Intention to fast Ramadhan must be formed before Fajr – Permanent Committee

The first question of Fatwa no. 4352

Q 1: Should the intention to fast Ramadan be formed at night or during the day? If someone is informed at forenoon that today is Ramadan, should one make up for it or not?

A: It is obligatory to form the intention to fast in the month of Ramadan at night, before Fajr (Dawn).

Starting the Sawm in the daytime does not suffice without prior intention.

So, if someone knows at forenoon that today is a day of Ramadan and then makes the intention to fast, it becomes obligatory on them to abstain from all that nullifies the Sawm until sunset. But they have to make up for that day, due to the Hadith related from Ibn ‘Umar, on the authority of Hafsah, (may Allah be pleased with them) that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

Anyone who has not formed the intention to fast before Fajr no Sawm counts for them.

(Related by Imam Ahmad, the Compilers of the Sunan [Imams Abu Dawud, Al-Tirmidhy, Al-Nasa’y and Ibn Majah], Ibn Khuzaymah, and Ibn Hibban, who classified it as Sahih [a Hadith that has been transmitted by people known for their uprightness and exactitude; free from eccentricity and blemish]and Marfu‘ [a Hadith narrated from the Prophet with a connected or disconnected chain of narration]) This ruling applies to the obligatory Sawm.

As for the supererogatory Sawm, it is permissible to form the intention to fast at daytime, if the person has not eaten, drunk, or had conjugal intercourse since Fajr.

This is because it is authentically reported from the Prophet (peace be upon him), on the authority of ‘Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her), that

He (peace be upon him) came to her one day at forenoon and said: ‘Do you have anything (any food)?’ She said, ‘No.’ He (peace be upon him) said, ‘Then I am fasting.’

(Related by Muslim in his Sahih [Book of Authentic Hadith])

May Allah grant us success! May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions!

Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta
Chairman – Shaykh Abdul-`Aziz ibn `Abdullah ibn Baz

source :

Which is better: Sawm on the 10th with the 9th or the 10th with the 11th of Muharram? Fatwas > Al-Muharram Fatwas > Which is better: Sawm on the 10th with the 9th or the 10th with the 11th of Muharram?

Observing Sawm on the ninth and tenth of Muharram is better than on the tenth and eleventh


What is the ruling on observing Sawm (Fast) on the Day of ‘Ashura’ (10th of Muharram)? Is it better to observe Sawm on the day that precedes it, the day that succeeds it, all the three days, or on the Day of ‘Ashura’ only? Please clarify the matter. May Allah reward you with the best!


It is a Sunnah (supererogatory act of worship following the example of the Prophet) to observe Sawm on the Day of ‘Ashura’ for the authentic Hadiths in which the Prophet (peace be upon him) stated so. The Prophet (peace be upon him) mentioned that the Jews used to observe Sawm on that Day because it was the day on which Allah (may He be Exalted) rescued Prophet Musa (Moses, peace be upon him) and his people and destroyed Pharaoh and his people. Our Prophet Muhammad thus, observed Sawm on the Day of ‘Ashura’ to express his gratitude to Allah, advised Muslims to do so, and directed us as well to observe Sawm on the day preceding or succeeding it. However, observing Sawm on the ninth and tenth of Muharram is better than doing so on the tenth and eleventh. The latter form is also sufficient for it contradicts the practice of the Jews as well. One may also observe Sawm on all three days, i.e. the ninth, the tenth, and the eleventh of Muharram as is reported in some narrations: Fast a day before (the Day of ‘Ashura’) and a day after it. But, it is Makruh (reprehensible) to observe Sawm on the Day of ‘Ashura’ only, i.e. without accompanying it by the preceding or the succeeding day. May Allah grant us success!

Source: Fatwas of Ibn Baz

Excellence of Fasting on the Day of Arafah – Al-Istiqaamah Magazine


The ninth day of Dhul-Hijjah is the day of ’Arafah, since it is on this day that the pilgrims gather at the mountain plain of ’Arafah, praying and supplicating to their Lord.

