Fundamentals of the Sunnah – Imaam Abu Bakr Al-Humaydee

AUTHOR: Imaam Abu Bakr Al-Humaydee (Died 219H)
SOURCE: His treatise “Usool-us-Sunnah” [Sahab.Org]

Text of the Treatise:

Bishr bin Moosaa narrated to us, saying: Al-Humaydee narrated to us, saying:

[Faith in the Divine Pre-Decree]
1. The Sunnah, in our view, is that: A man believes in Al-Qadar (the Divine Pre-Decree) – the good and the evil, as well as the sweet and the bitter of it. And that a he knows that what befalls him from (Allaah’s) Decree will never miss him, and that what is not decreed for him will never befall him. And he must believe that all of this is an ordainment from Allaah.

[Faith is Speech and Action, and it Increases and Decreases]
2. Eemaan (Faith) is speech and action. It increases and decreases. And no statement will be of benefit unless it is accompanied by an action, neither will a statement or an action be of benefit without the intention, and neither a statement, action or the intention will be of benefit in the absence of (one abiding by) the Sunnah.

[Praise for the Companions]
3. Asking Allaah to bestow His mercy on all of the Companions of Muhammad (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam). This is since Allaah said: “And those who came after them (i.e. after the Companions) say: ‘Our Lord, forgive us and our brothers who have preceded us in Faith. And do not put in our hearts any hatred for those who have believed. Our Lord, you are indeed full of Kindness, Most Merciful.” [Surah Al-Hashr: 10]

One can never believe unless he asks Allaah’s forgiveness for them. So whoever reviles them or belittles them or even just one from among them, then he is not upon the Sunnah and he has no right to the (war) booty.[1] We have been informed about this by several sources that Maalik bin Anas (rahimahullaah) said: “Allaah has divided the war-booty amongst ‘the poor emigrants who were expelled from their homes and their property…’ up to where He said: ‘…And those who came after them, say: ‘Our Lord, forgive us and our brothers.’ [Surah Al-Hashr: 8-10] So whoever does not say this for them, he is not from those whom Allaah has given a portion of the war-booty to.”

[The Qur’aan is the Speech of Allaah]
4. The Qur’aan is the Speech of Allaah. I heard Sufyaan (bin ‘Uyainah) say: “The Qur’aan is the Speech of Allaah. And whoever says that it is created, is an innovator. We did not hear anyone (from the Salaf) saying this.”

[The Statement of Sufyaan regarding Faith]
5. And I heard Sufyaan say: “Eemaan (Faith) is speech and action; it increases and decreases.”

So his brother, Ibraaheem bin ‘Uyainah, said to him: “O Abu Muhammad, we don’t hold that it decreases.” So Sufyaan became angry and said: “Be quiet, child.” – to the point that nothing else came out from him.

[The Believers will see their Lord on the Day of Judgement]
6. An affirmation that the believers will see Allaah after death.

[Confirming Allaah’s Attributes]
7. As for what is stated in the Qur’aan and the Hadeeth, such as: “The Jews say: ‘Allaah’s Hand is tied up.’ May their hands be tied up” [Surah Al-Maa’idah: 64] and such as: “The heavens will be rolled up in His Right Hand” [Surah Az-Zumar: 67] as well as whatever resembles that from the Qur’aan and the Hadeeth, we do not exceed beyond that nor do we interpret it. Rather, we stop at where the Qur’aan and the Sunnah stopped at, and we say: “The Most Merciful (Allaah) rose over His Throne.” [Surah TaHa: 5] Whoever claims something other than this is a Mu’attil (denier of Allaah’s Attributes), a Jahmee. [2]

[The Difference between Ahlus-Sunnah and the Khawaarij]
8. We do not say as the Khawaarij say: “Whoever commits a major sin has disbelieved.” We do not deem a Muslim to be a disbeliever due to any of the sins. Rather, disbelief (only) lies in the abandonment of the five (pillars of Islaam), about which Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Islaam is built upon five things: Testifying that there is no deity that has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah; (2) Establishing the Prayer; (3) Giving the Zakaat; (4) Fasting in Ramadaan; (5) and Making the Pilgrimage (Hajj) to Allaah’s house (Ka’bah).”

[When does the Proof become established on one who abandons all or some of the Pillars of Islaam?]
9. As for three of these pillars, then there is no difference between the one who abandons any of them. They are not saying the testimony of Faith, not praying and not fasting. This is because he is delaying part of these pillars from their proper times. And whoever makes them up after having neglected them intentionally from their proper times will not be rewarded.

