Seeking Refuge with Allaah from Devils when entering Washroom – Dr. Slaeh As-Saleh [Audio|En]

[Souncloud Audio Link]

Audio Source: Hadeeth # 11 from  Umdatul Ahkaam – Book of Purification – Dr. Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

It is recommended for the person who wants to enter the toilet to say:

بِسْمِ الله ) اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوْذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْخُبُثِ وَالْخَبَائِثِ)

(Bismillaah),
(Allaahummaa innee a`oodhu bika minal-khubuthi wal-khabaa·ith)

(With the name of Allaah),
(O Allaah! I seek Your refuge from male and female devils).

This is because of the hadeeth of `Alee -radiyallaahu `anhu- that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

<<The screen between the jinn and the private-parts of the descendants of Aadam, when one of you enters the toilet, is that he says:‘Bismillaah’ (with the name of Allaah).>> [01]

And because of the hadeeth of Anas -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: “When Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) went to the toilet he used to say:

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوْذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْخُبُثِ وَالْخَبَائِثِ

‘Allaahummaa innee a`oodhu bika minal-khubuthi wal-khabaa·ith
(O Allaah! I seek Your refuge from male and female devils).”  [02]

[01] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (3611); at-Tirmidhee (2/59/606)-and this is his wording; Ibn Maajah (1/109/297)…

[02] Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (1/242/142), Muslim (1/283/375), Aboo Daawood (1/21/4), Ibn Maajah (1/109/298), at-Tirmidhee (1/76), an-Nasaa·ee (1/20)

[Translation taken from: Toilet Manners (Aadaabul-Khalaa)  – Dawood Burbank]

Related Links:

Two Rakat for Sunnah of Fajr prayer are better than the Dunyaa and everything that is in it – Dr. Saleh As-Saleh [Audio|En]

Umdatul Ahkaam – Book of Salah
Hadith No. 60

[Souncloud Audio Link]

Audio Posted from: Salah – Umdatul ah-Kaam – Dr Saleh as Saleh [Audio Series|En]


From Ayesha Radi Allaahu anha who said:

The Prophet -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- was not more concerned and did not pay attention to any of the optional prayers like he did for the two Rakat of Sunnah for the Fajr prayer.’ [Bukhari & Abu Dawood]

From Ayesha from the Prophet -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- who said:

Two Rakat for Sunnah of Fajr prayer are better than the Dunyaa and everything that is in it.’ [Muslim, Tirmidhi & Nisa’ee]

From Ayesha Radi Allaahu anha who said from the Prophet -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- that he said about the two Rakat when the Fajr prayer time comes in:

‘They are more beloved to me than the Dunyaa and everything that is in it.’ [Muslim]

[Source for the above translation: The Sunnah for the Fajr Prayer – Compiled by Abbas Abu Yahya]


Related Links:

Explaining Shirk: The Greatest Sin – Shaikh al-Uthaymeen & al-Fawzan

Title: Explaining Shirk: The Greatest Sin
Original Title: شرح ثلاثة الأصول، كتاب التوحيد، الإرشاد إلى صحيح الإعتقاد
Original Authors: Muḥammad Ibn Ṣāliḥ al-‘Uthaymīn, Ṣāliḥ al-Fawzān
Translator : Abu az-Zubayr Harrison – authentic-translations.com

This article was compiled by Authentic-Translations.com, adapted from several books, the most notable: Sharḥ Thalāthah al-Uṣūl by Muḥammad Ibn Ṣāliḥ al-‘Uthaymīn, Kitāb al-Tawḥīd and al-Irshād ilá Ṣaḥīḥ al-‘Itiqād, both by Ṣāliḥ al-Fawzān.

Table of contents

  • What Is shirk ?
  • Shirk in tawḥīd of lordship
  • Shirk in tawḥīd of names and descriptions
  • Describing Allah with descriptions of his creation
  • Describing creation with Allah’s descriptions
  • Shirk in tawḥīd of worship
  • Major shirk
  • Minor shirk
  • Reviewing shirk
  • Conclusion
  • A prayer for protection from shirk
  • Memorization chart

What is Shirk?

You may have already studied Tawḥīd. However, to truly understand Tawḥīd, its opposite, Shirk, must also be understood. The greatest thing Allah has commanded us to do is worship him alone, and the greatest sin he has forbidden is Shirk as He says:

وَاعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَلا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئً

Worship Allah and do not make Shirk with anything along with him. [2]

So what is Shirk? Shirk (شِرْك) is an Arabic word which means sharing something with others that only Allah deserves. Worshipping others along with Allah is the main type of Shirk. The verse above means we must worship Allah and only him.

So whoever worships someone or something instead of Allah, he is a disbeliever in Allah who has refused to worship him alone. If someone worships Him but also worships someone else along with Allah, he is still a disbeliever in Allah, and it is this person who makes Shirk. As for someone who worships Allah alone, he is a Muslim who sincerely believes in Tawḥīd.

Shirk is the greatest sin against Allah and he says about it:

وَمَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدِ افْتَرَى إِثْمًا عَظِيمًا

And whoever makes Shirk with Allah has certainly made up a great sin.[3]

Shirk is also the worst of all major sins. Prophet Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) once asked his companions:

أَلا أُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِأَكْبَرِ الْكَبَائِرِ

Should I tell you the greatest of all major sins?

His companions said, “Of course, messenger of Allah.” He then said:

الإِشْرَاكُ بِاللَّهِ وَعُقُوقُ الْوَالِدَيْنِ وَشَهَادَةُ الزُّورِ أَوْ قَوْلُ الزُّورِ

Making Shirk with Allah, disobeying parents, and lying.

He was laying back when he said that, but then he sat up and began repeating that over and over because of how serious Shirk and those other major sins are in Islam. [4]

The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) was also asked, “What is the greatest sin?” He answered:

أَنْ تَجْعَلَ لِلَّهِ نِدًّا وَهُوَ خَلَقَكَ

That you make something equal to Allah while he is the (only) one who created you. [5]

Making someone or something equal to Allah is Shirk. It is to belittle Allah, believing him to be less than He is while believing others are equal to Him. About this, Allah says:

الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِرَبِّهِمْ يَعْدِلُونَ

Those who disbelieve think others are equal to their Lord.[6]

Even though Allah lets people choose to make Shirk and believe others are equal to Him, He does not like it and forbids us from doing so:

فَلا تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّهِ أَندَادًا وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

So do not make anything equal with Allah while you know (that he alone should be worshipped).[7]

Shirk is also to deny the very reason Allah created us which was to worship him alone as he says:

وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالإِنسَ إِلاَّ لِيَعْبُدُونِ

I only created Jinn and people to worship me.[8]

So whoever worships others along with Allah, believing they deserve to be worshipped, they have made the creation equal to its creator. This is the worse comparison because it is to believe that people who are helpless and in need are equal to Allah, the one who is able to do anything and who needs nothing from any of his creation.

Shirk is the greatest crime of injustice and unfairness. This is because the greatest rights are the rights Allah deserves. Yet when people make Shirk, they are refusing to give him what he deserves most – Tawḥīd. This is the greatest form of injustice and unfairness just like Allah says:

إِنَّ الشِّرْكَ لَظُلْمٌ عَظِيمٌ

Shirk is certainly a great crime of injustice.[9]

Shirk is also the greatest form of misguidance and straying from the right way of believing in Allah:

وَمَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلالاً بَعِيدًا

And whoever makes Shirk with Allah has certainly gone far astray.[10]

In short, Shirk is to share something that only Allah deserves with others such as worshipping others or describing others with Allah’s descriptions. It is the greatest sin against Allah.

Review

1. What is Allah’s greatest command to us?
2. What is the greatest sin against Allah?
3. Explain in your own words the meaning of Shirk.

SHIRK IN TAWḤĪD OF LORDSHIP

If you learned about Tawḥīd, you may remember there are three main categories. Let us review the categories of Tawḥīd before moving on.

1. Tawḥīd of Lordship: Allah is the only one who creates, owns, and controls everything.
2. Tawḥīd of Names and Descriptions: Allah is the only one who is described with his perfect names and descriptions.
3. Tawḥīd of Worship: Allah is the only one who deserves worship.

Shirk in Tawḥīd of Lordship is to believe that others besides Allah create or share control over his creation. This belief means that someone other than Allah can make good things happen or keep bad things from happening.

One example of this type of Shirk is to believe something brings good luck. People often have “good luck” rings or similar items they believe will help good things happen to them. Others tie special strings around them or their children, believing that if they recite the Qur’aan over the strings, they will protect from bad things happening. However, only Allah can protect us from bad things and we should only seek his protection in ways he mentions in the Qur’aan or the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) taught us in the ḥadīth.

Another common example of Shirk in Tawḥīd of Lordship today is when people believe others like themselves who are created and have no control in Allah’s universe can control what happens. Such people even wait until the ones they believe in are dead before worshipping them by praying to them. The act of praying to dead people is Shirk in Tawḥīd of Worship (which we will cover shortly), but the belief itself is also Shirk in Tawḥīd of Lordship because when people pray to dead people, they believe the souls of humans can control things in this life even after their death. This is completely wrong because the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) told us:

When a person dies, his actions come to an end except for (receiving rewards for) three things

When a person dies, his actions come to an end except for (receiving rewards for) three things: continuous charity, beneficial knowledge, or a righteous child who prays for him. [11]

While a person may still receive rewards from Allah for things he left behind after he died, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) clearly told us that after death, a human being’s actions stop. So how can dead people control whether good and bad things happen in life when they are not even in life anymore? Still, some people continue to pray to the dead, asking for their help in changing events in this life although only Allah can do this.

Even if a dead person was a righteous worshipper of Allah, believing that dead people or anyone else controls things in this life is Shirk in Tawḥīd of Lordship.

Review

1. What is Shirk in Tawḥīd of Lordship?
2. Give an example of Shirk in Tawḥīd of Lordship.

SHIRK IN TAWḤĪD OF NAMES AND DESCRIPTIONS

Tawḥīd of Names and Descriptions is to believe that Allah is the only one who deserves to be described with perfect names and descriptions. Shirk in this category of Tawḥīd is to believe that Allah can be described with descriptions of the creation, or to believe that others besides Allah share in his descriptions. So believing that Allah is like his creation or that his creation is like Allah is Shirk.

Describing Allah with Descriptions of His Creation

When people describe Allah with the descriptions of creation or they believe Allah is similar to people, they have made Shirk in Tawḥīd of Names and Descriptions. There are several ways this type of Shirk is made. One example is when people make statues or paintings of God, claiming they are images of Allah. By doing so, they have described Allah in the image or form of people although Allah says:

لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ

There is nothing like him. [12]

Today, Christians fall into this type of Shirk when they believe Allah has a son. They believe the Messiah, Prophet Jesus the son of Mary, is his son. Allah knows they believe this and he says about this statement of Shirk and disbelief:

وَقَالُوا اتَّخَذَ الرَّحْمَٰنُ وَلَدًا لَّقَدْ جِئْتُمْ شَيْئًا إِدًّا تَكَادُ السَّمَاوَاتُ يَتَفَطَّرْنَ مِنْهُ وَتَنشَقُّ الْأَرْضُ وَتَخِرُّ الْجِبَالُ هَدًّا أَن دَعَوْا لِلرَّحْمَٰنِ وَلَدًا  وَمَا يَنبَغِي لِلرَّحْمَٰنِ أَن يَتَّخِذَ وَلَدًا  إِن كُلُّ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ إِلَّا آتِي الرَّحْمَٰنِ عَبْدًا

And they say, “The Most-Merciful has a son.” You have said a terrible thing. The heavens are almost torn, the earth is split open, and the mountains almost fall in ruin because they claim the Most-Merciful has a son. But it is not suitable that the Most-Merciful has a son. There is no one in the heavens and earth except that will come to the Most-Merciful as a servant. [13]

Allah explains who Prophet Jesus truly is:

إِنَّمَا الْمَسِيحُ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ

The Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, was only a messenger of Allah. [14]

Another example of Shirk in Tawḥīd of Names and Descriptions is when many Jewish people claim that Allah likes the Jews more than all other people – just because they were born to a Jewish parent. This belief of theirs means that Allah is prejudice and unfair just like some people are, and this is describing Allah with descriptions of people.

Our belief in Tawḥīd of Names and Descriptions is that Allah is not like his creation. He alone deserves the highest descriptions. When someone believes that Allah is like his creation, they have made Shirk in Tawḥīd of Names and Descriptions by giving Allah the descriptions of his creation.

Describing Creation with Allah’s Descriptions

The belief that created beings or things share Allah’s names or descriptions is also Shirk in Tawḥīd of Names and Descriptions. This type of Shirk is when people raise other humans up to the level of Allah.

Today, some Christians describe people with Allah’s descriptions. They believe Prophet Jesus or saints can hear their prayers while Allah alone is the All-Hearing. Some Christians even believe Jesus was Allah in the form of a man. This is a form of describing Allah with descriptions of people as well as describing the creation with the descriptions of Allah. About this statement of Shirk and disbelief, Allah says:

لَقَدْ كَفَرَ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْمَسِيحُ ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ

They have surely disbelieved who say, “Allah is the Messiah, the son of Mary.” [15]

By believing that someone is nicer than Allah, more merciful, more forgiving, or treats others more fairly than Allah, this is giving created people Allah’s descriptions and this is Shirk in Tawḥīd of Names and Descriptions.

Review

1. What is Shirk in Tawḥīd of Names and Descriptions?
2. Give an example of Shirk by describing Allah with the descriptions of his creation.
3. Give an example of Shirk by describing the creation with the descriptions only Allah deserves.

SHIRK IN TAWḤĪD OF WORSHIP

Tawḥīd of Worship means we believe Allah is the only one who deserves worship. Since Shirk is the opposite of Tawḥīd, Shirk in Tawḥīd of Worship is worshipping others along with Allah. We must never share our worship with other than Allah. There are two types of Shirk in this category: Major Shirk and Minor Shirk.

It is important to remember that both types of Shirk, major and minor, may be in other categories of Tawḥīd as well as Tawḥīd of Worship. We should not become overwhelmed or confused deciding if a statement or action is Shirk in this category of Tawḥīd or that one. Instead, we simply should concentrate on believing in, describing, and worshipping Allah alone as Islam instructs us. Still, we will discuss some differences between Major Shirk and Minor Shirk.

Major Shirk

Major Shirk is any type of Shirk the Qur’aan or the ḥadīth explains that whoever does it is not considered a Muslim, not within the religion of Islam, and is not a true believer in Allah. Major Shirk dooms the person to live in Hell forever if he does not stop making Major Shirk before he dies. Any form of worship that is done for other than Allah is Major Shirk, such as praying to others besides Allah or hoping for things from others that only Allah can give (e.g. forgiveness, Paradise, etc.).

A common example of Major Shirk is when people pray to other people such as prophets or visit the graves of saints, believing those people hear or answer prayers.

This form of Shirk is the greatest sin and the most unfair way to behave toward the Lord of all creation. We will mention some of the results of Major Shirk if a person dies while believing in it and doing acts of Major Shirk in worship.

Major Shirk Removes Hope of Entering Paradise

Allah says about the punishment for someone who dies while making Major Shirk:

إِنَّهُ مَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدْ حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ الْجَنَّةَ وَمَأْوَاهُ النَّارُ

Surely, whoever makes Shirk with Allah, Allah will make Paradise forbidden to him and his final home will be the fire. [16]

Major Shirk Guarantees Entrance into the Fire

The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said about someone who meets Allah while making Shirk:

مَنْ لَقِيَ اللهَ لا يُشْرِكُ بِهِ شَيْئاً دَخَلَ الجَنَّةَ ، وَمَنْ لَقِيَهُ يُشْرِكُ بِهِ شَيْئاً دَخَلَ النَّار

Whoever meets Allah without making Shirk with him will enter Paradise, and whoever meets him making Shirk with him will enter the fire. [17]

We will meet Allah when we die, and one of the most common ways people make Major Shirk is by praying to and calling upon someone other than Allah. For this reason, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) clearly said:

مَنْ مَاتَ وَهْوَ يَدْعُو مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ نِدًّا دَخَلَ النَّارَ

Whoever dies while calling upon anything other than Allah, making them equal to Allah (in worship), he will enter the fire. [18]

Major Shirk Ruins All Good Deeds

If someone makes Major Shirk, all their good deeds may be ruined and lost. Allah says:

وَلَوْ أَشْرَكُوا لَحَبِطَ عَنْهُم مَّا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

And if they had made Shirk, whatever (good) they used to do would be ruined. [19]

And he also says:

وَلَقَدْ أُوحِيَ إِلَيْكَ وَإِلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكَ لَئِنْ أَشْرَكْتَ لَيَحْبَطَنَّ عَمَلُكَ وَلَتَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ

It has been revealed to you and to those before you, if you make Shirk, your deeds will be ruined and you will certainly be among the losers.[20]

Minor Shirk

Minor Shirk is any type of saying or action that the Qur’aan or ḥadīth describes as being Shirk but that the person who says or does it could still be considered a Muslim, still inIslam, and is still a believer in Allah. However, Minor Shirk does mean that the person’s belief in Tawḥīd may be incorrect.

Some actions or statements are considered Minor Shirk. For example, saying something like, “If it was not for Allah and you, something bad would have happened!” Someone once said to Prophet Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم), “Whatever Allah wants and you want (to happen will happen).” The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) explained that such things are not correct to say; he said:

أَجَعَلْتَنِي مَعَ اللهِ عَدْلاً ؟ لا بَلْ : مَا شَاءَ اللهُ وَحْدَهُ

Have you made me an equal with Allah? No, instead say: “Whatever Allah alone wants (to happen will happen).” [21]

Some common superstitions are also Minor Shirk. For example, if someone believes Allah will allow bad things to happen if he does not wear a certain ring or hang verses from the Qur’aan in his car, this is a form of Minor Shirk because Allah has not made those things ways to prevent bad things from happening. However, if someone believes those things themselves actually prevent bad things from happening instead of Allah, then this becomes Major Shirk. Such a wrong belief would then mean there are other things besides Allah that control creation.