It is mustahabb (highly recommended) for those who are not pilgrims to fast on this day, since the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) was asked about fasting on the day of ’Arafah, so he said, “It expiates the sins of the past year and the coming year.” [4]

Likewise, the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, ‘There is no day on which Allaah frees people from the Fire more so than on the day of ’Arafah. He comes close to those (people standing on ’Arafah), and then He revels before His Angels saying, ‘What are these people seeking.” [5]

Imaam at-Tirmidhee (d.275H) – rahimahullaah – said, “The People of Knowledge consider it recommended to fast on the day of ’Arafah, except for those at ’Arafah.” [6]

[4] Related by Muslim (no. 1162), from Aboo Qataadah (radiyallaahu ’anhu).

[5] Related by Muslim (no. 1348), from ’Aa‘ishah (radiyallaahu ’anhaa).

[6] Refer to Jaami’ut-Tirmidhee (3/377).

Source for the above :

The Month of Dhul-Hijjah – Al-Istiqaamah Magazine, Issue No.6

Eating Suhr after Fajr / Breaking fast before Maghrib – Shaykh Uthaymeen

Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saaleh Al Uthaymeen may Allah have mercy upon him was asked:

“what is the ruling on the one who eats while in doubt if the sun has risen for fajr or not then after that it becomes clear to him that the sun did actually rise, and and also the one who eats thinking the sun has set then after that it becomes clear to him that the sun did not actually set?”

The noble Shaykh replied by saying:

“if one is in doubt and thinks – has the sun risen or not – then he eats and then after that it becomes clear to him that the sun already rose then it is not upon him to make up his fast; even if he is completly unsure whether it has risen or not. This is because Allah the most high says “ and eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of the night)”…………

And eating in this time is permitted and there is not no sin on the one who eats in this time nor does he have to make up his fast.As for if one eats thinking the sun has set and then it becomes clear to him after that the the sun did not actually set then it is not upon him to make up his fast upon the most correct opinion, because of the hadeeth of Asmaa bint abu Bakr: the companions opened their fast in the time of the prophet on a cloudy day and they were not orderd to make up their fast.

As for the one who eats in doubt whether the sun has set and then after that it becomes clear to him that the sun did not set then it is obligatory that he makes up his fast, beause he eate in this state, meaning in a state of doubt and it is haraam for one to eat whilst being in this state of doubt. Rather it is not permissable for him to open his fast except if he is certain that the sun has set or at least he is leaning more towards that. In this particular state, meaning if he opens his fast and he is in doubt then it becomes clear to him that the sun did not set it is waajib for him to repeat his fast because his was not permitted to open his fast in that state.

taken from the majoo alfatawa wa rasaa’il: fatwa number 263

As recieved from west_london_dawah  yahoo groups

Supplication of the Fasting Person – Shaykh Muqbil / Dawud Burbank

Shaikh Muqbil ibn Haadee al-Waadi’ee –rahimahullaah– said in ‘al-Jaami ‘us-Saheeh mimmaa laisa fis-Saheehayn’ (2/505-506): “Three Whose Supplications Are Not Rejected“:

Ibn Maajahrahimahullaah– said (vol. 1, p. 557): `Alee ibn Muhammad narrated to us: Wakee` narrated to us from Sa`daan al-Juhanee: from Sa`d, Aboo Mujaahid at-Taa·ee – and he was reliable: from Aboo Mudillah – and he was reliable: from Aboo Hurairah, who said:

Allaah’s Messenger (Sallalaahu alaihi wa sallam) said: << There are three whose supplication is not rejected: the just ruler, the fasting person until he breaks his fast, and the supplication of the oppressed person: Allaah will raise it up under the clouds on the Day of Resurrection, and the gates of heaven will be opened for it, and He says: ‘By My Might, I shall certainly aid you, even if it be after a time.’>>

And Imaam Ahmad -rahimahullaah- reported (vol. 2. pp. 304-305): Aboo Kaamil and Abun-Nadr narrated to us, both saying: Zuhayr narrated to us: Sa`daan at-Taa·ee narrated to us. Abun- Nadr said: Sa`d, Aboo Mujaahid: Abul-Mudillah, the freed slave of the Mother of the Believers, narrated to us that he heard Aboo Hurairah say:

We said: ‘O Messenger of Allaah! When we see you our hearts become tender, and we are from the people of the Hereafter; but when we depart from you this world attracts us, and we smell the women and the children.’

