Sufyin through another chain of transmitters but with a slight variation of wording.
Chapter 8: AFFAIR PERTAINING TO STRENGTH, AND SHEDDING OFF WEAKNESS, AND SEEKING HELP FROM ALLAH AND TRUST IN THE MEASURES SET BY ALLAH
Book 033, Number 6441:
Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: A strong believer is better and is more lovable to Allah than a weak believer, and there is good in everyone, (but) cherish that which gives you benefit (in the Hereafter) and seek help from Allah and do not lose heart, and if anything (in the form of trouble) comes to you, don’t say: If I had not done that, it would not have happened so and so, but say: Allah did that what He had ordained to do and your” if” opens the (gate) for the Satan.
[ Index Page ]
Translation of Sahih Bukhari, Book 77:
Divine Will (Al-Qadar)
Allah’s Apostle, the truthful and truly-inspired, said, “Each one of you collected in the womb of his mother for forty days, and then turns into a clot for an equal period (of forty days) and turns into a piece of flesh for a similar period (of forty days) and then Allah sends an angel and orders him to write four things, i.e., his provision, his age, and whether he will be of the wretched or the blessed (in the Hereafter). Then the soul is breathed into him. And by Allah, a person among you (or a man) may do deeds of the people of the Fire till there is only a cubit or an arm-breadth distance between him and the Fire, but then that writing (which Allah has ordered the angel to write) precedes, and he does the deeds of the people of Paradise and enters it; and a man may do the deeds of the people of Paradise till there is only a cubit or two between him and Paradise, and then that writing precedes and he does the deeds of the people of the Fire and enters it.”
Volume 8, Book 77, Number 594:
Narrated Anas bin Malik:
The Prophet said, “Allah puts an angel in charge of the uterus and the angel says, ‘O Lord, (it is) semen! O Lord, (it is now ) a clot! O Lord, (it is now) a piece of flesh.’ And then, if Allah wishes to complete its creation, the angel asks, ‘O Lord, (will it be) a male or a female? A wretched (an evil doer) or a blessed (doer of good)? How much will his provisions be? What will his age be?’ So all that is written while the creature is still in the mother’s womb.”
Volume 8, Book 77, Number 595:
Narrated Imran bin Husain:
A man said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Can the people of Paradise be known (differentiated) from the people of the Fire; The Prophet replied, “Yes.” The man said, “Why do people (try to) do (good) deeds?” The Prophet said, “Everyone will do the deeds for which he has been created to do or he will do those deeds which will be made easy for him to do.” (i.e. everybody will find easy to do such deeds as will lead him to his destined place for which he has been created).
Volume 8, Book 77, Number 596:
Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas:
The Prophet ; was asked about the offspring of the pagans. He said, “Allah knows what they would have done (were they to live).”
Volume 8, Book 77, Number 597:
Narrated Abu Huraira:
Allah’s Apostle was asked about the offspring of the pagans. He said, “Allah knows what they would have done (were they to live).”
Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah’s Apostle said, “No child is born but has the Islamic Faith, but its parents turn it into a Jew or a Christian. It is as you help the animals give birth. Do you find among their offspring a mutilated one before you mutilate them yourself?” The people said, “O Allah’s Apostle! What do you think about those (of them) who die young?” The Prophet said, “Allah knows what they would have done (were they to live).”
Volume 8, Book 77, Number 598:
Narrated Abu Huraira:
Allah’s Apostle said, “No woman should ask for the divorce of her sister (Muslim) so as to take her place, but she should marry the man (without compelling him to divorce his other wife), for she will have nothing but what Allah has written for her.”
Volume 8, Book 77, Number 599:
Once while I was with the Prophet and Sa’d, Ubai bin Ka’b and Mu’adh were also sitting with him, there came to him a messenger from one of his daughters, telling him that her child was on the verge of death. The Prophet told the messenger to tell her, “It is for Allah what He takes, and it is for Allah what He gives, and everything has its fixed time (limit). So (she should) be patient and look for Allah’s reward.”
Volume 8, Book 77, Number 600:
Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri:
That while he was sitting with the Prophet a man from the Ansar came and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! We get slave girls from the war captives and we love property; what do you think about coitus interruptus?” Allah’s Apostle said, “Do you do that? It is better for you not to do it, for there is no soul which Allah has ordained to come into existence but will be created.”
