An-Nur (The Light): One of Allaah’s Names

Explaining the Meaning of An-Nur (The Light) – One of Allaah’s Names
Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

An-Nur (The Light) – Soorat An-Nur (Qur’aan 24:35):

1-An-Nur is one of Allaah’s Names as well one of His Attribute, derived from His Nur (Light) which is an Attribute established with His Thaat (Essence).

Allaah, (Azzawajal), said:

اللَّهُ نُورُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ
Allaah is the Light (Nur) of the heavens and the earth [#2]
[TMQ;An-Nur (24):35]

The Prophet (Peace be upon him) used to invoke Allaah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala) upon starting the night prayers (Tahajjud):

“All Praise is due to You; You are the Light of the heavens and the earth…”[#3]

2- “The texts from the Qur’aan and authentic Sunnah relate An-Nur to Allaah, according to the following angles:

The First Angle:

a. That Allaah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala) has a Nur related (gr. conjugated) to Him as an Attribute of His Thaat [Essense], the same as His other Attributes of Life, Sight, Knowledge, Might, and so forth.

Allaah, Most Majestic and Most Magnificent, says:

وَأَشْرَقَتِ الْأَرْضُ بِنُورِ رَبِّهَا
And the earth will shine with the Light of its Rabb (Allaah–when He will come on the Day of Resurrection to judge among men)…[TMQ; Az-Zumar (39): 69].

And if the earth will shine with His Light, then He (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala) is a Nur (Light) as stated by His Messenger, Muhammad (Peace be upon him): “You are the Light of the heavens and the earth…”[#4]

b. That An-Nur relates to His most Honorable and Majestic Face.

‘Abdullaah ibn Mas’oud (radhi Allaahu anhu) said:

“The light of the heavens and the earth is from the Light of His Face.” [#5]

c. Allaah’s Nur is also related (mudaaf) to the heavens and the earth as in His (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala) saying:

اللَّهُ نُورُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ
Allaah is the Light (Nur) of the heavens and the earth ..
[TMQ; An-Nur (24): 35].[#6]

d. Light is Allaah’s Hijaab (Veil). The Prophet (Peace be upon him) said:

“Light is His Hijaab, If He uncovers it then the subuhaat (brightness, splendour, majesty, and greatness) of His Face would burn His creation so far as His Sight reaches.” [#7]

The cases of the aforementioned angle represent situations in which the sifah (attribute) of An-Nur has been related to its mawsoof (what is being described) as Imaam Ibnul Qayyim رحمه الله تعالى classified them.[#8]

The Second Angle:

The second angle is the idaafah (relating) of the maf’uool (object) to its faa’il (active subject).

Ibnul Qayyim said: “This is mentioned in the saying of Allaah, Most High:

اللَّهُ نُورُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ مَثَلُ نُورِهِ كَمِشْكَاةٍ فِيهَا مِصْبَاحٌ ۖ الْمِصْبَاحُ فِي زُجَاجَةٍ ۖ الزُّجَاجَةُ كَأَنَّهَا كَوْكَبٌ دُرِّيٌّ يُوقَدُ مِن شَجَرَةٍ مُّبَارَكَةٍ زَيْتُونَةٍ لَّا شَرْقِيَّةٍ وَلَا غَرْبِيَّةٍ يَكَادُ زَيْتُهَا يُضِيءُ وَلَوْ لَمْ تَمْسَسْهُ نَارٌ ۚ نُّورٌ عَلَىٰ نُورٍ ۗ يَهْدِي اللَّهُ لِنُورِهِ مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَيَضْرِبُ اللَّهُ الْأَمْثَالَ لِلنَّاسِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ

The parable of His Light is as (if there were) a niche and within it is a lamp, and the lamp is in glass, the glass as it were a brilliant star, lit from a blessed tree, an olive, neither of the east [#9] nor of the west [#10], whose oil would almost glow forth (of itself), though no fire touched it. Light upon Light! Allaah guides to His Light whom he wills. And Allaah sets parables for mankind, and Allaah is the All-Knower of everything.” [TMQ; An-Nur (24): 35]

It means: The parable of Allaah’s Light in the heart of his believing slave. The one having the greatest share of this Light is His Messenger Muhammad (Peace be upon him). This Light relates to Allaah تعالى being the One who grants and bestows it upon His slave. It is also related to the slave since he is its place (mahalluhu) and favorable recipient (qaabiluhu).

This light has a:

  • 1-faa’il (active subject),
  • 2-qaabil (recipient),
  • 3-mahal (place),
  • 4-haamil (carrier), and
  • 5-and maadah (substance).

The aayah above comprises all of these mattters in detail:

  • The faa’il (One Who does this) is Allaah, Most High, the One Who makes the lights to abound, Who guides to His Light whom He Wills.
  • The favorable recipient (al-qaabil) is the believing slave.
  • The place of reception (mahal al-qubool) is the believer’s heart.
  • The haamil (carrier) is his motivation, determination, and will.
  • The maadah (substance) is his sayings and actions.”[#11]

“The light which Allaah puts in the heart of the submitting Muslim is faith in Him, knowledge and love of Him, and remembrance of Him. It is His light (the Qur’aan) which He brought down, the origin of which is in the hearts of the Muslims. Its substance strengthens and increases until it appears on their faces, their limbs and their bodies, even on their clothes and in their homes. On the Day of Resurrection, this light emerges and runs forward before them [#12] amidst the darkness of the Bridge (Siraat)[#13] until they cross over it. The (intensity) of their lights on the Bridge will correspond to the intensity (strong or weak) of the repective lights in their hearts in the dunya (this life).

The similitude of this Light and its place, its carrier, and its substance is as the niche which is like the chest [of the believer]. Inside the niche there is a glass, from the most crisp and clear kind. [In the aayah] it is even made to resemble brilliant star in its clarity and purity. This glass resembles the heart [al-mahal]. The similitude to the glass is because it embodies qualities present in the heart of the believer: clearity, smoothness, and firmness. It sees the truth by virtue of its clarity; kindness, mercy and affection originate from it because of its smoothness; it stands firm in holding to the truth and it makes jihaad against the enemies of Allaah, due to the firmness in its structure…

In contrast with this enlightened heart, there are two other opposing and blameworthy hearts. One of them is stone-like, harsh, merciless, it lacks beneficience, reverence, and the clarity by which it can see the truth. In fact it is as an ignorant and a tyrant heart; it is neither aware of Allaah (the Truth) nor it is mercifull to the creation. Opposite to it, is a weak, watery, neither firm nor strong heart,… and everything (good, evil, wicked, etc.) that mixes with it, affects it in its own way.

In the glass there is a lamp and it is the light (an-nur) that is in the wick. The wick in the lamp is the light carrier (al-haamil), and the substance of the light is the olive oil, extracted from the olives of a tree growing in the most suitable place by being exposed to the sun rays all day long. Its oil is from the purest of its kind, clear without turbidity, to the degree that it will almost glow forth of itself. Similar to the olive oil is the substance of the believing heart. It is from the “tree” of Revelation:[#14] it is the greatest blessed thing and most distant from deviation. It is intermediate and, indeed, it is the most just and best of all matters. It did not deviate like the deviation of Christanity and Judaism. In all things it is bound to a medium course between these two blameworthy extremes.

Since the clarity of this oil is so intense such that it almost glows by itself, and then upon mixing with fire its illumination as well as that of the fire’s substance of light intensifes, then this becomes light upon light.

Something similar happens to the believer. His heart is lit such that he almost knows the truth by means of his fitrah and intellect. His heart, however, has no maadah (substance) within itself. But when the maadah of the al-Wahy (Revelation) touches his heart and the latter rejoices in its company, its light [of fitrah] increases by the light of al-Wahy. The light of al-Wahy adds up to that of fitrah and it becomes a light upon light. So, the believer would almost speak the truth even though he may have not heard an evidence. He later   hears of the evidence to be identical to what has been attested to by his fitrah. Thus, it is being a light upon light. This is the status of the believer. He acknowledges the truth, in general, by means of his fitrah. He then hears of the textual proofs and [authentic] traditions presenting what he has acknowledged, but in details. His faith, therefore, stems from the attestation of al-Wahy and fitrah…” [#15]

I ask Allaah, An-Nur, to enlighten my heart and yours, and to fill them with firm Eeemaan. He is the Most Generous, the Most Merciful.

Saleh As-Saleh, 29-1-1426, March 10, 2005

Footnotes:

[#1]TMQ: Translation of the meaning of the Qur’aan.

[#2]In this Aayah’s construct, Allaah’s Nur is related (mudaaf) to As-Samaawati wal Ard (the heavens and the earth). Some had interpreted this aayah such that Allaah (Azzawajal), is the One Who illuminates (Munawwir) the heavens and the earth and guides their inhabitants. This is from His Actions, otherwise it does not preclude the fact that the Nur, which is one of His Attributes, is established with Him. It is common for the Salaf رحمهم الله تعالى , may Allaah’s Mercy be upon them, to mention all or some of the meanings of the attributes pertaining to Allaah’s Names. By mentioning some of the meanings they do not negate the other affirmed qualities of such names. As such, one of the meanings signified by Allaah being “An-Nur of the heavens and the earth” is that He has illuminated the heavens and the earth and guided their inhabitants by His Light. The saying that meaning is restricted to His illumination of the heavens and the earth by certain planets (sun, moon, stars), is wrong, because the illumination by their light does not cover the entire universe. [See Ibn Taymeeyah’s al-Fatawaa, 6: 390-393].

[#3]For a full text of the Prophet’s invocation see Saheeh Al-Bukhaari (English/Arabic), V.9, Hadeeth # 482.

[#4] Grammatically, the “Light” which is related (annexed) to Allaah in the construct of the Aayah (which means): “And the earth will shine with the Light of its Rabb…” is not an annexation denoting possession, creation, honor, or preferment as it is the case in many aayaat (Verses) of the Noble Qur’aan including:

  • a. Baytee (My house), mentioned in the aayah (which means): That they (Ibraaheem and Ismaa’eel) may purify Baytee (My house, i.e the Ka’bah) for those who circel it, or stay (in I’tikaaf ), or bow, or prostrate themselves (near it, in prayer).” (TMQ 2:125)
  • b. Naaqatullaah (Allaah’s She-Camel) mentioned in Allaah’s Saying (which means): “This Naaqatullaah (She-Camel of Allaah) is sent to you (Prophet Saalih’s people, Thamood) as a sign. So allow it to graze in Allaah’s earth.”(TMQ 7:73).

[#5] Reported by at-Tabaraani (Mu’jam At-Tabaraani, V.9, # 8886), ad-Daarimiye in ar-Rad ‘alaa Bishr al-Mareesi (p.449), and al-Haythami in Majma’uz- Zawaa’id (V.1, p.85). Amongst its narrators, is Abu ‘Abdis-Salaam Az- Zubayr. Ibn Abee Haatim and Ibn Ma’een did not mention anything regarding the haal (status) of this narrator i.e. whether he is da’eef (weak), or thiqah (trustworthy transmittor), or otherwise. Ibn Hibbaan, however, mentioned him in his book ath-Thiqaat (The Trustworthy (men of Hadeeth). Al-Haythami realted that Abu Haatim (i.e. Ar-Raazi) described Abu ‘Abdis-Salaam Azubayr as majhool (unknown). Shayekhul Islaam Ibn Taymeeyah reported this narration and said: “It is affirmed upon the authority of Ibn Mas’oud (radhi Allaahu Anhu).” (See Majmoo’ al-Fataawaa, V.6, p.391). He also mentioned it in V.2, p.189 of the same reference. And Allaah knows best.

[#6] There is no contradiction between the interpreation that this aayah means that Allaah, Most High, is the Munawwir of the heavens and the earth and between the saying of ‘Abdullaah ibn Mas’oud in which the Nur is related to Allaah’s Thaat. The interpretation that Allaah is the Munawwir (The One Who Illuminates) or Haadi (The One Who Guides) the heavens and the earth is true because it relates the act (verb) of Tanweer (Illumination) to the active “subject” i.e. Allaah, the Most Magnificent. There is no contradiction whether one says that Allaah is the Nur of the heavens and the earth bi-Thaatihi (by Himself) or bi-Fi’lihi (by His Act).

Imaam Ibnul Qayyim رحمه الله تعالى said:

“The truth is that Allaah is the Nur of the heavens and the earth taking into consideration all of the interpretations.” Being the Munnawwir and the Haadi, does not negate the fact that He (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala), Himself, is Nur. Those who negate Allaah’s Attribute of An-Nur erred by thinking that if they would affirm the Attribute of An-Nur it would mean that Allaah is the light falling upon walls and gardens, etc.! The fact however is that the created light is an effect of the Attribute of An-Nur. We know that Ar-Rahmah (Mercy) is an Attribute of Allaah established with Him (Azzawajal). The rahmah (mercy) present on earth is an effect of Allaah’s Attribute of Ar-Rahmah separted from Him (Azzawajal). The knowledge of the creature is a distinct and separate effect of Allaah’s Attribute of Knowledge. The saying of ‘Abdullaah ibn Mas’oud (radhi Allaahu anhu) does not mean or imply that the light on walls and on the surface of the earth is the essence of the Light of Allaah’s most honourable Face.