He said: << If you were >>, or he said: << If you were to be , in every state, upon the condition which you are upon when you are with me then the Angels would shake hands with you, and they would visit you in your houses; and if you did not commit sins, then Allaah would bring a people who committed sins so that He could forgive them. >>

‘We said: O Messenger of Allaah! Tell us about Paradise: What is its structure?’

He said : << One brick of gold, and the next brick of silver, and its mortar is fragrant musk. Its pebbles are pearls and rubies. Its soil is saffron. Whoever enters it will enjoy bliss, and will never be unhappy. He will live forever, and he will not die. His clothes will not wear out, and his youth will not pass away. There are three whose supplication is not rejected: The just ruler, and the fasting person until he breaks his fast, and the supplication of the oppressed: it is carried upon the clouds, and the gates of heaven will be opened for it, and the Lord -the Mighty and Majestic- says: ‘By My Might! I shall certainly aid you, even if it be after a time.’>>

This is a Saheeh hadeeth.”

Shaikh al-Albaanee said in ‘as-Saheehah’ (2/657/no. 969):

“This is a weak chain of narration, on account of this Abul- Mudillah. adh-Dhahabee said: ‘He is hardly known. No one narrates from him besides Aboo Mujaahid’, and there occurs in ‘at-Taqreeb’: ‘Maqbool (Acceptable when supported)’, and the rest of the narrators of the chain of narration of the hadeeth are reliable, narrators of al-Bukhaaree. I say: However it is a ‘hasan’ or a ‘Saheeh’ hadeeth, on account of its previous witnesses and others…”

Translated by Aboo Talhah Dawud ibn Ronald Burbank.

Stop eating Suhoor (Al-Imsak) 10-15 minutes earlier than the time of Fajr ? – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen

Q. 429. We have seen in some calendars that during Ramadan there is a section called Al-Imsak. It is situated about ten minutes or a quarter of an hour before the Fajr prayer. Is there any basis for this in the Sunnah, or is it an innovation? Deliver a legal verdict for us and may you be rewarded.

A. This is a form of innovation, and there is no basis for it in the Sunnah. Indeed, the Sunnah contradicts it, because Allah says in His Mighty Book:

“. . .and eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night)” [1]

And the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said;

“Bilal makes the Athan at night, so eat and drink until you hear the Athan of Ibn Umm Maktum, because he does not call the Athan until Fajr begins.” [2]

This Imssak (time to stop eating and drinking) which some people regulate is an addition to what Allah, the Almighty, the All-Powerful has enjoined, and so it is invalid and it is extreme, and the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:

“Ruined are those who indulge in extremism, ruined are those who indulge in extremism, ruined are those who indulge in extremism.” [3]


[1] Al-Baqarah 2:187

[2] Reported by Al-Bukhari in the Book of Fasting, in the Chapter: The Statement of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) “Do not Let the Athan of Bilal Prevent You” (1918); and by Muslim in the Book of Fasting, in the Chapter: Clarification That Fasting Starts With the Beginning of Fajr (1092).

[3] Reported by Muslim in the Book of Fasting, in the Chapter: Ruined are Those Who Indulge in Tanattu’ (2670).

From the Book “Fatawa Arkanul-Islam “
Islamic Verdicts on the Pillars of Islam (Volume Two)
By the Honorable Shaikh Muhammad bin Salih Al- ‘Uthaimeen

Ramdhan & Fasting Index Page –

The fasting Person swallowing Saliva – Shaykh Abdul-Azeez Bin Baz


What is the ruling on the fasting person swallowing saliva?