Volume 8, Book 77, Number 601:
The Prophet once delivered a speech in front of us wherein he left nothing but mentioned (about) everything that would happen till the Hour. Some of us stored that our minds and some forgot it. (After that speech) I used to see events taking place (which had been referred to in that speech) but I had forgotten them (before their occurrence). Then I would recognize such events as a man recognizes another man who has been absent and then sees and recognizes him.
Volume 8, Book 77, Number 602:
While we were sitting with the Prophet who had a stick with which he was scraping the earth, he lowered his head and said, “There is none of you but has his place assigned either in the Fire or in Paradise.” Thereupon a man from the people said, “Shall we not depend upon this, O Allah’s Apostle?” The Prophet said, “No, but carry on and do your deeds, for everybody finds it easy to do such deeds (as will lead him to his place).” The Prophet then recited the Verse: ‘As for him who gives (in charity) and keeps his duty to Allah..’ (92.5)
Volume 8, Book 77, Number 603:
Narrated Abu Huraira:
We witnessed along with Allah’s Apostle the Khaibar (campaign). Allah’s Apostle told his companions about a man who claimed to be a Muslim, “This man is from the people of the Fire.” When the battle started, the man fought very bravely and received a great number of wounds and got crippled. On that, a man from among the companions of the Prophet came and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Do you know what the man you described as of the people of the Fire has done? He has fought very bravely for Allah’s Cause and he has received many wounds.” The Prophet said, “But he is indeed one of the people of the Fire.” Some of the Muslims were about to have some doubt about that statement. So while the man was in that state, the pain caused by the wounds troubled him so much that he put his hand into his quiver and took out an arrow and committed suicide with it. Off went some men from among the Muslims to Allah’s Apostle and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Allah has made your statement true. So-and-so has committed suicide.” Allah’s Apostle said, “O Bilal! Get up and announce in public: None will enter Paradise but a believer, and Allah may support this religion (Islam) with a wicked man.”
Volume 8, Book 77, Number 604:
Narrated Sahl bin Sa’d:
There was a man who fought most bravely of all the Muslims on behalf of the Muslims in a battle (Ghazwa) in the company of the Prophet. The Prophet looked at him and said. “If anyone would like to see a man from the people of the Fire, let him look at this (brave man).” On that, a man from the People (Muslims) followed him, and he was in that state i.e., fighting fiercely against the pagans till he was wounded, and then he hastened to end his life by placing his sword between his breasts (and pressed it with great force) till it came out between his shoulders. Then the man (who was watching that person) went quickly to the Prophet and said, “I testify that you are Allah’s Apostle!” The Prophet asked him, “Why do you say that?” He said, “You said about so-and-so, ‘If anyone would like to see a man from the people of the Fire, he should look at him.’ He fought most bravely of all of us on behalf of the Muslims and I knew that he would not die as a Muslim (Martyr). So when he got wounded, he hastened to die and committed suicide.” There-upon the Prophet said, “A man may do the deeds of the people of the Fire while in fact he is one of the people of Paradise, and he may do the deeds of the people of Paradise while in fact he belongs to the people of Fire, and verily, (the rewards of) the deeds are decided by the last actions (deeds)”.
Volume 8, Book 77, Number 605:
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:
The Prophet forbade vowing and said, “In fact, vowing does not prevent anything, but it makes a miser to spend his property.”
Volume 8, Book 77, Number 606:
Narrated Abu Huraira:
The Prophet said (that Allah said), “Vowing does not bring to the son of Adam anything I have not already written in his fate, but vowing is imposed on him by way of fore ordainment. Through vowing I make a miser spend of his wealth.”
Volume 8, Book 77, Number 607:
Narrated Abu Musa:
While we were with Allah’s Apostle in a holy battle, we never went up a hill or reached its peak or went down a valley but raised our voices with Takbir. Allah’s Apostle came close to us and said, “O people! Don’t exert yourselves, for you do not call a deaf or an absent one, but you call the All-Listener, the All-Seer.” The Prophet then said, “O ‘Abdullah bin Qais! Shall I teach you a sentence which is from the treasures of Paradise? ( It is): ‘La haula wala quwata illa billah. (There is neither might nor power except with Allah).”