And as for Zakaat, when one does not give it, it will be held against him, and count as a sin because of his holding it back.

As for Hajj, then whoever is obligated to go on it and has the means to perform it, then he must go. But it is not obligatory for him to perform it every year in the case that he has already performed it. When he performs the Hajj, he is considered as having performed it and he is not counted as a sinner if he delays it, as is the case with the person who is sinful by delaying the Zakaat. This is because Zakaat is a right of the needy Muslims, whom he has withheld it from. So if he performs the Hajj, then he has fulfilled its obligation. And if he dies, whilst he was present and able to perform the Hajj but didn’t do it, he will be asked to return to the worldly life (so he can perform it). His family members are obligated to perform the Hajj on his behalf, and we hope that if they do this, it will be counted as if he had performed it, in the same manner as if he had a debt, which was repaid after his death.

[This ends the treatise, all praise be to Allaah, Lord of the Worlds] 


[1] Translator’s Note: This refers to the war booty achieved from the battle against the Jews of Banu An-Nadeer. Commencing from the sixth ayah of Surah Al-Hashr, Allaah clarifies who is entitled to this war booty, up until the tenth ayah, which mentions those who come after the Muhaajireen (emigrants) and the Ansaar (Muslim residents of Madeenah), i.e. the Companions. So whoever amongst “those who came after them” does not perform what is indicated in this ayah (10) of asking forgiveness for the Sahaabah, then he has no right to the war-booty.

[2] Translator’s Note: Imaam Ibn Al-‘Uthaimeen said about the Jahmiyyah: “They attribute themselves to Al-Jahm bin Safwaan who was killed by Saalim or Salim bin Ahwaz in the year 121H. Their views on the Attributes of Allaah consist of ta’teel (denial) and nafee (negation). Regarding Al-Qadar (Divine Pre-Decree), they hold the opinion that mankind is coerced to do deeds (al-jabr). Their view on Eemaan is that of Irjaa, which means that they believe Eemaan is merely the confirmation of the heart, and that statements and actions are not part of Eemaan. So according to them, someone who commits a major sin is a believer with complete Eemaan (i.e. Eemaan does not increase or decrease). So they are the Mu’atazilah, Jabariyyah and Murji’ah all in one and they are divided into many sects.” [Sharh Lum’at-ul-‘Itiqaad]

Explanation of Aqeedah at-Tahaawiyyah – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Al Aqeedatut Tahawiyyah, written Imaam Abu Ja’far At Tahaawee (died 321AH)  is a core book of aqeedah (creed and belief).

Lessons are  based upon Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan’s Explanation,translated by Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank rahimahullaah. The translator presents additional points from Shaykh al Albaani’s comments on Ibn Abil ‘Izz’s explanation too. The 63 Mp3 lessons are about an hour long each. This  translation is characterised by the precision that Abu Talhah became renowned for in all his translations.

Audios uploaded with the Permission of Abu Talha rahimahullaah

Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 01 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 02 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 03 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 04 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 05 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 06 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 07 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 08 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 09 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 10 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 11 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 12 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 13 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 14 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 15 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 16 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 17 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 18 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 19 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 20 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 21 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 22 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 23 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 24 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 25 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 26 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 27 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 28 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 29 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 30 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 31 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 32 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 33 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 33b – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 34 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 35 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 36 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 37 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 38 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 39 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 40 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 41 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 42 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 43 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 44 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 45 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 46 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 47 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 48 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 48b – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 49 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 50 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 51 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 52 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 53 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 54 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 55 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 55b – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 56 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 57 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 58 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 59 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank
Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah – 60 – Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank

Transcripts : First 30 available out of 63 Lessons

Lesson 01 – Lesson 02 – Lesson 03 –Lesson 04 – Lesson 05
Lesson 06 – Lesson 07 – Lesson 08 – Lesson 09 – Lesson 10
Lesson 11 – Lesson 12 – Lesson 13 – Lesson 14 – Lesson 15
Lesson 16 – Lesson 17 – Lesson 18 – Lesson 19 – Lesson 20
Lesson 21 – Lesson 22 – Lesson 23 – Lesson 24 – Lesson 25
Lesson 26 – Lesson 27 – Lesson 28 – Lesson 29 – Lesson 30

Posted with Permission from late Abu Talha Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah
Audio and Transcripts Courtesy:

Book Study Resource : Aqeedah at-Tahaawiyyah – Imam at-Tahaawi


Avoid Ten Ways That Nullify Islam (Nawaaqid-ul-Islaam) – by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh


Based Upon Shaykh Muhammad At-Tameemi’s (rahimahullaah) Classification.