[See Ibnul-Qayyim, Mukhtasar as-Sawaa’iq al-Mursalah ‘alal-Jahmiyyah al-Mu’attilah, checked by Ridwaan Shaakir Ridwaan (Makkah and Riyadh: Saudi Arabia, Maktabat Nizaar Al- Baaz), pp. 547-548 and Ijtimaa’ al-Ju-youoshil-Islaamiyyah, ‘Awaad ‘Abdullaah Al-Mi’tiq, ed. (Riyadh: Saudi Arabia, Maktabat Ar-Rushd, 1415/1995], pp.45-46.

[#7]In another narration instead of the word “light” it is fire, due to the doubt of the narrator Abu Musa al-Ash’ari. Reported by Muslim (Saheeh Muslim – English translation, V.1, Hadeeth # 343), Ahmad (4:405) and others. Both narrations stating the “light” and “fire” are in Saheeh Muslim.

The pure “fire” which Allaah mentioned in the Qur’aan when He (Azzawajal) spoke to Musa (peace be upon him) (Qur’aan 27:7-8) is also called a light and it is a light which illuminates without burning. Allaah also called the fire of the lamp a light (Qur’aan 24:35), contrary to the dark fire of Hell which is not called a light. Therefore, the doubt of the narrator between the words “light” and “fire” does not prevent [from affirming] that the “Light” is His Hijaab. [See Shayekhul- Islaam Ibn Taymeeyah’s Fataawaa, V.6, pp.384-386 and Ibnul Qayyim’s Mukhtasar as-Sawaa’iq al-Mursalah, p.551. Shayekhul Islaam said: “There are three kinds of (created light): The first is characterized by Isharaaq bila Ihraaq (illumination but without burning) and this is the “pure” light like that of the moon. The second kind burns without illumination and this is the dark fire (a black burning fire). The third being a light and a fire, like the sun. Also the fire of the lamps in this world is described by being being both (a light and a fire)…” Imaam Ibnul Qayyim added “This is the case with the created and witnessed lights. The Hijaab of ar-Rabb (Allaah), Most Blessed and Most High, is a Nur (Light) and it is a Fire. All of the [three] kinds of the created lights are real relative to their proper classifications…And if the light of His creation, like that of the sun, the moon, and fire, are real, then how could His Light be not real? The Light of His Face is real too [and fits His Majesty] and it is not figurative.” Ibid, pp.551-552 (with a slight adaptation).

[#8] Ibnul Qayyim in Ijtimaa’ al-Juyoushil-Islaamiyyah, pp.45-54.

[#9] It does not get sun-rays only in the morning.

[#10] Nor it gets sun-rays only in the afternoon, but it is exposed to the sun all day long.

[#11] Ibnul Qayyim in Ijtimaa’ al-Ju-yoush al-Islaamiyyah, pp.45-54.

[#12] Allaah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala) Says: { نورهم يسعى بين أيديهم } (The believer’s) Light will run forward before them. (Qur’aan 66:8)

[#13] Siraat: The Bridge over the midst of Hell; It is extremely slippery; On it there are hooks, claws, and bars; Over it mankind will pass. The believers, as the Prophet (Peace be upon him) explained, “Will pass like the blink of an eye, like the lightning, like the wind, like the birds, and like the fast horses and camels. Some will be saved, some will be lacerated then set free, and some will be thrown into the Fire…”. See Saheeh Muslim, V.1, Hadeeth # 352.

[#14] What Allah reveals in His Books and (or) inspires to His Messengers. The strength of its “roots” in the heart of the believer depends upon His compliance with its content. That is why there is a variation amongst the degree of faith amongst Muslims. Some are stronger than others in their adherence to the teachings of Islam. There are the obedient and disobedient Muslims. Those who mixed the substance (al-maadah) with ways not condoned by Islam, became corrupt, or were led astray. If they do not repent, and clean their hearts and follow the way of Revelation, they may subject themselves to the punishment of Allah, which may manifest itself in different ways on the individual and (or) the society levels.

When the way of uncontrolled lusts and desires takes over the heart of man, he will turn away from the Revelation and may choose for himself ways of “worship” or “religions” that ascribe best to his desires. The goal becomes the life of this world only, turning man to forget as to what occurs after death. He is overwhelmed by the “developments” taking place around him in all walks of life and wants to keep “on track”! Life turns to “drug stores” asking for “pills” to ease down the “rush”, or to “therapeutic clinics” to “relief” the worry and the sad heart! Or to suicide! Sometimes taking other lives with him.

[#15]Ibnul Qayyim’s al-Waabil as-Sayyib, verified by Saleem al-Hilaali (Ad- Dammaam, Saudi Arabia, Daar Ibnul Jawzi, 1415/1994), pp.100-103.

Source : An-Nur (The Light) – One of Allaah’s Names – Dr Saleh as Saleh– 16 Pages – by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh [PDF]

الرَّبّ Ar-Rabb (The Lord and Nurturer) : One of the Names of Allaah

 الرَّبّ  Ar-Rabb (the Lord and Nurturer) the Lord and Master who has none like Him in His Lordship, the One Who nurtures and rectifies the affairs of the creation by the favours which He showers upon them, the Sovereign Owner Who alone creates and commands, the One Who controls the affairs and grants blessings, the One Who nurtures, the Creator, the Provider, the One Who aids and the One Who guides.

[SourceThe Ninety-Nine Names of Allaah – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En] & Transcribed PDF]

The Meaning of Ar-Rabb, the Lord

Ar-Rabb is the owner who has full authority over his property. Ar-Rabb, linguistically means, the master or the one who has the authority to lead. All of these meanings are correct for Allah. When it is alone, the word Rabb is used only for Allah. As for other than Allah, it can be used to say Rabb Ad-Dar, the master of such and such object. Further, it was reported that Ar-Rabb is Allah’s Greatest Name.

Source : Tafseer Ibn Kathir, Surah Fathiha, Dar-us-salam English publication

Shaikh Saalih ibn Saalih al-Fawzaan haafidhahullaah said in Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah:

And Ar-Rabb (the Lord) is the One Who is worshipped,

and the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ

الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الْأَرْضَ فِرَاشًا وَالسَّمَاءَ بِنَاءً وَأَنزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَخْرَجَ بِهِ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ رِزْقًا لَّكُمْ ۖ فَلَا تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّهِ أَندَادًا وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

O mankind, single out your Lord with all worship, He Who created you and those who came before you so that you may be dutiful to Him, seeking to avoid His anger and His punishment. He Who made the earth a resting place for you and the sky a canopy, and He sent down from the clouds rain, and He brought out with it crops and fruits from the earth as provision for you, so do not set up rivals for Allaah whilst you know that you have no Lord besides Him. [2:21-22] (#9)

[#9]: His saying, “And Ar-Rabb (the Lord) is the One Who is worshipped”: meaning, He is the One Who deserves to be worshipped, as for other than Him, then it does not deserve worship, because it is not a Lord. This is the intent of the speech of the Shaikh rahimahullaah in his saying, “Ar-Rabb (the Lord) is the One Who is worshipped”, meaning He is the One Who deserves worship. Then also it is not sufficient that a person just affirms Ar-Ruboobiyyah (Lordship), rather he must affirm Al-‘Uboodiyyah (Allaah’s deserving all worship), He the Perfect and Most High, and he must carry it out making it purely and sincerely for Him, the Perfect and Most High. So since he has affirmed that He is Ar-Rabb (the Lord) then it is binding upon him to affirm that he is Al-Ma‘bood (the One Who therefore deserves to be worshipped), and that others besides Him do not deserve anything from worship.

Source : Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles – of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab [1115-1206 H], Explained by Shaikh Saalih ibn Saalih al-Fawzaan haafidhahullaah, Lesson 20: The Lord is the One Who is Worshipped; The Meaning and Types of Worship (And Ar-Rabb (the Lord) is the One Who is worshipped…)

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ
<<All the praises and thanks be to Allâh, the Lord of the ‘Alamîn (mankind, jinns and all that exists)>>. (Surah Faathiha v.2)

(V.1:2) Lord: The actual word used in the Qur’ân is Rabb. There is no proper equivalent for Rabb in the English language. It means the One and the Only Lord for all the universe, its Creator, Owner, Organizer, Provider, Master, Planner, Sustainer, Cherisher, and Giver of security. Rabb is also one of the Names of Allâh.

Source : Surah Fatiha – Translation of the meanings of The Noble Qur’an , in the English Language , By Dr. Muhammad Taqiuddeen al-Hilaalee and Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan

Allaah is Al-’Alee (the Most High) & Al-’Atheem (the Most Great) – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

Bismillaah

The following is excerpted from the Shaykh Uthaymeen’s explanation of Aayatul-Kursi, Translated by Dr. Saleh as-Saleh rahimahullaah

وَهُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْعَظِيمُ
And He [Allaah] is the Most High, the Most Great.
[Qur’aan, Aayatul-Kursi , Surah Al-Baqarah 2:255]

This sentence, with both of its boundaries defined, denotes exclusivity that He (Allaah) alone is the Most High, meaning that He possesses the absolute Transcendence (al-’uluw al-mutlaq). The restricted or limited ‘uluw (transcendence) is affirmed for the humans. Allaah تعالى said:

وَلَا تَهِنُوا وَلَا تَحْزَنُوا وَأَنتُمُ الْأَعْلَوْنَ
So do not become weak
(O you pious believers), nor be sad, and you will be superior (in victory). [Qur’aan, Soorat Aal-’Imraan (3: 139)]

This superiority is restricted such as being above the kuffaar [in victory], not an absolute transcendence. The latter is exclusively restricted to Allaah, for He, the One who is most High and free from all imperfection, is above everything.

Then it must be known that the attribute of Transcendence of Allaah in the creed of ahlu-sunnah wal jamaa’ah is classified into two types:

(a)    The ‘uluw of the thaat : The Transcendence of Allaah’s Essence.

(b)   The ‘uluw of the sifaat : The Transcendence of Allaah’s Attributes.

The ‘uluw of the thaat means that Allaah (تعالى) in His Essence is above everything, and everything is below Him, Most Majestic and Mighty is He. Regarding the ‘uluw of the sifaat , it means that Allaah is qualified with the superlative qualities as He, the Most High, said:

 وَلِلَّهِ الْمَثَلُ الْأَعْلَىٰ
And for Allaah is the Highest Description
[Qur’aan, Soorat An-Naml (16:60)].

Every Attribute which Allaah (تعالى) qualified Himself with is an Attribute of Perfection and in every respect is free from any kind of imperfection.

If you ask: “What is the reason behind this kind of classification? Do you have a proof of it from the Qur’aan or the sunnah ? Did you find this in the sayings of the sahaabah ?

The answer is: “No! But I found it to be necessary when it has been determined that the people of negation (an-nufaat), who themselves are ahlu-ta’teel (those who deny the Attributes), restrict the ‘uluw to the sifaat (qualities) only. They said that Allaah’s Transcendence is in His sifaat only not in Essence (thaat). The people of ta’teel (ahlu-ta’teel) themselves became divided regarding the ‘uluw of the thaat, as discussed below.

What is important is that the Imaams of  as-salaf -us-saalih (رحمهم الله) and the scholars who came after resorted to this classification out of necessity because they were tested by the people of ta’teel (who denied the ‘uluw of the thaat), and thus they were obligated to affirm the Transcendence in this way.

In fact, if we say only that, “Allaah is the Most High,” and if someone from the people of ta’teel says that, “the ‘uluw relates to His Attributes,” then what would the common Muslim understand? The only thing he will understand is that Allaah is qualified with the ‘uluw of the sifaat only. But if we say, “Allaah is Most High in His sifaat as well as in His Essence,” the common Muslims will understand this meaning. In fact, the first thing that is obvious to the common Muslim is that Allaah’s ‘uluw concerns His Essence. Certainly the ‘uluw of the sifaat is part of the meaning of the ‘uluw but the strange thing is that the people of negation and ta’teel establish it while it is not obvious to many people.

In their denial of the ‘uluw of Allaah’s thaat (Essence), the people of ta’teel ended up being divided into two groups:

The first group:  They said that Allaah, in His Essence, is everywhere, and if so then He, according to their claim, either occupies a hayyiz [70]  or He does not. If He occupies a hayyiz then it is necessary that He would occupy the “places” and there would remain no single “place” present. And if He does not occupy a hayyiz, then He is ma’doom (none-existing). [71]  They would not say that what does not occupy a hayyiz is like the “air” or the like thereof, because this would not be harmonious with their position. [72]

The second group: They said, “He (تعالى) is neither in ‘uluw (loftiness) nor in sufl (opposite ‘uluw: lowness); He is neither inside the world nor outside it; neither to the right nor to the justify; neither joined nor separate.

This position is absolute ta’teel (negation) because it is a description of al-’adam (none-existence). Some scholars said, “If we were asked to describe al-’adam we would not find a more comprehensive definition than this description [above].”

So contemplate as to how their negation of what has been affirmed by the way of naql (texts) and ‘aql (rational) led them to say what cannot be accepted neither by sensory perception (hiss), nor by naql or ‘aql.

We have explained earlier that the ‘uluw of Allaah is proven by the way of the kitaab (the Book, i.e. the Qur’aan), the sunnah , ijmaa’ (general consensus of the salaf ), ‘aql , and fitrah . [73]  The proofs of the Book and sunnah are diverse:

Some of which mention the ‘uluw like in the saying of Allaah (تعالى):

        { وهو العَلِيُّ العَظِيم } [البقرة:255].
And He [Allaah] is the Most High, the Most Great.