Saliva does not harm the fast because it is only spit. If the person swallows it, there is no harm in that and if he spits it out, there is no harm.

In reference to phlegm, which is that which comes up from the chest or the nose and it is also called mucus, and it is thick phlegm which the person sometimes gets from the chest and sometimes from the head, the man and woman must spit it out. It is obligatory to expel it and refrain from swallowing it (for the fasting person). Concerning normal saliva, which is spit there is no problem with it and it does not harm the fasting person, whether a man or a woman.

Shaykh `Abdul-`Azeez Bin Baz
Fatawa Islamiyah Page no.260 Vol: 2
Darussalam English publication

The least form of fasting is leaving off food and drink – Shaikh Saalih Al-Fawzaan

Source: What is Prohibited and Disliked for the one Fasting – by Shaikh Saalih Al-Fawzaan
[Ittihaaf Ahlil-Eemaan bi-Duroos Shahri Ramadaan ,]

Know that there are certain manners to fasting that must be abided by and adhered to so that the fast could proceed in the way it was prescribed so that one could achieve its benefits, fulfill its objective and not find it discomforting and without benefit. This is as the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Perhaps all a person fasting derives from his fast is hunger and thirst.”

So fasting is not just the abandonment of food and drink only. Rather, it also entails abandoning improper statements and actions that are forbidden or disliked.

One of the Salaf once said: “The least form of fasting is leaving off food and drink.” This is since drawing near to Allaah by abandoning allowable things cannot be complete unless after drawing nearer to Him by abandoning what Allaah has prohibited under every circumstance. Even though a Muslim is obligated to abandon the unlawful at all times, it is even more binding upon him while he is fasting.

If one commits the unlawful in times other than when he is fasting, he is sinning and worthy of being punished. But if he commits it while fasting, then on top of being sinful and deserving of punishment, this affects his fast by it being either deficient or nullified.

So the person who truly observes the fast is he who withholds his stomach from food and drink, refrains his limbs from sins, restricts his tongue from vile and evil speech, restrains his ears from listening to songs, musical instruments, backbiting and gossip, and holds back his eyes from looking at the forbidden.

The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Whoever does not abandon false speech and acting upon it, then Allaah is not in need of him abandoning his food and drink.” [Reported by Al-Bukhaaree]

The person who is fasting must avoid backbiting, gossip and insulting others, based on what the two Shaikhs (Al-Bulkhaaree and Muslim) reported from Abu Hurairah (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) that he said, and it was raised as being a saying of the Prophet: “Fasting is armor. So if it is a day in which one of you is fasting, then he should not be vile in speech nor should he be sinful nor should he be ignorant. And if someone reviles him, then he should say: ‘I am a person that is fasting.’”

The word junnah (armor) is that which protects the one who wears it from the weapon of his opponent causing harm to him.

So fasting protects a person from falling into sins whose consequences are punishment in this world and the next. The word rafath in the hadeeth refers to lewd and immoral speech. Imaam Ahmad reported in marfoo’ form that the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Verily, fasting is armor so long as it is not pierced.” It was said: “What causes it to be pierced?” He (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Lying and Backbiting.”

This is proof that backbiting pierces the fast or makes a dent in it. When armor is pierced it is of no more use to the one wearing it. So in the same manner, when one’s fast is pierced, it is no longer any benefit to the one performing it.

Backbiting is as the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) explained it, and that is mentioning about your brother what he hates. It has been reported in the Musnad of Imaam Ahmad that this breaks the fast:

“Two women were once fasting during the lifetime of Allaah’s Messenger and they almost died of thirst. This was mentioned to the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) but he turned away from (allowing) them (to break the fast). Then they were mentioned to him again, so he called for them and ordered them to vomit, i.e. throw up, what was in their stomachs. So they both vomited and filled up a bowl with puss, blood and pieces of flesh. Then the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: ‘These two fasted by refraining from what Allaah made lawful for them. but they broke their fast by doing what Allaah made unlawful for them. One of them sat with the other and they began to eat from the flesh of people.’” [*]

What transpired with these two women in the presence of the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) from their vomiting vile and disgusting things – this was from the miracles that Allaah allowed to occur at the hand of His Messenger so that he could show the evil effects of backbiting to the people. Allaah says: “And do not backbite one another. Would one of you love to eat the flesh of his dead brother?” [Surah Al-Hujuraat: 12]

This hadeeth shows that backbiting breaks the fast. This is in the figurative sense, meaning it nullifies the reward of fasting.