Another form of Minor Shirk is harder to recognize. This type of “hidden Shirk” is in a person’s intention, or the reason he does something. When someone does a good deed—which he should do for only Allah—yet he does his good deed just for people to think he is a good worshipper, this is a form of Minor Shirk. Examples of this may be if someone prays very well, raises his voice while remembering Allah or reading the Qur’aan, or gives charity but he does so only for people to think and say good things about him. About this type of showing off, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

إنَّ أَخْوَفَ مَا أَخَافُ عَلَيْكُمْ الشِّرْكَ الأَصْغَرَ

The thing I fear for you the most is Minor Shirk.

His companions asked, “What is Minor Shirk, messenger of Allah?” He (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) answered:

الرِّيَاء ، يَقُوْلُ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ : اِذْهَبُوْا إِلَى الَّذِيْنَ كُنْتُمْ تُرَاؤُوْنَ فِي الدُّنْيَا ،فَانْظُرُوْا هَلْ تَجِدُوْنَ عِنْدَهُمْ جَزَاءً

Showing off (riyā). Allah ( عزّ وجلّ ) will say, “Go to those you were showing off for during life and see if you can find any reward with them.” [22]

Minor Shirk Ruins Good Deeds Done for Showing Off

Good deeds will not be accepted if they are done for anyone other than Allah. While Major Shirk ruins all a person’s good deeds, Minor Shirk ruins only the deeds that were done for showing off. The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) says about this Shirk in intention:

قَالَ اللَّهُ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى : أَنَا أَغْنَى الشُّرَكَاءِ عَنْ الشِّرْكِ ، مَنْ عَمِلَ عَمَلاً أَشْرَكَ فِيهِ مَعِي غَيْرِي تَرَكْتُهُ وَشِرْكَهُ

Allah ( تبارك وتعالى ) said, “I am in no need of Shirk. Whoever does a deed but does so for someone else besides me, I will reject him and his Shirk”. [23]

One of the prophet’s companions named Abū Mūsá al-‘Ash’arī ( رضي الله عنه ) said: The messenger of Allah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) once gave us a talk and said:

أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ ، اتَّقُوا هَذَا الشِّرْكَ فَإِنَّهُ أَخْفَى مِنْ دَبِيبِ النَّمْلِ

Oh people, be afraid of this Shirk because it is more hidden than a creeping ant.

While Major Shirk is much worse than Minor Shirk, both are sins against Allah. For this reason, we should stay away from all forms of Shirk because Allah says:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لا يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ

Allah will not forgive that Shirk is made with him. [24]

Review

1. What is Shirk in Tawḥīd of Worship?
2. What is Major Shirk?
3. Give an example of Major Shirk.
4. How do we know Major Shirk removes hope of entering Paradise?
5. How do we know Major Shirk guarantees entrance into the fire?
6. How do we know Major Shirk ruins all good deeds?
7. What is Minor Shirk?
8. Give an example of Minor Shirk?
9. How do we know Minor Shirk ruins any good deed that is done for showing off?

REVIEWING SHIRK

1. What is Shirk?
2. What is Shirk in Tawḥīd of Lordship?
3. Give an example of Shirk in Tawḥīd of Lordship.
4. What is Shirk in Tawḥīd of Names and Descriptions?
5. Give an example of Shirk by describing Allah with the descriptions of his creation.
6. Give an example of Shirk by describing the creation with the descriptions only Allah deserves.
7. What is Shirk in Tawḥīd of Worship?
8. What is Major Shirk?
9. Give an example of Major Shirk.
10. What are some results for someone who dies making Major Shirk?
11. What is Minor Shirk?
12. Give an example of Minor Shirk?

CONCLUSION

We do not study Tawḥīd and Shirk simply to memorize detailed categories and types of Shirk. We learn Tawḥīd for the purpose of getting closer to Allah by believing in and worshipping him in the way he wants. And we do so only to make him happy with the hope of achieving his forgiveness and entering his Paradise. Similarly, we learn Shirk so we know what beliefs, statements, and actions make Allah unhappy. Remember, while learning the details of Tawḥīd and Shirk may help us know what Allah wants from us, he did not make our religion difficult upon us, he simply instructed us to:

وَاعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَلا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئً

Worship Allah and do not make Shirk with anything along with him. [25]

The important thing to remember is that Allah is the only Lord, the only creator, owner, and controller of everything and everyone in the universe. He is the only one who we describe with the names and descriptions of perfection and we truly believe Allah is not like his creation and his creation is not like him. Allah tells us:

وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ

There is nothing equal or comparable to him. [26]

Because we believe Allah is the only Lord and only he deserves the highest descriptions, it only makes sense that we worship him and no one else. So do not let your study of Tawḥīd and Shirk become difficult or confusing. By simply reading about this knowledge, you have taken steps to get closer to Allah. Read what Allah says about those who try to come closer to Allah and those who avoid Shirk:

وَمَنْ تَقَرَّبَ مِنِّي شِبْرًا تَقَرَّبْتُ مِنْهُ ذِرَاعًا ، وَمَنْ تَقَرَّبَ مِنِّي ذِرَاعًا تَقَرَّبْتُ مِنْهُ بَاعًا ، وَمَنْ أتَانِي يَمْشِي أتَيْتُهُ هَرْوَلَةً ، وَمَنْ لَقِيني بِقُرَابِ الأرْض خَطِيئةً لا يُشْرِكُ بِي شَيئاً ، لَقِيتُهُ بِمِثْلِهَا مَغفِرَةً

“Whoever comes close to me a hand-span, I will come close to him an arm’s length; and whoever comes close to me an arm’s length, I will come close to him the distance of two outstretched arms. Whoever comes to me walking, I will come to him running. And whoever meets me with the earth full of sins but does not make Shirk in anything with me, I will meet him with as much forgiveness.” [27]

A PRAYER FOR PROTECTION FROM SHIRK

The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) once said:

الشِّرْكُ فِيكُمْ أَخْفَى مِنْ دَبِيْبِ النَّمْلِ ، وَسَأَدُلُّكَ عَلَى شَيْ ء إِذَا فَعَلْتَهُ أَذْهَبَ عَنْكَ صِغَارَ الشِّرْكِ وَكِبَارَهُ ، تَقُولُ : اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوْذُ بِكَ أَنْ أُشْرِكَ بِكَ وَأَنَا أَعْلَمُ ، وَأَسْتَغْفِرُكَ لِمَا لا أَعْلَمُ

Shirk among you is more hidden than a creeping ant, but I will guide you to something that, if you do it, will remove from you Minor Shirk and its Major type. You should say, “Oh Allah, I ask for your protection from making Shirk with you while I know, and I ask your forgiveness for what I do not know.” [28]

Because our belief in Tawḥīd is that Allah is the only one who can help us and we only pray to him, we understand that only he can help us stay away from Shirk completely.

Because of this, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) taught us to ask his protection from knowingly making Shirk in belief, statement, or action. We must also ask for his forgiveness if we happen to make a mistake by believing, saying, or doing anything that is Shirk that we may not know.

To help memorize this very important prayer our messenger gave us, use the memorization chart on the next page.

A PRAYER FOR PROTECTION FROM SHIRK : Memorization Chart

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوْذُ بِكَ

Allāhumma innī, aū’dhu bika
Oh Allah, I ask for your protection

أَنْ أُشْرِكَ بِكَ وَأَنَا أَعْلَمُ

an ushrika bika wa ana ‘alam
from making Shirk with you while I know,

وَأَسْتَغْفِرُكَ لِمَا لا أَعْلَمُ

wa astaghfiruka limā lā ‘alam
and I ask your forgiveness for what I do not know.

Footnotes:

[2] The Qur’aan, Sūrah al-Nisā, 4:36
[3] Sūrah al-Nisā, 4:48
[4] Recorded by Muslim
[5] Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim
[6] Sūrah al-An’ām, 6:1
[7] Sūrah al-Baqarah, 2:22
[8] Sūrah al-Dhāriyāt, 51:56
[9] Sūrah Luqmān, 31:13
[10] Sūrah al-Nisā, 4:116
[11] Recorded by Muslim
[12] Sūrah al-Shūrá, 42:11
[13] Sūrah Maryam, 19:88-93
[14] Sūrah al-Nisā, 4:171
[15] Sūrah al-Māidah, 5:72
[16] Sūrah al-Māidah, 5:72
[17] Recorded by Muslim
[18] Recorded by al-Bukhārī
[19] Sūrah al-An’ām, 6:88
[20] Sūrah al-Zumar, 39:65
[21] Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah (no. 139) by al-Albānī
[22] Recorded by Aḥmad, al-Ṭabarānī, and al-Bayhaqī. al-Albānī said it is ḥasan in Ṣaḥīḥ al-Targhīb wal-Tarhīb (no. 36)
[23] Recorded by Muslim
[24] Sūrah al-Nisā, 4:48
[25] Sūrah al-Nisā, 4:36
[26] Sūrah al-Ikhlāṣ, 112:4
[27] Recorded by Muslim
[28] al-Albānī said it is authentic in al-Jāmi’ al-Ṣaghīr wa Ziyādah (no. 6044)

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Explaining Shirk: The Greatest Sin – Shaikh al-Uthaymeen & al-Fawzan [PDF]

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Is the Basmalah an actual verse of Sūrah al-Fātiḥah or Not? – Shaykh al-‘Uthaymīn

Question: Is the Basmalah (بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ) an actual verse of Sūrah al-Fātiḥah or Not?

Shaykh al-Uthaymeen:

The scholars hold differing opinions about this issue. Some say that it is definitely a verse from al-Fātiḥah and it should be recited aloud in those prayers which are recited out-loud. They believe it is not correct unless the Basmalah is recited since it is part of the entire chapter of al-Fātiḥah. Other scholars say that it is not a verse of al-Fātiḥah, but it is a separate verse from the book of Allah. This latter opinion is the correct one and is proven by other texts as well as the context of the chapter itself.

As for the textual proof, Abū Hurayrah ( رضي الله عنه ) narrated a ḥadīth in which the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

I have divided the prayer in two parts between myself and my servant

Allah ( تَعَالَى ) says,

“I have divided the prayer in two parts between myself and my servant.” When the servant recites, “All praise and thanks are to Allah, the lord of all creations”, Allah says, “My servant has praised me.” And when he recites, “The Most-Merciful, the Bestower of all mercy”, Allah says, “My servant has honored me.” When he recites, “The owner of the Day of Recompense”, Allah says, “My servant has glorified me.” When he recites, “You alone we worship and from you alone we seek help”, Allah replies, “This is two parts between my servant and I.” When he recites, “Guide us to the straight path…” until the end of the chapter, Allah replies, “This is for My servant and he will have what he asks for.”

[Recorded by Muslim (no. 395)]

This is a textual proof that the Basmalah is not an actual verse of Sūrah al-Fātiḥah (because it was not the first statement the servant says as mentioned in this ḥadīth).

There is another authentic statement of Anas ibn Mālik ( رضي الله عنه ) in “Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim” in which he said:

I prayed behind the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ), Abū Bakr, and ‘Umar and none of them used to mention “In the name of Allah, the Most-Merciful, the Bestower of all mercy” at the beginning of their recitations (of Sūrah al-Fātiḥah) nor at the end of it.

[Recorded by Muslim (no. 399)]

What is meant is that each of them used not to mention it aloud. The fact that there is a distinction between it not being recited aloud as the rest of al-Fātiḥah is recited indicates that it is not actually a part of the chapter.

As for the proof from the context of the other verses’ meanings, Sūrah al-Fātiḥah consists of seven verses as is unanimously agreed upon. If you wanted to measure out seven verses as they pertain to the topics of the chapter, you will find that the middle verse is:

إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

You alone we worship and from you alone we seek help. [Sūrah al-Fātiḥah, 1:4]

This is the same verse about which Allah says, “This is two parts between my servant and I” in the previous ḥadīth. This is because the first verse is:

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

All praise and thanks are for Allah, the Lord of all creations. [Sūrah al-Fātiḥah, 1:1]

The second verse is:

الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيم

The Most Merciful, the Bestower of all mercy. [Sūrah al-Fātiḥah, 1:2]

The third verse:

مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ

The owner of the Day of Recompense. [Sūrah al-Fātiḥah, 1:3]

These three previous verses are all about the rights of Allah (his attribute, actions, etc.).

As for the verse:

إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

You alone we worship, and from you alone we seek help.[Sūrah al-Fātiḥah, 1:4]

This is the fourth verse and the half-way point and it too is even divided into two parts, one part for Allah (“You alone we worship…”) and one part for the servant (“…from you alone we seek help.”).

The following verses are:

اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ

Guide us to the straight path. [Sūrah al-Fātiḥah, 1:5]

This is for the servant.

صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ

The path of those upon whom You bestowed Your grace. [Sūrah al-Fātiḥah, 1:6]

This is also for the servant.

غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلا الضَّالِّينَ

Not of those who earned anger upon themselves, nor of those who are astray. [Sūrah al-Fātiḥah, 1:7]

And finally, this last verse is also for the servant.

So, three verses are for Allah ( عزّ وجلّ ) and they are the first three. And three verses are for the servant and they are the last three. One verse is between both the servant and his lord and it is the fourth and middle verse.

As for the proof from the context of the wordings, if we say that the Basmalah is a verse of Sūrah al-Fātiḥah, then the seventh verse would be very long – as long as two of the other verses (thus making the last and incomparably long verse, “The path of those upon whom you bestowed your grace, not of those who earned anger, nor of those who are astray.”). But it is known that the principle of the verses being similar to each other is also regarding their length.

So, the correct opinion no doubt is that the Basmalah is not a verse of Sūrah al-Fātiḥah just as it is not a verse (at the beginning) of every other chapter in the Qur’an.

Posted from the article : Explaining Surah al-Fatihah – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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Whoever finds good, let him thank Allah, and whoever finds other than that, let him blame only himself – Ibn Rajab al-Ḥanbalī

Ibn Rajab al-Ḥanbalī’s book, “Jāmi’ al-‘Ulūm wal-Ḥikam,” is an explanation of the forty-two famous ḥadīth collected by Imām an-Nawawī.  In this article, last part of the  twenty-fourth ḥadīth of that book explained.

The Explanation of:

فَمَنْ وَجَدَ خَيْرًا فَلْيَحْمَدِ اللهَ، وَمَنْ وَجَدَ غَيْرَ ذَلِكَ فَلا يَلُوْمَنَّ إِلاّ نَفْسَهُ

“… So whoever finds good, let him thank Allah, and whoever finds other than that, let him blame only himself.”

This indicates that anything good is from Allah as a favor from himself to his worshipper even though the latter may not actually deserve it. And anything evil is from the children of Adam, from following their inclinations and desires as Allah ( عَزَّ وَجَلَّ ) says:

مَّا أَصَابَكَ مِنْ حَسَنَةٍ فَمِنَ اللَّهِ وَمَا أَصَابَكَ مِن سَيِّئَةٍ فَمِن نَّفْسِكَ

What comes to you of good is from Allah, but what comes to you of evil is from yourself. [Sūrah al-Nisā, 4:79]

‘Alī ( رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ ) once said, “A worshipper should hope from none but Allah and should fear nothing but his own sins.”

When Allah wants prosperity and guidance for someone, he facilitates a way for the individual to obey him, and this is a favor from Allah. But when Allah abandons someone, he entrusts all affairs of the person to the individual himself; Allah renounces the person by removing all connections between himself and the individual. So Satan is then able to deceive such a person so that he becomes negligent of remembering Allah. He follows his own inclinations and desires and consequently his affairs are lost and forsaken. All the while, this is still fair and just from Allah because the evidence has already been established upon the individual by the revelation of the Qur’aan and the sending of the messenger. So there is no excuse before Allah for any of mankind after the sending of the messengers.

If what is meant by “So whoever finds good” is whoever finds good in this life, then such a person is obliged to thank Allah, especially for the good reward of one’s good deeds that may be hastened in this life as Allah says:

مَنْ عَمِلَ صَالِحًا مِّن ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنثَى وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَلَنُحْيِيَنَّهُ حَيَاةً طَيِّبَةً وَلَنَجْزِيَنَّهُمْ أَجْرَهُم بِأَحْسَنِ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

Whoever does righteousness, whether male or female, while he is a believer, we will surely cause him to live a good life. And we will surely give such individuals their reward according to the best of what they used to do. [Sūrah al-Naḥl, 16:97]

And (upon the understanding above) such a person would be obliged to blame himself for the negative consequences he may experience in the worldly life for the bad deeds he committed as Allah says:

وَلَنُذِيقَنَّهُم مِّنَ الْعَذَابِ الأَدْنَى دُونَ الْعَذَابِ الأَكْبَرِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ

And we will surely let them taste the nearer punishment short of the greater punishment that perhaps they will repent. [Sūrah al-Sajdah, 32:21]

So for a true believer, when he is afflicted with any hardship in life, he looks inward, holding himself responsible. This in turn encourages him to return back to Allah with repentance and asking for forgiveness.

On the other hand, if what is meant by “So whoever finds good…whoever finds other than that” is in the hereafter, then this may be a way of Allah informing that those who find good in the hereafter will thank and praise Allah for that, and those who find otherwise should blame only themselves although at such a time blaming will be of no use. And this is an Arabic linguistic form in which the text is that of a command yet the meaning is actually to inform of a future event just as is the case with the ḥadīth in which the prophet ( صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) said:

مَنْ كَذَبَ عَلَيَّ مُتَعَمِّدًا فَلْيَتَبَوَّأْ مَقْعَدَهُ مِنْ النَّارِ

Whoever intentionally lies against me, let him occupy his seat in the fire.

[This ḥadīth is mutawātir, meaning that it has been narrated by so many different chains of narrators that it is considered authentic. See for example ḥadīth no.1841 of “Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan al-Tirmidhī” by al-Albānī]

Meaning: Whoever lies against me will indeed occupy his seat in the Hellfire. [The text is in the form of a command but is a way of informing of a future occurrence.]