{ سَبِّحِ اسْمَ رَبِّكَ الأَعْلَى } [الأعلى،1]
And make tasbeeh [declaring that Allaah is far removed above all imperfection] of your Rabb , the Most High, above everything.
[Qur’aan, Soorat Al-A’laa (87:1)].

Others state the fawqiyyah [Allaah being above creation], as in Allaah’s saying in the Qur’aan:

{ وَهُوَ القاهِرُ فَوْقَ عِبادِهِ } [الأنعام،1].
And He [Allaah] is al-Qaahir [74]  above His slaves.
[Qur’aan, Soorat Al-An’aam (6:18)].

Some aayaat (verses) mention the su’ood (ascent) of things up to Him :

{ إليهِ يَصعَدُ الكَلِمُ الطَّيِّبُ والعَمَلُ الصالِحُ يرفَعُهُ } [فاطر،10].
 To Him ascend [all] the goodly words, and the righteous deeds exalt it [the goodly words, i.e. the goodly words are not accepted by Allaah unless and until they are followed by good deeds][Qur’aan, Soorat Faatir (35:10)].

{ تَعرُجُ الملائِكَةُ والرُّوح إليه } [المعارج،4].
The angels and the rooh [Jibreel u] ascend to Him.
[Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Ma’aarij (70:4].

Sometimes the Qur’aan mentions the descent of things from Him (تعالى):

 { يُدَبَّرُ الأمر من السَّماء إلى الأرض } [السجدة،5].
He [Allaah] arranges [every] affair from the heavens to the earth.
[Qur’aan, Soorat As-Sajdah (32:5)].

 { إنَّا نحنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّكْرَ } [الحجر،9].
Verily We: It is We Who have sent down the thikr  [the Qur’aan].
 [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Hijr (15:5)].

In the Book there is also the affirmation that Allaah (تعالى) is above the heavens:

{ ءأمنْتُم من في السَّماء أن يخسِفَ بِكُمُ الأرْضَ } [المُلك،16].
Do you feel secure that He, who is above the heaven [Allaah], will not cause the earth to sink. [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Mulk (67:16)].

In addition to the above aayaat, there are many other references in the Qur’aan which affirm the ‘uluw of Allaah. Similarly the sunnah affirms Allaah’s ‘uluw in His Essence by the way  of  saying, action, and approval. The affirmation in the saying as in the statement of the Prophet (peace be upon him):

Our Rabb is Allaah Who is in the heaven …” [75]

And in his action as when he (peace be upon him) pointed towards the heavens when he said: “O! Allaah be witness [saying it thrice],” before the greatest assembly of Muslims then. [76]

As to his approval, the Prophet (peace be upon him) asked a slave girl: Where is Allaah? She replied: “Above the heavens.” He (peace be upon him) then ordered her master, Grant her freedom, because she is a believer .” [77]

As for the ijmaa,’  it is acknowledged that the salaf are in agreement that Allaah is above His ‘arsh . No one among them had ever said that He is everywhere or that He is neither above the world nor below it, or that He is neither to the right nor to the left, or that He is neither separated from the world nor associated with it.

On the other hand, the proof of the ‎‘aql (intellect), has two angles to it:

1. The ‘uluw is an attribute of perfection and therefore being as such necessitates that it is an affirmed attribute of Allaah because Allaah is qualified with the attributes of perfection from every angle.

2. For the sake of argument, if we say that, “Allaah is either above the world or under it or on its right or left,” then which of these descriptions denote perfection? The answer is, “Allaah is above the world,” because if he is “under it” then He would be less perfect than the created! And if He is in the same place as the created, then Allaah (تعالى) would be equal to him in perfection. Thus it is necessitated that Allaah (تعالى) is above everything.

Finally, as far as the fitrah (natural inclination or disposition) is concerned, each person naturally acknowledges the fact that Allaah is above the heavens. That is why whenever a person supplicates His Rabb (Allaah) he (she) takes refuge towards the direction of the sky (i.e. upward). [78]

[In this regard it is noteworthy to mention] that because Abul Ma’aali al-Juwayyni, [79]  may Allaah bestow His mercy upon him and may He forgive him, denied the ascending of Allaah above the ‘arsh (istiwaa’ ‘ala al-’arsh) and the ‘uluw of Allaah in His Essence, he had  decided that, “Allaah was and there was nothing, [80]  and He is now as He ever has been,” [81]  denying the istiwaa ‘ala al-’arsh. Abul ‘Alaa al-Hamadaani, [82]  may Allaah bestow His mercy upon him, said, “Teacher! There is no need to mention the ‘arsh. [83] Just tell us about this necessity which we find within ourselves: Whenever an ‘aarif (one who knows of Allaah) says: ‘O! Allaah,’ he finds within his heart a compelling intent aspiring upward? [84]  Al-Juwayyni slapped his hands against his head screaming, “Al-Hamadani rendered me perplexed. Al-Hamadaani rendered me perplexed.” He was unable to respond because the matter is natural and cannot be denied.

The strange thing is that those who deny the Transcendence of Allaah themselves raise their hands upward in the direction of the heavens when they invoke Allaah. I do not know of the situation of the person who believes that Allaah is everywhere in His Essence or that He is not inside the world nor outside it or He is neither above nor below, how is he going to face His Rabb on the Day of Resurrection?

Then Allaah تعالى said:

{ العَظِيم }
The Most Great,

meaning the One Who possesses the absolutely perfect Greatness.

The great of a certain kind of things is the majestic whose qualities attained the utmost degree of perfection, as Allaah تعالى has said about the throne of the Queen of Sabaa’ :

 { وَلَهَا عَرْشُُ عَظِيم }
And She has a great throne.
[Qur’aan, Soorat An-Naml (27:23)].

In this sense the great of a certain kind of things is that which is characterized by utmost importance and utmost degree of perfection in its qualities.

Footnotes:

[70] Hayyiz: Linguistically the word hayyiz signifies:

(a) Drawing, collecting, or gathering.
(b) To hold in one’s possession.
(c) To drive the camel gently to water.
(d) To rise, turn away, or turn towards.
(e) Remove, withdraw, or retire to a distance.
(f) Draw back.
(g) Leave a place to another.
(h) Turn aside to a place or to a different company and
(i) What is annexed to the house.

It is noticed that these linguistic meanings entail: change, moving or turning from place to a place or from a direction to another. In addition, the term hayyiz refers to an existing external thing that surrounds and contains something. The lateral portions (or outer surfaces) of the contained thing itself form an existing hayyiz. Anything that surrounded by an existing hayyiz is called mutahayyiz. Accordingly, what is in between the heavens and the earth is mutahayyiz. [Refer to Appendix A for further important information.]

[71] They negate the ‘uluw of Allaah above the creation because they consider what is above the world is itself a hayyiz. Saying that Allaah is above the world means to them that he is in a hayyiz although they acknowledge that it is ‘adami (non-existing)! It is clear that the way of the scholastic theologians is fallacious argumentation. The fact is that above the world there is nothing except Allaah. So could He be in something “non-existing”? Being “in it” is no more than being alone by Himself and that He is distinct and separate from creation, His thaat is not commixed with any part of His creation..

[72] Because the air does not occupy a hayyiz, yet it exists. To Allaah belongs the best example.

[73] The Shaykh refers to his explanation of Al-’Aqeedah Al-Waasitiyyah of Shaykh-ulIslam Ibn Taymeeyah [Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Daar Ibnul Jawzi, 1415/1994], vol. 1, pp. 373-400.

[74] Allaah is al-Qaahir: The Most Mighty and the Magnificent, is dominant over all his slaves being Himself above creation, the Ever-living, the Mighty, and the AllPowerful. He is the One who subdued all of his creatures; everything in the upper and lower worlds is subservient to His Will, and Authority; whatever He willed to happen will certainly occur and as He wanted it to be, and whatever He willed not to occur will never take place; All creatures are in need of Him, they have no control of good or harm to themselves; nor can they control death nor life nor Resurrection. The most powerful creature is nothing before the domination and power of Allaah, the AllMighty; the creatures which people have taken as “gods” besides Allaah, cannot protect themselves let alone to dominate others. Allaah, the perfect is His domination deserves to be worshipped alone.

[75] Reported by Abu Daawood, Ahmad, and others. It was declared hasan by Ibn ‘Adiyy (Al-Kaamil 3:1054) and by Al-Baihaqi (Al-Asmaa’ was-Sifaat, p. 892), ath-Thahabi (Al-’Uluw, p. 48), and ad-Daarimee (Ar-Rad ‘Alal-Jahmiyyah, p.70). Other scholars of hadeeth considered it weak because of the weakness of one of its narrators, Ziyaadah bin Muhammad al-Ansaari. According to al-Bukhaari, his hadeeth falls in the category of munkar that, according to him, is a strong state of criticism meaning “denounced”. Other scholars of hadeeth sometimes consider the munkar to mean the absolutely singular (al-fard al-mutlaq) narration which is not supported by any follow up (mutaaba’ah). [See Shifaa’ul-‘Aleel bi-Alfaath wa Qawaa’id Al-Jarh Watta’deel (Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: Maktabatul-’Ilm, 1411/1991), pp. 306-311, and Shaykh alAlbaani’s Da’eef Sunan Abee Daawood, no. 839]. However, another hadeeth by Qataadah in which Bani Israa’eel have said: “O Our Rabb!, You are in the heaven, and we are on the earth…,” is declared hasan by Shaykh al-Albaani (رحمه االله). See ath-Thahabi’s Al-’Uluw (Beirut, Lebanon: al-Maktab al-Islami, 1412/1991; checked by Shaykh alAlbaani)], no. 107.

[76] As in the long hadeeth of Jaabir (رضي االله عنهما) describing the Farewell Hajj of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) which was reported by Muslim in his Saheeh (English Translation), vol. 2. pp. 611-617.

[77] This is a clear response to those who say, “Allaah is everywhere.” The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) used the term “Where,” and the answer of the girl was “Above.” Those who say that Allaah is exalted above any particular direction are to be asked, “What do you mean by ‘direction’?” If they deny that Allaah is above the creation because it would mean that He is in a “particular direction,” then they are wrong because there is no one from the creation who exalted Allaah more than the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), and yet he (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) affirmed that He (تعالى ) is above the heavens and pointed skyward because it is a direction of ‘uluw. This direction of ‘uluw does not limit, contain, or envelop Allaah, the Most Great.

Nothing is above Him, the Most High. Are they more eloquent in speech than the Prophet is (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم)? Are they more sincere with respect to the teachings of this deen than the Prophet is (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم)? Certainly, they are not. And the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) did not intend confusion to his followers. Had there been any false meaning necessitated by affirming the ‘uluw of Allaah the way the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) affirmed, he would have made it clear.

The texts, however, do not necessitate the false conclusions made by those who deny the ‘uluw of Allaah in His Essence above the creation. Neither in the Qur’aan nor in the authentic sunnah, does the affirmation of the ‘uluw imply hat Allaah is contained in a place or that he is a compounded body (jism), or “within limits,” for He is above everything and that there is no creation above the world, there is only Allaah above everything.

[78] People naturally raise their hands and seek the direction of ‘uluw (highness) in their hearts when they supplicate Allaah, the Most High. This does not mean that they do so because the sky is the qiblah of invocation just as the ka’bah is the qiblah (direction) of the prayer as claimed by those who deny the ‘uluw of Allaah is His Essence! There is no legal evidence that the sky is the qiblah of du’aa. Had this been one of the proven matters, it would have been known by the salaf. In addition, the qiblah of invocation is the qiblah of the prayer. It is praiseworthy that the Muslim face the qiblah while making du’aa. In fact the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) faced the qiblah many times and invoked Allaah, the Most High. A qiblah is something that a person is face to face with, just like the positions in the prayer, invocation, thikr, sacrifice, etc. Had the sky been the qiblah of du’aa then it would have been permissible for the Muslim to invoke Allaah turning his face up in its direction, something not legally approved.

Linguistically, the upward position towards which the hands are raised is not called a qiblah. Directing the heart upward while in a state of du’aa is something ingrained in the fitrah and done by the Muslim, the kaafir, the learned and the ignorant, especially in times of distress. The one facing the qiblah knows well that Allaah is not there, however, while in a state of du’aa the person turns to his Creator who is above the creation. He does not turn towards the sky seeking refuge in something created, but he seeks the Creator of the heavens and the earth who is High above the entire creation. Ask those in times of distress, “Do you turn towards the heavens or to Allaah who is above the heavens?” Naturally, they turn to Allaah.

[79] Al-Juwayyni, ‘Abdul Maalik Ibn ‘Abdullaah Ibn Yusuf Ibn Muhammad Abul Ma’aali (419/1028-478/1085), nicknamed imaamul haramayyn (lit. the Imaam of the Two Sanctuaries i.e. Makkah and Madeenah). He lived in Makkah for four years and then moved to Madeenah where he taught. He never was, however, an Imaam of the two sacred Mosques. His followers exaggerated in him and gave him this title.

Originally, he was from Juwayyn (present-day Afghanistan). He was a Shaafi’ee scholar and an Ash’arite. It is important to remember that he is said to have been the first to resort to the figurative interpretation of the sifaat. He (رحمه االله) however, retracted from this position, but like many of the late ashaa’irah, he resorted to tafweed: consigning the meaning of the sifaat to Allaah claiming that the thaahir (obviously−understood meaning), is not the intended meaning, something that they erroneously attributed to the salaf. The truth, however, is that the salaf, affirm the obviously understood meaning of the Attributes of Allaah, but they consign the “how” of the sifaat to Allaah (تعالى ). For example, the obvious meaning of Pleasure is known.