Prepared  By  Dr. Saleh As-Saleh

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Read the Article:

Know, may Allaah’s Mercy be upon you, that Allaah (subhanahu wa ta’ala: Far is He removed from every imperfection, the Most High) made it very clear that mankind must follow Islaam, hold to it and dissociate from whatever contradicts it. The declaration that Laa Ilaaha Illallaah “There is none worthy of worship except Allaah” not only negates all false deities and confirms worship only to Allaah, it also requires the complete dissociation from any form of worship to any false deity;

Allaah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says:

لَا إِكْرَاهَ فِي الدِّينِ ۖ قَد تَّبَيَّنَ الرُّشْدُ مِنَ الْغَيِّ ۚ فَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِالطَّاغُوتِ وَيُؤْمِن بِاللَّهِ فَقَدِ اسْتَمْسَكَ بِالْعُرْوَةِ الْوُثْقَىٰ لَا انفِصَامَ لَهَا

“There is no compulsion in religion. Verily, the right path has become distinct from the wrong path. Whoever disbelieves in Taaghut (false deities) and believes in Allaah, then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold that will never break.”(Qur’an 2: 256)

Furthermore, to declare that Muhammad (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam: may Allaah Exalt his mention and safeguard him and his message) is the Messenger and slave of Allaah requires the belief that Muhammad (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) is trusted by Allaah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) to deliver the Message of Islaam, and that Muhammad (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) is to be followed and obeyed because Allaah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) decreed in the Qur’an:

وَمَا آتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانتَهُوا ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ

“And whatsoever the Messenger gives you, take it. And whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it) and fear Allaah. Verily, Allaah is severe in punishment.” (Qur’an 59: 7)

All the ways and methods that are needed by the Muslim to fulfill this declaration of Tawheed [2] are explained in the Qur’an and by the Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam).

Allaah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and His Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) warned that there are ways that lead to Shirk,[3] Kufr [4] and rejection of Faith. The Muslim must be very knowledgeable about Tawheed so that he does not indulge in practices and concepts that contradict the essence of Islaam. The most dangerous and widely existing ways that breach Tawheed are:

ONE: Shirk in the worship of Allah: to associate something and/or anyone in the worship of Allaah:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَن يَشَاءُ

“Verily Allaah forgives not setting up rivals in worship with Him, but He forgives whom He pleases other sins than that.” (Qur’an 4: 116)

إِنَّهُ مَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدْ حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ الْجَنَّةَ وَمَأْوَاهُ النَّارُ

“Verily, whosoever sets up rivals in worship with Allaah, then Allaah has forbidden Al-Jannah for him, and the Fire will be his abode.” (Qur’an 5: 72)

TWO: Setting up intermediaries between a person and Allaah is Kufr (disbelief): calling upon them and seeking their intercession and depending upon them. Those who do this are taking “associates” with Allaah and this is Shirk.

Allaah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says (what means):

فَلَا تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّهِ أَندَادًا وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

“Then set not up rivals unto Allaah (in worship) while you know (that He Alone has the right to be worshiped). (Qur’an 2: 22)

The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) was asked: ‘Which sin is the Gravest? He said: “That you set up rivals unto Allaah (despite the fact) that He has created you.”[5]

Allaah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says (what means):

وَلَا تَدْعُ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لَا يَنفَعُكَ وَلَا يَضُرُّكَ ۖ فَإِن فَعَلْتَ فَإِنَّكَ إِذًا مِّنَ الظَّالِمِينَ

“And call not on other than Allaah, any that will neither profit you, nor hurt you but if (in case) you did so, you shall certainly be one of Ath-thalimeen (who commit Shirk)”. (Qur’an 10:106)

THREE: Believing that the Mushrikeen (those who commit Shirk) are not Kufar or doubting their Kufr or defending and correcting the beliefs of the Kufar, is Kufr.

Allaah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says (what means):

 وَمَن يَتَوَلَّهُم مِّنكُمْ فَإِنَّهُ مِنْهُمْ

“And if any amongst you who take them (wholeheartedly) as friends, then surely he is one of them.”(Qur’an 5: 51)

This is one of the greatest contradictions to Tawheed. Here it is important to caution that many Muslims are reluctant (and feel ashamed) to say the word “Kufr” to describe a disbeliever or to point out their acts of Shirk. Some even look at the Kufar with great deal of admiration, fear and obedience. Those have an inferiority complex that leads them to become blind followers and defenders of the Kufar and their ways. They are at grave danger since this may “melt” their identity.