May Allaah send His peace and blessings on our prophet, Muhammad, his family and Companions.

[*] This narration has been declared Dha’eef by Al Imaam Al-Albaani (rahimahullaah) in Silsilah adh-Dha’eefah (Volume 2, Page 10, Hadeeth no 519) & ‘Allaamah Ahmad Shaakir (rahimahullaah) in his Checking of Muhalla of Imaam Ibn Hazm (rahimahullaah) as mentioned by ash-Shaykh Jamaal al Haarithee (hafidhahullaah). The link to the complete article is here ::

Supplications Upon Breaking the Fast & Responding to the Mu’aththin – Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih al-Uthaymeen


Is there any supplication reported from the Prophet sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the Companions, may Allaah be pleased with them, at the time of breaking the fast? Should the fasting person repeat what the Mu’aththin says, or continue breaking his fast?


The supplication at the time of fasting is most likely to be answered, because it is at the end of an act of worship, and in most cases, a human self is at its weakest point just before he breaks his fast. The weaker a person is physically, and the more tender-hearted, the greater is his feeling of repentance and humility towards Allaah, the Almighty, the All-Powerful.

The supplication which is reported from the Prophet sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is:

اللهم لك صمت و على رزقك أفطرت

(Allaahumma Laka Sumtu Wa ‘Ala Rizqika Aftartu.)

“Oh, Allaah! For Your sake I have fasted and with Your sustenance I have broken my fast.”[1]

When he broke his fast, the Prophet sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam also said:

ذهب الظمأُ، وابتلت الروق و ثبت الأجر إن شاء الله

(Thahabath-Thama’u Wabtallatil-‘Urooqu Wa Thabatal-Ajru In Sha’ Allaah.)

“Thirst has gone, the arteries are moist, and the reward is sure, if Allaah wills.”[2]

Although there may be some weakness in these two Ahadith, some of the Scholars have declared them to be Hasan; and in anycase, if you supplicated using these words or any others words that came to your heart when breaking your fast, then it is most likely to be answered.

As for answering the Mu’aththin when a person is breaking his fast, it is lawful, because of the saying of the Prophet sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam:

إذا سمعتم المؤذن فقولوا مثل ما يقول

“If you hear the Mu’aththin, then say what he says.” [3]

applys to all situations, except those which there is some evidence to show otherwise.


[1] Reported by Abu Dawud in the Book of Fasting.

[2] Reported by Abu Dawud in the Book of Fasting, in the Chapter: What to Say When Breaking the Fast (2357).

[3] Reported by al-Bukhari in the Book of Athaan, in the Chapter: What is Said When the Caller is Heard (611); and by Muslim in the Book of Prayer, in the Chapter: the Recommendation of Saying What the Mu’aththinSays (384).

Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih al-`Uthaymeen
Fatawa Arkaanul-Islaam, DARUSSALAM, Vol.2, p.670

Do not anticipate Ramadan by fasting one or two days before it – Permanent Committee

Q: If it is cloudy or overcast, is it obligatory or prescribed to observe Sawm (Fasting) on the Day of Doubt (the 30th of Sha‘ban) as a precaution, in case the month has begun?

A: It is not permissible to perform Sawm on the Day of Doubt (so called because there is doubt concerning it – is it the last day of Sha’ban or the first day of Ramadan), even if the sky is cloudy, because the Messenger (peace be upon him) said,

Fast when you see it (the new moon of Ramadan) and stop fasting when you see it (the new moon of Shawwal); but if the clouds obstruct your sighting of the new moon, complete the month of Sha‘ban thirty days.”