Volume 8, Book 77, Number 608:
Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri:
That the Prophet said, “No Caliph is appointed but has two groups of advisors: One group advises him to do good and urges him to adopt it, and the other group advises him to do bad and urges him to adopt it; and the protected is the one whom Allah protects.”
Volume 8, Book 77, Number 609:
Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas:
I did not see anything so resembling minor sins as what Abu Huraira said from the Prophet, who said, “Allah has written for the son of Adam his inevitable share of adultery whether he is aware of it or not: The adultery of the eye is the looking (at something which is sinful to look at), and the adultery of the tongue is to utter (what it is unlawful to utter), and the innerself wishes and longs for (adultery) and the private parts turn that into reality or refrain from submitting to the temptation.”
Volume 8, Book 77, Number 610:
Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas:
(regarding the Verse) “And We granted the vision (Ascension to the heavens “Miraj”) which We showed you (O Muhammad as an actual eye witness) but as a trial for mankind.’ (17.60): Allah’s Apostle actually saw with his own eyes the vision (all the things which were shown to him) on the night of his Night Journey to Jerusalem (and then to the heavens). The cursed tree which is mentioned in the Qur’an is the tree of Az-Zaqqum.
Volume 8, Book 77, Number 611:
Narrated Abu Huraira:
The Prophet said, “Adam and Moses argued with each other. Moses said to Adam. ‘O Adam! You are our father who disappointed us and turned us out of Paradise.’ Then Adam said to him, ‘O Moses! Allah favored you with His talk (talked to you directly) and He wrote (the Torah) for you with His Own Hand. Do you blame me for action which Allah had written in my fate forty years before my creation?’ So Adam confuted Moses, Adam confuted Moses,” the Prophet added, repeating the Statement three times.
Volume 8, Book 77, Number 612:
(the freed slave of Al-Mughira bin Shu’ba) Muawiya wrote to Mughira. ‘Write to me what you heard the Prophet saying after his prayer.’ So Al-Mughira dictated to me and said, “I heard the Prophet saying after the prayer, ‘None has the right to be worshipped but Allah Alone Who has no partner. O Allah! No-one can withhold what You give, and none can give what You withhold, and the fortune of a man of means is useless before You (i.e., only good deeds are of value).”
Volume 8, Book 77, Number 613:
Narrated Abu Huraira:
The Prophet said, “Take refuge with Allah from the difficulties of severe calamities, from having an evil end and a bad fate and from the malicious joy of your enemies.”
Volume 8, Book 77, Number 614:
When taking an oath, the Prophet very often used to say, “No, by Him Who turns the hearts.”
Volume 8, Book 77, Number 615:
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:
The Prophet said to Ibn Saiyad, “I have kept for you a secret.” Ibn Saiyad said, “Ad-Dukh.” The Prophet said, “Keep quiet, for you cannot go beyond your limits (or you cannot exceed what has been foreordained for you).” On that, ‘Umar said (to the Prophet ), “Allow me to chop off his neck!” The Prophet said, “Leave him, for if he is he (i.e., Ad-Dajjal), then you will not be able to overcome him, and if he is not, then you gain no good by killing him.”
Volume 8, Book 77, Number 616:
I asked Allah’s Apostle about the plague. He said, “That was a means of torture which Allah used to send upon whom-so-ever He wished, but He made it a source of mercy for the believers, for anyone who is residing in a town in which this disease is present, and remains there and does not leave that town, but has patience and hopes for Allah’s reward, and knows that nothing will befall him except what Allah has written for him, then he will get such reward as that of a martyr.”
Volume 8, Book 77, Number 617:
Narrated Al-Bara’ bin ‘Azib:
I saw the Prophet on the Day of (the battle of) Al-Khandaq, carrying earth with us and saying, “By Allah, without Allah we would not have been guided, neither would we have fasted, nor would we have prayed. O Allah! Send down Sakina (calmness) upon us and make our feet firm when we meet (the enemy). The pagans have rebelled against us, but if they want to put us in affliction (i.e., fight us) we refuse (to flee).” (See Hadith No. 430, Vol. 5).