We affirm it to Allaah as He has affirmed to Himself. The manner of Allaah’s Pleasure, however, is consigned to Allaah. So the Pleasure of Allaah is true and like all of His Attributes, nothing is like unto Him in His Pleasure. The kayyfiyah (specification, i.e. how is His Pleasure) is known only to Allaah. Imaam ath-Thahabi reported that before his death, al-Juwayyni denounced scholastic theology and fully supported the position of the salaf. (Al-’Uluw, p. 175, checked by Shaykh al-Albaani).

[80] Meaning that Allaah was and there was no ‘Arsh as confirmed by the full report in ath-Thahabi’s Al-’Uluw (p. 276, no. 337; checked by Shaykh al-Albaani).

[81] Meaning that He is not ascending above His ‘Arsh.

[82] Muhammad Ibn ‘Ali al-Hasan Ibn Muhammad al-Hamadaani (d. 531/1137).

[83] Because the proof for the ‘Arsh is sam’ee, meaning it is established by evidence from the Qur’aan and (or) authentic sunnah. Had it not been established through this means, we would have not known of it.

[84] i.e. because of the Transcendence of Allaah. In the detailed report, al-Hamadaani said: “Whenever an ‘aarif says: ‘O! Allaah,’ except that before his tongue starts moving, a compelling intention arises in his heart. It turns neither to the left nor to the right but heads for above. Do you have a way to avert this necessitated intention?” His saying “heads for above” affirms that it seeks Allaah who is absolutely above the universe, it does not turn to the heavens nor to the ‘Arsh because these are created things.

Source : From the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi – By Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen (rahimahullah). With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

Related Links:
https://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/

 

Neither Slumber, Nor Sleep overtakes Allaah – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen

In His Saying: { لا تأخُذُهُ سِنَةُُ وَلاَ نَوْمُُ}  Neither slumber, nor sleep overtakes Him, Allaah did not say (what means): “He does not sleep,” instead He said: { لا تأخُذُهُ } (which means) “does not overtake Him” in order to comprise the sleep which overcomes and that arising by choice. If you say, “Does not sleep,” it would imply that He does not sleep by choice. However, Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, does not sleep neither by ghalabah (overcoming) nor by choice, because sleep is an imperfect attribute which contradicts both the perfection of the Self and the perfection in relation to others.

The person who is given to sleep misses a lot of his work because of His sleeping. Consider, for example, the case of a person who has many people working for him and he sleeps a lot. He is unable to reckon with nor manage the business or other related matters. This is an imperfection with respect to others.

As regard to self-perfection, sleep is a deficiency because it  indicates that the person’s body got tired and thus he needed the sleep as a rest from what has passed, as well as a means to renew his activity to engage in what will come ahead. That is the why the people of al-Jannah do not sleep—because of the perfection of their lives and bodies. No illness or the like touches them.

If someone says, “We know that the person who does not sleep is unable to do so because of some kind of sickness or a defect, while you say that the lack of sleep is a perfection. Explain.”

We say, “This applies to the creature, and in this case perfection is a relative matter [with respect to Allaah it is perfection]. There is no doubt that the person who does not sleep because of an illness has a defect, and that is why he stays always in a state of languor and exhaustion. Thus his welfare will not be established. This is evident from the saying of Allaah, the Most High:

And have made your sleep as a thing for rest [Qur’aan, Soorat An-Naba’ (78:9)],

meaning that sleep is something that will discontinue the hardship and tiredness. If Allaah would sleep, and far is He above such imperfection, then this would necessitate that He needs to rest. In addition, the creation will be ruined because they are in need of Him; even the sleeping person is in need of Allaah. In fact, the Prophet (r) used to invoke Allaah at night when he was about to sleep:

If You take my soul, bestow mercy on it [and forgive it, as in another narration], and if You release it then protect it as You protect your righteous slaves .” [38]

In short, it is impossible that Allaah, the One free of all imperfections and the Most High, sleeps. The Prophet (r) said:

Verily Allaah does not sleep and it does not befit Him to sleep .” [39]

The word “لا ينْبَغِي” [does not befit] when used in the Qur’aan and sunnah means “the thing which is absolutely impossible to be,” as Allaah تعالى said:

But it is not befitting for (the Majesty of) ar-Rahmaan (Allaah) that He should beget a son (or offspring or children). [Qur’aan, Soorat Maryam (19:92)].

[It should be noted] that Allaah’s saying:

{ لا تأخُذُهُ سِنَةُُوَلاَ نَوْمُُ}

Neither slumber, nor sleep overtakes Him,

signifies as-sifaat as-salbiyyah (attributes of negation: negating any imperfection and implying perfection). The rule with respect to the Names and Attributes of Allaah, the Most High, is that there is no such thing as a pure attribute of negation. [40]  Indeed, when  as-sifaat as-salbiyyah are mentioned, it is because they imply the perfection of the attributes which are in contradiction to those of negation. [41]  So, because of the Perfection of Allaah’s Life and qayyoumiyyah , [42]  then neither slumber nor sleep overtake Him. [43]

Source : Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi By Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen
With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah,  Prepared by  Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

Al Hayy, Al-Qayyoum: Two of Allaah’s names which comprise the perfection of Attributes and Actions – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

Bismillaah

The following is excerpted from the Shaykh Uthaymeen’s explanation of Aayatul-Kursi, Translated by Dr. Saleh as-Saleh rahimahullaah

Regarding Allaah’s Saying:

{ الحَيُّ القَيُّومُ }
Al Hayy (The Ever living), Al-Qayyoum
[Qur’aan, Aayatul-Kursi , Surah Al-Baqarah 2:255]

These are two of Allaah’s names which comprise the perfection of Attributes and Actions.

The name: { الـحَيُّ } comprises the perfection of Attributes, and { القَيُّوم } the perfection of Actions. The meaning of { الحَيُّ} is the one who possesses the perfect living. This is inferred from the [34] { ال } in { الـحَيُّ} which is grammatically used to denote [amongst other things] [35]  the combination of all perfection [in properties and (or) applications in the term that it accompanies (al-istighraaq)].

This is also indicated in as far as existence and none-existence, and perfection and imperfection are concerned. In fact, if we consider man’s life, we find it imperfect because it originates in adam (none-existence) and ends in ‘adam. [36]

It is also imperfect as far as his attributes and actions are concerned. For his hearing, sight, sayings, and actions are all imperfect. As such, man’s life is imperfect from all angles: in existence and ‘adam , and with regard to the inseparable attributes of life itself. However, with respect to Allaah, Most Mighty and Majestic, His life is perfect,  neither preceded by ‘adam nor coming to naught. Allaah, Most High, says:

[ وَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى الْحَيِّ الَّذِي لَا يَمُوتُ ]

And put your trust and reliance upon the One who is Ever Living, who does not die. [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Furqaan (25:58)].

He  also said:

كُلُّ مَنْ عَلَيْهَا فَانٍ
وَيَبْقَىٰ وَجْهُ رَبِّكَ ذُو الْجَلَالِ وَالْإِكْرَامِ

Whatsoever is on it (the earth) will perish, and the Face of Your Rabb , full of Majesty and Honour, will abide forever. [Qur’aan, Soorat Ar-Rahmaan (55:26-27)].

That is why some of the salaf said: “The person should make a connection and not pause [when he recites the word perish in the above verse] because this signifies the right manner of  perfection.” The true aspect of Allaah’s perfection lies not only in the fact that creation will perish but also in the baqaa’ (endless existence) of Allaah, the Most Mighty and Most Majestic.

In addition, Allaah’s hayaat (Life) is one which is neither accompanied by annihilation nor by ‘adam :

[ كُلُّ شَيْءٍ هَالِكٌ إِلَّا وَجْهَهُ ]
Everything will perish save His Face. 

[Qur’aan, Soorat al-Qasas (28:88)].

Indeed, to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, belongs the eternally- perfect Life.

Furthermore Allaah’s hayaat is characterized by the perfection of Attributes: hearing, sight, knowledge, ability, might and all qualities of perfection. That is why the particle { ال } which denotes al-istighraaq with regard to baqaa’ (endless existence) and al-kamaal (perfection) was introduced.

Regarding [Allaah’s] Saying: { القَيُّوم }: al-Qayyoum , its origin is the word al-qiyaam, and the measure of { القَيُّوم } is fayy’ool and it is a form of intensiveness. The name al-Qayyoum means the One Who is established on His Own, Self-subsisting, by Whom all things subsist. [37]

Allaah, the Most High, said:

[ أَفَمَنْ هُوَ قَائِمٌ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ نَفْسٍ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ ]

Is He (Allaah) Who takes charge (guards, maintains, provides, etc.) of every person and know all that he has earned (like any other deities who know nothing)? [Qur’aan, Soorat Ar-Ra’d (13:33)].

Allaah is established on His Own (qaa’im bi-nafsihi ) as He, the Most High, says:

[ وَّاسْتَغْنَى اللَّهُ ۚ وَاللَّهُ غَنِيٌّ حَمِيدٌ ]

And Allaah is the Rich (Free of all wants), worthy of all praise. 
[Qur’aan, Soorat At-Taghaabun (64:6)].

So, Allaah is absolutely free of any need from all creation. He is Self-subsisting. He needs not food nor drink, for He is the One Who feeds but is not fed. He needs not a supporter, nor a helper, nor a deputy, nor an advisor. He is established in perfection by Himself.

If someone says, “How do we reconcile the above meaning of al-Qayyoum with the saying of Allaah, the Most High:

إِن تَنصُرُوا اللَّهَ يَنصُرْكُمْ وَيُثَبِّتْ أَقْدَامَكُمْ ]
O you who believe! If you “help Allaah,” He will help you. 

[Qur’aan, Soorat Muhammad (47:7)],

and His saying:

[ وَلَيَنصُرَنَّ اللَّهُ مَن يَنصُرُهُ ]
Verily Allaah will help those who “help Him”? 

[Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Hajj (22:40)].

What is meant by His affirmation that He “is being helped”? The answer is that the intended meaning is help in the cause of Allaah’s deen , for He is the One Who is in full charge of all things. So, everything other than Allaah is dependent upon Him in existence, preparation of affairs, and sustenance.

Footnotes:

[34] {ال}, “al”is a particle of determination and specification.
[35] See Lane, E.W., Arabic-English Lexicon (Cambridge, England: Islaamic Texts Society, 1984), vol. 1, p. 74.
[36] In the present world, otherwise man will end up in an eternal life in the Hereafter.
[37] He sustains, protects, prepares, and runs the affairs of all things as He wills in accordance with His Knowledge, Wisdom, and Justice.

Source : From the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi – By Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen (rahimahullah). With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

 الحَيّ Al-Hayy (the Everliving), the Everliving Who always remains without any beginning and any end with perfect and everlasting life Who never dies nor passes away.

 القَيُّوم  Al-Qayyoom (the Self-Subsisting One), upon Whom everything depends, the One Who sustains everything that exists, the One Who has no need whatever of anything but rather everything in existence has total need of Him.

[SourceThe Ninety-Nine Names of Allaah – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En] & Transcribed PDF]

Related Link: https://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/

Nothing worthy of worship except Allaah, He is Al-Awwal, Al-Aakhir and will not Perish, nor will Pass Away [Audio|En]

Audio by  Abu Talhah Dawud ibn Ronald Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen / Download Mp3 Here (Time 29:55)

In this explanation of Aqeedah Tahawiyyah, brother Dawud Burbank explains the Point #5 ,#6 and #7 as outlined below.

5. And there is nothing worthy of worship except Him.

This is Tawheed Al Uloohiyyah. Laa Ilaah means nothing worthy of worship except Him. But if you said, “Nothing is worshiped except Him”, then this is false, because there are many that are worshipped other than Allaah the Glorious and Majestic. So if you say that nothing is worshipped except Allaah, you have made everything that is worshipped into Allaah, and this is the Madh’hab of the people of Wahdatul Wajood, so if the one who says that believes in it, then he is from the people of Wahdatul Wajood, but if he does not believe in it, then he said blindly following someone, or because he heard it from someone, then this is incorrect, and it is obligatory upon him to correct that, and some people start their Salaah with this, “Nothing is worshipped except You.” And Allaah is the One Who has the right to be worshipped, and anything else other than Him that is worshipped, is worshipped upon falsehood. He the most High says, “That is because Allaah, He is the Truth, and what they invoke besides Him, it is falsehood, and verily, Allaah He is the Most High, the Most Great.” (Al Hajj 22:62)

6. He is Qadeem (Eternal) with no beginning, and the Ever Lasting with no end.

As the statement of Allaah proves this, “He is the First and the Last.“ (Al Hadid 57:3), along with the statement of His Messenger sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam, “You are the First, so there are none before You, and You are the Last, so there are none after You.” [4]

But the word Qadeem (old) is not associated with Allaah, except informatively. It is not from His names; rather from His names is Al Awwal (The First), and Al Awwal is not like Al Qadeem, because Al Qadeem may have something before it, while Al Awwal has nothing preceding it. He sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam said, “You are Al Awwal, so there are none before You.”

Rather, the author was cautious, so he said, “ He is Qadeem with no beginning.” But if he would have said, “Qadeem” and stopped, then the meaning of this would be incorrect.