Allah has also informed us that the people of Paradise will thank Allah for that which he provides them of his bounty; he says:

وَنَزَعْنَا مَا فِي صُدُورِهِم مِّنْ غِلٍّ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهِمُ الأَنْهَارُ وَقَالُوا الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي هَدَانَا لِهَذَا وَمَا كُنَّا لِنَهْتَدِيَ لَوْلا أَنْ هَدَانَا اللَّهُ

And we will have removed whatever is within their breasts of resentment, (while) flowing beneath them are rivers. And they will say, “Praise to Allah who has guided us to this, and we would never have been guided if Allah had not guided us.” [Sūrah al-‘Arāf, 7:43]

وَقَالُوا الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي صَدَقَنَا وَعْدَهُ وَأَوْرَثَنَا الْأَرْضَ نَتَبَوَّأُ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ حَيْثُ نَشَاءُ.

And they will say, “Praise to Allah who has fulfilled his promise to us and has made us inherit the earth (so) we may settle in Paradise wherever we will.” [Sūrah al-Zumar, 39:74]

And he ( تَعَالَى ) says:

وَقَالُوا الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي أَذْهَبَ عَنَّا الْحَزَنَ إِنَّ رَبَّنَا لَغَفُورٌ شَكُورٌ  الَّذِي أَحَلَّنَا دَارَ الْمُقَامَةِ مِن فَضْلِهِ لا يَمَسُّنَا فِيهَا نَصَبٌ وَلا يَمَسُّنَا فِيهَا لُغُوبٌ

And they will say, “Praise to Allah who has removed from us sorrow. Indeed, our lord is forgiving and appreciative – he who has settled us in the home of duration out of his bounty. There touches us therein no fatigue, and there touches us therein no weariness (of mind).” [Sūrah al-Fāṭir, 35:34-35]

As for the people of the fire, Allah informs us they will be blaming themselves, disgusted with and hating of their own souls. Allah ( تَعَالَى ) says:

وَقَالَ الشَّيْطَانُ لَمَّا قُضِيَ الأَمْرُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَعَدَكُمْ وَعْدَ الْحَقِّ وَوَعَدتُّكُمْ فَأَخْلَفْتُكُمْ وَمَا كَانَ لِيَ عَلَيْكُم مِّن سُلْطَانٍ إِلاَّ أَن دَعَوْتُكُمْ فَاسْتَجَبْتُمْ لِي فَلا تَلُومُونِي وَلُومُوا أَنفُسَكُم

And Satan will say when the matter has been concluded, “Indeed, Allah had promised you the promise of truth. And I promised you, but I betrayed you. But I had no authority over you except that I invited you and you responded to me. So do not blame me, but blame yourselves.” [Sūrah Ibrāhīm, 14:22]

And Allah says:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا يُنَادَوْنَ لَمَقْتُ اللَّهِ أَكْبَرُ مِن مَّقْتِكُمْ أَنفُسَكُمْ إِذْ تُدْعَوْنَ إِلَى الإِيمَاَانِ فَتَكْفُرُونَ

Indeed, those who disbelieve will be addressed (in Hell), “The hatred of Allah was (even) greater than your hatred of yourselves when you were invited to faith, but you refused.” [Sūrah Ghāfir, 40:10]

The righteous predecessors used to strive in doing good deeds, fearing the time when deeds will come to an end and they may then blame themselves for their shortcomings.

It was once said to Masrūq, “If only you would ease up with some of your worship in which you exert yourself.” He replied, “By Allah, even if he came to me and told me he would not punish me, I would exert myself in worship (of him).” He was asked, “Why is that?” to which he said: So that my own soul would pardon me if it entered the fire and so I would not have to blame it. Has there not come to you the statement of Allah:

وَلا أُقْسِمُ بِالنَّفْسِ اللَّوَّامَةِ

And I swear by the self-reproaching soul.[Sūrah al-Qiyāmah, 75:2]

They will blame and reproach themselves when they reach Hell. When the angels of punishment embrace them and stand between them and what they desire, when their hopes are cut off, and when mercy is withheld from them, every one of them will begin blaming and reproaching his own soul.

Muṭraf Ibn ‘Abdullah used to say:

Exert yourself in doing good deeds. If the decision is as we hope for—the mercy of Allah and his forgiveness—then for us will be levels (in Paradise). And if the decision is severe as we fear and of which we are cautious, let us not then say:

رَبَّنَا أَخْرِجْنَا نَعْمَلْ صَالِحًا غَيْرَ الَّذِي كُنَّا نَعْمَلُ

“Our Lord, remove us; we will do righteousness other than what we used to do.” [Sūrah Fāṭir, 35:37]

We will then say, “We did deeds but they did not benefit us.”

Posted from the article : The Forbiddance of Oppression –  Ibn Rajab al-Ḥanbalī rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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Day of Resurrection: Allāh Judges the Creation – Shaykh al-‘Uthaymīn

The Eight Event

Allāh Judges Creation

The Arabic word commonly used here, مُحَاسَبَة (muḥāsabah) or حِسَاب (ḥisāb), “judging,” “reckoning,” or “taking to account” is when people will be called to recollect, admit, and be judged on the Day of Resurrection for the actions they did in this life.

As far religious evidence for this event, it is confirmed by the Qur’aan, the Sunnah, the consensus of mainstream Muslims, and even suggested by one’s intellect.


In the Qur’aan, Allah (تعالى) says:

إِنَّ إِلَيْنَا إِيَابَهُمْ  ثُمَّ إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا حِسَابَهُم

Certainly, to us is their return, then certainly upon us is their reckoning.[Sūrah al-Ghāshiyah, 88:25-26]

And:

فَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِيَمِينِهِ فَسَوْفَ يُحَاسَبُ حِسَابًا يَسِيرًا

Then as for he who is given his record in his right hand, he will be judged with an easy reckoning. [Sūrah al-Inshiqāq, 84:7-8]


As for the Sunnah, numerous ḥadīth have been authentically reported from the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) that Allah will judge his creations. For example, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) used to say in some of his prayers:

اللَّهُمَّ حَاسِبْنِي حِسَابًا يَسِيْرًا 

Oh Allah, call me to account with an easy reckoning.

Upon hearing this, ‘Āishah (رضي الله عنها) asked, “What is an easy reckoning?” He answered:

أَنْ يَنْظُرَ فِي كِتَابِهِ فَيَتَجَاوَزُ عَنْهُ

That he looks into his book but pardons him (or finds in his book that he has been pardoned).[86]


As for the consensus among mainstream Muslims, the entire nation of believers has always agreed that Allah will judge creation.

And as for the intellect, it is understood that Allah will judge us because we have been made responsible for actions: obligated to do some, obligated to avoid some, and obligated to hold certain beliefs. Intellect and wisdom dictates that anyone made responsible for something will be held accountable for it and judged for it.

There are, however, some people who will be exempt from being judged; they will be allowed to enter Paradise without judgment or punishment. This has been confirmed in “Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī” and “Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim.” The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

عُرِضَتْ عَلَيَّ الأُمَمُ فَأَخَذَ النَّبِيُّ يَمُرُّ مَعَهُ الأُمَّةُ وَالنَّبِيُّ يَمُرُّ مَعَهُ النَّفَرُ وَالنَّبِيُّ يَمُرُّمَعَهُ الْعَشَرَةُ وَالنَّبِيُّ يَمُرُّ مَعَهُ الْخَمْسَةُ وَالنَّبِيُّ يَمُرُّ وَحْدَهُ ، فَنَظَرْتُ فَإِذَا سَوَادٌ كَثِيرٌ قُلْتُ : يَا جِبْرِيلُ هَؤُلاءِ أُمَّتِي ؟ قَالَ : لا وَلَكِنْ انْظُرْ إِلَى الأُفُقِ ، فَنَظَرْتُ فَإِذَا سَوَادٌ كَثِيرٌ ، قَالَ : هَؤُلاءِ أُمَّتُكَ وَهَؤُلاءِ سَبْعُونَ أَلْفًا قُدَّامَهُمْ لا حِسَابَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلا عَذَابَ ، قُلْتُ : وَلِمَ ؟ قَالَ : كَانُوا لا يَكْتَوُونَ وَلا يَسْتَرْقُونَ وَلا يَتَطَيَّرُونَ وَعَلَى رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ

I was shown the nations (of prophets) and I saw a prophet with an entire nation with him, a prophet with only a single follower, a prophet with ten followers, a prophet with five, and a prophet with none. I then saw a huge crowd and asked, “Oh (Angel) Gabriel, is this my nation?” to which he replied, “No, but look to the horizon.” I then looked and saw a huge nation (of followers). Gabriel said, “This is your nation and in front of them are seventy thousand who will have no judgment and no punishment.” I asked, “Why?” He answered, “They did not practice cauterization, did not seek ruqyá (incantations, healings with Qur’aan recitations), did not believe in good or bad omens, and they relied exclusively on their Lord.”

After hearing this, a companion named ‘Ukkāshah Ibn Miḥṣan stood and said to the prophet, “Pray to Allah to make me one of those.” So the prophet said:

اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْهُ مِنْهُمْ

Oh Allah, make him one of them.

Then another man stood and he too asked, “Pray to Allah to make me one of them,” but the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) replied:

سَبَقَكَ بِهَا عُكَّاشَةُ

‘Ukkāshah beat you to it. [Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

There is even a narration recorded by Imam Aḥmad (5/280, 281) in which these seventy thousand will each have with them an additional seventy thousand, and all of them (70,000 x 70,000) will enter Paradise without judgment or punishment.

The creations to be judged will also include the Jinn, the creatures created by Allah that are unseen by mankind, because they too are held accountable for their beliefs and actions. So like a human, a disbelieving Jinn will enter the fire:

قَالَ ادْخُلُوا فِي أُمَمٍ قَدْ خَلَتْ مِن قَبْلِكُم مِّنَ الْجِنِّ وَالإِنسِ فِي النَّارِ

(Allah) will say, “Enter among nations which had passed on before you of Jinn and mankind into the fire.” [Sūrah al-A’rāf, 7:38]

…and a believing Jinn will enter Paradise according to the opinion of most scholars, and this position is correct as indicated by the statement of Allah about two particular gardens given to those who will enter paradise:

فِيهِنَّ قَاصِرَاتُ الطَّرْفِ لَمْ يَطْمِثْهُنَّ إِنسٌ قَبْلَهُمْ وَلا جَانٌّ

In them are women limiting (their) glances, untouched before them by man or Jinn. [Sūrah al-Raḥmān, 55:56]

Here is a question: Will animals be judged and held accountable?

The answer is as far as judging between them to establish justice and fairness for what occurred between them, then yes, they will be judged because the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

لَتُؤَدُّنَّ الْحُقُوقَ إِلَى أَهْلِهَا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ حَتَّى يُقَادَ لِلشَّاةِ الْجَلْحَاءِ مِنْ الشَّاةِ الْقَرْنَاءِ 

The rights of justice will be established among those who deserve them on the Day of Resurrection so much so that a ram without horns will be given its rights taken from it by a ram with horns. [Recorded by Muslim.]

But again, this is only for ensuring that complete fairness and justice is finally established. As far as being judged for actions they were responsible for carrying out, then no, animals will not be held accountable as they are not responsible for such actions. They will have neither reward nor punishment.

A Believer’s Judgment

Describing the manner in which Allah will judge a believer and take him to account, Ibn ‘Umar (رضي الله عنهما) narrated that the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) described the private counsel to be held between a true believer and his Lord:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُدْنِي الْمُؤْمِنَ فَيَضَعُ عَلَيْهِ كَنَفَهُ وَيَسْتُرُهُ ، فَيَقُولُ : أَتَعْرِفُ ذَنْبَ كَذَا أَتَعْرِفُ ذَنْبَ كَذَا ؟ فَيَقُولُ : نَعَمْ أَيْ رَبِّ ، حَتَّى إِذَا قَرَّرَهُ بِذُنُوبِهِ وَرَأَى فِي نَفْسِهِ أَنَّهُ هَلَكَ قَالَ : سَتَرْتُهَا عَلَيْكَ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَأَنَا أَغْفِرُهَا لَكَ الْيَوْمَ

Allah will draw a believer close, placing him under his care and screening him. Allah will say to him, “Do you remember this sin and that sin?” The person will answer, “Yes, my Lord.” After he is made to confess all of his sins and he sincerely believes he is ruined, Allah will say, “I concealed them for you in life and I forgive you for them today.” [Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

While speaking with his servant, Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) will screen him so that no one will see or hear him during their private conversation. This is a way of Allah (عزّ وجلّ) favoring and showing kindness to a true believer in him. When people make someone confess their crimes publicly in front of everyone, even if they pardon the individual for them, there is still an aspect of scandal and humiliation that remains. Yet if such proceedings were held privately, then this would be a better way of concealing and protecting people from that.

A Disbeliever’s Judgment

Describing a disbeliever’s judgment, Ibn Taymiyyah, said:

“As for a disbeliever, they will not be judged in the same manner as someone who has his good and bad deeds weighed. This is because those who disbelieve in Allah have no good deeds at all. Still, their deeds will be counted and they will be held responsible for them; they will be made to confess them and will be humiliated.”

The meaning of this has come in the same ḥadīth of Ibn ‘Umar previously mentioned in which the prophet spoke about how Allah will conceal a believer and speak privately with him. The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) then said:

وَأَمَّا الْكُفَّارُ وَالْمُنَافِقُونَ فَيُنَادَى بِهِمْ عَلَى رُءُوسِ الْخَلائِقِ : هَؤُلاءِ الَّذِينَ كَذَبُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ

But as for the disbelievers and hypocrites, they will be publicly called out in front of all creation and it will be announced, “These are the ones who lied against Allah.” [Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

Also in “Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim,” Abū Hurayrah narrated that the messenger of Allah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

فَيَلْقَى الْعَبْدَ فَيَقُولُ : أَيْ فُلْ أَلَمْ أُكْرِمْكَ وَأُسَوِّدْكَ وَأُزَوِّجْكَ وَأُسَخِّرْ لَكَ الْخَيْلَ وَالإِبِلَ وَأَذَرْكَ تَرْأَسُ وَتَرْبَعُ ؟ فَيَقُولُ : بَلَى ، قَالَ : فَيَقُولُ : أَفَظَنَنْتَ أَنَّكَ مُلاقِيَّ ؟ فَيَقُولُ : لا ، فَيَقُولُ : فَإِنِّي أَنْسَاكَ كَمَا نَسِيتَنِي ،

 ثُمَّ يَلْقَى الثَّانِيَ فَيَقُولُ : أَيْ فُلْ أَلَمْ أُكْرِمْكَ وَأُسَوِّدْكَ وَأُزَوِّجْكَ وَأُسَخِّرْ لَكَ الْخَيْلَ وَالإِبِلَ وَأَذَرْكَ تَرْأَسُ وَتَرْبَعُ ؟ فَيَقُولُ.: بَلَى أَيْ رَبِّ ، فَيَقُولُ : أَفَظَنَنْتَ أَنَّكَ مُلاقِيَّ ؟ فَيَقُولُ : لا ، فَيَقُولُ : فَإِنِّي أَنْسَاكَ كَمَا نَسِيتَنِي ، 

ثُمَّ يَلْقَى الثَّالِثَ ، فَيَقُولُ لَهُ مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ ، فَيَقُولُ : يَا رَبِّ آمَنْتُ بِكَ وَبِكِتَابِكَ وَبِرُسُلِكَ وَصَلَّيْتُ وَصُمْتُ وَتَصَدَّقْتُ وَيُثْنِي بِخَيْرٍ مَا اسْتَطَاعَ ، فَيَقُولُ : هَاهُنَا إِذًا ،قَالَ : ثُمَّ : يُقَالُ لَهُ : الآنَ نَبْعَثُ شَاهِدَنَا عَلَيْكَ ، وَيَتَفَكَّرُ فِي نَفْسِهِ مَنْ ذَا الَّذِي يَشْهَدُ عَلَيَّ ، فَيُخْتَمُ عَلَى فِيهِ ، وَيُقَالُ لِفَخِذِهِ وَلَحْمِهِ وَعِظَامِهِ : انْطِقِي ، فَتَنْطِقُ فَخِذُهُ وَلَحْمُهُ وَعِظَامُهُ بِعَمَلِهِ ، وَذَلِكَ لِيُعْذِرَ مِنْ نَفْسِهِ وَذَلِكَ الْمُنَافِقُ وَذَلِكَ الَّذِي يَسْخَطُ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ

Allah will meet with a servant, asking, “Oh so-and-so, did I not honor you, give you authority, give you a spouse, give you control over horses and camels, and made you a leader (or allowed you to live a comfortable life)?” The person will reply, “You did.” Allah will ask him, “Did you think you would ever meet me?” and he will answer, “No.” So Allah will say, “Then I will forget you as you forgot me.”

Then Allah will meet with a second person and ask, “Oh so-and-so, did I not honor you, give you authority, give you a spouse, give you control over horses and camels, and made you a leader (or allowed you to live a comfortable life)?” The person will reply, “You did, my Lord.” Allah will ask him, “Did you think you would ever meet me?” and he will answer, “No.” So Allah will say, “Then I will forget you as you forgot me.”

Allah will then meet with a third person and will ask him similarly as he did with the others, but this person will say, “My Lord, I believed in you, in your book, and in your messengers. I prayed, fasted, and gave charity.” And he will continue praising the good (he did) as much as he can. Allah will say, “(Stop) then. Now we will bring forth our witness against you.” The person will think to himself about who this witness could be to testify against him. His mouth will then be sealed and his legs, his flesh and bones will be told, “Speak.” His legs, flesh, and bones will then speak about what he did. That is the person who will have no excuse for himself; that is the hypocrite, and that is the one with whom Allah is angry. [Recorded by Muslim.]