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Imaam Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyyah
Source:His monumental book Ad-Daa wad-Dawaa [The Sickness and the Cure] (pg.22 -23)
Here there occurs a very popular question and it is:
If the thing that is being supplicated for is already decreed for the servant, then there is no doubt that it is going to come to pass for him, regardless of whether he supplicates for it or not. And if it has not been decreed for him, then it will not come to pass, regardless of whether he asks Allaah for it or not.
There is one group that perceives this question to be valid and so they have abandoned the supplication and are of the view that there is no benefit in doing it. These people, along with their excessive ignorance and misguidance are in clear contradiction, for if we were to follow their opinion, it would require us to reject all the different means for attaining something (desired).
So it can be said to one of them:
If satisfying your appetite and quenching your thirst were already decreed for you, then there is no doubt that they are going to come to pass, whether you eat and drink or you don’t. And if they were not decreed for you, they will not come to pass, whether you eat and drink or you don’t.
And likewise, if a child were decreed for you, then you will definitely receive it, whether you have sexual intercourse with your wife or you don’t. And if that was not decreed for you, then it will not come to pass. Thus there is no need for marrying, having sexual relations and so on and so forth.
Who says such a statement? Is it one possessing common sense or a beast? Rather, even the animal has a natural inclination (fitrah) towards seeking the means of attaining something (desired), which (for example) will give it sustenance and livelihood. So the animals have more common sense and possess more understanding than these types of people who are like cattle – nay, far worse!
Some of them try to be clever and say:
Preoccupying oneself with supplication falls into the realm of worship solely – Allaah will reward the one supplicating, without that having an effect on what he is asking for in any way. According to this type of person, there is no difference between supplicating and refraining from supplicating by heart and tongue, with regard to that having an effect on attaining what is being asked for. And according to them, the relation of the supplication to it (what is being asked for) is like its relation with silence. There is no difference between them.
Another group, more slick than this one says:
Rather, the supplication is a sign, which Allaah displays as a symbol that a matter has been carried out. So when Allaah grants his servant the ability to supplicate, it is a sign and a symbol that the matter he was requesting has been carried out. This is just as if one were to see a frigid black cloud during the winter season. It is a sign and an implication that it will rain.
They say: Similarly is enacting good deeds with respect to reward, and committing disbelief and sins with respect to punishment – they are pure signs for the occurrence of (either) reward or punishment – not means (by which the result will be attained).
Likewise, according to them, with the matters of breaking, kindling and destroying – none of these things serves as a means for the occurrence (result) of a wreck, fire and death, respectively. Nor is there any connection between those things and what results from them, other than the fact that they are normally paired together – not that one is caused due to the means of the other!
They have contradicted perceptual observation and common sense with this opinion, as well as revelation and fitrah (natural inclination), not to mention all of the other intellectual groups. Rather, those with intellects laugh at them!
The correct view:
There is a third category, apart from those mentioned by the questioner. And it is that the decreed result is preordained along with its proper means, which lead to its occurrence. One of these means is the supplication. It is not preordained just like that, without any means (leading to its occurrence), rather it is preordained along with its proper means (which will ensure its occurrence). So when a person comes across the means, the decreed matter will come to pass. And if he does not come across those means, the decreed matter is denied.
So satisfying one’s appetite and quenching one’s thirst are preordained with (the means of) eating and drinking. Children are preordained with (the means of) sexual intercourse. Harvesting crops is preordained with (the means of) planting and, the withdrawal of the soul from an animal is decreed with slaughter. Likewise, entrance into Paradise is preordained with (good) deeds, while entrance into the Hellfire is preordained with (bad) deeds.
This category is the true one. And it is the one that the questioner has been deprived of and not granted.
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If someone asks how is it that Allah wants something yet He dislikes it?
How one can understand such concept?