The Muslim’s position about these matters must be dissociation from Kufr and Shirk, but Love for Allaah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), His Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) and the believers:

لَّا يَتَّخِذِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الْكَافِرِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِن دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۖ وَمَن يَفْعَلْ ذَٰلِكَ فَلَيْسَ مِنَ اللَّهِ فِي شَيْءٍ إِلَّا أَن تَتَّقُوا مِنْهُمْ تُقَاةً ۗ وَيُحَذِّرُكُمُ اللَّهُ نَفْسَهُ ۗ وَإِلَى اللَّهِ الْمَصِيرُ  

“Let not the believers take the disbelievers as Awliyaa’ (supporters, helpers, etc.) instead of believers, and whoever does that will never be helped by Allaah in any way, except if you indeed fear a danger from them. And Allaah warns you against Himself (His punishment), and to Allaah is the final return.” (Qur’an 3: 28)

FOUR: The belief that guidance by someone other than the Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) is better or that ruling by other than the rule of Muhammad (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) is better, then this is Kufr. The rule of Muhammad (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) is the rule of Allaah:

فَلَا وَرَبِّكَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّىٰ يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ ثُمَّ لَا يَجِدُوا فِي أَنفُسِهِمْ حَرَجًا مِّمَّا قَضَيْتَ وَيُسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيمًا

“But no, by your Lord, they can have no true Faith (al-waajib: which is dutiful upon them), until they make you judge in all disputes between them, and find in their souls no resistance against your decisions, but accept (them) fully with submission.”(Qur’an 4: 65)

Some examples of this are:

(a) The belief that systems and laws made by human beings are better than, or equal to the Sharee’ah of Islaam; or that Islamic system is not suitable for the contemporary times, and that Islaam is the cause of backwardness of the Muslims.

(b) The belief that enforcing the punishments prescribed by Allaah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), such as cutting of the hand of the thief or the stoning of an adulterer, is not suitable for this day and age.

FIVE: Hating any command or anything of the Prophet’s (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) Message despite practicing it is Kufr.

Allaah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says (what means):

ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَرِهُوا مَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأَحْبَطَ أَعْمَالَهُمْ

“That is because they hate that which Allaah has sent down, so He has made their deeds fruitless.” (Qur’an 47: 9)

SIX: Mocking any part of Islaam or any of Allaah’s Names and Attributes is Kufr. Allaah, the Most High, says (what means):

وَلَئِن سَأَلْتَهُمْ لَيَقُولُنَّ إِنَّمَا كُنَّا نَخُوضُ وَنَلْعَبُ ۚ قُلْ أَبِاللَّهِ وَآيَاتِهِ وَرَسُولِهِ كُنتُمْ تَسْتَهْزِئُونَ لَا تَعْتَذِرُوا قَدْ كَفَرْتُم بَعْدَ إِيمَانِكُمْ ۚ إِن نَّعْفُ عَن طَائِفَةٍ مِّنكُمْ نُعَذِّبْ طَائِفَةً بِأَنَّهُمْ كَانُوا مُجْرِمِينَ

“Was it at Allaah, and His signs, and His Messenger that you were mocking? Make no excuse, you have disbelieved (became Kufar) after you had believed.”(Qur’an 9: 65-66)

SEVEN: Involvement in Magic: considering it permissible to practice and spread ways that may (i) sway man from the good things he likes (e.g., using magic to sow discord between a man and his wife) or (ii) reduce man to do what he dislikes or is bad for him. These ways of magic are Satanic.

Allaah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says (what means):

وَمَا كَفَرَ سُلَيْمَانُ وَلَٰكِنَّ الشَّيَاطِينَ كَفَرُوا يُعَلِّمُونَ النَّاسَ السِّحْرَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ عَلَى الْمَلَكَيْنِ بِبَابِلَ هَارُوتَ وَمَارُوتَ ۚ وَمَا يُعَلِّمَانِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ حَتَّىٰ يَقُولَا إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ فِتْنَةٌ فَلَا تَكْفُرْ

“Solomon did not disbelieve but the devils disbelieved, teaching men magic and such things that came down at Babylon to the two angels (put coma after the word angels) Harut and Marut, but neither of these two (angels) taught anyone (such things) till they had said: We are only for trial, so disbelieve not (by learning the magic from us).”(Qur’an 2: 102)

Today, we see many people seek help from the so called fortunetellers. They believe that these tellers know what will happen. This is Kufr. The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) warned that:

“Whoever goes to a priest (soothsayer or a fortuneteller), and believes him in what he says has committed Kufr and denied what was revealed to Muhammad (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam)”

EIGHT: Standing by the Mushrikeen, supporting them and helping them against the Muslims (so that mushrikeen will be the prevalent ones) is Kufr.