On the Day of Judgment, the first people to be judged will be this nation, the Muslims who followed Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم), based on the prophet’s statement:

نَحْنُ الآخِرُوْنَ السَّابِقُوْنَ يَوْمَ القِيَامَةِ المَقْضِيُّ بَيْنَهُمْ قَبْلَ الخَلائِقِ

We are the last ones (in this life) but the first ones on the Day of Resurrection to have their accounts settled before the rest of creation. [94]

Similarly, Ibn ‘Abbās (رضي الله عنهما) narrated that the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

نَحْنُ آخِرُ الأُمَمِ وَأَوَّلُ مَنْ يُحَاسَبُ ، يُقَالُ : أَيْنَ الأُمَّةُ الأُمِّيَّةُ وَنَبِيُّهَا ؟ فَنَحْنُ الآخِرُونَ الأَوَّلُونَ

We are the last religious nation (in this life) but the first to be judged. It will be said, “Where is the illiterate nation and its prophet?” So we are the last ones yet the first ones.[95]

The first thing for which a worshipper of Allah will be judged and called to account regarding the rights of Allah will be his prayer based on the statement of the prophet :(صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)

أَوَّلُ مَا يُحَاسَبُ بِهِ الْعَبْدُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ الصَلاة ، فَإِنْ صَلُحَتْ صَلُحَ سَائِرُ عَمَلِهِ ،  وَإِنْ فَسَدَتْ فَسَدَ سَائِرُ عَمَلِهِ

The first thing for which a worshipper will be judged on the Day of Resurrection will be prayer. If it is sound, the rest of his deeds will be sound, but if it is bad, the rest of his deeds will be bad. [96]

However, the first crimes to be judged regarding the rights of other people will be those pertaining to bloodshed as he (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

أَوَّلَ مَا يُقْضَى بَيْنَ النَّاسِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فِي الدِّمَاءِ 

The first thing to be settled between people on the Day of Resurrection will be (crimes of) bloodshed.[97]

This is because prayer is the best bodily act of worship related to the rights of Allah, and bloodshed is the greatest violation of communal rights related to mankind.

Footnotes:

[86] Recorded by Aḥmad (6/48) and Ibn Abī ‘Āṣim in “Kitāb al-Sunnah” (no. 885). al-Albānī said it is authentic in his checking of “Kitāb al-Sunnah” (2/429).

[94] Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim. In a similar ḥadīth, also recorded by them both, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

نَحْنُ الآخِرُونَ السَّابِقُونَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ مِنْ قَبْلِنَا وَأُوتِينَاهُ مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ ، فَهَذَا الْيَوْمُ الَّذِي اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ فَهَدَانَا اللَّهُ فَغَدًا لِلْيَهُودِ وَبَعْدَ غَدٍ لِلنَّصَارَى

We are the last ones but the first ones on the Day of Resurrection. They were given the scripture before us and we were given it after them. So this is the day they differed about, but Allah has guided us. So tomorrow is for the Jews, and the day after is for the Christians.

[95] Recorded by Ibn Mājah, Aḥmad, and al-Bayhaqī. al-Albānī said it is authentic in “Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan Ibn Mājah” (no. 3463).

[96] Recorded by al-Tirmidhī, al-Nasāī, Ibn Mājah, and al-Ṭabarānī. The text is from al-Ṭabarānī and al-Albānī said it is authentic in “Ṣaḥīḥ al-Targhīb wal-Tarhīb” (1/185).

[97] Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim

Posted from the article : The Resurrection, A Summary of Events to Occur – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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The Righteous Wife (Sifāt Zawjatus Sālihah) – Muhammad Shūmān | Dāwūd Burbānk

The Righteous Wife

By Muhammad Shūmān
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood ibn Ronald Burbank (rahimahullaah)

Contents

  • Introduction to the English Edition
  • Author’s Foreword
  • The Seriousness of the Rights of the Husband
  • Encouragement of Obedience to the Husband and Seeking to Please Him
  • The Warning Against Causing the Husband to Become Angry, Disobeying his Orders and Neglecting his Rights
  • The Excellence of a Righteous Wife
  • Attributes of a Righteous Wife
  • Means to Help the Wife to Attain these Attributes
  • Epilogue

Introduction to the English Edition

All praise and thanks are due to Allaah, Lord of the worlds. May His peace and prayers be upon Muhammad and upon those who follow his Sunnah.

More than likely this book shall attract much attention. Perhaps it shall be a gift from a husband to his wife or perhaps those of us awaiting marriage will eagerly study these few pages to better understand what is expected of us and how we can strive towards it. Nevertheless there will be some who shall huff and utter annoyances under their breath claiming that yet again this is targeted at women (not men), censuring and restricting them. Unfortunately such people will rarely study the text but on flicking through these pages shall come to the conclusion that this has been written by a fanatical male Muslim to tyrannise and discredit the role of women.

In six short, concise chapters Muhammad Shūmān has brought together a collection of authentic ahaadeeth and many Aayaat to aid the Muslimah towards righteousness and advise and encourage her with regards to her husbands rights upon her and how she can attain the pleasure of her Creator by doing so. You may find some of the wording harsh, or even strange, but the fault isn’t in the text, rather in ourselves due to this society where the ‘choices’ are only the western liberal choices and hence we have become accustomed to moulding ourselves in a particular way – sometimes quite alien from Islaam.

Our duty above all is to worship Allaah, obedience to Him taking precedence over the rest of creation. If He asks us to do something then that should become an aim we try our hardest to fulfill. With this in mind, when we now approach the issue of marriage then it should be made clear that obedience to one’s husband is an Islamic duty and hence earns the pleasure of our Lord. It must be pointed out that the author has kept his own words to a minimum and instead has based this book on the Sayings of Allaah and His Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) (with the explanation of some prominent scholars) – thus the Believer has no choice but to submit to it wholeheartedly. Allaah, the Most High says,

وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَلَا مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَمْرًا أَن يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ ۗ وَمَن يَعْصِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا مُّبِينًا

“It is not fitting for any believing man or woman, when Allaah and His Messenger have decreed any matter that they should have any option in their affair, and whoever disobeys Allaah and His Messenger has strayed in plain error.” (Soorah al-Ahzaab 33:36)

If we read this and digest it with a sincere heart and recognise that there isn’t hardship imposed on the woman and ease for the man, rather that which is mentioned shall only lead to greater comfort, ease and satisfaction for both parties. A marriage which starts on the right footing where the husband and wife identify their own roles and compliment each other according to what is contained in the Qur’aan and Sunnah then theirs shall be the marriage in which there is happiness and joy – success in both worlds, for they have put their entire trust in Allaah, He who knows what benefits and rectifies the servants and what harms and corrupts them.

Although the pages are few, the lessons are many and even if we were to act on half of them we would feel an immediate change in ourselves and our homes. It is about time that a book of this nature and dealing with such an important topic has become available to the Muslim women in the west where we are in much need of instruction from the Qur’aan and Sunnah so that we can easily reject western models and replace them with the best of examples.

We hope that this book will not be misused by husbands but rather that it will serve as a reminder to them also and a warning that they are not left to their customary conduct in this affair. There is advise and encouragement for the husband to live with his wife in a good and honourable manner, taking care of her – highlighting that the success and tranquility of the marriage does not just fall upon his wife, rather it is a shared responsibility.

We ask Allaah to reward the author for this service and his efforts, and may all the Muslim women who read this try to mould their characteristics upon this noble way and may all the Muslim men help and encourage us towards attaining the rewards and excellence for being a righteous wife.

Written by
Umm Nusaybah
31st Otober 1996

Author’s Foreword

All praise is for Allaah. We praise Him, we seek His aid and we ask for His forgiveness. We seek Allaah’s refuge from the evils of ourselves and from our evil actions. Whosoever Allaah guides, there is no one who can misguide him; and whosoever Allaah misguides, there is no one who can guide him.

I testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, alone, who has no partner; and I testify that Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) is His slave and Messenger.

This treatise, “The Righteous Wife” is concise in its wording, important in its subject and valuable for the points of benefit it contains. We ask Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, to make this treatise of benefit to our Muslim sisters, and to all those who read it, and that He makes it a work done purely and sincerely to seek His Face. Indeed He is the one who gives bounteously and generously.

Written by
Muhammad Shūmān
1st Dhul-Qa’dah 1410H.

The Seriousness of the Rights of the Husband

Allaah, the Most High, says:

الرِّجَالُ قَوَّامُونَ عَلَى النِّسَاءِ بِمَا فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ وَبِمَا أَنفَقُوا مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ

“The men have authority over the women due to the excellence which Allaah has given to the man over the woman, and due to the wealth that they spend upon them.” [01]

Ibn Katheer says, “The man is in charge (qayyim) of the woman, i.e. he is the one in-charge of her, her chief, the one having authority over her and the one who corrects her if she inclines away from what is correct.” [02]

Abdur-Rahmaan as-Sa’ dee said (regarding the above mentioned Aayah),

“That is due to the excellence of men over women, and the eminence which they have been given over them. So the pre-eminence of the men over the women is from many aspects: holding positions of leadership and authority is particular to men, likewise Prophethood and Messengership. They are also particularised by many acts of worship such as jihaad , the eids and the Jum’ah prayers. Also due to the characteristics given to them by Allaah, the like of which are not possessed by women such as sound intellect, composure, patience and endurance. Likewise they are particularised with having to spend upon their wives, and indeed spending in many ways which are particular to the men – which distinguish them from the women. So perhaps this is the reason for His saying: وَبِمَا أَنفَقُوا  “…due to the wealth that they spend…” – and exactly what they spend is not stated to indicate that the spending referred to is general. So from all this it is known that the man is like a governor and master for his wife, and she is with him like a captive. So his role is to take care of that which Allaah has placed him in-charge of, and her role is to be obedient to her Lord and to obey her husband.” [03]

Al-Qaasimee said,

الرِّجَالُ قَوَّامُونَ عَلَى النِّسَاءِ ” ‘The men have authority (qawwaamoon) over the women’ [04] – qawwaamoon is the plural of qawwaam. Qawwaam is the one who is responsible for taking care of their welfare, managing their affairs and disciplining them. That is, they are in-charge of and are to take care of the manners and behaviour of the women; ordering them and forbidding them, just as the ruler is responsible for his subjects. This is due to two reasons: (i) Due to the nature which Allaah gave them, and (ii) due to the role which they carry out.

The first is indicated by the Saying of Allaah:

بِمَا فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ

“Due to the excellence which Allaah has given to the man over the woman.” [05]

This refers to the relation between the men and women, and means that the men have a position of dominance over them due to the superiority which Allaah has given to the men over the women.” [06]

Allaah, the Most High, says:

وَلِلرِّجَالِ عَلَيْهِنَّ دَرَجَةٌ

“Men have a degree over the women.” [07]

Ibn Katheer said, “Meaning: in excellence; in the nature given to them; in manners; in status; in the obedience due to them; in their spending and taking care of the (women’s) welfare; and in excellence in this life and the Hereafter.” [08]

The Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

Every soul from the children of Aadam is a master; so the man is the master of his family, and the woman is the mistress of her household. ” [09]

Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“If I were to order anyone to prostrate to other than Allaah, I would have ordered the woman to prostrate to her husband. By Him in whose Hand is the soul of Muhammad, the woman will not fulfill the rights of her Lord until she fulfills the rights of her husband; and even if he were to request her for herself (i.e. to have intercourse with her) whilst she was sitting upon a camel’s saddle [10], she should not refuse him.” [11]

The Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“It is not right that any human being should prostrate to another human being, and if it were right for a human being to prostrate to another human being I would have ordered the woman to prostrate to her husband due to the greatness of his right upon her. By Him in whose Hand is my soul, if from his foot to the crown of his head there was a wound pouring forth pus, and she (the wife) came and licked that, then she would (still) not have fulfilled his right. “ [12]

The Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“The right of the husband over the wife is such that if he had a wound, or his nostrils were pouring forth pus or blood, then she were to swallow that down – then she would (still) not have fulfilled his right.” [13]

Aboo Hurayrah, radiyAllaahu ‘anhu, reports that Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“It is not right for a woman to fast [14] whilst the husband is present except with his permission; [15] and whatever wealth she spends in charity without his order, then half of the reward is for him. ” [16]

Shaykh al-Albaanee said, “Since it is an obligation upon the woman to obey her husband with regard to fulfillment of his desire with her, then it is even more fitting that it is obligatory upon her to obey him with regard to that which is even more important than that – such as what pertains to bringing up the children, correcting her family and the like – all such rights and obligations.” [17]

Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajr said, “The hadeeth shows that the right of the husband upon the wife has priority over her performing optional good deeds, since his right is an obligation, and fulfillment of an obligation takes precedence over carrying out something optional.” [18]

Also Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah, rahimahullaah, was asked about a man who has a wife who fasts during the day and stands in prayer throughout the nights. Whenever he calls her to his bed she refuses and gives precedence to praying in the night and fasting during the day over obedience to the husband. So is this permissible? Shaykhul-Islaam replied, “That is not permissible for her by agreement of the Muslims. Rather it is obligatory upon her to obey when he calls her to the bed, this is a binding obligation upon her. However standing the night in prayer and fasting during the day is optional, so how can a believing woman give precedence to something optional over an obligation… and there is no right, after the rights of Allaah and His Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) more binding upon the woman than the rights of the husband.” [19]

Mu’aadh ibn Jabal, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, said that the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“If the woman knew the right of the husband, she would not sit when his morning and evening meals were presented until he finished. “ [20]

Encouragement of Obedience to the Husband and Seeking to Please Him

Aboo Hurayrah, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, said that the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“If a woman prays her five (daily prayers), fast her month (i.e. Ramadaan), guards her private parts, and obeys her husband, it will be said to her, ‘Enter Paradise through whichever of the gates of Paradise you wish.'” [21]

The Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“Your women from the people of Paradise are the beloved and fertile, the one who is an asset to her husband, who if her husband becomes angry- comes and places her hand in the hand of her husband and says, ‘I will not taste sleep until you are pleased (with me). “‘ [22]

The Warning Against Causing the Husband to Become Angry, Disobeying His Orders and Neglecting His Rights

Fadaalah ibn ‘Ubayd, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, said that the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“There are three who are not to be asked about: [23] A man who abandon s the Jamaa’ah [24] and disobeys his ruler [25] and dies in a state of disobedience – so do not ask about him; a female slave or a male slave who flees from his master; and a woman whose husband is away, and he has provided for her worldly needs, yet she adorns and displays herself [26] and roams around freely [27] without him – so do not ask about them. ” [28]

The Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“There are three whose prayers will not be raised above their ears: the runaway slave until he returns; a woman who spends the night whilst her husband is angry with her; [29] and one who leads a people in prayer and they dislike him.[30] [31]

The Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“Allaah will not Look at a woman who does not give thanks to her husband and she cannot do without him. “ [32]

Aboo Hurayrah, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, reports that the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“By Him in whose Hand is my soul, there is no man who calls his wife to his bed and she refuses him except that the One who is in the heaven is angry with her until he (her husband) is pleased with her. “ [33]

The Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“When a woman spends the night forsaking the bed of her husband, then the angels curse her until she returns. “ [34]

The Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“If a man calls his wife to his bed and she refuses, and he spends the night angry with her, then the angels curse her until morning. “ [35]

The Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said to a woman, “Indeed he is your Paradise and your Fire.” [36] Meaning her husband.

So whichever woman obeys Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, with regard to her husband and fulfills his rights, then he will be her Paradise – meaning he will be a cause for her entering Paradise; and if she is disobedient to her husband – then the Fire.

Mu’aadh ibn Jabal, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, said that the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“A woman does not harm her husband in this world except that his wife from the large eyed hooris (al-Hoorul ‘Een) [37] says, ‘Do not harm him, may Allaah kill you,for he is just a passing guest with you and is about to leave you and come to us.’ “[38]

The Excellence of a Righteous Wife

‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Amr, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, said that the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“All of this world is a utility and the best utility is a righteous wife. “ [39]

Sa’d ibn Abee Waqqaas, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, said that the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“Four things are from prosperity: a righteous woman, a spacious dwelling, a righteous neighbour and an agreeable riding beast; and four things are from adversity: an evil neighbour, an evil woman, a bad riding beast and a cramped dwelling. “ [40]

Thawbaan, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, nararted, “When revelation was sent down concerning silver and gold, [41] they said, ‘So which wealth shall we possess?’ ‘Umar said, ‘I shall find this out for you.’ So he hastened upon his camel and went to the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) and I followed him. So he said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, which wealth shall we possess?’ So he (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

Let one of you possess a heart which is thankful, a tongue which makes mention of(Allaah), and a believing wife who helps one of you upon the affairs of the Hereafter.‘” [42]

The righteous wife is the one whom the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) advised should be obtained right from the beginning. As Aboo Hurayrah, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, narrated from the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) that he said,

“A woman is married for four reasons: for her wealth; for her lineage; for her beauty; and for her religion (Deen). So marry the one who is good in her religion (Deen) – may your hands be covered in dust.” [43]  [44]

Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajr said, “The meaning is that what is fitting for a person upon the religion and of good manners is that the religion should be the aim which he gives importance to in all of his affairs – particularly those affairs which he will be involved in for a long period of time. So the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) commanded him to obtain a woman who is good in her practice of the religion – which is the goal that is desired.” [45]

Attributes of the Righteous Wife

1. Devotion and obedience to Allaah, the Most High, such that she fulfills His rights, such as the prayer, fasting, chastity, covering herself, withholding her gaze and so on.

2. Obedience to her husband in that which does not involve disobedience to Allaah, the Most High, such that she fulfills his rights completely, and fro m them are what has proceeded in the first chapter.

3. That she guards and preserves herself and her honour, in the absence of her husband, from the hand of anyone wishing to touch her, the eye of anyone wishing to look upon her, and the ear of anyone wishing to listen to her.

Likewise that she preserves her husband’s children, home and wealth.

Allaah, the Most High, says:

فَالصَّالِحَاتُ قَانِتَاتٌ حَافِظَاتٌ لِّلْغَيْبِ بِمَا حَفِظَ اللَّهُ

“Therefore the righteous women are obedient to Allaah and their husbands, and guard that which Allaah has ordered them to guard (their chastity and their husbands property) in the absence of their husbands.” [46]

As-Sa’dee said, فَالصَّالِحَاتُ قَانِتَاتٌ meaning they are obedient to Allaah, the Most High; حَافِظَاتٌ لِّلْغَيْبِ meaning they are obedient to their husbands even when the husbands are absent, she guards herself and her husband’s property.” [47]

The Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“If a woman prays her five (daily prayers), fasts her month (i.e. Ramadaan), guards her private parts, and obeys her husband, it will be said to her, ‘Enter Paradise through whichever of the gates of Paradise you wish. ‘” [48]

4. Serving her husband. First of all by carrying out what is required in his house, such as bringing up and educating the children, preparing the meals and the beds and so on.