We all know that there are many drug prescriptions disliked and hated for their smell and taste, yet when it is known that there is a cure in them, we take them and we love them for that! Traveling a long and difficult journey to achieve something desired and loved is another example. If it is known that a surgical removal of a diseased part of the body would save the rest of it, it is disliked and hated from one side and liked from another. So, it is not contradictory to have love and hate combined in addressing one matter. This is true with the created being, so what about Allah the Creator Whom there is nothing hidden from Him and to Whom belongs the Perfect Wisdom? He, the Exalted, hates a matter in itself and, on the other hand, wants it because of its link to yet another matter, or because it is a means that leads to something He loves. In all of His actions, Allah has the Perfect Wisdom. We may recognize part of His Wisdom, or the general aspects of it, but not its complete details. One vivid case about this subject, is the Creation of Iblees, who is the sponsor of every corruption and evil in this world. He is hated from one side, yet Allah wanted his creation because he is a means for many beloved things to Allah, and that there is great wisdom behind his creation.
Similarly, there is wisdom behind the creation of calamities, sufferings, hardships, etc. that speak about the Favors of Allah, His Justice, and His Mercy. Some of this wisdom includes.
- Tests for the believers.
- Training and strengthening of the believer’s faith.
- An evidence for the weakness of man and his need for his Rabb, and that he has no success unless he humbles himself to his Creator.
- A way to expiate sins and an elevation to higher degrees in the Sight of Allah.
The Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) said:
“There is nothing (in the form of trouble) that touches the believer, even the pricking of a thorn, except that Allah decrees a good for him or effaces one of his sins because of that.” 
It is a means for receiving reward for both, the ill Muslim and the Muslim doctor in charge.
- Witnessing the occurrence of favors and blessings after calamities and hardships, has more profound effects and generates a meaningful and proper appreciation of Allah’s Power, Wisdom, Mercy and Justice. He, the Exalted, is to be Praised on all of His Decrees.
- An appreciation for good health and the well-being of one’s self.
- A reminder about what is more devastating, Hell. A lesson to remember and a build up of eagerness for Paradise.
- …And many more wisdoms of which we may know or we may not know. We cannot say: How did Allah allow this and prevent that? Nor how did He create this, and how come He did not create that? …Nothing escapes His Ability, and nothing occurs in His Kingdom except that He had willed it; He owes us nothing; if He gives, then its His Favor and if He prevents, then it is His Justice.
“If Allah (Subhana wa ta’aala) puts a person under certain tests and trials and the person recognizes that He must resort to Allah alone seeking His help, then this is a good sign for him; the trials turn to purification and mercy. If, on the other hand, he rejects, complains, and turns away from Allah and resorts to human beings like him, then this is a bad sign for him; the trials turn to punishment and misery upon him”.
Taken from the Book ‘Fate in Islam’ – The Salaf’s guide to the methodology of Al-Qadaa’ wal Qadar Published by Daar al-Bukhari
1 See The Belief in Al-Qadaa’ wal Qadar by Muhammad bin Ibraheem Al-Hamad, PP. 85-89. Published by Daar Ibn Khuzaymah, Riyadh, K.S.A 1415AH/1994.
2 Saheeh Muslim, V. 4, Hadeeth # 6241.
3 Summarized from lbn Qayyim’s Tareequl Hijratayen, FN # 103, P. 259.
Al-Qadaa Wal Qadar : Pre-Decree – Brief Summary – by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh
Click the below link to read or download PDF
Source: AL-FAWAID: A Collection of Wise Sayings
Allah, the Almighty says,which means,
“And it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a thing which is bad for you. Allah knows but you do not know.” (AI-Baqarah, 2:216)
In this Qur’anic Verse, there are several judgments, meanings and benefits for the servant. If the servant knows that misfortune can produce a desirable thing, and that the desirable thing can produce a misfortune, he would not feel secure against the harm that can come from delight, and he would not lose hope of delight to come from harm, for he does not know the outcomes of things. Verily, it is Allah Who knows about that which the servant does not know, and in this context the following issues must be noted:
Nothing is more beneficial for him than abiding by the judgments of Allah, even if it is difficult for him at the beginning, because all its outcomes are good, delightful, and pleasurable. In the same way, nothing is more harmful for him than committing what is forbidden, even if he loves it. All its outcomes are pain, grief, evil and misfortune.
Furthermore, the mind bears little pain in comparison to the great pleasure and abundant good that it will experience, and likewise man is expected to avoid little in exchange for great rewards and preventing great pain and long term evil.
In this way, we can see that the perception of the ignorant does not go beyond the basics of life; his perception does not reach the goals, but the intelligent person always keeps his eye on the goals behind his actions in life.