Allaah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says (what means):

وَمَن يَتَوَلَّهُم مِّنكُمْ فَإِنَّهُ مِنْهُمْ

“And he amongst you who take them as friends (WHOLEHEARTEDLY), then surely he is one of them.” (Qur’an 5: 51)

NINE: Believing that some “special” people don’t have to follow the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) is Kufr because this negates the second part of the declaration of Tawheed ‘Muhammad is the slave and Messenger of Allaah,” since this constitutes desiring a “religion” other than Islaam. Allaah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says (what means):

وَمَن يَبْتَغِ غَيْرَ الْإِسْلَامِ دِينًا فَلَن يُقْبَلَ مِنْهُ وَهُوَ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ

“And whoever desires a religion other than Islaam, it will never be accepted from him, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers.” (Qur’an 3: 85)

TEN: Completely turning away from the religion of Allaah, not learning it and practicing it, is Kufr.

وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّن ذُكِّرَ بِآيَاتِ رَبِّهِ ثُمَّ أَعْرَضَ عَنْهَا ۚ إِنَّا مِنَ الْمُجْرِمِينَ مُنتَقِمُونَ

“And who does wrong than the one to whom are recited the Aayat (proofs, evidences, verses, revelations, etc.) of his Lord, then he turns aside therefrom? Verily, We shall exact retribution from the Mujrimin (criminals, disbelievers, polytheists, sinners etc.)” (Qur’an 32: 22)

and He, the Most High, also says (what means):

وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا عَمَّا أُنذِرُوا مُعْرِضُونَ

“But those who disbelieve turn away from that about which they are warned.” (Qur’an 46:3).

An authentic hadeeth reported in Saheeh Al-Jaami’ (a collection of authentic narrations verified by the Scholar of hadeeth Sheikh Muhammad Nassir Ad-Deen al-Albaani) V.2 # 5939. Believing in sorcery and horoscopy is as setting up rivals with Allaah. This is Shirk.

Finally, it must be pointed out that there is no difference (in accountability) between the one who seriously commits any of the above acts or the one who claims to be just “joking”, “playing” or “mocking”! The only exception is when someone commits any of these acts under compulsion; even then his heart must be filled with faith and Tawheed of Allaah.

Another serious matter is that the issue of declaring someone Kufr (rulers or ruled). This is not left for the unlearned of the common Muslims or heads of hizbee-groups or the like. It is to be left to the reliable scholars who follow the Qur’an, authentic Sunnah in the context of the Salaf’s way of understanding the Deen, not to innovators and the politically and emotionally driven ones. We must fear Allah in this matter which had caused and is still causing deviation in the Ummah at large.

We seek refuge in Allaah from such deeds and we ask Him to make the truth clear to us all.

Definition of Taaghut

Taaghut: Derived from Tughyaan, exceeding the limits. So:

1. Whatever is worshipped instead of or to the exclusion of Allaah is a Taaghut. So, any human being who is pleased to be set as an object of worship is a Taaghut.

2. The one who exceeds the limits concerning following and obedience to other than Allaah, and sets others as rivals with Allaah, then himself is a Taaghut.

3- Those who make Istihlaal, making the unlawful lawful or vice versa, and are obeyed for that are Taaghut, because they are being set as Lords besides Allah. Here it must be known that obeying them on their Istihlaal is divided into three categories:

(i) The person obeys them while pleased and content by their saying, giving precedence to their judgments, and discontent with Allaah’s ruling, then he is a Kufr.

(ii) The person obeys them while accepting Allaah’s ruling and knowing that it is the best and the most fitting to man, but due to lowly desire in himself he chooses otherwise. For example, he may be seeking a job, and so forth. In this case it is not Kufr, rather he is a Faasiq (rebellion, disobedient).

(iii) The person obeys them due to ignorance, thinking that their rulings are those of Allaah’s. This is subdivided into two cases:

(a) The person is able to know the truth by himself, but he is negligent. In this case he is sinful, because Allaah ordered to ask the people of knowledge when matters are not known.

(b) The person is not knowledgeable and unable to learn but he follows them by way of blind following believing that it is the truth. In this case there is nothing upon him, i.e not held blameworthy. [See Al-Qawlul Muffed ‘Alaa Kitaab at-Tawheed, by our Shayekh Muhammad bin Salih Al-‘Uthaimeen, v.2, pp. 157-158, with slight adaptation].