From Husayn ibn Mihsan who said that my paternal aunt said,

“I came to Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) for some need, so he asked, ‘You there! Are you married?’ I replied, ‘Yes.’ He then asked, ‘How are you towards your husband?’ She responded, ‘I do not fall short in his service except with regard to what I am unable to do. ‘ He said, ‘Then look to your standing with him, for indeed he is your Paradise and your Fire .”‘ [49]

Here is an example of how Asmaa’ bint Abee Bakr, radiyallaahu ‘anhumaa, served her husband. She said,

“Az-Zubayr married me and he did not have any property or slaves or anything upon the earth except for a camel which drew water from the well and his horse. So I used to feed his horse, draw the water, stitch his water bucket, and prepare the dough, but I was not proficient in baking bread – so ladies from the Ansaar who were my neighbours and were honourable used to bake the bread for me. I also used to carry the date-stones upon my head, from the land given to az-Zubayr by Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) – and it was about two miles away. One day when I was coming with the date-stones on my head, I met Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) and a group of the Ansaar were with him. So he called me and said, ‘Ikh, ikh.’ [50] in order to carry me behind him upon the camel. But I felt shy to proceed along with the men, and I thought of az-Zubayr and his sense of jealousy, and he was one of the most jealous of the people. So Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) saw my shyness and so passed on. So I came to az-Zubayr and said, ‘Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) met me while I was carrying the date stones upon my head and with him were a group of his Companions. He caused his riding camel to kneel, but I felt shy and remembered your sense of jealousy.’ So he said, ‘By Allaah your having to carry the date-stones is harder upon me than that you should ride along with him.”‘ She said, “Then later on Aboo Bakr sent me a servant to look after the horse, so it was as if he had set me free.” [51]

The scholars differ with regard to the ruling about a woman serving her husband. Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah said, “The scholars differed about whether she has to serve her husband with regard to the like of household bedding, preparing food and drinks, baking the bread, grinding the corn, and providing food for his slaves and cattle – such as providing fodder for his riding beast and so on. “Some of them say: It is not obligatory for her to serve him – and this is a weak saying, like the weakness of the saying that it is not obligatory upon her to live together with him and have intercourse with him! However what is correct is that it is obligatory to serve him, since the husband is her master according to the Book of Allaah, and she is a captive with him according to the Sunnah of the Prophet [52] (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم), and the captive and the slave have to serve – and this is something known.

…the Saying of Allaah, the Most High,

فَالصَّالِحَاتُ قَانِتَاتٌ حَافِظَاتٌ لِّلْغَيْبِ بِمَا حَفِظَ اللَّهُ

“Therefore the righteous women are obedient to Allaah and their husbands, and guard that which Allaah has ordered them to guard (their chastity and their husbands property) in the absence of their husbands.” [53]

“This Aayah shows that it is obligatory upon her to serve her husband unrestrictedly, including: serving him, travelling along with him , making herself available to him, and so on – just as it is obligatory to obey the parents, since the obedience due from her to the parents transfers to the husband.” [54]

5. Keeping the husbands secrets. Particularly what occurs between him and her in private – with regard to sexual matters and the private affairs within the marriage. Disclosing the husbands secrets will hurt him and anger him and this contradicts obedience to him and seeking to please him. Furthermore preserving his secrets is one of the duties of the righteous and obedient women, as described in the Saying of Allaah,

حَافِظَاتٌ لِّلْغَيْبِ

“Guarding that which (Allaah has commanded them to guard) in the absence of their husbands.” [55]

Part of their guarding what they are to guard in the absence of their husbands is that they should not broadcast their secrets.

From Asmaa’ bint Yazeed, radiyallaahu ‘anhaa, who said that she was in the company of Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) and men and women were sitting, and he (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“Perhaps a man mentions that which he did with his wife, and perhaps a woman informs of what she does with her husband?!” So the people were silent, so I said, “Yes, by Allaah, O Messenger of Allaah! The women certainly do that, and the men certainly do that.” He (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said, “Then do not do so, since that is just like a male devil meeting a female devil upon the way, and he has intercourse with her while the people are watching. “ [56]

6. She should appear before the husband in the best appearance, such that if he looks at her it pleases him. Aboo Hurayrah, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, narrates the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) was asked,

“Which of the women is the best?” He replied, “The one who gives him [57] pleasure when he looks;[58] obeys him when he orders; and does not go against his wishes with regard to herself or her wealth by doing that which he dislikes. “ [59]

7. She should not spend any of his wealth or her wealth except with his permission.

From ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘ Aas, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, who said that Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

” It is not permissible for a woman to give a gift except with the permission of her husband. “ [60]

Al-Albaanee said, “However it is not becoming for the husband – if he is a sincere Muslim – that he should use this ruling to play the tyrant with his wife and to prevent her from utilizing her wealth in a manner which will not harm either of them. Indeed this right is very similar to the right of the girls guardian – who is such that she cannot get herself married except with his permission. But if he unjustly prevents her, then the matter is raised to the Islamic judge for justice to be attained. Likewise is the ruling with regard to a woman’s wealth if her husband oppresses her and prevents her from spending her wealth in a lawful and prescribed manner – then the judge will also bring about justice for her. So there is no problem with the ruling itself, rather the problem is in how it is misused.” [61]

8. She should not permit anyone to enter her husbands house except with his permission.

From Aboo Hurayrah, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, who said that the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“It is not permissible for a woman to fast when her husband is present except with his permission; nor may she permit anyone to enter his house except with his permission; and whatever she spends in charity without his order – then half of the reward is for him. “ [62]

9. She should not ask her husband for divorce without a reason necessitating that.

From Thawbaan, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, who said that the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“Whichever woman asks her husband for divorce without a strong reason – then the fragrance of Paradise will be forbidden for her. “ [63]

10. Avoidance of cursing.

Aboo Sa’eed al-Khudree, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, said

“The Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) went out to the prayer-ground for the (prayer of) Adhaa or Fitr, and he passed by the women and said, ‘O women! Give in charity,for I have been shown that you shall be the majority of the people of the Fire .’ So they asked, ‘Why is that, 0 Messenger of Allaah?’ He replied, ‘You curse frequently and are ungrateful to your husbands. ‘” [64]

11. Being thankful to the husband for the good he does and for his good treatment of his wife.

This is accomplished by good words, and by her obedience to him in what is good, and by not forgetting his good treatment and avoiding denying this, since that is one of the reasons which brings about entry into the Fire.

From Ibn ‘Abbaas, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, who said that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“I was shown the Fire and found that the majority of its inhabitants were women, due to ingratitude. It was said: “Is it that they disbelieve in Allaah?” He said: They are ungrateful to their husbands and deny the good they do. If you were to treat one of them well always, and she then saw something (displeasing) from you she would say: ‘I have never seen any good from you. ‘” [65]

Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“Allaah will not look at a woman who is not thankful to her husband and she cannot do without him.” [66]

12. She should not remove her clothes outside her husbands house.

Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“Whichever woman removes her clothes in other than her house, then Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, will tear down His cover from her. “ [67]

Al-Manaawee said, ‘”Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, will tear down His cover from her’ since because she has failed to take care of what she has been commanded with regard to covering herself from strangers, then this is the recompense she receives, the recompense being of the type of the action. What is apparent is that removal of her clothing means uncovering herself to strange males, for the purpose of sexual intercourse or that which leads to it. As opposed to the case if she were to remove her clothes amongst women, whilst covering her private parts, since there is no reason for that to enter into this warning.” [68]

13. Striving to please the husband by every possible means.

The hadeeth has already preceded containing the saying of the righteous wife, “… I will not taste sleep until you are pleased (with me).”

There also occurs in al-Kabaa’ir of adh-Dhahabee, “What is obligatory upon the woman is that she seeks the pleasure of her husband, and avoids angering him, and does not refuse him whenever he wants her. The woman must also know that she is like a slave to her husband, so she should not do anything affecting herself or her husbands wealth except with his permission. She should give precedence to his rights over her rights, and the rights of his relatives over the rights of her relatives, and she should keep herself clean and be ready for him to enjoy her. She should not boast at his expense of her beauty, nor rebuke him for any ugliness found in him. The woman must also be always modest and reserved in the presence of her husband, lower her eyes in front of him, obey his commands, remain silent when he speaks, keep far away from everything which angers him, avoid treachery when he is absent, with regard to his bed, his wealth and his house. She should ensure that her aroma is pleasant, be accustomed to using musk and perfume and cleaning her mouth with siwaak. She should be constant in adorning herself in his presence and not when he is absent. She should treat his family and relatives honourably, and consider something small from him as something great.” [69]

Means to Help the Wife to Attain These Attributes

Knowing the greatness and exaltedness of Allaah, the Most High, and that He is the True God, the One who watches over His creation, and that His Religion is the true and straight way, and the laws He had prescribed are the straight path, and to know the perfectness of His Wisdom in whatever He orders and forbids, and whatever He decrees and chooses.

Furthermore that His knowledge comprehends everything to be known, what is apparent and what is hidden: so He knows what benefits the servants and what harms them. He knows what will rectify them and what will ruin and corrupt them. He, the One free of all imperfections, is also the Most Merciful of all those who show mercy, so He does not order His servants except with that which is good for them in their Religion and their worldly-life, and brings about felicity for them in this world and the Hereafter; and He does not forbid them except from that which will bring misery for them in this world and the Hereafter.

So whatever He, the One free of all imperfections, has prescribed is a mercy and a blessing; and whoever proceeds upon that way and follows it will be one of those who are happy and successful in both worlds, and will live a fine life filled with happiness and joy, they will not be miserable at all except in those things where they contradict the commandments of their Lord, the Mighty and Majestic. Allaah, the Most High, says:

مَنْ عَمِلَ صَالِحًا مِّن ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنثَىٰ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَلَنُحْيِيَنَّهُ حَيَاةً طَيِّبَةً ۖ وَلَنَجْزِيَنَّهُمْ أَجْرَهُم بِأَحْسَنِ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

“Whoever does a righteous deed, whether male or female, and is a true-Believer, we will give him a good life (by granting him contentment) and we will reward them in the Hereafter in accordance with the best of what they used to do.” [70]

He, the One free of all imperfections, says:

وَمَنْ أَعْرَضَ عَن ذِكْرِي فَإِنَّ لَهُ مَعِيشَةً ضَنكًا

“And whoever turns away from my reminder, then there is for him a life of hardship and wretchedness.” [71]

So if the wife is aware of the greatness of Allaah, the Most High, and His perfect wisdom, and His all-encompassing knowledge, and His extensive mercy, then she will strive to obey Him, the Majestic and Most High, and to be obedient to her husband as He has commanded her. She will hasten to fulfill his rights without hesitation or laziness, and she will not say: ‘why is it the case that the man is in authority over me?!’ ‘why do I have to obey him?!’ ‘why … why?!’

Allaah, the Most High, says:

وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَلَا مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَمْرًا أَن يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ ۗ وَمَن يَعْصِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا مُّبِينًا

“It is not for any believing man or woman, when Allaah and His Messenger have decreed any matter that they should have any option in their affair, and whoever disobeys Allaah and His Messenger has strayed in plain error.” [72]

And He, the One free of all imperfections, says:

فَلَا وَرَبِّكَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّىٰ يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ ثُمَّ لَا يَجِدُوا فِي أَنفُسِهِمْ حَرَجًا مِّمَّا قَضَيْتَ وَيُسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيمًا

“So no, by your Lord, they cannot be Believers until they make you, 0 Muhammad, judge in all disputes between them, then they do not find any opposition in themselves against your judgements, and they accept them with full submission.” [73]

And from the means which will help her to attain the attribute of the righteous women is:

• Desire for that which Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, has prepared for the righteous women in Paradise

The comprehensive good and the huge reward which is such as has been seen by no eye, heard by no ear, nor imagined by any human heart.

• Fear of the retribution and Anger of Allaah, the One free of all imperfections and the Most High

Fear of all that He has prepared for the disobedient in the Hereafter with regard to punishment, disgrace, and severe and painful torment, may Allaah save us from that, by His grace and favour.

We have also already brought two chapters: one in encouragement of looking after the rights of the husband, and the other warning against neglecting his rights.

• Seeking the Aid of Allaah, the Most High

Since the attainment of the smallest good is not possible unless Allaah, the Most High, guides and sets one straight. Concerning this Allaah, the Exalted, says:

فَالصَّالِحَاتُ قَانِتَاتٌ حَافِظَاتٌ لِّلْغَيْبِ بِمَا حَفِظَ اللَّهُ

“Therefore the righteous women are obedient to Allaah and their husbands, and guard that which Allaah has ordered them to guard (their chastity and their husbands property) in the absence of their husbands.” [74]

So the meaning of  بِمَا حَفِظَ اللَّهُ  is:’by Allaah’s guarding and protecting them when they become like that.’ This is what at-Tabaree [75] and a group of the scholars of tafseer said.

From the greatest aids to a wife’s righteousness is:

• That she keeps company with righteous and pious women, that she listens to them, and seeks to be like them; and that she avoids the company of corrupt women, and avoids sitting with them and listening to them.

Indeed she should beware of observing their making a display of themselves, and showing their nakedness, and their evil manners, whether this is seen by means of television, video or whatever.

Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“The example of the righteous companion and the evil companion is like that of a seller of musk and the blacksmiths bellows. From the musk seller you will either buy some musk or at least enjoy its good smell. But the bellows of the blacksmith will either burn your house or your clothes, or at least you will receive a bad smell from it. “ [76]

An-Nawawee said, “It shows the excellence of sitting with the righteous, and the people of good, and those possessing good character and fine manners and piety, and the people of knowledge and refinement; and the forbiddence of sitting with the people of evil, and the people of innovation, and those who backbite the people, or those who are commonly involved in shamelessness and idleness, and such reprehensible folk.” [77]

Ar-Raaghib said, “This hadeeth indicates that it is a duty upon a person to strive to the utmost of his ability to accompany and sit with good people, since this may cause a bad person to become a person of good, just as accompanying evil people may turn a person from good to bad. So just as it is seen that water and air can be corrupted by being next to a rotting corpse, then what do you think will be the effect upon human souls which are such that they accept and take on the good and the evil which they see?!” [78]

Also from that which will make it easier for a woman to attain the attributes of the righteous women: is that she should choose a righteous husband, and the woman should straight away reject any proposal of marriage unless they come from a person who is good in his practice of the Religion and his manners, who is such that he will assist her upon the affairs of the Hereafter.

Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“If there comes to you [79] one [80] whose character and Religion are pleasing to you, then marry (her) to him; if you do not do so it will result in tribulation upon the earth and widespread corruption.” [81]

Epilogue

As it is the case that the woman is commanded to be obedient to her husband, and to seek to please him, and to take care of his rights, then it is also the case that the husband is commanded to treat her well, and with kindness, and to have patience with any bad characteristics and the like that may be seen from her. He must give her rights of provision and clothing, and that he lives with her in a good and honourable manner, as Allaah, the Most High, says:

وَعَاشِرُوهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ

“And live with them in a good manner.” [82]

Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said, “Take care of the women.” [83]

He (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said, “The most complete of the Believers are the best of them in manners, and the best of them are those who are best to their women.” [84]

From Iyaas ibn ‘ Abdullaah ibn Abee Dhubaab, radiyallaahu ‘anhu , who said that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

”Do not beat the female servants of Allaah. So ‘Umar came to the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) and said: “O Messenger of Allaah! The women have become emboldened towards their husbands. [85] So he gave permission to strike them, so they were struck. Then many women came to the wives of Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) (complaining about their husbands), so in the morning he said: Seventy women have this night visited the family of Muhammad, each of them complaining about her husband. So you will not find those [86] [87] men to be the best amongst you.”

This concludes what we wished to draw attention to in this brief treatise, which, if Allaah wills, will be beneficial. “How free and far removed from all imperfections You are, O Allaah, and all praise is for You. I declare You free of all defects and praise You alone. I testify that none has the right to be worshipped but You. I seek Your forgiveness and turn in repentance to You.” [88]

Footnotes:

[1] Soorah an-Nisaa’ (4):34.

[2] Tafseerul-Qur ‘aanil-Adheem ( 1/194).

[3] Tayseerul-Kareemir-Rahmaan ( 1/344).

[4] Soorah an-Nisaa’ (4):34.

[5] Soorah an-Nisaa’ (4):34.

[6] Mahaasinut-Ta ‘weel (abridged) (5/1 30).

[7] Soorah al-Baqarah (2):228.

[8] Tafseerul-Qur’aanil-Adheem ( 1/271).

[9] Reported by Ibn as-Sunnee in ‘Amalul Yawmwal Laylah and it occurs in Saheehul Jaami’is Sagheer (no. 4565).

[10] They used to sit upon that whilst giving birth – as is mentioned in an-Nihaayah: “Its meaning is an exhortation for the women to be obedient to their husbands, and that it is not for them to refuse them even if they are in that state – so how about at other times? !”

[11] Reported by Ibn Maajah (no. 1853), Ibn Hibbaan (6/1 86 – Ihsaan) and Ahmad (4/381) from ‘Abdullaah ibn Awfaa. Shaykh al-Albaanee declared the chain of narration of Ahmad to be saheeh to the standard of Muslim in as-Saheehah (3/ 202).

[12] Reported by Ahmad (3/159) and others. Its chain of narration is declared to be good by al-Mundhiree in at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb (3/75), and it occurs in Saheehul Jamni’ (no. 7250).

[13] Al-Bazzaar reports it (no. 1465: al-Kashf) from Aboo Sa’eed al-Khudree, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, with a good chain of narration whose narrators are reliable and famous – as declared by al-Mundhiree in at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb (3/74). Also reported by Ibn Hibbaan (6/184, Ihsaan), al-Haakim (2/189) and others, and it occurs in Saheehul-Jaami’ (no. 3148).

[14] Translator’s note: i.e. optional fast.

[15] An-Nawawee said (Sharh Saheeh Muslim [7/115]), “Its reason is that the husband has the right to enjoy his wife on all days, and his right is an immediate obligation and not to be denied him due to something optional nor something obligatory which may be performed at any time.”

[16] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. transl. 7/94/no. 123).

[17] Aadaabuz Zifaaf, p.282, Ist. Edition.

[18] Al-Fath (9/296).

[19] Majmoo’ al-Fataawaa (32/274-275).