The intelligent person perceives forbidden things like delicious food, which contain fatal poison. Whenever its pleasure arouses his interest, the reality of the poison would push him away from it. Also, he perceives the orders of Allah as bitter medicine that leads to good health and recovery.
Whenever its bitterness urges him not to take it, the reality of its usefulness leads him to comply. This requires knowledge that is more than the rudiments of the religion in order to understand the essential goals. It also requires strong patience to adjust oneself to it, in order to bear the difficulties that will be encountered for the sake of the goal. So if he loses certainty and patience, it would be difficult to achieve the goal, and on the other hand if his certainty and patience is strong, every difficulty would be rendered easy for him for the sake of permanent good and eternal pleasure.
There are other meanings of this verse. It also requires the servant to leave all his affairs in the Hands of the One Who knows the outcomes of all things, and to be pleased with whatever He chooses for him.
Also, the meanings of the verse include the fact that he should not propose or choose for his Lord, and should not ask Him for that which he has no knowledge of, for his harm and ruin may be in it and yet he does not know. He should simply ask his Lord to choose good for him and make him pleased with His choice, for that indeed would be the best ending. Also when he leaves all his affairs to his Lord, and is satisfied with His choice for him, Allah will support him by providing him with ability, determination and patience. He, the Almighty would also keep him away from the evil that the servant would have encountered if he had chosen for himself. He would show him some of the positive outcomes of His Choice, which he would not have attained if he had chosen for himself.
Such thinking relieves him of the burdens of trying to choose for himself as Allah frees his heart from estimations and arrangements, which fluctuate in difficulty. And in spite of this, the servant would always be surrounded by what was initially preordained for him. If he is pleased with the Choice of Allah, the preordainment would grant him what is praiseworthy, worthy of thanks and worthy of Allah’s Mercy. Otherwise, the preordainment would incur on him all that is dispraised and unworthy of Allah’s Mercy, because it was his own choice. When he truly leaves his affairs to Allah and truly becomes pleased with that, he would be surrounded by kindness and care in the preordainment, and he would be under the care and kindness of Allah. His Kindness protects him from that which he fears and His Care makes it easy for him to bear that
which He preordained.
When the pre-ordainment is implemented upon the servant, the greatest cause of its implementation would be his trying to avoid it. Therefore, there is nothing more beneficial for him than submission.
Rendered into English by: Bayan Translation Services
Translation of Umm Al-Qura For Translation, Publishing and Distribution
The Complaint Of The Ignorant Person
[From ‘al-Fawaa·id’ (p.114) of Imaam Ibnul-Qayyim -rahimahullaah]
“The ignorant person complains about Allaah to the people, and this is the limit of ignorance of the One complained about and the one complained to; for if he had known his Lord he would not have complained concerning Him, and if knew the people he would not complain to them.
One of the Salaf saw a man complaining to another man about his poverty and need, so he said: ‘O person! By Allaah! You have not done anything more than complain about One Who is Merciful to you, to one who is not merciful to you.’
In that regard it has been said:
‘If you make a complaint to the son of Aadam,
then you are only complaining about the Merciful One to someone who is not merciful.’
And the one who is truly aware complains to Allaah alone; and the one who is the most aware, from those who are truly aware, is the one who makes his complaints to Allaah about himself, not about the people; so he is therefore complaining about the reasons which cause the people to overwhelm him. So he is looking to His Saying -He the Most High:
[And whatever misfortune befalls you, then it is because of the sins that your hands have committed.] [Sooratush-Shooraa (42):30]
And His Saying:
[Whatever good reaches you, is from Allaah; but whatever evil befalls you, then it is on account of yourself.] [Sooratun-Nisaa· (4):79]
And His Saying:
[Why is it that when a single disaster struck you, even though you had struck the enemy with one twice as great, you said: ‘From where is this?’ Say: ‘It is on account of yourselves.’] [Soorah Aal `Imraan (3):165]
So the levels are three:
- the lowest/most despicable of them is that you complain about Allaah to His creation; and
- the highest of them is that you complain about yourself to Him; and
- the middle one is that you complain about His creation to Him.”
[Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood ibn Ronald Burbank rahimahullaah]