4. It covers also all that which opposes Allaah’s Judgment. And this is of different levels and ranks. Some may lead to exiting the fold of Islam, while others don’t.

Some examples on Taaghut:

Those followed, like soothsayers, magicians, and evil “scholars,” are Taaghut. Those pleased for being worshipped besides Allaah, as well as idols, are Taaghut

Very Important to Remember

(i) General Statements of Imputation of Kufr.

This is known as Itlaaq-ut-Takfeer: stating in the general sense, such as to say, “whoever does or says such and such,”from what is known to be Kufr then he is a Kafir.

(ii) Applicability on a particular person:

This is known at Takfeer-ul-Mu’ayyan It is to impute what is generally stated to be Kufr on a particular person. This can be established only after conditions of Takfeer (imputing Kufr) are met as well as all impediments which may hinder the imputing of Kufr are removed.

(iii) Who Are the Ones who advise on these Enormous Matters?

The Imputation of Kufr is very serious and it is not left for common Muslims or the student of knowledge to decide. Surely the reliable scholars following the path of the salaf are the ones who can advise concerning these immense issues. So people should refrain and hold themselves so as not to hasten to impute Kufr on a particular person before the evidences are established and impediments are removed.

And Allaah, the Most High, Knows best.


[1] Taaghut: It may be Satan and/or anyone who is worshipped other than Allah and is pleased and/or calls for it. [See Appendix]. Here I relate a very important benefit explaining the issue of Taaghut which is often misunderstood by enthusiastic young Muslims and it is by Shayekh Sulaimaan Ibn Samhaan (rahimahullaah: may Allaah’s Mercy be upon him). He said: “It should be known that the one who seeks judgments from the Taaghut, or rules by other than Allaah’s rule while believing that (these) judgments are more perfect and better than the Judgment of Allaah and His Messenger, then this is disbelief (Kufr ‘aqadi: pertaining to creed) that takes the person out of the fold of Islam-as it is mentioned in the ten nullifiers of Islam. However, as to the one who does not believe as such but resorted to the Taaghut judgment while believing that it to be false, then this is of the practical type of disbelief (Kufr’amali: lesser type that does not take the person from Islam). [See Irshaadut-Taalib Ilaa Ahamadil-Mataalib, p. 19.] In addition, anyone (ruler or ruled) who equates the judgment of Allaah and His Messengers to that of man, or believes that the rules of man are more fitting to our times than the Islamic laws, commits Kufr [See Shayekh bin Baaz’s (rahimahullaah) details on this matter in Qadiyyatu-t-Takfeer bayna ahlis-sunnah wa ffiraqu-d-Dalaal, by Shayekh Sa’eed Ibn Wahf Al-Qahtaani, pp. 72-73.]

It is, therefore, concluded that the term Taaghut in itself does not necessarily translate into major disbelief and apostasy, since every Kufr is Taaghut, but not every Taaghut is Kufr. Imaam Ibnul Qayyim (rahimahullaah) considered that figurative interpretations of Allaah’s Names and Attributes through scholastic ways, and giving precedence to the intellect over the legal texts as Taaghuts (in as-Sawaa’iq alMursalah, v.2, 632-633). Certainly, none considers every level of these distortions as a major Kufr!!

[2] Tawheed: Belief in Oneness and Uniqueness of Allah. Allah is One in His Lordship, One in His God-ship, and One in His Actions, Names and Attributes.

[3] Shirk: Associating anyone/anything in the worship of Allaah (subhana wa ta’ala) or setting up rivals with Allaah (subhana wa ta’ala).

[4] Kufr: Disbelieving in Allah (subhana wa ta’ala) and His Messengers whether by denial, doubts, suspicion, aversion, jealousy, arrogance or following some whims which deters one from adhering to the Message.

[5] Collected by Al-Bukahari and Muslim.

Visit the Website of Dr. Saleh as Saleh Rahimahullaah :

Explanation of “Four Rules of Shirk” – Shaykh Muhammad Al Khumayyis

An Explanation of Shaykhul-Islaam Muhammad Ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab’s Four Principles of Shirk

Title: Explanation of “The Four Rules Regarding Shirk”
Author: Dr. Muhammad Bin ‘Abdir-Rahmaan Al-Khumayyis
Translated: Al-Ibaanah Book Publishing
Produced By: Al-Ibaanah.Com

Click the Below link to read the PDF Book
Explanation of the Four Rules regarding shirk- (PDF)

About the Book:

Before you is a complete translation of a treatise written by Imaam Muhammad bin ‘Abdil-Wahhaab, “Al-Qawaa’id-ul-Arba’ah”, with an explanation by Dr. Muhammad bin ‘Abdir-Rahmaan Al-Khumayyis. The treatise, along with its explanation, was printed in a larger book: “Jam’-ul-Funoon fee Sharh Jumlati Mutoon Li’’Aqaa’id Ahlis-Sunnah ‘alal-Madhaahib-il-Arba’ah” [A Compilation of Explanations of Treatises on the Creed of Ahlus-Sunnah according to the Four Madh-habs] by Daar Ilaaf Publishers. The treatise was then printed as a separate booklet in order to spread the benefit and facilitate the knowledge for readers.

The treatise “Al-Qawaa’id-ul-‘Arba’ah” [The Four Rules regarding Shirk] is well known throughout the Muslim world and needs no introduction. It is a basic discussion that provides fundamental principles regarding Shirk. Although short in size, it is an extremely valuable source of knowledge and a must–read for all students desiring to further their understanding of Islaam.

The commentator, Muhammad bin ‘Abdir-Rahmaan Al-Khumayyis, has added summaries and several test questions at the end of each section, in order to facilitate the study of the material for the readers and students.

The Following articles are extracted from this e-Book:

10 Points on the Salafee Manhaj – Shaikh Ahmad bin Yahyaa An-Najmee

Source: Al-Fataawaa al-Jaliyyah ‘anil-Manaahij Ad-Da’wiyyah (pg. 56-57) compiled by Hasan Ibn Mahmood Ibn Mansoor ad-Daghreeri

The Salafee Manhaj

1. We worship Allaah by way of Tawheed. So we do not supplicate to anyone besides Allaah nor do we seek refuge in anyone besides Him in matters of bringing about good or repelling some harm. We perform worship by having hatred and enmity for the polytheists. However, we are obligated to call them to Tawheed first and clarify to them that there is no Islaam without Tawheed and that whoever calls unto other than Allaah has committed disbelief. So whoever persists after that, then at that point we are obligated to distance ourselves from him and hate him for the sake of Allaah.

2. The Creed of the Salaf is established upon the principle that “Allaah is described with what He has described himself with in His Book and upon the tongue of His Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), without resorting to tahreef, tamtheel, tashbeeh, ta’teel or ta’weel.” [1]

3. We affirm for Allaah the best of Names, which He has affirmed for Himself and which He has praised Himself with, whether they are mentioned in the Qur’aan or the Sunnah.

4. We believe that there is no path towards achieving Allaah’s contentment, or a way towards Paradise, except through the Way of Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam). And whoever seeks a way towards gaining Allaah’s contentment through other than the Way of Allaah’s Messenger, then he has gone astray and been blinded from the truth. And he has lost in this world and the next.

5. We believe that the Legislation of Allaah is what has been brought down through the two revelations: The Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam). This is what our Lord has indicated in his saying: “Then we placed you on a Sharee’ah (Legislated System) based on Our Command, so follow it, and do not follow the desires of those who have no knowledge.” [Surah Al-Jaathiyah: 18]

6. We believe that the Qur’aan is the Speech of Allaah, which was revealed and not created, and that the Sunnah is what explains and clarifies it. The Qur’aan is interpreted by the Sunnah and by the interpretations of the Sahaabah (Companions) and those who followed them in goodness. So the interpretation of the Qur’aan is by way of the narration, meaning by way of the Sahaabah, the Taabi’een and the Ahaadeeth concerning it. And the books that contain these interpretations are the ones we are obligated to acquire and read, such as the Tafseer of Ibn Jareer, the Tafseer of Ibn Katheer, the Tafseer of Al-Baghawee, the Tafseer“Ad-Durr Al-Manthoor” of As-Suyootee and so on.

7. We are obligated to take the Sunnah according to the way of the Muhadditheen – in terms of their authenticity or weakness. So we take what is found to be authentic and leave off what is weak.

8. We worship Allaah by obeying the rulers, as long as they are Muslims who seek judgement through Allaah’s Legislation and who establish the prescribed punishments, and as long as they establish the prayer. Obeying them is an obligation even if they commit oppression. And whoever says something contrary to this and makes it permissible to revolt against the Muslim leader, even if he may be oppressive, then he is an innovator and a deviant. And it is obligatory on the Muslim scholars to refute this statement of his and to expose his deviance.

9. We hold that it is not permissible to spread the faults of the leaders, because doing this influences and brings about trials and afflictions (fitan), and causes them to spread.