[20] Reported by al-Bazzaar (al-Kashf, 2/1 80) and others. It occurs in Saheehul Jaami ‘ (no. 5259).

[21] Reported by Ibn Hibbaan in his Saheeh (6/184 – Ihsaan) and others. Declared saheeh due to witnessing narrations in Aadaabuz Zifaaf, p.286.

[22] Sisilatul Ahaadeethis Saheehah (no. 287).

[23] This contains a warning of the seriousness of their crimes.

[24] i.e. the Sunnah and its people.

[25] The Khaleefah or those in authority on his behalf.

[26] Showing her adornment to strangers in order to commit adultery, or that which leads to it, such as seeing and touching and the like.

[27] Roaming around as she pleases intending evil.

[28] Reported by al-Bukhaaree in al-Adabul Mufrad (no. 590), Ibn Hibbaan (no. 50 of al-Mawaarid) and others. It occurs in as-Saheehah (no. 542).

[29] Due to a valid reason, such as evil manners or disobedience.

[30] Due to something that is blameworthy and censured in the Sharee’ah.

[31] Reported by at-Tirmidhee (no. 360) and others from Aboo Umaamah, radiyallaahu ‘anhu – and it is a saheeh hadeeth as mentioned by Ahmad Shaakir.

[32] Silsilatul Ahaadeethis Saheehah (no. 289).

[33] Saheeh Muslim (Eng. transl. 2/732/no. 3367).

[34] Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (Eng. transl. 7/93/no.1 22).

[35] Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (Eng. transl. 7/93/no. 12 1).

[36] Saheeh, reported by al-Haakim (2/1 89).

[37] The women of Paradise.

[38] Reported by at-Tirmidhee (no. I 174), Ibn Maajah (no. 2014) and others. It occurs in as –Silsilatus Saheehah (no. 173).

[39] Reported by Muslim (Eng. transl. 2/752/no. 3465), an-Nasaa’ee (6/69) (the wording is his), and others.

[40] Reported by Ibn Hibbaan in his Saheeh (no. 1232, al-Mawaarid) and others. Its chain of narration is declared saheeh by Shaykh al-Albaanee and to be of the standard of al-Bukhaaree and Muslim in as-Saheehah ( I/509).

[41] Meaning the Saying of Allaah, the Most High,  “Those who hoard gold and silver…” Soorah at-Tawbah (9):34.

[42] Reported by at-Tirmidhee (no. 3094), Ibn Maajah (no. 1856), Ahmad (5/282) and others from other than Thawbaan, and the wording of at-Tirmidhee is, “‘If we were to know which wealth to possess?’ So he said, ‘The most excellent of it is a tongue which remembers (Allaah), a heart which is thankful, and a wife who helps him with his eemaan. ‘”

[43] A phrase indicating encouragement and incitement.

[44] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. transl. 7/18/27) and Muslim (Eng. transl. 2/749/3457).

[45] Fathhul Baaree (91135).

[46] Soorah an-Nisaa’ (4):34.

[47] Tayseerul-Kareemir-Rahmaan (1/344).

[48] Saheeh due to supporting narrations as has preceded.

[49] Reported by al-Haakim (2/189) and others, he declared it saheeh and adh-Dhahabee agreed; and Shaykh al-Albaanee agreed with them in Aadaabuz-Zifaaf (p.285).

[50] A word said to make the camel kneel down

[51] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. transl. 7 / 111/no. 151) and Muslim (Eng. transl. 3/1 190/no. 5417) and others.

[52] As the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said in the sermon of the Farewell Pilgrimage, “…treat your women well,for they are captives with you. ” Reported with this wording by at-Tirmidhee (no. l 163) and he said , “hasan saheeh. ” and Ibn Maajah (no. 185 l). Declared strong by al-Albaanee in Irwaa ‘ul Ghaleel (7/52).

[53] Soorah an-Nisaa’ (4):34.

[54] Majmoo’ al-Fataawaa (abridged) (34/90).

[55] Soorah an-Nisaa’ (4):34.

[56] Reported by Ahmad (6/456) and there are witnessing narrations which raise it to the level of being saheeh or hasan at the very least. These are mentioned by al-Albaanee in Aadaabuz Zifaaf(p.144).

[57] i.e. the husband.

[58] Meaning when he looks at her outer beauty, or at the inner beauty of her good character and how she devotes herself to obedience to Allaah and taqwaa … (As-Sindees commentary on an-Nasaa’ee).

[59] Reported by an-Nasaa’ee (6/68), al-Haakim (2/61) and Ahmad (2/25 1, 432 and 438). Al-Haakim said, “Saheeh to the standard of Muslim” and adh-Dhahabee agreed. Al-‘Iraaqee declared its chain of narration to be saheeh in Takhreejul-Ihyaa’ (2/39) and al-Albaanee declares it hasan in as-Saheehah (4/453).

[60] Reported with this wording by Aboo Daawood (Eng. transl. 2/1007/no. 3540), an-Nasaa’ee (5/65-66) and Ahmad (2.1 79 & 184). Al-Albaanee declares it hasan in as -Saheehah (2/493).

[61] Silsilatul Ahaadeethis Saheehah (2/420).

[62] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. transl. 7/94/no. 123) and Muslim (Eng. transl. 2/491/no. 2238).

[63] Reported by Aboo Daawood (Eng. transl. 2/600/no. 2218), at-Tirmidhee (no. 1187) who declared it hasan, ad-Daarimee (2/162), Ibn Maajah (no, 2055) and others. AI-Albaanee declares it to be saheeh to the standard of Muslim in al-Irwaa’ (7/100).

[64] Repo1ted by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. transl. 1/181/no. 30 I & 2/313/no. 541) and Muslim (Eng. transl. 2/418/no. 1931) and others.

[65] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. transl. 1/29/no.28; 2/91-92/no.16 & 7/95-96/ no.125) and Muslim (Eng. transl. 2/43 1-432/no.1982) and others.

[66] Silsilatul-Ahaadeethis-Saheehah (no. 289).

[67] Reported by al-Haakim (4/289) and others, and it occurs in Saheehul-Jaami’ (no.2708).

[68] Faydul-Qadeer (3/1 47).

[69] pp. 188-190, abridged.

[70] Soorah an-Nahl ( 16):97.

[71] Soorah Taa Haa (20): 124.

[72 Soorah al-Ahzaab (33):36.

[73] Soorah an-Nisaa’ (4):65.

[74] Soorah an-Nisaa’ (4):34.

[75] Jaami’ul-Bayaan (5/39).

[76]Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. transl. 3/179/no.314; and 7/315/no.442) and Muslim (Eng. transl. 4/1383/no.6361) and others.

[77] Sharh Muslim (16/178).

[78]Quoted in Faydul-Qadeer (5/507).

[79]i.e. to the guardians of marriageable women.

[80] i.e. one asking for the girls hand in marriage.

[81] Reported by at-Tirmidhee (no. 1084), Ibn Maajah (no. 1967) and others, from Aboo Hurayrah, radi yallaahu ‘anhu. Shaykh al-Albaanee declares it hasan due to supports in as-Saheehah (3/20).

[82] Soorah an-Nisaa’ (4): 19.

[83] Part of a hadeeth reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. transl. 7/8 l/no. 114) and Muslim (Eng. transl. 2/752/no.3468) and others.

[84] Reported by at-Tirmidhee (no.1162), and he said: “Hasan Saheeh “, and Ahmad (2/250 &472) and others from Aboo Hurayrah, radiy Allaahu ‘anhu, and al-Albaanee declared it hasan in Aadaabuz-Zifaaf(p.281).

[85] i.e. become bold and disobedient, and this is to be rectified by admonition, then if necessary by abandoning them in their beds, then if necessary by striking them lightly, not in the opposite order as is done by some husbands [and see Aayah 34 of Sooratun-Nisaa].

[86] i.e. those men who beat their wives severely and frequently.

[87] Reported by Aboo Daawood (Eng. transl. 2/575/no.2141), Ibn Maajah and others. al-Albaanee said of it in Saheeh Ibn Maajah: “Hasan Saheeh”.

[88] Reported by al-Haakim ( I/537) and others from Jubayr ibn Mut’im, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, who said that Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“Whoever says, ‘How free and far removed from all imperfections You are, 0 Allaah, and all praise is for You. I declare You free of all defects and praise You alone. I testify that none has the right to be worshipped but You. I seek Your forgiveness and turn in repentance to You’, saying it in a sitting of remembrance (of Allaah), then it will be like a seal upon it, and whoever says it in a sitting of loose talk, then it will be an expiation for it. ”

AI-Haakim said: “Saheeh to the standard of Muslim” and adh-Dhahabee agreed, and al-Albaanee agreed in Silsilatul-Ahaadeethis-Saheehah (no.8 1).

Related Links:

Day of Resurrection: The Books of Deeds are Distributed – Shaykh al-‘Uthaymīn

Bismillaah

The Seventh Event

The Books of Deeds are Distributed

People’s books of deeds will be distributed, open for them to read. An individual’s book of deeds is the register with every action he did in life written inside. These deeds are being written now by the angels entrusted with recording the actions of all the children of Adam. Allah (تعالى) says:

وَإِنَّ عَلَيْكُمْ لَحَافِظِينَ كِرَامًا كَاتِبِينَ يَعْلَمُونَ مَا تَفْعَلُونَ

And indeed, (appointed) over you are keepers, honorable recorders. They know whatever you do. [Surah al-Isrā, 82:10-12][69]

These angels record in a book everything a person does because they are always with him. And on the Day of Resurrection, Allah will bring forth this book, making it known to the person as he says:

وَكُلَّ إِنسَانٍ أَلْزَمْنَاهُ طَائِرَهُ فِي عُنُقِهِ وَنُخْرِجُ لَهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ كِتَابًا يَلْقَاهُ مَنشُورًا اقْرَأْ كِتَابَكَ كَفَى بِنَفْسِكَ الْيَوْمَ عَلَيْكَ حَسِيبًا

Every person, we have imposed his fate upon his neck. And we will produce for him, on the Day of Resurrection, a record which he will find spread open. (It will be said to him,) “Read your book. You are sufficient today as a reckoner against yourself. [Surah al-Isrā, 17:13-14.]

The Recording of Good Deeds

Both good deeds and bad deeds are written in these books. As for the good deeds, the actions a person actually does are recorded, as are his good intentions and even those deeds he intends to do but may not have actually done them. So there are three types of rewarded behavior: 1) good deeds performed, 2) good intentions, and 3) good deeds intended but not performed.

1. Good Deeds: It is clear that a person’s good deeds are written.

2. Good Intentions: Intending to do a good deed is also recorded in a person’s favor.

But a reward is given for only the intention and not necessarily the action intended. This is based on the hadith of a rich man who spends his wealth in charity and a poor man who says, “If I had wealth, I would do what he does.” About these two, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

فَهُوَ بِنِيَّتِهِ فَأَجْرُهُمَا سَوَاءٌ

He is rewarded for his intention, and the reward is the same for both.[71]

So both the rich and poor are equally rewarded in intention but not in action. This is also confirmed by the narration in which the poor immigrants of Medina complained to the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) saying, “Oh messenger of Allah, the wealthy have overtaken us (in reward).” The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said (as a way to catch up with the wealthy in rewards):

تُسَبِّحُونَ وَتُكَبِّرُونَ وَتَحْمَدُونَ دُبُرَ كُلِّ صَلاةٍ ثَلاثًا وَثَلاثِينَ مَرَّة

Glorify Allah, declare his greatness, and thank him after each prayer thirty-three times.

But when this advice reached the wealthy, they too did likewise. So the poor returned, complaining to the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) again that the rich are now doing both— giving charity and praising Allah after the prayers. He (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) then said:

ذَلِكَ فَضْلُ اللَّهِ يُؤْتِهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ

That is the favor of Allah he gives to whom he wishes. [Recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim]

The prophet did not reply the second time that the poor, despite their sincere intentions, would have the same reward as the rich in deed. And this is fair because a man who does not perform a certain deed is not the same as the one who actually does it, yet he may still get a similar reward for the intention alone.

3. Good Deeds Intended but Not Performed: The third type of rewarded behavior which a person may find written in his book of deeds is the actions he may sincerely intend to do but did not actually do them. The difference between this type and the second is that for these intentions, he does receive a reward for the action itself. These are the deeds that an individual may intend to do and perhaps he does as much as he is able to of such deed. Then something prevents him from completing the deed. In such case, a full good deed will be recorded based on the statement of Allah:

وَمَن يَخْرُجْ مِن بَيْتِهِ مُهَاجِرًا إِلَى اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ثُمَّ يُدْرِكْهُ الْمَوْتُ فَقَدْ وَقَعَ أَجْرُهُ عَلَى اللَّهِ

And whoever leaves his home as an emigrant to Allah and his messenger and then death overtakes him, his reward has already become incumbent upon Allah.[Surah al-Nisa, 4:100]

In this is also good news for students of religious knowledge. For example, if someone intends to study religious knowledge for the purpose of benefiting others with such information, defending the Sunnah of the messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) and spreading Allah’s religion throughout the earth, yet he is unable to complete his studies—perhaps he dies in the process, for example—he will still have those good deeds recorded for him and he will achieve its rewards.

Even if a person has a habit of performing a particular good deed but for some reason he is unable to do it under certain circumstances, he still has the good deed recorded for him. The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

إِذَا مَرِضَ الْعَبْدُ أَوْ سَافَرَ كُتِبَ لَهُ مِثْلُ مَا كَانَ يَعْمَلُ مُقِيمًا صَحِيحًا

When a servant becomes sick or travels, whatever he used to do while residing at home or healthy will still be recorded for him. [Recorded by al-Bukhari]

The Recording of Bad Deeds

As for bad deeds, they are written against a person if: 1) he actually does a bad deed, 2) he intends and hopes to do the bad deed, and 3) he intends to do the bad deed and tries to commit it but for some reason he is unable to.

1. Bad Deeds: This is clear; if someone does a bad deed, he has it recorded against him.

2. Bad Intentions: Sins an individual intends or hopes to do are also written against him. But like good intentions, he has a bad deed recorded for the intention and not a full bad deed for the action intended. The proof of this is in the same hadith mentioned about good intentions. The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) spoke about a person Allah had provided wealth but no knowledge so that he aimlessly wasted his wealth. A person Allah had given neither wealth nor knowledge then said, “If I had wealth, I would do what he does,” admiring the former’s wasteful spending. So the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

فَهُوَ بِنِيَّتِهِ فَوِزْرُهُمَا سَوَاءٌ

He is recorded for his intention, and the sin is the same for both of them. [75]

As for an individual intending to do a bad deed but refrains from it, this is of three types:

  • 1) If the person does not do the deed because he was unable though he tried to do it, he is just like a person who actually did the bad deed,
  • 2) If he refrains from doing the deed for the sake of Allah, he is rewarded, and
  • 3) If he simply decides not to do it (but not for the sake of Allah) or even if committing the deed did not seriously cross his mind, then he has neither sin nor reward written for him.

3. Bad Deeds Intended but Not Performed: These are also recorded against a person as complete bad deeds if the person tried his utmost to do them based on the statement (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) of the prophet:

ذَا تَوَاجَهَ الْمُسْلِمَانِ بِسَيْفَيْهِمَا فَكِلاهُمَا مِنْ أَهْلِ النَّارِ

If two Muslims face off with their swords (i.e. if they fight to the death), both of them are people of the fire.

After hearing this, the companions asked, “Messenger of Allah, we understand about the killer, but why the one killed too?” He replied:

إِنَّهُ أَرَادَ قَتْلَ صَاحِبِهِ

He also wanted to kill his opponent.[Recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim.]

Similarly, if someone wanted to drink alcohol but something happened so that he was unable to do it, it is still recorded against him as a bad deed because he tried as much as he could to commit it.

To conclude this topic we must know that Allah rewards good deeds with rewards greater than the original good deed, but He recompenses a bad deed only equivalent to the original sin; He says (تعالى) :

مَن جَاءَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ فَلَهُ عَشْرُ أَمْثَالِهَا وَمَن جَاءَ بِالسَّيِّئَةِ فَلا يُجْزَى إِلاَّ مِثْلَهَا وَهُمْ لا يُظْلَمُونَ

Whoever comes (on the Day of Judgment) with a good deed will have ten times the like thereof, and whoever comes with an evil deed will not be recompensed except the like thereof, and they will not be wronged. [77]

Receiving the Books of Deeds

About the distribution of these books and the ways in which people will receive them, Allah (تعالى) says:

فَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِيَمِينِهِ فَسَوْفَ يُحَاسَبُ حِسَابًا يَسِيرًا وَيَنقَلِبُ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ مَسْرُورًا وَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ وَرَاءَ ظَهْرِهِ فَسَوْفَ يَدْعُو ثُبُورًا وَيَصْلَى سَعِيرًا

Then as for he who is given his record in his right hand, he will be judged with an easy reckoning, and he will return to his people in happiness. But as for he who is given his record behind his back, he will cry out for destruction, and he will burn in a blaze.[Surah al-Inshiqaq, 84:7-12]

And he says:

وَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِشِمَالِهِ فَيَقُولُ يَا لَيْتَنِي لَمْ أُوتَ كِتَابِيَهْ

But as for he who is given his record in his left hand, he will say, “Oh, I wish I had never been given my record.” [Surah al-Haqqah, 69:25]

On the Day of Judgment, people will receive their books of deeds in different ways. Some will be given their books in their right hands – these are the believers. In this is also an indication that the right hand is more honorable and so a believer is given his book in his right hand. When the believer receives his book of deeds, he will take it with his right hand, rejoice, then cry out:

فَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِيَمِينِهِ فَيَقُولُ هَاؤُمُ اقْرَءُوا كِتَابِيَهْ

So as for he who is given his record in his right hand, he will say, “Here,read my record!” [Surah al-Haqqah, 69:19]

But as for a disbeliever in Allah, he receives his book of deeds in his left hand or from behind his back. He will then cry out for destruction:

وَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِشِمَالِهِ فَيَقُولُ يَا لَيْتَنِي لَمْ أُوتَ كِتَابِيَهْ وَلَمْ أَدْرِ مَا حِسَابِيَهْ

But as for he who is given his record in his left hand, he will say, “Oh, I wish I had never been given my record and had never known what my account was.[Surah al-Haqqah, 69:25-26.]