Footnotes: [4] Narrated by Imaam Muslim hadeeth number 2713

7. He will not perish, nor will He pass away.

Perishing and passing away hold the same meaning. Allaah has been characterized with an everlasting life; He the most High says, “And put your trust in the Ever Living One Who dies not, and glorify His Praises, and Sufficient is He as the All-Knower of the sins of His slaves.” (Al Furqaan 25:58). So extinction does not come to Allaah, and He the Glorious and Most High says, “Everything will perish save His Face. His is the Decision, and to Him you shall be returned.” (Al Qasas 28:88). And He the most High says, “Whatsoever is on it will perish. And the Face of your Lord full of Majesty and Honor will abide forever.” (Ar Rahman 55:26-27). So eternity is for Allaah, and the creation will die and then be summoned, and they used to be non existent in the beginning, and then Allaah created them, and then they will die, and then Allaah the Glorious and Majestic will summon them. So Allaah the most High has no beginning, nor an end.

Source : Concise Notes on Aqeedah At Tahaawiyyah, Shaykh Saalih bin Fawzaan al Fawzaan
At Ta’leeqat Al Mukhtisirah Alaa Matn Aqeedah At Tahaawiyyah, Translated By: Kashif as Salafi

Audio Source :
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – Imaam at-Tahaawi   [Lesson 4 , starting from 9:00 mins]
Explanation by Shaikh Saalih ibn Saalih al-Fawzaan
Translated by Abu Talhah Dawud ibn Ronald Burbank

Seeing Allaah (ar-Ru’yah) in The Hereafter – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

[Download mp3]

Listen :

[16] Seeing Allaah In The Hereafter : To have Faith in seeing Allaah on the Day of Resurrection. They will see Allaah with the eyes of their heads [1].

Notes :
1. Allaah says:
“Some faces that Day shall be shining and radiant. Looking at their Lord”. (Soorah al-Qiyaamah 75:22-23) Shuaib reports that Allaah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, “When the people of Paradise enter Paradise, Allaah, the Blessed and Most High, will say ‘Do you wish for anything extra that I may give you?’ They will say ‘Have You not brightened our faces? Have You not entered us into Paradise and saved us from the Fire?’ So He will remove the screen and they will not have been given anything more beloved to them as looking at their Lord, the Mighty and Majestic.” Reported by Muslim (Eng. trans. 1/114/no. 347) and others.

Hanbal said: I spoke to Abu ‘Abdullaah, meaning Ahmad (ibn Hanbal) about seeing Allaah (ar-Ru’yah). He said, “They are authentic ahaadeeth. We have Faith (Eemaan) in them and affirm it. We have Faith in and affirm everything reported from the Prophet (Peace be upon him) with good chains of narration.” Reported by al-Laalikaa’ee in Sharh Usool I’tiqaad Ahl is-Sunnah (no.889).

2. ‘Adiyy ibn Haatim reports that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said, “There is not one of you except that Allaah will speak to him on the Day of Resurrection, there being no interpreter between Him and him.” Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. trans. 8/358/no.547), Ahmad and at-Tirmidhee.

Source :
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Explanation of the Creed
by Abu Muhammad al-Hasan ibn ‘Alee ibn Khalf al Barbahaaree [d.329 H]
Explanation by Shaikh Saalih ibn Saalih al-Fawzaan
Translated by Abu Talhah Dawud ibn Ronald Burbank

Allah is NOT in the midst of, or surrounded by the heavens BUT He is above the heavens

Q 2: What is the evidence that Allah is in the heavens?

A: The `Aqidah (creed) of Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah (those adhering to the Sunnah and the Muslim main body) is that Allah is in the heavens, above all of His Creation, and that He has risen above the Throne, as He (Glorified be He) states:

<<Do you feel secure that He, Who is over the heaven (Allâh), will not cause the earth to sink with you, and then it should quake? Or do you feel secure that He, Who is over the heaven (Allâh), will not send against you a violent whirlwind? Then you shall know how (terrible) has been My Warning>> (Surah Al-Mulk 67:16-17)

and He (Exalted be He) states:

<<To Him ascend (all) the goodly words, and the righteous deeds exalt it (i.e. the goodly words are not accepted by Allâh unless and until they are followed by good deeds)>> (Surah Fatir 35:10)

and states:

<<He manages and regulates (every) affair from the heavens to the earth; then it (affair) will go up to Him>> (Surah Al-Sajdah 32:5)

and in Surah Ta-Hah:

<<The Most Gracious (Allâh) rose over (Istawâ) the (Mighty) Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty)>> (Surah Taha 25:10)

and (Glorified be He):

<<Indeed, your Lord is Allâh, Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days, and then He rose over (Istawâ) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty)>> (Surah Al-Ara’f 7:54)

in seven places in the Qur’an.

Furthermore, it was authentically reported in the Hadith regarding the Kharijites that the prophet (peace be upon him) states:

“Don’t you trust me though I am the trustworthy man of the One in the Heavens, and I receive the news of Heaven (i.e. Divine Inspiration) both in the morning and in the evening?”

and

when the Prophet (peace be upon him) asked a slave girl, “Where is Allah?” She replied, “In the heaven.” He (peace be upon him) then asked her, “Who am I?” She said, “You are the Messenger of Allah.” He (peace be upon him) said (to her master), “Release her, for she is a believer.” [Related by Muslim]

The Prophet (peace be upon him) also stated:

The Compassionate One has mercy on those who are merciful. If you show mercy to those who are on the earth, He Who is in the heaven will show mercy to you. [Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud and Al-Tirmidhi who classified it as a Hasan Sahih Hadith, and Al-Hakim who classified it as Sahih and Al-Dhahabi agreed with him].

And there are many other Hadith to this effect.

Sheikh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah said that this does not mean in any way that Allah is in the midst of, or surrounded by the heavens, as none of the Salaf (righteous predecessors) of this Ummah (community) or its Imams ever stated that; rather they agreed that allah is established on His Throne above the heavens and is distinguished from His creation with no similarity whatsoever between Him and His creation in terms of His Attributes, Names, or Power.

Then he quoted the saying of Al-Imam Malik that Allah is above the heavens and His knowledge encompasses everywhere and every thing, until he (Malik) said whoever believes that Allah is in the mist of, or surrounded by the heavens and that He needs His Throne or any of His creation, or that His rising above the Throne is similar to that of any of His servants sitting on a chair, then he is astray, Mubtadi` (one who introduces innovations in religion) and Islamically ignorant.

Likewise, whoever believes that Allah is not above the heavens and rising above His Throne and Muhammad was not carried to heaven or the Qur’an was revealed to him, is Mu`atil (denying Allah’s attributes), astray and Mubtadi`.  [Quoted from the collection of Fatwa by Ibn Taymiyyah.]

May Allah grant us success! May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family and Companions!

Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’

Member     Member     Deputy Chairman     Chairman
Bakr Abu Zayd     Salih Al-Fawzan     `Abdul-`Aziz Al Al-Shaykh     `Abdul-`Aziz ibn `Abdullah ibn Baz

Source : alifta.net

“The Hand of Allaah is over their hands” – Fatwas of Ibn Baz

Explanation of the Ayah whose meanings say: <<The Hand of Allâh is over their hands>> (Surah Al Fath 48:10)

From `Abdul `Aziz Bin `Abdullah ibn Baz to the respected brother, As-salamu `alaykum warahmatullah wabarakatuh (May Allah’s Peace, Mercy, and Blessings be upon you!) To proceed:

With reference to your Fatwa request registered in the Department of Scholarly Research and Ifta’ no. 3137 dated 11/7/1408 A.H., it reads:

We attended a Tafsir (exegesis of the meanings of the Qur’an) seminar held in a Masjid (mosque) called Abu Al-Haytham ibn Al-Tayhan and located in Salibiayh district in Kuwait. The Shaykh interpreted the Saying of Allah (whose meanings translated as): <<The Hand of Allâh is over their hands>> (Surah Al Fath 48:10). He said that this Ayah has more than one meaning. It can be Allah’s Help given to them, Allah’s Power with them, or Allah’s Knowledge of their conditions and intentions. After the seminar finished, one brother told the Shaykh that his interpretation of this Ayah goes against `Aqidah (creed) of Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah (adherents to the Sunnah and the Muslim mainstream) and complies with the views of Asha`irah (a Muslim group that bases its creedal issues on logic). The Shaykh was annoyed and replied that Al-Mawardy and Ibn Kathir mentioned this interpretation in their books. The man corrected him saying that Ibn Kathir did not state that, but it is Al-Mawardy who advocated Asha`irah. The debate heated and people behaved aggressively labeling the man a Christian and Buddhist and they were about to beat him but some protected him. Allah knows that this man wanted to explain the truth out of his jealousy for the Muslim `Aqidah and the impermissibility to delay the declaration beyond the time of need. The man suggested that the issue be referred to you and they agreed. Would you please enlighten us. May Allah reward you the best. Waiting for your reply.

Please be informed that our creed is to affirm Allah’s Attribute of having a Hand and the other attributes stated by Him in His Noble Book or by His Messenger Muhammad (peace be upon him) in the purified Sunnah. However, this Hand is such as befits Allah’s Majesty without Takyif (descriptive designation of Allah’s Attributes) or Tamthil (likening Allah’s Attributes to those of His Creation) or Tahrif (distortion of the meaning) or Ta`til (negation of the meaning or function of Allah’s Attributes). We believe that there is nothing like Him; and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer. We do not deny any of His Attributes with which He described Himself. We do not change the words from their (right) places. We do not discuss the nature of His Attributes, or liken His Attributes to those of His creation, because there is nothing that can be compared to Him, and He has no peer, equal or rival. Just as He (Glorified be He) has a true “Self” which is not similar to that of His creatures, He does not resemble any of His creatures in any of His Attributes. Confirming the Attributes of the Creator does not entail comparing them to those of the created. This is the doctrine of the Salaf (righteous predecessors) including Sahabah (Companions of the Prophet), Tabi`un (Followers, the generation after the Companions of the Prophet) and their followers from the best three generations of Islam and their successors to this day.

Shaykh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (may Allah be merciful to him) stated:

المُجِيب Al-Mujeeb (The One Who Responds) : One of the Names of Allaah

المُجِيب  Al-Mujeeb (the Responsive), the One who responds to supplications of those who call upon him wherever they are and whatever situation they are in, no matter how many they are in number and who responds in particular to those who submit to him and those in dire need.

[SourceThe Ninety-Nine Names of Allaah – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En] & Transcribed PDF]

Shaykh ‘Abd ur-Razzaaq al-Badr (hafidhahullaah) comments:

“And indeed as a result of having faith in the name of Allaah ‘Al-Mujeeb,’ the slave’s certainty in Allaah strengthens, and his turning to Him and hoping for what is with Him increases, and the disease of despairing from His Mercy departs from him. And how can the Muslim not trust in his Lord, the Most Generous, while in His Hand, subhaanah, is the kingdom of everything. So whatever He wills, will be, at the time that He wills, in the way that He wills, with no addition nor omission, no precedence nor delay; and His decree, subhaanah, is carried out in the heavens, and the earth and what is upon it and what is under it, and in the seas and the air, and in all the parts and atoms of the world. To Him belongs the creation and the command, to Him belongs the kingdom and the praise, to Him belongs the dunyaa and the aakhira.”

And His Name, ta’aala, ‘Al-Mujeeb’ shows that He, subhaanah, hears the du’aa of those who supplicate, and answers the request of those who ask, and does not disappoint a believer who has called upon Him, and He, subhaanah, loves that the slaves ask Him for all their needs of the deen and dunyaa, such as food, drink, clothing and shelter, just as they ask Him for guidance, forgiveness, success, assistance to obey (Him), and the like; and He promised them the response to all of that, no matter how great the request is, how much it is, and how diverse the wishes are; and in this, there is evidence of the absolute power of Allaah, subhaanah, and that His treasures will are not depleted nor diminished by (His) giving, even if He granted the first and the last of the jinn and mankind all that they asked Him, as is in the hadeeth qudsee.

And it has been mentioned in the Prophetic Sunnah that Allaah, tabaarak wa ta’aala, answers those who supplicate and gives those who ask, and that He, jalla wa ‘alaa, is Shy and Generous, too Generous to turn away the one who calls upon Him or disappoint the one who confides in Him with humility or prevent the one who asks Him.”

~
Source: Fiqh ul-Asmaa il-Husnaa; Chapter 63, p. 250, 251,253
asaheeha translations

Related Link: https://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/

Meaning of Allah’s Arsh (Throne) – Fatwas of Nur Ala Al-Darb

Q: What is the meaning of Allah’s `Arsh (Allah’s Throne)?

A: According to Muslim scholars, and the Arabic language, `Arsh means a throne or a throne belonging to a king.

The `Arsh of Allah is an extremely large and great Throne; it is the greatest thing created by Allah. It has four legs, and is carried by Angles. Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) is above the `Arsh as He (Glorified and Exalted be He) says about Himself: <<The Most Gracious (Allâh) rose over (Istawâ) the (Mighty) Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty)>> (Surah Taha 20:5). And: <<Indeed, your Lord is Allâh, Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days, and then He rose over (Istawâ) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty)>> (Surah Al-A’raf 7:54).

Thus, it is a significantly large `Arsh; none knows how great the size of its magnificence is except Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) Who created it (but we are told by the Prophet that it is very large). This `Arsh is like a dome stretching over the entire universe; it is the ceiling of the whole universe. It is also the ceiling of Paradise; nothing is above it except Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He).