He (peace be upon him) also said,

Do not precede Ramadan by fasting one or two days before it begins, unless for a person who observes a habitual pattern of Sawm, then let them fast it.”

As for what is narrated about Ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him), that he used to observe Sawm on the 30th of Sha‘ban if it was cloudy, this was his Ijtihad (juristic effort to infer expert legal rulings), but the correct opinion is contrary to this; it is obligatory not to observe Sawm (on that day). Ibn ‘Umar practiced Ijtihad in this case, but his Ijtihad opposed the Sunnah (whatever is reported from the Prophet), may Allah forgive him!

The correct opinion is that the Muslims must not observe Sawm on the 30th of Sha‘ban, if the new moon of Ramadan is not sighted. If it is cloudy, it is obligatory not to observe Sawm. It is not permissible to start observing Sawm until the sighting of the new moon is confirmed or Sha‘ban is completed with thirty days. This is what is obligatory on Muslims, and it is not permissible to oppose the Nas (Islamic text from the Qur’an or the Sunnah) according to the words of one person, whether he is Ibn ‘Umar or anyone else, because the Nas (Islamic text from the Qur’an or the Sunnah) takes precedence over all opinions, as Allah (may He be Glorified and Exalted) says:

And whatsoever the Messenger (Muhammad peace be upon him) gives you, take it; and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it) [Surah Al-Hashr 59:7].

He (may He be Glorified and Exalted) also says:

And let those who oppose the Messenger’s (Muhammad peace be upon him) commandment (i.e. his Sunnah — legal ways— orders, acts of worship, statements, etc.) (among the sects) beware, lest some Fitnah (disbelief, trials, afflictions, earthquakes, killing, overpowered by a tyrant) should befall them or a painful torment be inflicted on them. [Surah Al-Nur, 24: 63]


‘Ammaar ibn Yaasir said: “Whoever fasts on the day concerning which there is doubt has disobeyed Abu’l-Qaasim (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).” This was narrated by al-Tirmidhi and classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi, 553.

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen said in his commentary on the hadeeth “Do not anticipate Ramadaan by fasting one or two days before it begins…”:

The scholars (may Allaah have mercy on them) differed concerning this prohibition and whether it meant that this is haraam or makrooh. The correct view is that it means it is haraam, especially on the day of doubt.

Sharh Riyaadh al-Saaliheen, 3/394.

The scholars of the Standing Committee said concerning the day of doubt,

“The Sunnah indicates that it is haraam to fast this day.” (Fataawa al-Lajnah, 10/117)

From the Benefits of Winter : Sayings of the Salaf

It is reported from Abû Hurayrah – Allâh be pleased with him – that he said:

Shall I not point you to comfortable proceeds?
People responded, “And what is that o Abû Hurayrah?”
He replied, “Fasting in winter.”

The Arabs used to refer to matters which were relatively easy to gain as being cool. In this narration, the relative ease of fasting in winter and its consequent reward is likened to acquiring war proceeds without the heat of violence.

It is reported from ‘Umar – Allâh be pleased with him – that he said:

Winter is booty for the devout worshippers.

This is further explained in the following narration:

It is reported from ‘Ubayd b. ‘Umayr – Allâh have mercy on him – that he said:

It used to be said when winter came: O people of the Qur`ân, the night has become long so you can pray (more) and the day has become short for you to fast.

Abû Nu’aym, Hilyah Al-Awliyâ`.

As with other experiences in this world, the Salaf used to be reminded of the hereafter when experiencing cold weather:

It is reported from the famous worshipper Râbi’ah – Allâh have mercy on her – that she said:

I have never heard the adhân except that I remember the caller who will announce the Day of Resurrection, and I never see the falling snow except that I imagine the flying pages of the records of peoples deeds (on that day), and I never see swarms of locusts except that I think about the Great Gathering on the Last Day.

Ibn Al-Jawzî, Sifah Al-Safwah Vol. 2 p433.