So the manner in which people receive their books of deeds is of three types: in the right hand, in the left hand, and behind the back. But these three types are only different in description and are not three separate ways books will be distributed. This is because if an individual receives his book of deeds from behind his back, he is at the same time given his book in his left hand—he takes it with his left hand, reaching his hand behind him. And since he receives his book with his left hand, he is known as one of the “People of the Left.” [82] He receives his book behind his back because during his life, he turned his back on the book of Allah. So it is only befitting that in return, he is given his book of deeds from behind his back, and Allah knows best.

To conclude, Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) says:

وَكُلَّ إِنسَانٍ أَلْزَمْنَاهُ طَائِرَهُ فِي عُنُقِهِ وَنُخْرِجُ لَهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ كِتَابًا يَلْقَاهُ مَنشُورًا اقْرَأْ كِتَابَكَ كَفَى بِنَفْسِكَ الْيَوْمَ عَلَيْكَ حَسِيبًا

Every person, we have imposed his fate upon his neck. And we will produce for him, on the Day of Resurrection, a record which he will find spread open. (It will be said to him,) “Read your book. You are sufficient today as a reckoner against yourself. [Surah al-Isra, 17:13-14.]

As for his fate (i.e. his deeds) imposed on his neck, this is the most befitting attachment for a person’s deeds – bound to his neck – because he will never be separated from them until he dies. He will find his book open; he neither expends effort nor does he find difficulty in opening it. “Read your book” Read what has been written for or against you. “Your own self is sufficient as a reckoner against you today“. This is the perfection of justice and fairness – that the individual will be responsible for taking himself to account.

We have in front of us now a door we may close on every bad deed, every sin: repentance. Regardless of how great a sin may be, when someone repents to Allah, he will forgive him. Even if a person continuously repeated the same sin but he repents, Allah will forgive him. The matter is still within our hands, so we must ensure that nothing is written in this book except righteous deeds before Allah judges creation.

Footnotes:

[69] Surah al-Isrā, 82:10-12.

In Surah Qaf, 50:17-18, Allah informs us that the angels are seated on the right and left of us:

إِذْ يَتَلَقَّى الْمُتَلَقِّيَانِ عَنِ الْيَمِينِ وَعَنِ الشِّمَالِ قَعِيدٌ مَّا يَلْفِظُ مِن قَوْلٍ إِلاَّ لَدَيْهِ رَقِيبٌ عَتِيدٌ

When the two receivers receive, seated on the right and on the left. Not a word does he utter but there is a watcher by him ready (to record it).

[71] Recorded by al-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah and al-Albani said it is authentic in “Sahih Sunan al-Tirmidhi” (no. 1894).

The full text of the hadith is:

ثَلاثَةٌ أُقْسِمُ عَلَيْهِنَّ وَأُحَدِّثُكُمْ حَدِيثًا فَاحْفَظُوهُ ، قَالَ : مَا نَقَصَ مَالُ عَبْدٍ مِنْ صَدَقَةٍ ، وَلا ظُلِمَ عَبْدٌ مَظْلَمَةً فَصَبَرَ عَلَيْهَا إِلاَّ زَادَهُ اللَّهُ عِزًّا ، وَلا فَتَحَ عَبْدٌ بَابَ مَسْأَلَةٍ إِلاَّ فَتَحَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ بَابَ فَقْرٍ – أَوْ كَلِمَةً نَحْوَهَا – وَأُحَدِّثُكُمْ حَدِيثًا فَاحْفَظُوهُ ، قَالَ : إِنَّمَا الدُّنْيَا لأَرْبَعَةِ نَفَرٍ : عَبْدٍ رَزَقَهُ اللَّهُ مَالاً وَعِلْمًا فَهُوَ يَتَّقِي فِيهِ رَبَّهُ وَيَصِلُ فِيهِ رَحِمَهُ ، وَيَعْلَمُ لِلَّهِ فِيهِ حَقًّا فَهَذَا بِأَفْضَلِ الْمَنَازِلِ ، وَعَبْدٍ رَزَقَهُ اللَّهُ عِلْمًا وَلَمْ يَرْزُقْهُ مَالاً فَهُوَ صَادِقُ النِّيَّةِ يَقُولُ : لَوْ أَنَّ لِي مَالاً لَعَمِلْتُ بِعَمَلِ فُلانٍ ، فَهُوَ بِنِيَّتِهِ فَأَجْرُهُمَا سَوَاءٌ ، وَعَبْدٍ رَزَقَهُ اللَّهُ مَالاً وَلَمْ يَرْزُقْهُ عِلْمًا فَهُوَ يَخْبِطُ فِي مَالِهِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ لا يَتَّقِي فِيهِ رَبَّهُ وَلا يَصِلُ فِيهِ رَحِمَهُ وَلا يَعْلَمُ لِلَّهِ فِيهِ حَقًّا فَهَذَا بِأَخْبَثِ الْمَنَازِلِ ، وَعَبْدٍ لَمْ يَرْزُقْهُ اللَّهُ مَالاً وَلا عِلْمًا فَهُوَ يَقُولُ : لَوْ أَنَّ لِي مَالاً لَعَمِلْتُ فِيهِ بِعَمَلِ فُلانٍ ، فَهُوَ بِنِيَّتِهِ فَوِزْرُهُمَا سَوَاءٌ 

There are three things that I attest to; I will mention them so remember them.

  • 1) Charity will never decrease a person’s wealth,
  • 2) no servant is wronged and patiently endures that except that Allah will increase him in honor, and
  • 3) no servant opens the door of begging except that Allah will open the door of poverty (or he said similarly).

And I will mention something else so remember it.

The world is for four types of people:

  • 1) a person Allah has provided with wealth and knowledge so he is conscientious of his Lord regarding them and thus gains his mercy therewith. He knows Allah has a right upon him with regards to them, and this is the best of the (four) types.
  • 2) A person Allah has provided with knowledge but not wealth, yet he is truthful in his intention when he says, “If I had wealth, I would do what so-and-so does (the first type of person).” So he is rewarded for his intention, and the reward is the same for both of them.
  • 3) A person Allah has provided wealth but no knowledge so that he aimlessly wastes his wealth without knowledge. He is neither conscientious of his Lord with it nor does he achieve his mercy. He does not even know that Allah has a right upon him regarding it, and this is the worst of the (four) types.
  • 4) A person Allah has provided no wealth and no knowledge. But he says, “If I had wealth, I would do what so-and-so does (the third type of person).” So he is also recorded for his intention, and the sin is the same for both of them.

[75] Recorded by al-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah and al-Albani said it is authentic in “Sahih Sunan al-Tirmidhi” (no. 1894). See page 53 for the full hadith.

[77] Surah al-Anaam, 6:160.

Evidence from the Sunnah of a ten-fold reward for a good deed and only a single recompense for a bad deed is the hadith recorded by Muslim in which the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

يقول الله : مَنْ جَاء بالحَسَنَةِ فَلَهُ عَشْرُ أمْثَالِهَا أَوْ أزْيَد ، وَمَنْ جَاءَ بالسَيِّئَةِ فَجَزاءُ سَيِّئَةٍ سَيِّئَةٌ مِثْلُهَا أَوْ أغْفِرُ . وَمَنْ تَقَرَّبَ مِنِّي شِبْرًا تَقَرَّبْتُ مِنْهُ ذِرَاعًا ، وَمَنْ تَقَرَّبَ مِنِّي ذِرَاعًا تَقَرَّبْتُ مِنْهُ بَاعًا ، وَمَنْ أتَانِي يَمْشِي أتَيْتُهُ هَرْوَلَةً ، وَمَنْ لَقِيني بِقُرَابِ الأرْض خَطِيئةً لا يُشْرِكُ بِي شَيئاً ، لَقِيتُهُ بِمِثْلِهَا مَغفِرَةً

Allah says, “Whoever does a good deed will have ten times reward for it or even more. And whoever does a bad deed will have a single bad deed for it or I will forgive it. Whoever comes close to me a hand-span, I will come close to him an arm’s length; and whoever comes close to me an arm’s length, I will come close to him the distance of two outstretched arms. Whoever comes to me walking, I will come to him running. And whoever meets me with the earth full of sins but associated nothing with me in worship, I will meet him with as much forgiveness.”

[82] A similar description is used in the Surah al-Waqi’ah, 56:8-9:

فَأَصْحَابُ الْمَيْمَنَةِ مَا أَصْحَابُ الْمَيْمَنَةِ وَأَصْحَابُ الْمَشْأَمَةِ مَا أَصْحَابُ الْمَشْأَمَةِ

The Companions of the Right – what are the Companions of the Right? And the Companions of the Left – what re the Companions of the Left?

Posted from the article : The Resurrection, A Summary of Events to Occur – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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“iyyāka na’budu wa iyyāka nasta’īn” – Shaykh al-‘Uthaymīn

The Explanation of Verse 4 of Sooratul Faatiha

 إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ 

iyyāka na’budu wa iyyāka nasta’īn

You alone we worship, and from you alone we seek help.

“You alone” (iyyāka): This is a case in grammar when the direct object comes before the verb, “we worship” (na’budu). In Arabic grammar, when the direct object precedes the verb, it gives a sense of restriction, so the meaning would be, “We do not worship anyone or anything except you alone.”

“we worship” (na’budu): Meaning: We humble ourselves to you in complete humility.

In this way, you find the believers placing the most honorable part of their bodies (their faces) at the level of their feet in humility to Allah (عزّ وجلّ). They prostrate on the ground, covering their foreheads with dirt. This is from their humbleness before Allah. And if another person were to say, “I will give you the whole world and what it contains, just prostrate to me once,” you will never find true believers accepting this because this type of humility is a form of worship specifically for Allah alone.

The word “worship” includes doing everything Allah commands and avoiding everything he forbids. Whoever is not in accordance with this, not carrying out what he is commanded to do and avoiding what he is forbidden to do then he is not a true worshipper and servant. A worshipper is someone who obeys the one he worships in whatever he legislates. So, worship requires that mankind carry out everything they are commanded to do and avoid everything they are forbidden from doing. However, it is not possible to fulfill all of these duties without the help and assistance of Allah. Because of this, Allah ( سبحانه وتعالى ) then says:

“and from you alone we seek help” (wa iyyāka nasta’īn): Meaning, “We do not seek the help of anyone else in worship or in anything else.” This “seeking of help” is to request the help and assistance, and Allah combines between worship and the seeking of assistance or reliance in many places the noble Qur’an. This is because worship could not be completely established except with the help of Allah by entrusting one’s affairs to him, and relying on him.

Points of Benefit of al-Fātiḥah, Verse 4:

1. From the virtues of this verse is the sincerity in worship that is due to Allah alone as he says, “You alone we worship“. It shows that this worship is due only to Allah by the direct object (“You”) coming before the verb (“we worship”) according to the rules of Arabic grammar.

2. Another point is that seeking help is also sincerely and solely for Allah based on the statement, “and from you alone we seek help“. Likewise, the direct object precedes the verb indicating a sense of restriction just like in the first part of the verse.

Those points being said, what if someone asks:

How is it that seeking help is exclusively for Allah alone when there has come in another verse:

وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَى 

And help one another in righteousness and piety.[Sūrah al-Māidah, 5:2]

So, how do we understand the previous statements about seeking help only from Allah when, here in this verse, Allah confirms that seeking help from other than himself is permissible (rather it is a command here)? Also, the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

 تُعِيْنُ الرَّجُلَ فِي دَابَّتِهِ، فَتَحْمِلُهُ عَلَيْهَا، أَوْ تَرْفَعُ لَهُ عَلَيْهَا مَتَاعَهُ صَدَقَةٌ 

Helping someone onto his riding animal, carrying him on it, or lifting his belongings up to him while he is on it – all of these are (considered) acts of charity. [Recorded by Al-Bukhaaree (no. 2891) and Muslim (no. 1009)]

The answer to this question is that the act of seeking help and assistance is of two types. The first type is to request help while entrusting all affairs to the one you ask from. For example, you rely completely on Allah and you realize that any result you seek will not come from your own power or capability. This type of seeking help is specific for Allah ( تعالى ); he alone deserves this type.

The second type is to request help or cooperation in something you want to accomplish. This type is permissible as long as the one being requested is living and capable of doing what is asked of him. This is not considered a form of worship. This is the type that Allah refers to when saying:

وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَى

And help one another in righteousness and piety. [Sūrah al-Māidah, 5:2]

If it is further asked, “Is seeking help from the creation permissible at all times and in all situations?

The answer is no. Requesting help from the creation is only allowed when the one being asked is fully capable of what he is being asked for, otherwise seeking his help is not permissible. An example would be asking help from someone dead in his grave; this is prohibited, rather it is major Shirk (the associating of partners with Allah in worship)! This is because the person in his grave does not even have the ability to help himself, so how could he help someone else? Similarly, if someone seeks the help of another person who is not present with him such as a person believing that someone else in the far eastern part of the world could help him with something in his (the one seeking help) land – this is also major Shirk because the person whose help is sought is not capable of helping the seeker while they are in different lands.

If it is now asked, “So, is it permissible to seek help from the creation if these conditions are met?

The answer is that it is better not to ask anyone for any help unless it is absolutely necessary or if it is known that the person would be happy to provide help. In this case, one could request his assistance in order to please him. The act that you seek another’s help in fulfilling must also not be something sinful and prohibited.

Posted from the article : Explaining Surah al-Fatihah – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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The Believers will see their Lord in the Hereafter – Shaykh ‘Uthaymīn

The Fifteenth Event

The Believers See Their Lord

وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ نَّاضِرَةٌ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهَا نَاظِرَةٌ

(Some) faces that day will be radiant, looking at their Lord. [Sūrah al-Qiyāmah, 75:22-23]

To explain the verse, “faces that day” means on the last day, the Day of Resurrection. “radiant” here includes beauty because the word used in the verse comes from the Arabic word نَضَارَة (naḍārah) which means beauty. This meaning is also indicated in the statement of Allah (in which a similar form of the same word is used):

فَوَقَاهُمُ اللَّهُ شَرَّ ذَٰلِكَ الْيَوْمِ وَلَقَّاهُمْ نَضْرَةً وَسُرُورًا

So Allah will protect them from the evil of that day and give them radiance and happiness. [Sūrah al-Insān, 76:11]

In other words: beauty in their faces and happiness in their hearts.

As for “looking at their Lord“, it is real sight which occurs from the faces and by the eyes. This is different from insight that may occur within the heart (similar to the English usage, “I will look into it.”) which means thinking about or considering something. Here, however, the looking occurs from the faces and is directed toward the Lord (عزّ وجلّ) just as is explicitly indicated by “at their Lord“.

This noble verse means that these radiant, beautiful faces will be looking directly at their Lord (عزّ وجلّ) and, consequently, will increase in beauty. Look at how these faces were prepared, made ready to look at Allah (عزّ وجلّ) – they will have been made bright and beautiful in preparation to look upon the face of Allah.

This verse is a clear proof that Allah will actually be seen with actual eyes and this is the position of mainstream Muslims who follow the Sunnah (Ahl al-Sunnah wal-Jamā’ah).

They have proven this with the same verses mentioned herein and they also learn this from the numerous statements of the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) transmitted to the companions and to their followers and so on. So these texts are explicitly clear as evidence confirming this (the believers seeing Allah in the hereafter) because they are within the book of Allah (تعالى) and the Sunnah of his messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) and they are reported by many different chains of narration.

So mainstream Muslims who follow the Sunnah hold the belief that the looking, the sight mentioned here, is real. It does not mean “perception” or “complete awareness” because Allah says:

لَّا تُدْرِكُهُ الْأَبْصَارُ وَهُوَ يُدْرِكُ الْأَبْصَارَ

Vision does not perceive him. [Sūrah al-An’ām, 6:103]

Just as knowing with one’s heart does not necessarily equate to perceiving his true reality. Allah (تعالى) says:

يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِهِ عِلْمًا

But they do not encompass him with knowledge. [Sūrah ṬāHā, 20:110]

We know our Lord with our hearts yet we still do not know exactly how he is. Similarly, on the Day of Resurrection we will see our Lord with our own eyes, yet our sight will still not completely perceive him.

The second verse indicating that believers will see their Lord is the statement of Allah:

عَلَى الْأَرَائِكِ يَنظُرُونَ

On thrones, looking. [Sūrah al-Muṭaffifīn, 83:23]

Allah did not mention in this verse specifically what they are looking at so it is general, including anything that is pleasing to look at. The greatest and most pleasing sight is to look upon Allah (تعالى) as he says in the very next verse:

تَعْرِفُ فِي وُجُوهِهِمْ نَضْرَةَ النَّعِيمِ

You will recognize in their faces the radiance of pleasure. [Sūrah al-Muṭaffifīn, 83:24]

So the context of the verse is similar to the first one, “faces that day will be radiant, looking at their Lord” and they will be looking at everything that pleases them.

The third verse regarding the believers looking at Allah is:

لِّلَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُوا الْحُسْنَىٰ وَزِيَادَةٌ

For those who have done good is the best (reward) and even more. [Sūrah Yūnus, 10:26]

As for “the best”, it is Paradise and “even more” is the believers looking at the face of Allah. This is how the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) explained this verse as is confirmed in the ḥadīth recorded by Muslim and others:

إِذَا دَخَلَ أَهْلُ الْجَنَّةِ الْجَنَّةَ ، قَالَ : يَقُولُ اللَّهُ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى : تُرِيدُونَ شَيْئًا أَزِيدُكُمْ.؟ فَيَقُولُونَ : أَلَمْ تُبَيِّضْ وُجُوهَنَا ؟ أَلَمْ تُدْخِلْنَا الْجَنَّةَ وَتُنَجِّنَا مِنْ النَّارِ ؟ قَالَ : فَيَكْشِفُ الْحِجَابَ فَمَا أُعْطُوا شَيْئًا أَحَبَّ إِلَيْهِمْ مِنْ النَّظَرِ إِلَى رَبِّهِمْ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ

When the people of Paradise have entered Paradise, Allah (تبارك وتعالى) will ask, “Do you want me to give you something more?” They will say, “Have you not brightened our faces? Have you not already admitted us into Paradise and saved us from the fire?” He will then remove the covering and they will not have been given anything more beloved to them than looking at their Lord (عزّ وجلّ) [Recorded by Muslim]

After saying that, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) then recited the verse, “For those who have done good is the best (reward) and even more.” So this verse is evidence of seeing Allah as the messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) has explained, and no doubt, he is the most knowledgeable person of the Quran’s meanings. He explained that it means looking at the face of Allah and this is the “even more” reward the believers will be given in addition to the previous delights of Paradise.