Thus, `Arsh in Arabic is a very large throne, and the thrones of kings are called `Arsh. It is mentioned in the Qur’an that the hoopoe told Sulayman (Solomon) that Bilqis (the Queen of Saba [or Sheba] in Yemen, who ruled during the lifetime of Prophet Sulayman): <<and she has a great throne>>(Surah Al-Naml 27:23). Yet, Allah’s `Arsh is unique; there is no similarity between Allah’s `Arsh and those of His Creatures. In general, we know from Arabic that `Arsh is a generic name standing for a throne. However, none knows the essence, nature, substance, or greatness of Allah’s `Arsh except Allah Himself (Glorified and Exalted be He). Yet, authentic Hadiths of the Prophet (peace be upon him) are our authority in this matter. If an authentic Hadith mentions something about it, we must believe it, and accept it without doubt. The Prophet (peace be upon him) does not utter any untruth. Thus, we must believe in what we are told about the `Arsh in the Qur’an and the authentic Hadiths without further questions. There is no authentic Hadith to tell us what it is made of. However, it is established that it is a very large, and great `Arsh created by Allah and carried by some Angels. Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) says: <<And the angels will be on its sides, and eight angels will, that Day, bear the Throne of your Lord above them>> (Surah Al-Haqqah 69:17). The day meant here is the Day of Resurrection.

However, it is known from the Hadiths that four Angels carry the `Arsh now, and on the Day of Resurrection they will be eight Angels. It is reported that Umayah ibn Abu Al-Salt composed a poem, which the Prophet approved, to this effect, namely that four Angels carry the `Arsh of Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) now. It reads:

On the right side, one in the shape of a man, and the other in the shape of an ox
On the left side, one in the shape of a vulture, and the other in the shape of a lion

This means that now four Angels carry the `Arsh; one in the shape of a man, another in the shape of an oxen, the third in the shape of a vulture, and the fourth in the shape of a lion. These four Angels were created by Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) exclusively to bear the `Arsh. Yet, it is reported on the authority of Al-`Abbas ibn `Abdul Muttalib that on the Day of Resurrection eight Angels in the shapes of ibexes will carry the `Arsh. These Angels are so giant, and extremely tall. However, this Hadith has some weakness in relation to its chain of narrators. But, another evidence for this is the Qur’anic verse mentioned above, that is <<And the angels will be on its sides, and eight angels will, that Day, bear the Throne of your Lord above them>>(Surah Al-Haqqah 69:17). which states that this will be on the Day of Resurrection. To sum up, they are now four angels, and on the Day of Resurrection they shall be eight. Allah (Glorified be He) is the One sought for help, and He knows best.

Source : alifta.net – Fatwas of Nur `Ala Al-Darb

Allah is not Imageless – Permanent Committee

The Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’ has reviewed the translation of the Fatwa request as well as the reply published in the monthly Madinah Magazine issued from Dacca in Bengalese, fifth issue, 35th year, August 1999, corresponding to Rabi` II, 1420.

The question submitted by a member of the Bengalese community in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia states: We used to believe that Allah exists everywhere and that He is Imageless. However, here in Saudi Arabia in a cooperation bureau a Bengalese translator delivered a lecture in which he stated that Allah (may He be Exalted) does not exist everywhere and that He is described as having a Hand, an Eye, and other Attributes. He further claimed that anyone who does not believe as such is a disbeliever. My question is: What is your opinion in this regard? Please explain it in the light of the Qur’an and Sunnah.

The reply (in Madinah Magazine) from Decca was as follows: Anyone who believes in such claims is either intensely ignorant, mad, or even a member of a deviant sect. Actually, Allah (may He be Exalted) is Imageless and exists everywhere and in everything and His Omnipotence encompasses all things. Moreover, Allah (may He be Exalted) has been described as such in many Ayahs as well as in many Hadith. Therefore, you should pay no attention to such nonsense so that you may not corrupt your Iman. This was the end of the reply.

Reply by Permanent Committee of Scholars :-

This reply is groundless and opposes the Qur’an, Sunnah, Ijma’, and sound ‘Aqidah as it indicates belief in Hulul (a Sufi term meaning indwelling) which means that Allah dwells everywhere even in dirty places (Exalted be He far above any such thing). The reply also involves denying some of Allah’s Attributes wherewith He has described Himself and His Messenger (peace be upon him) has described Him, i.e. being High above His Creatures, rising over His ‘Arsh (Throne), being Distinct from His Creation, and being Incomparable in any respect to His Creatures. It also involves denying the fact that Allah is described as having a Hand, a Foot, a Leg, a Face, two Hands, two Eyes, and other Attributes related to His Self and Actions as proved by the Qur’an and Sunnah.

Allah (may He be Exalted) says: (Surah Al-Baqarah, 2: 255) And He is the Most High, the Most Great. He (may He be Exalted) also says:(Surah Al-Mulk, 67: 16-17) Do you feel secure that He, Who is over the heaven (Allaah), will not cause the earth to sink with you, and then it should quake? Or do you feel secure that He, Who is over the heaven (Allaah), will not send against you a violent whirlwind?  The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “Do not you trust me though I am the trustworthy person of the One in the Heavens?” Moreover, Allah (may He be Exalted) says:(Surah TaaHa, 20: 5) The Most Gracious (Allaah) rose over (Istawaa) the (Mighty) Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty). The same fact is stressed in seven places in the Qur’an.

Furthermore, He (may He be Exalted) says:(Surah Al-Rahman, 55: 27) And the Face of your Lord full of Majesty and Honour will remain forever. He (may He be Exalted) says:(Surah Al-Qasas, 28: 88) Everything will perish except His Face.

Addressing Iblis (Satan), Allah (may He be Exalted) says:(Surah Sad, 38: 75) What prevents you from prostrating yourself to one whom I have created with Both My Hands. He (may He be Exalted) says:(Surah Al-Ma’idah, 5: 64) Nay, both His Hands are widely outstretched.

In the same regard, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “The people will be thrown into the Fire and it will keep on saying, “Is there any more?” until the Lord of the worlds puts His Foot over it.” According to another narration of the Hadith, he (peace be upon him) said: …His Foot over it, whereupon its different sides will come close to each other, and it will say: Enough! Enough!”

To the same effect, Allah (may He be Exalted) says to Musa (Moses – peace be upon him):(Surah TaaHa, 20: 39) In order that you may be brought up under My Eye. Allah (may He be Exalted) says:(Surah Al-Qamar, 54: 14) Floating under Our Eyes. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “Your Lord is not one-eyed.”

In the same context, Allah (may He be Exalted) says:(Surah Al-Qalam, 68: 42) (Remember) the Day when the Shin shall be laid bare (i.e. the Day of Resurrection) and they shall be called to prostrate themselves (to Allaah), but they (hypocrites, and those who pray to show off or to gain good reputation) shall not be able to do so. The Prophet (peace be upon him) interpreted the Ayah to mean that Allah (may He be Exalted) will uncover His Shin on the Day of Resurrection whereupon every believer will prostrate before Him out of reverence and there will remain those who used to prostrate before Him just for showing off and for gaining good reputation. These people will try to prostrate but they will not be able to do so.

In the same context, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “I saw my Lord (may He be Glorified and Exalted) in the best Soorah (form).”[1] He also said: “Allah created Adam in the Soorah(Image) of The Most Beneficent.”[2] This is in addition to many Nusus (Islamic texts from the Qurýan or the Sunnah) including Allah’s Attributes.

Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah (those adhering to the Sunnah and the Muslim main body) believe in these Attributes and confirm their indications without Tashbih (comparison) or Tamthil (likening Allah’s Attributes to those of His Creation). Allah (may He be Exalted) says:(Surah Al-Shura, 42: 11) There is nothing like Him; and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.

The Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’ in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia after stating such facts, deems it obligatory for the editor-in-chief of the monthly Madinah Magazine issued from Dacca, Bangladesh, Shaykh Muhiy Al-Din Khan, to publish this Fatwa and demand the person who replied to the Fatwa request to retract his allegations and declare his retraction in the same magazine. In fact, it is virtuous to admit the truth, which is the goal of the believers. Admitting the truth guides the people to the truth and distracts them from falsehood. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “If anyone calls others to follow right guidance, his reward will be equivalent to those who follow him (in righteousness) until the Day of Resurrection without their reward being diminished in any respect, and if anyone invites others to follow error, the sin will be equivalent to that of the people who follow him (in sinfulness) until the Day of Resurrection without their sins being diminished in any respect.”

May Allah grant us success! May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions!

Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’ consisting of
Shaykh Abdul Azeez aal-shaykh, Shaykh Abdullah al-Ghudayyan, Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan, Shaykh Bakr Abu Zayd

Footnotes:-
[1]Reported in Musnad Ahmed, Sunan at-Tirmidhi & others.
[2]Reported in Asma wa Sifaat of al-Bayhaqee, Al-Kabeer of at-Tabarani, Al-Sifaat of Daraqtuni, At-Tawheed of Ibn Khuzaymah & others

 

The meaning of the Hadith “Allah created Adam in His Image” – Fatwas of Nur Ala Al-Darb

Q: A Hadith was reported from the Prophet (peace be upon him) in which he prohibits making the face ugly, and states that Allah (Exalted be He) created Adam in His image. What is the correct belief regarding this Hadith?

A: This Hadith is authentically reported from the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) in which he said: “If any of you strikes (another), let them avoid the face, for Allah created Adam in His image” . In another narration: “In the Image of Ar-Rahman (The Gracious)“.

This does not mean Tashbih (comparison) or Tamthil (likening Allah’s Attributes to those of His Creation).

According to the view of scholars, this means that Allah (Exalted be He) created Adam hearing, seeing and talking as He wishes. These are also the Attributes of Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He), for He is All-Hearer, All-Seer, Speaker and has a Face (Glorified and Exalted be He). Yet, that does not mean Tashbih or Tamthil, since the Image of Allah is completely different from the image of any creature. Rather, it means that He is Hearer, Seer, has a Face and Speaker if He wishes. Similarly, Allah (Exalted be He) created Adam in the same image; possessing hearing, sight, face, hands and feet and speech when he wants to talk. Yet, his hearing is not like Allah’s and so is his sight and speech. His face does not also resemble Allah’s Face for there is no match to Allah’s Attributes (may He be Exalted and Glorified). Rather, they befit Him (Glorified be He) alone. The servants (of Allah) have characteristics that befit them as well. Such characteristics are doomed to extinction, defect and weakness. However, the Attributes of Allah are Perfect without defect, weakness or extinction. For that, Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) says: There is nothing like Him; and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer. He (Glorified be He) says: “And there is none co-equal or comparable unto Him.” Accordingly, it is not permissible to strike or make the face ugly.

Source : http://alifta.net – Fatwas of Nur `Ala Al-Darb

The Status of Having Knowledge of ‘Asmaa Allaah and His Sifaat – Shaykh AbdurRazaaq al-Badr

Taken from ‘Fiqh of al-‘Asmaa al-Husna
By Shaykh AbdurRazaaq bin AbdulMuhsin al-Badr
Translated by Abbas Abu Yahya
Shaykh AbdurRazaaq bin AbdulMuhsin al-Badr said:

‘There are many Ayaat which come in the Qur’aan with the command to learn this noble knowledge of Tawheed and to have a concern with this great principle.

Allaah said: << فَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ  >>

<< then know that Allaah is All-Mighty, All-Wise. >> [al-Baqarah: 209]

Allaah said: << وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ>>

<<and know that Allaah is All-Aware of everything.>> [al-Baqarah: 231]

Allaah said: << وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ>>

<< know that Allaah is All-Seer of what you do.>> [al-Baqarah: 233]

Allaah said: << وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ حَلِيمٌ>

<<And know that Allaah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Forbearing.>> [al-Baqarah: 235]

Allaah said: << وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ>>

<< and know that Allaah is All-Hearer, All-Knower.>> [al-Baqarah: 244]

Allaah said: << وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ غَنِيٌّ حَمِيدٌ >>

<< And know that Allaah is Rich (Free of all wants), and Worthy of all praise.>> [al-Baqarah: 267]

Allaah said: << اعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ >>

<<Know that Allaah is Severe in punishment and that Allaah is Oft­-Forgiving, Most Merciful.>> [al-Maidah: 98]

Allaah said: << فَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ مَوْلَاكُمْ نِعْمَ الْمَوْلَى وَنِعْمَ النَّصِيرُ >>

<<then know that Allaah is your Maulâ (Patron, Lord, Protector and Supporter, etc.), (what) an Excellent Maulâ, and (what) an Excellent Helper!>> [Anfal: 40]

Allaah said: << وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الْمُتَّقِينَ >>

<<and know that Allaah is with Al-Muttaqeen.>> [al-Baqarah: 194]

Allaah said: << وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي أَنْفُسِكُمْ فَاحْذَرُوهُ >>

<<And know that Allaah knows what is in your minds, so fear Him. >> [al-Baqarah: 235]

Allaah said: << فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ  >>

<<So know that Lâ ilâha ill-Allâh (none has the right to be worshipped but Allaah)>> [Muhammad: 19]

There are nearly thirty Ayaat with these meanings.

As for the mention of Allaah, regarding His ‘Asmaa and His Sifaat in the Qur’aan then there are many. There cannot be a comparison of His mentioning about His ‘Asmaa and Sifaat with any other topic, since His ‘Asmaa and Sifaat are the greatest thing mentioned in the Qur’aan and the best thing and the most exalted.

Shaykh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymeeyah (d.728) -Rahimullaah- said:

‘The Qur’aan has more of a mention of the Names of Allaah and His Sifaat and His Actions, than the mention of food, drink and marriage in Paradise.

The Ayaat which include the mention of the Names of Allaah and His Sifaat are greater in amount than the Ayaat of the Day of Judgement.

That is why the greatest Ayaah in the Qur’aan is the Ayaat-ul-Kursi which consists of the Names and Sifaat of Allaah.  As is established in the authentic hadeeth which is narrated by Muslim from the Prophet -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam– that he said to Ubayy bin Ka’ab:

‘Do you know which Ayah in the Book of Allaah is the greatest?’

He answered: << اللَّهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ    >>

<<Allaah! Lâ ilâha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), the Ever Living >> [al-Baqarah: 255]

The Prophet -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- patted him on his chest with his hand and said: ‘Knowledge congratulates you Abu al-Mundhir.’

And the best Soorah is the Soorah Umm al-Qur’aan (Al-Faatihah), as is established in the hadeeth of Abu Sa’eed bin al-Mu’ala in Bukhari. [This wording is by Imaam Ahmad in ‘Musnad’ with an authentic chain]

The Prophet -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- said:

In this Soorah there is a greater mention of the Names of Allaah and His Sifaat than the mention of the Last Day.

It is established in the Saheeh of Bukhari from the Messenger -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- from more than one narration that Soorah Al-Ikhlaas << قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ  >> <<Say: ‘He is Allaah, (the) One. >>  is equivalent to a third of the Qur’aan, and it is established in the Saheeh of Bukhari that the Messenger -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- gave good news to the one who used to read this Soorah when he said: Indeed I love this Soorah because it contains the Sifaat of ar-Rahman; so due to that Allaah loved this person.

So this hadeeth explains that Allaah loves the one who loves the remembrance of the Sifaat of Allaah Subhaanahu wa Ta’ala, and this matter is a detailed one.’

[Taken from ‘Fiqh of al-‘Asmaa al-Husna’ p.8-10]

The Belief in Allaah…What Does it Mean? – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh As-Saleh [ Book and Audio]

Bismillaah

[35 minutes]
Part of the Book “Explanation of Fundamentals of Faith” .
Rendered into English By Dr. Saleh As-Saleh.

The Belief in Allah

1 – Belief In Allah’s Existence Allah’s existence is affirmed through Fitrah (the innate purity that Allah creates in every human being), the Mind, the Shari’ah (Islamic Law) and the senses.

a) As for the Fitrah, we say the following: Allah created the belief in Him in every human being. Mankind needs not to be taught this belief or think about how to possess it. However, the ones who have this Fitrah corrupted will not benefit from it. The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said, what translated means, “Every newly born will be born having Fitrah. However, his parents will either convert him to Judaism, Christianity or Majocism (fire worshipping).” [Saheeh al-Bukhari]

b) The Human Mind must be used to prove the existence of Allah. All this creation, of old and new, must have a Creator who invented and started it. This creation could not have come to existence on its own or by chance. It could not have created itself, because it did not exist beforehand. Therefore, how can it create? Also, the creation could not have been started by accident or chance. Everything that exists must have a Creator who brought it into existence. Creation is magnificent in organization, coherent and correlated in its existence. There is a reason and originator behind every act. All this nullifies the saying that this entire universe was started by chance. What was started by chance cannot be organized in its form because it did not have any organization before it was formed. What makes what was created by chance to be this organized? If all this creation neither could have created itself nor was it created by chance, then it must have an Originator, Allah, the Lord of the worlds. Allah mentioned this reasoning in the Quran, “Were they created by nothing, or were they themselves the creators?” [52:35].

This Ayah means that men were neither created without a Creator nor did they create themselves. Therefore, Allah is the One who created them. This is why when Jubair ibn Mut’im (radiyallaahu anhu) heard the Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) recite this Surah until he reached, “Were they created by nothing, or were they themselves the creators? Or did they create the heavens and the earth? Nay, but they have no firm belief. Or are with them the Treasures of your Lord? Or are they the tyrants with authority to do as they like?” [52:35-37],

Jubair, a disbeliever then, said, “My heart almost flew (from the power of this reasoning mentioned in the Surah). This was the first time that Iman entered my heart.” [Saheeh al-Bukhari]

c) – As for the Shari’ah, all divine religions testify to the fact that Allah created the world. All Laws that were sent with these divine and revealed religions contain what benefits mankind. This is evidence to the existence of a Wise and All-Knowing Lord Who knows what brings benefit to His creation, All divinely-revealed religions describe a universe that is self evident to the existence and ability of Allah, Who Creates what He Will.

d) – Also, the senses must be used to prove the existence of Allah. We know that Allah accepts the supplication from whoever seek His aid and help, and that He brings them the benefits that they desire. This is clear evidence to the existence of Allah, who said, what translated means, “And (remember) Noah, when he cried (to Us) aforetime We listened to his invocation.” [21:76] and, “(Remember) when you sought help from your Lord and He answered you?” [8:9].

Anas ibn Malik (radhiyallahu anhu) said, “An Arabian (Bedouin) man entered (the Masjid) on Friday while the Prophet was delivering the speech. He said: ‘O Messenger of Allah! (Our) possessions are destroyed, (our) children are hungry. Ask Allah for us.’ He (the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) raised his hands in supplication (to Allah). All of a sudden, mountain-like clouds were formed. He did not descend from his Minbar (the podium) until I saw rain falling through his beard. On the second Friday, this Arabian man, or someone else, stood up and said: ‘O Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam), Buildings have collapsed and possessions are flooded. Ask Allah for us.’ He (the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) raised his hands and said: ‘O my Lord! Around us and not on us.’ Wherever he pointed to an area (of the sky), they (the clouds) dispersed.” [Saheeh al-Bukhari]

Allah’s acceptance of supplication has been and still is a known matter until today. It is given to those who are true in their seeking refuge in Allah and perform supplication in the correct manner to ensure its acceptance. Also, there are the signs that Allah gave His Prophets, which are called miracles. People witnessed or heard these miracles. They are clear evidence that the One who sent the Messengers exists, and He is Allah the All Mighty.

These miracles are activities that are beyond the capability of mankind. Allah gave them to His Messengers as a way of aiding them and giving them victory. An example of these miracles is the sign given of Moses. Allah ordered him to strike the sea with his stick, and the sea parted into twelve separate pads between mountains of water on each side of these parts, “Then We inspired Moses (saying): “Strike the sea with your stick. And it parted, and each separated part (of that sea water) became like the huge, firm mass of a mountain.” [26:63]. Another example is the miracle of Jesus. He was given the power by Allah to raise the dead from their graves and back into life. Allah said about him, what translated means, “And I bring the dead to life by Allah’s leave.” [3:49] and, “And when you (O Jesus) brought forth the dead by My Permission.” [5:110]

A third example is the miracle Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) performed. His tribe, Quraysh, asked him to perform a miracle. He pointed to the moon and it separated into two parts while his people were witnessing the incident. Allah said about this miracle, what translated means, “The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has been cleft asunder. And if they see a sign, they turn away, and say: “This is continuous magic.” [54:1-2].[4] All these miracles, that Allah gave to His Messengers as an aid and victory and that were witnessed by their nations, are proof that Allah exists.

2 – Belief In Allah’s Lordship This means to believe that Allah is the Lord, alone, and that He has no partners or helpers. The Rabb (Lord) is the One who Creates and Commands. There is no creator except Allah and there is no owner of the universe except Him. The Commandment and the Control is His. He said, what translated means, “Surely, His is the Creation and commandment.” [7:54] and, “Such is Allah your Lord; His is the Kingdom. And those whom you invoke or call upon instead of Him, own not even a Qitmir (the membrane over the date-stone).” [35:13]. Only a few people rejected Allah’s Lordship. These are the arrogant ones who deny what they believe deep in their hearts. This happened from Pharaoh, when he said to his people, as was mentioned in the Qur’aan, “I am your lord, most high.” [79:24] and, “O chiefs! I know not that you have a god other than me!” [28:38].

However, what he said was not his true belief. Allah said, what translated means, “And they belied them (Our Signs) wrongfully and arrogantly, though their own selves were convinced thereof” [27:14].

Also, Moses said to Pharaoh, as was mentioned in the Quran, ”Verily, you know that these Signs have been sent down by none but the Lord of the heavens and the earth as clear (evidences of His Oneness and Might). And I think you are, indeed, O Pharaoh, doomed to destruction.” [17:102]. The Arab disbelievers of old used to confirm Allah’s Lordship, although they associated others with Him in worship.

Allah said, what translated means, “Say: “Whose is the earth and whosoever is therein? If you know!” They will say: “It is Allah’s!” Say: “Will you not then remember?” Say: “Who is the Lord of the seven heavens and the Lord of the Great Throne?” They will say: “Allah.” Say: “Will you not then fear Allah?” Say: “In Whose Hands is the sovereignty of everything? And He protects (all), while against Whom there is no protector, if you know?” They will say: “(All this belongs) to Allah.” Say: “How then are you deceived and turn away from the truth?)” [23:84-89],

And indeed if you ask them: “Who has created the heavens and the earth?” They will surely say: “The All-Mighty, the All-Knower created them.” [43:9]

and, “And if you ask them who created them, they will surely say: “Allah.” How then are they turned away (from His worship)” [43:87].

Allah’s order comprises of both, His running of the universe and the Commandment. He is the One who controls the creation and the One who does what He will, according to His Wisdom. He is also the One who gives the Commandment organizing aspects of worship and dealings, according to His Wisdom. Whoever takes anyone, besides Allah, to be the one who commands acts of worship or types of dealings, will have committed Shirk (disbelief, association in worship) with Allah. This act negates Iman.

3 – The Belief That He Is the ILAH: Allah is the Ilah, meaning He is the Worshipped One Who has no partners. This Ilah is worshipped with love and reverence. He said, what translated means, “And your Lord is One Lord, there is none who has the right to be worshipped but He, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.” [2:163]

and, “Allah bears witness that none has the right to be worshipped but He, and the Angels, and those having knowledge (also give this witness); (He is always) maintaining His creation in Justice, none has the right to be worshipped but He, the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.” [3:18].

All things that are taken as gods, besides Allah, are false gods, “That is because Allah is the Truth (the Only True God), and what they (the disbelievers) invoke besides Him, it is falsehood. And verily, Allah is the Most High, the Most Great.” [22:62].

To call these things “gods,” does not make them gods. Allah said about some idols, Al-Lat, Al-’Uzzaa and Manat, “They are but names which you have named, you and your fathers, for which Allah has sent down no authority” [53:23].

Yousef (Joseph) said to his two companions in jail, as was mentioned in the Quran, “Are many different lords (gods) better or Allah the One, the Irresistible? You do not worship beside Him but only names, which you have forged, you and your fathers, for which Allah has sent down no authority.” [12:39-40].

All Messengers used to say to their nations, “Worship Allah! You have no other God but Him.” [23:23]. However, the disbelievers refused to accept this call. They took others as gods besides Allah. They worshipped them besides Allah, calling them when aid and help were needed. Allah refuted the disbelievers in their taking these idols as gods besides Him, using two logical arguments:

The first argument: These idols, that were taken by the disbelievers as gods, do not have any attributes that qualify them to be gods. These false gods were created and do not create. They can neither bring about benefit for whoever worships them, nor can they fend harm off. They cannot give life or take it away. They neither own nor are they partners in the kingdom of the heavens and earth. Allah said, what translated means, “Yet, they have taken besides Him other gods that created nothing but are themselves created, and possess neither hurt nor benefit for themselves, and possess no power (of causing) death, nor (of giving) life, nor of raising the dead)” [25:3],

“Say (O Muhammad): ‘Call upon those whom you asset (to be associate gods) besides Allah, they possess not even the weight of an atom, either in the heavens or on the earth, nor they have any share in either, nor is there for Him any supporter from among them.” [34:22-23] and,

“Do they attribute as partners to Allah those who created nothing but they themselves are created? No help can they give them, nor can they help themselves.” [7:191-192].

If this is the case with false gods, then taking them as gods is a true misguidance and the lowest of all acts. The second argument: The Mushrikeen (polytheists) are among those who confirmed that Allah, alone, is the Lord, the Creator, the One Who Has the ownership of everything and the One Who gives protection and no one can give protection to anyone from His Might. This confirmation requires from these disbelievers to worship Allah alone. He said, what translated means, “O Mankind! Worship your Lord (Allah), Who created you and those who were before you so that you may become among the pious. Who has made the earth a resting place for you, and the sky as a canopy, and sent down rain from the sky and brought forth therewith fruits as a provision for you. Then do not set up rivals unto Allah (in worship) while you know (that He Alone has the right to be worshipped).” [2:21-22],

“And if you ask them who created them, they will surely say: “Allah”. How then are they turned away (from His worship)?” [43:87]

and, “Say (O Muhammad): “Who provides for you from the sky and from the earth? Or who owns hearing and sight? And who brings out the living from the dead and brings out the dead from the living? And who disposes the affairs?” They will say: ‘Allah.” “Say: “Will you not then be afraid of Allah’s punishment?” Such is Allah, your Lord in truth. So after the Truth, what else can there be, save error? How then are you mined away? [10:31-32].