Therefore, this blessing is not the same types of blessing as are well-known of Paradise. Many of the delights of Paradise are physical in nature: rivers to enjoy, physical rewards, fruits, pure spouses, etc. Then the blessings and pleasures of the heart follow. But looking at Allah is a direct delight pleasing to the heart. The people of Paradise will have never seen anything more enjoyable or satisfying than that. We ask Allah to make us those who see him.

This blessing is in no way comparable to anything else, not the fruits of Paradise, its rivers, or anything else. Because of this, Allah said “For those who have done good is the best (reward) and even more.” because it is in addition to even the best rewards of Paradise.

The fourth verse is:

لَهُم مَّا يَشَاءُونَ فِيهَا وَلَدَيْنَا مَزِيدٌ

There they will have all that they desire and with us is even more. [Sūrah Qāf, 50:35]

Many scholars have explained “but with us is even more” just how the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) explained it – that it is looking at the face of Allah.

So those are the four verses the author (Ibn Taymiyyah) mentions as proof of the believers seeing Allah. There is also a fifth verse from which Imam al-Shāfi’ī deduced that the believers will see Allah. It is the statement of Allah (تعالى) about the wicked sinners:

كَلَّا إِنَّهُمْ عَن رَّبِّهِمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ لَّمَحْجُوبُونَ

No! Surely, they will be veiled from (seeing) their Lord that day. [Sūrah al-Muṭaffifīn, 83:15]

The point he makes from the verse is that since such people will be veiled from Allah due to his anger with them, then it can be understood that those with whom he is pleased will not be veiled. So if the people who gain his anger are veiled from Allah then the people who gain his pleasure will see Him (عزّ وجلّ)

This deduction of Imam al-Shāfi’ī is definitely very strong because if everyone was going to be veiled, prevented from seeing their Lord, then there would have been no reason to specifically mention only the wicked people in the verse.

We also believe that seeing Allah in this life is impossible. This is because the current nature and condition of humans is one that cannot bear looking at Allah (عزّ وجلّ). How could it when the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) told us about his Lord:

حِجَابُهُ النُّورُ ، لَوْ كَشَفَهُ لأَحْرَقَتْ سُبُحَاتُ وَجْهِهِ مَا انْتَهَى إِلَيْهِ بَصَرُهُ مِنْ خَلْقِهِ

His veil is light. If he were to remove it, the splendor of his face would burn his creation, consuming it as far as his sight reaches.[Recorded by Muslim]

But as for seeing Allah in the hereafter, it is certainly possible because people that day will be in a different world. Their nature and condition will be different than they are in this life. And this is known from all the texts of the Quran and Sunnah that tell about how people will be, what they will experience during the events of the resurrection and of their final abode in either the home of bliss or Hell.

About the believers seeing their Lord, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) was once with his companions on a night when the full moon was out. He looked up at the moon and said:

إِنَّكُمْ سَتَرَوْنَ رَبَّكُمْ كَمَا تَرَوْنَ هَذَا الْقَمَرَ ، لا تُضَامُونَ فِي رُؤْيَتِهِ ، فَإِنْ اسْتَطَعْتُمْ أَنْ  لا تُغْلَبُوا عَلَى صَلاةٍ قَبْلَ طُلُوعِ الشَّمْسِ وَصَلاةٍ قَبْلَ غُرُوبِ الشَّمْسِ فَافْعَلُوا

You will certainly see your Lord just as you can see this moon; you will have no trouble in seeing him. So if you can avoid missing a prayer before the sun rises and a prayer before it sets, then do so. [Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

The statement, “You will certainly see your Lord” is addressed to the believers. As for “just as you can see this moon,” this is a real, actual seeing because when we see the moon, it is actual sight with our eyes. The comparison here is between the sight of the moon and the sight of Allah, and it is not a comparison between the moon and Allah because there is nothing like or comparable to Allah.

The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) would sometimes try to bring the meaning of what he is talking about closer to people by mentioning what they understand of perceptible things.

For example, Abū Razīn al-‘Uqaylī, a companion of the messenger, once asked him, “Messenger of Allah, will each one of us see his Lord, individually on the Day of Resurrection? And what is a sign similar to that among his creation?” He ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم .) said:

يَا أَبَا رَزِينٍ ، أَلَيْسَ كُلُّكُمْ يَرَى الْقَمَرَ لَيْلَةَ الْبَدْرِ مُخْلِيًا بِهِ

Abū Razīn, do you not each individually see the full moon?

Abū Razīn answered, “Yes.” The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) then told him:

فَاللَّهُ أَعْظَمُ ، فَإِنَّمَا هُوَ خَلْقٌ مِنْ خَلْقِ اللَّهِ ، فَاللَّهُ أَجَلُّ وَأَعْظَمُ 

Allah is even greater. That (the moon) is only a single creation from Allah’s creation, but Allah is even more exalted and greater.

[Recorded by Imām Aḥmad (4/11) and Abū Dāwūd (no. 4731). al-Albānī said it is authentic in “Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan Abī Dāwūd” (3957)]

As for “you will have no trouble in seeing him” in the earlier ḥadīth, different wordings have come in similar narrations, but the point is that no one will prevent another from seeing Allah due to crowding or anything else. Each person will see him ( (سبحانه وتعالى while he is in the utmost state of tranquility and peace.

As for “So if you can avoid missing a prayer before the sun rises and a prayer before it sets, then do so,” the prayer before sunrise is Fajr, the morning prayer, and before sunset is ‘Aṣr, the afternoon prayer. ‘Aṣr is even better than Fajr because it is the middle prayer which Allah has specifically told us to safeguard after mentioning prayers in general.[167] But Fajr is better than ‘Aṣr from a different perspective in that it is the prayer that is specifically witnessed by the angels as Allah says:

أَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ لِدُلُوكِ الشَّمْسِ إِلَىٰ غَسَقِ اللَّيْلِ وَقُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ ۖ إِنَّ قُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ كَانَ مَشْهُودًا

Keep up prayer from the declining of the sun till the darkness of night and the morning recitation; surely the morning recitation is witnessed. [Sūrah al-Isrā, 17:78]

There also occurs in an authentic ḥadīth:

مَنْ صَلَّى الْبَرْدَيْنِ دَخَلَ الْجَنَّةَ 

Whoever prayers the two cool ones will enter Paradise.[Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

The two cool prayers are Fajr and ‘Aṣr.

What practical benefit do we gain from knowing these verses (and ḥadīth) about the believers seeing their Lord in Paradise? There is no greater effect on a person’s behavioral approach and direction in life than this. When anyone realizes that his main objective, the height of his reward is to look upon the face of his Lord, this life and everything in it then becomes almost worthless to him in comparison. Nothing else would compare or be as precious to him as reaching that moment of seeing Allah (عزّ وجلّ). It is the goal of every seeker; it is the final achievement.

If you know that you will one day see your Lord with your own eyes, then by Allah this life would not mean a thing to you.

Everything of this world is nothing in comparison because the sight of Allah’s face is the prize for which the competitors compete, the goal to which the racers race, and it is the greatest triumph of everything.

So if you know this, will you strive to reach it or not?

Footnotes:

[167] This occurs in Sūrah al-Baqarah, 2:238:

حَافِظُوا عَلَى الصَّلَوَاتِ وَالصَّلَاةِ الْوُسْطَىٰ وَقُومُوا لِلَّهِ قَانِتِينَ

Attend constantly to prayers and (in particular) to the middle prayer, and stand up truly obedient to Allah.

Posted from the article : The Resurrection, A Summary of Events to Occur – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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The Creed of Imām al-Bukhārī – Shaykh Ādil Mansoor | Abu Remlah Ādam [Audio Series – Ar|En]


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Our Lord descends every night to the sky of this world when the last third of the night remains – Shaykh ‘Uthaymīn

Our Lord’s Descent

The prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said in an authentic ḥadīth:

يَنْزِلُ رَبُّنَا تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى كُلَّ لَيْلَةٍ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ الدُّنْيَا حِينَ يَبْقَى ثُلُثُ اللَّيْلِ الآخِرُ ، يَقُولُ : مَنْ يَدْعُونِي فَأَسْتَجِيبَ لَهُ ؟ مَنْ يَسْأَلُنِي فَأُعْطِيَهُ ؟ مَنْ يَسْتَغْفِرُنِي ؟ فَأَغْفِرَ لَهُ

Our Lord, the blessed and exalted, descends every night to the sky of this world when the last third of the night remains. He asks, “Who is calling on me so I can answer him? Who is asking me (for anything) so I can give (it to) him? Who is asking for my forgiveness so I can forgive him?”

[Recorded by al-Bukhārī (no. 1145) and Muslim (no. 758)]

This ḥadīth is a proof confirming the descent of Allah to the lowest heaven, the sky of this world.

Some people of knowledge said this ḥadīth has come with many different chains of narration, and the scholars have always agreed that it is one of the famous ḥadīth often mentioned by the scholars of the Sunnah.

The prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) says,  “Our Lord descends every night to the sky of this world.” Allah’s descent is real and actual because, as we have mentioned before, anything mentioned with a pronoun that refers back to Allah, it must be attributed to him in a real, actual manner.

So we should believe in it and accept it as truth, saying just as the ḥadīth says, “Our Lord descends to the sky of this world,” to the lowest heaven closest to the earth. There are seven heavens, and Allah (عزّ وجلّ) descends at this time during the night to be near his worshippers just as he does during the afternoon on the Day of ‘Arafah (during the pilgrimage), praising and boasting to the angels about his worshippers. [41]

As for “every night” it is general to include every single night of the year. “when the last third of the night remains“. In Islamic legislation, the night begins at sunset and this is unanimously agreed upon. The difference (among scholars) however comes with regards to when the night ends. Does it end with the appearance of first light or the actual rising of the sun? Apparently, the night, according to legislation, ends with the appearance of first light, and the common, “astral” night ends with sunrise. Allah asks, ” “Who is calling on me…”. This is a question yet really intended as an encouragement and motivation rather than expecting an actual answer. It is like his statement (in the Qur’an):

هَلْ أَدُلُّكُمْ عَلَى تِجَارَةٍ تُنجِيكُم مِّنْ عَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ

Shall I guide you to a transaction that will save you from a painful punishment? [Sūrah al-Ṣaf, 61:10]

…calling on me…” saying, “Oh Lord…”

…so I can answer him?” This is the result and reward for doing the first part – calling on Allah.

 “Who is asking me (for anything) so I can give (it to) him?” such as saying, “I ask You for Paradise,” or similar things.

Who is asking for my forgiveness…” saying, “Oh Allah, forgive me,” or “I seek your forgiveness, Allah.”

…so I can forgive him?” Forgiveness means to conceal one’s sins and overlook them.

With this, it should be clear to every person who reads this ḥadīth that what is meant by “descends” here is that Allah Himself descends. We do not even need to say He descends “personally” because as long as the verb is associated with Him, then He himself does it. Still, some scholars did say, “He personally descends.” They resorted to saying that, compelled to adding “personally” only because there are those people who twist the meaning of ḥadīth, claiming that what really descends is the decision and decree of Allah. Others say it is Allah’s mercy that descends, and even others say it is one of his angels that descends.

All of these are incorrect. For one thing, Allah’s decision and decree are constantly descending, and not only during the last third of night as he ( تعالى ) says generally:

يُدَبِّرُ الأَمْرَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ إِلَى الأَرْضِ ثُمَّ يَعْرُجُ إِلَيْهِ

He arranges each matter from the heaven to the earth then it will ascend to him.[Sūrah al-Sajdah, 32:5]

And he says:

وَإِلَيْهِ يُرْجَعُ الأَمْرُ كُلُّهُ

And to him the matter will return, all of it.[Sūrah Hūd, 11:123]

As for their statement that it is really only the mercy of Allah that descends to the worldly sky when the last third of night remains, Allah is above such deficiencies and insults! Mercy does not descend except at that time?! Allah ( تعالى ) says:

وَمَا بِكُم مِّن نِّعْمَةٍ فَمِنَ اللَّهِ

And whatever you have of blessing, it is from Allah. [Sūrah al-Naḥl, 16:53]

Every blessing and favor is from Allah, and they are the results of his mercy; they can be witnessed at all times.

We could then ask: What good does it do for us if mercy descends only down to the sky (and no further)?

As for those who say it is really only an angel that descends, we ask: Does it make sense that an angel would say, “Who is calling on me so I can answer him? Who is asking me for anything…”?!

So it is clear that these claims are distorted meanings, they are incorrect and proven so by the ḥadīth itself.

By Allah, such people who claim these things do not know more about Allah than Allah’s messenger, they are certainly not more sincere in advising the servants of Allah than his messenger, and they are not more precise and eloquent in speech than the messenger of Allah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم).

Some people also ask: How can you say Allah descends? If He does so, then what about His being high above everything? What about His being over the throne? If He descends, this would involve movement and relocation. Also, if He descends, this would be an action that happens and anything that happens must have a cause.

To this we say: This is baseless and pointless arguing. There is no reason not to say that Allah’s descent is real. Do you know what Allah deserves (of characteristics and descriptions) more than the companions of the messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)?

The companions never made any of these false assumptions and conjectures. Instead they listened, they believed, they accepted, and they trusted it as absolute truth. Yet now, you people come and challenge the meanings, arguing for the sake of falsehood, asking, “How? Why?”

We say Allah descends, and we do not delve into asking, “What about his throne? Does this mean he leaves it or not?”

As for his being above, we say he descends and yet he is still high above his creation because “descent” here does not necessarily mean that he is surrounded by the lowest heaven to which he descends while the other heavens are above him. Rather, he is not contained within anything of his creation.

So Allah actually descends in a real manner while he is actually high above in a real manner, and nothing is similar to him.

Rising over the throne is an action, not a permanent, personal characteristic. We should not, as far as I am concerned, begin asking whether he leaves the throne or not. Instead, we should keep silent about it just as the companions did, may Allah be pleased with them all.

However, the scholars of those who follow the Sunnah take one of three positions regarding the issue of whether Allah leaves his throne during his descent. Some say he leaves the throne, others say he does not leave it, and others say we should remain silent and not delve into the issue.

Ibn Taymiyyah says in his al-Risālah al-‘Arshiyyah that Allah does not leave the throne (during his descent) because the evidence confirming he is on the throne is strong and explicit just as this ḥadīth is also a strong, explicit proof of his descent. The actions and characteristics of Allah (عزّ وجلّ) are not to be measured by those of creation. So we should leave the texts of his being on the throne confirmed as they are just as we leave the text of his descent confirmed as it is. We say he is established on his throne and yet he still descends to the sky of this world; Allah alone knows the “how” of it. Our minds are too deficient and incomplete to know everything about Allah, the Most High.

The second position is that Allah leaves the throne during his descent and the third position is to remain silent – in other words, not to say whether he does or does not leave his throne.

Some people more recently bring up yet another point of confusion. Since the earth is round and revolves around the sun, they ask how Allah can descend during the last third of the night when the last third is a constant time. For example, when the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia leaves this time, Europe and surrounding countries enter it. So is Allah constantly and forever descending?

In reply, we say: First and foremost, you should simply believe and accept that Allah descends during this specific time. If you do believe in it, then there is nothing else required from you. Do not go into asking, “How?” Instead, accept that when the last third of night remains in Saudi Arabia, then Allah descends, and when it remains in America, Allah also descends. And His descent finishes when the light of morning appears in any place, respective to it.

To conclude, our position is that we believe and accept everything that has come to us from Allah’s messenger, Muhammad ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) in that Allah comes down to the sky of this world, the lowest heaven, when the last third of night remains and he asks, “Who is calling on me so I can answer him? Who is asking me (for anything) so I can give (it to) him? Who is asking for my forgiveness so I can forgive him?”

Beneficial Points We Learn from This Ḥadīth

This amazing ḥadīth:

  • Confirms that Allah is high above creation based on the words, “Our Lord descends.”
  • Confirms that Allah does actions by his choice and will—these are known as “action” characteristics (see footnote no. 7 of the main article)—based on the statement, “Our Lord descends…when the last third of the night remains..”
  • Confirms that Allah speaks based on the statement, “He asks…
  • Confirms Allah’s kindness and generosity based on his questions, “Who is calling on me…? Who is asking me…? Who is asking for my forgiveness…?”

People should take advantage of this part of the night, asking for whatever they need from Allah, calling upon him, and asking his forgiveness as he asks, “Who is calling on me…? Who is asking me…? Who is asking for my forgiveness…?” And again, the word “Who” here is presented in the form of a question but is actually intended to motivate rather than ask.

So we should take advantage of this chance because nothing that has passed of your life is in your favor except the times you spent in obedience to Allah. Perhaps more days may pass you by, but when death comes it will be as if you were only born that minute. At that time, everything of one’s past life will mean nothing to him.

Footnotes:

[41] The ḥadīth about this is recorded by Muslim (no. 1348). The prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

مَا مِنْ يَوْمٍ أَكْثَرَ مِنْ أَنْ يُعْتِقَ اللَّهُ فِيهِ عَبْدًا مِنْ النَّارِ مِنْ يَوْمِ عَرَفَةَ وَإِنَّهُ لَيَدْنُو ثُمَّ يُبَاهِي بِهِمْ الْمَلائِكَةَ ، فَيَقُولُ :  مَا  أَرَادَ هَؤُلاءِ

There is no day on which Allah frees more servants from the fire than the Day of ‘Arafah. He comes near (them) and praises and boasts about them to the angels, saying, “What do these want?” (or “Anything they want!”)

Posted from the appendix of the article : In the Company of Allaah: Confirming Allaah is with His Creation – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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