4 – The Belief In Allah’s Names and Attributes. This belief requires accepting whatever Allah described of Himself in His Book or in the Sunnah of His Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam). The Names and Attributes must be accepted without alteration [1], rejection [2], and precise description of their true nature or equating them with attributes of the creation. Allah said, what translated means, “And (all) the Most Beautiful Names belong to Allah, so call on Him by them, and leave the company of those who deny His Names. They will be requited for what they used to do.” [7:180],

“His is the highest description in the heavens and in the earth. And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.” [30:27] and, “There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the All Seer.” [42:11].

Two groups have fallen into misguidance concerning this matter:

One of them is Al-Mu’attilah (the refuters). This group rejected the Names and Attributes, or some of them, claiming that to accept them is to equate Allah with His creation. This claim is false for many reasons following are two of them:

1. This claim leads to false conclusions that Allah’s Words are in Opposition to each other. Allah is the One who confirmed these Names and Attributes and denied that there is anything that resembles Him. If confirming these Names and Attributes leads to equating Allah with the creation, then this will lead to the conclusion that Allah’s Words are full of discrepancies and refute each other.

2. For two things to have an attribute of some kind, does not mean that they are equal or look-likes. One can witness two persons who are both called “a human who hears, sees and speaks.” However, this description of both does not mean that they are of equal capabilities in their hearing, sight or speech. One can also see that animals have hands, legs and eyes. However, this does not mean that animals are equal in every respect with regards to their hands, legs and eyes. If disparity is this wide between that which creation possess of attributes or names, then the disparity between the Creator and creation is even greater and more evident.

The second misguided group is called “Al- Mushabbihah.” They confirmed the Names and the Attributes. Yet, they equated them with the names and attributes of the creation. They claimed that this is what the Texts mean. They claimed that Allah reveals to His slaves what they can comprehend. This claim is false for many reasons, some of them are: Allah’s resemblance with His creation is false and is refuted with the mind and the Laws of Shari’ah. Texts of the Qur’aan and Sunnah cannot lead to falsehood in their meanings.

Allah revealed what His slaves can understand of the general meaning. However, the true nature of what these meanings are like is a knowledge that only Allah possesses, especially with regards to the true nature of His Names and Attributes. Allah confirmed that He is the All-Hearer. Hearing means to comprehend sounds. However, the true nature of Allah’s Hearing is unknown. Creation vary in their hearing capability. The difference between Allah’s Hearing and the hearing of creation is even greater and more evident. Also, Allah confirmed that He Istawa (Mounted or Settled) on His Throne. To mount and settle on a throne is known in the general meaning of the word “mounted,” or “settled.” The true nature of Allah’s mounting on His Throne is unknown. Mounting on something varies with regards to different creation. To mount on a chair is unlike mounting on a wild camel. If Istiwaa’ is this different between creation, then how can the Istiwaa’ of Allah be compared to the Istiwaa’ of creation? The difference between them is greater and more evident. Benefits of Believing in Allah, in the way described above, leads to many benefits for the believers:

1. To truly realize the Taw’hid of Allah, by depending only on Him and hoping in, fearing and worshipping Him alone.
2. To prefect one’s love and reverence of Allah, and according to His Might as described by His Most-Beautiful Names and Most-High Attributes.
3. To truly give one’s worship to Allah, by adhering to His Commandments and abandoning His Prohibitions.


FOOTNOTES

[1] TAAWEEL – Introducing change in a statement, leaving out the meaning understood by it, expressing and accepting such a meaning which the words may indicate in a doubtful sense. In the present context (i.e. Attributes of Allaah) it means rejecting the true meaning of Attributes of Allaah, as understood by the companions (radiyallaahu anhum), and giving preferences to one own understanding.

[2] TA’TEEL (Rejecting,Leaving or Vacating). It means negating the Attributes of Allaah and denying them with His Self. The difference between Taqweel and Ta’teel is that in the latter case the real meaning is denied which is proved by the Qur’aan and the Hadith. While in Tahreef the explanation of the text is done with such meanings that are false and the word does not prove them. So Ta’teel includes Tahreef. Wherever there is Tahreef, Ta’teel is certainly there, but the reverse is not true. If someone tries to prove the false meaning and denies the real meaning, he is committing both Ta’teel and Tahreef

Click the below link to read or download PDF
The Belief in Allaah – What Does it Mean? – Shaykh Uthaymeen – Dr Saleh as Saleh

Visit the Website of Dr. Saleh as Saleh Rahimahullaah : http://understand-islam.net

Knowing Allaah – Purpose of Our Existence – by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

Allaah Makes All That Known By His Words

A call to Ponder & Contemplate
Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh

[Read or Download PDF Here]

Visit the Website of Dr. Saleh as Saleh Rahimahullaah : http://understand-islam.net

Who is Allah?

Some of the biggest misconceptions that many non-Muslims have about Islam have to do with the word “Allah“. For various reasons, many people have come to believe that Muslims worship a different God than Christians and Jews. This is totally false, since “Allah” is simply the Arabic word for “God” – and there is only One God. Let there be no doubt – Muslims worship the God of Noah, Abraham, Moses, David and Jesus – peace be upon them all. However, it is certainly true that Jews, Christians and Muslims all have different concepts of Almighty God. For example, Muslims – like Jews – reject the Christian beliefs of the Trinity and the Divine Incarnation. This, however, doesn’t mean that each of these three religions worships a different God – because, as we have already said, there is only One True God. Judaism, Christianity and Islam all claim to be “Abrahamic Faiths“, and all of them are also classified as “monotheistic“. However, Islam teaches that other religions have, in one way or another, distorted and nullified a pure and proper belief in Almighty God by neglecting His true teachings and mixing them with man-made ideas.

First of all, it is important to note that “Allah” is the same word that Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews use for God. If you pick up an Arabic Bible, you will see the word “Allah” being used where “God” is used in English. (Click here to see some examples of the word “Allah” in the Arabic Bible.) This is because “Allah” is the only word in the Arabic language equivalent to the English word “God” with a capital “G”. Additionally, the word “Allah” cannot be made plural or given gender (i.e. masculine or feminine), which goes hand-in-hand with the Islamic concept of God. Because of this, and also because the Qur’an, which is the holy scripture of Muslims, was revealed in the Arabic language, some Muslims use the word “Allah” for “God“, even when they are speaking other languages. This is not unique to the word “Allah“, since many Muslims tend to use Arabic words when discussing Islamic issues, regardless of the language which they speak. This is because the universal teachings of Islam – even though they have been translated in every major language – have been preserved in the Arabic language.

It is interesting to note that the Aramaic word “El“, which is the word for God in the language that Jesus spoke, is certainly more similar in sound to the word “Allah” than the English word “God“. This also holds true for the various Hebrew words for God, which are “El” and “Elah“, and the plural form “Elohim“. The reason for these similarities is that Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic are all Semitic languages with common origins. It should also be noted that in translating the Bible into English, the Hebrew word “El” is translated variously as “God“, “God” and “angel”! This imprecise language allows different translators, based on their preconceived notions, to translate the word to fit their own views. The Arabic word “Allah” presents no such difficulty or ambiguity, since it is only used for Almighty God alone. Additionally, in English, the only difference between “God“, meaning a false God, and “God“, meaning the One True God, is the capital “G”. In the Arabic alphabet, since it does not have capital letters, the word for God (i.e. Allah) is formed by adding the equivalent to the English word “the” (Al-) to the Arabic word for “God/God” (ilah). So the Arabic word “Allah” literally it means “The God” – the “Al-” in Arabic basically serving the same function as the capital “G” in English. Due to the above mentioned facts, a more accurate translation of the word “Allah” into English might be “The One -and-Only God” or “The One True God“.

More importantly, it should also be noted that the Arabic word “Allah” contains a deep religious message due to its root meaning and origin. This is because it stems from the Arabic verb ta’Allaha (or alaha), which means “to be worshipped”. Thus in Arabic, the word “Allah” means “The One who deserves all worship”. This, in a nutshell, is the Pure Monotheistic message of Islam. You see, according to Islam, “monotheism” is much more than simply believing in the existence of “only One God” – as seemingly opposed to two, three or more. If one understands the root meaning of the word “Allah“, this point should become clear. One should understand that Islam’s criticism of the other religions that claim to be “monotheistic” is not because they are “polytheistic” in the classic sense, but because they direct various forms of worship to other than Almighty God. We will discuss the meaning of worship in Islam below, however, before moving on it should be noted that many non-Muslims are unaware of the distinction between simply believing in the existence of only One God and reserving all worship for Him alone. Many Christians are painfully unaware of this point, and thus you often find them asking how Muslims can accuse the followers of Jesus, peace be upon him, of being “polytheists” when they were all “monotheistic Jews”. First of all, it should be clarified that the word “polytheist” doesn’t really sound right in this context, since to many it implies simply believing in the existence of more than one God. So in an Islamic context, “associators”, “man-worshippers” or “creature worshippers” might be more accurate and appropriate terms – especially since Christians believe Jesus to be both “100% God and 100% man”, while still paying lip-service to God‘s “Oneness”. However, as we previously touched upon, what is really at the root of this problem is the fact that Christians – as well as the members of other religions – don’t really know what “monotheism” means – especially in the Islamic sense. All of the books, articles and papers that I’ve read which were written by Christians invariably limit “monotheism” to believing in the existence of “One Sovereign and Creator God“. Islam, however, teaches much more than this.

Suffice it to say that just because someone claims to be a “monotheistic” Jew, Christian or Muslim, that doesn’t keep them from falling into corrupt beliefs and idolatrous practices. Many people, including some Muslims, claim belief in “One God” even though they’ve fallen into acts of idolatry. Certainly, many Protestants accuse Roman Catholics of idolatrous practices in regards to the saints and the Virgin Mary. Likewise, the Greek Orthodox Church is considered “idolatrous” by many other Christians because in much of their worship they use icons. However, if you ask a Roman Catholic or a Greek Orthodox person if God is “One”, they will invariably answer: “Yes!”…

…This brings us to a more important point: It should be clearly understood that what Islam is primarily concerned with is correcting mankind’s concept of Almighty God. What we are ultimately going to be held accountable at the end of our life is not whether we prefer the word “Allah” over the word “God“, but what our concept of God is. Language is only a side issue. A person can have an incorrect concept of God while using the word “Allah“, and likewise a person can have a correct concept of God while using the word “God“. This is because both of these words are equally capable of being misused and being improperly defined. As we’ve already mentioned, using the word “Allah” no more insinuates belief in the Unity of God than the use of the word “God” insinuates belief in the Trinity – or any other theological opinion. Naturally, when God sends a revelation to mankind through a prophet, He is going to send it in a language that the people who receive it can understand and relate to. Almighty God makes this clear in the Qur’an, when He states:

Never did We send a Messenger except (to teach) in the language of his (own) people in order to make (things) clear to them.” (Qur’an, Chapter 14 – “Abraham”, Verse 4)

As Muslims, we think that it is unfortunate that we have to go into details on such seemingly minor issues, but so many falsehoods have been heaped upon our religion, that we feel that it is our duty to try to break down the barriers of falsehood. This isn’t always easy, since there is a lot of anti-Islamic literature in existence which tries to make Islam look like something strange and foreign to Westerners. There are some people out there, who are obviously not on the side of truth, that want to get people to believe that “Allah” is just some Arabian “God“, and that Islam is completely “other” – meaning that it has no common roots with the other Abrahamic religions (i.e. Christianity and Judaism). To say that Muslims worship a different “God” because they say “Allah” is just as illogical as saying that French people worship another God because they use the word “Dieu“, that Spanish-speaking people worship a different God because they say “Dios” or that the Hebrews worshipped a different God because they sometimes call Him “Yahweh“. Certainly, reasoning like this is quite ridiculous! It should also be mentioned, that claiming that any one language uses the only correct word for God is tantamount to denying the universality of God‘s message to mankind, which was to all nations, tribes and people through various prophets who spoke different languages.”

This insightful article written by Abu Iman Abdur-Rahman Robert Squires

Allah’s Vast And Comprehensive Mercy : The Stories of Repentance

Yusuf bin Al-Husain is the narrator of this story:

I was with Dhi-an-Nun on the edge of a stream, when we saw an extraordinarily large lizard crawling along the side of the stream. Something strange yet wonderful then happened. A frog surfaced from the stream, the lizard mounted its back, and the frog then swam to the other side of the stream, carrying its passenger on its back.

Dhi-an-Nun said, “There is something interesting about that lizard let us go and follow it.” We crossed the stream (which wasn’t so wide in width), and on the other side, we saw a drunken man who had passed out. Suddenly, a snake appeared before the prone body of the drunkard. It slithered its way up to the man’s navel to his chest, making a direct course to one of his ears.

The lizard we saw earlier then sprang into action. It jumped onto the snake and struck it violently, splitting its body into two. Returning to the edge of the stream, the lizard then mounted the frog again, and the two crossed to the other side of the stream, though both were still visible to us. Dhi-an-Nun woke up the drunkard, who slowly opened his eyes and became conscious of what was happening around him. Dhi-an-Nun said, “O young man, look how Allah has saved you! When this snake came to kill you, that lizard came and killed it. He then explained the entire story to the young man.

The young man stood up and exclaimed: “O my lord, this is how you deal with one who disobeys you, then what will your mercy be like for the one who obeys you?” He then betook himself to the desert, vowing to dedicate his life to worship and to never return to the evils of the city.

The above is taken from “The Stories of Repentence” published by dar-us-salam