10. We are obligated to worship Allaah through the Sunnah, by following it and by loathing innovations and the innovators. This is based on the Prophet’s saying: “Whoever does a deed, which is not in accordance to our affair (i.e. the Sunnah) is rejected.” And in another narration: “Whoever introduces into our affair (Sunnah) that which isn’t part of it is rejected.”

This is a summary and some brief words on the Creed of the Salaf, which we are obligated to accept and follow if we truly want salvation and the truth. And we must renounce those opinions of men, which cannot be traced back to any source of evidence, since men are known by way of the truth and the truth is not known by way of men. Lastly, we must beg and implore Allaah to show us the truth as true and enable us to follow it, and to show us the falsehood as false and enable us to avoid it. Indeed Allaah is Responsible for that and Able to make it happen. And may the peace and blessings of Allaah be on Muhammad – the best, most dutiful, most pious and purest of creation – and on his family and his Companions.


[1] Translator’s Note: These are forbidden acts committed against Allaah’s Names and Attributes. Tahreef means to change or distort the wording of Allaah’s name or attribute. Tamtheel and tashbeeh means to give a like resemblance to a name or an attribute. Ta’teel means total denial of a name or an attribute. Ta’weel means to misinterpret a name or an attribute, thus changing it’s meaning.

Does the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم have the knowledge of the unseen ? Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

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Source :

Allaah says:

قُل لَّا يَعۡلَمُ مَن فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ ٱلۡغَيۡبَ إِلَّا ٱللَّهُ‌ۚ وَمَا يَشۡعُرُونَ أَيَّانَ يُبۡعَثُونَ

Say: “None in the heavens and the earth knows the Ghaib (unseen) except Allâh, nor can they perceive when they shall be resurrected.”

[al-Naml 27:65]

وَعِندَهُ ۥ مَفَاتِحُ ٱلۡغَيۡبِ لَا يَعۡلَمُهَآ إِلَّا هُوَ‌ۚ وَيَعۡلَمُ مَا فِى ٱلۡبَرِّ وَٱلۡبَحۡرِ‌ۚ وَمَا تَسۡقُطُ مِن وَرَقَةٍ إِلَّا

“And with Him are the keys of the Ghaib (all that is hidden), none knows them but He. And He knows whatever there is in the land and in the sea; not a leaf falls, but he knows it. There is not a grain in the darkness of the earth nor anything fresh or dry, but is written in a Clear Record.”

[al-An’aam 6:59]

إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عِندَهُ ۥ عِلۡمُ ٱلسَّاعَةِ وَيُنَزِّلُ ٱلۡغَيۡثَ وَيَعۡلَمُ مَا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡحَامِ‌ۖ وَمَا تَدۡرِى نَفۡسٌ۬ مَّاذَا تَڪۡسِبُ غَدً۬ا‌ۖ وَمَا تَدۡرِى نَفۡسُۢ بِأَىِّ أَرۡضٍ۬ تَمُوتُ‌ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرُۢ

“Verily, Allâh! With Him (Alone) is the knowledge of the Hour, He sends down the rain, and knows that which is in the wombs. No person knows what he will earn tomorrow, and no person knows in what land he will die. Verily, Allâh is All¬Knower, All¬Aware (of things).”

[Luqmaan 31:34].

The Objective of Studying Aqeedah & Tawheed – By Shaykh Muhammed Aman Al-Jami [Video|Ar-En Subtitles]

DaruTawheed Oxford

[Book Reco] The Explanation of the Sufficiency in Creed (Lum’at-ul-‘Itiqaad) : Shaikh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen

The Explanation of the Sufficiency in Creed (Lum'at-ul-'Itiqaad) : Shaikh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-'Uthaimeen

In this book, we present the classical treatise on Creed of Imaam Ibn Qudaamah Al-Maqdisee, rahimahullaah, known as Lum’at-ul-‘Itiqaad, which is studied all over the Muslim world. Imaam Muhammad bin Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen, rahimahullaah, has provided an in depth explanation for the points touched on by the author in a clear and simple manner. Furthermore, the narrations mentioned in the book have been verified and lengthy and extensive footnotes have been provided to make this book a valuable source of reference.

Shaikh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen said in his introduction to this book: ‘This is a brief commentary of the book ‘Lum’at-ul-‘Itiqaad”, written by Abu Muhammad ‘Abdullaah bin Ahmad Ibn Qudaamah Al-Maqdisee (rahimahullaah), who was born in Sha’baan in 541H in a village from the districts of Nablis (present-day Palestine) and who died on the day of ‘Eed-ul-Fitr in 620H.

In this book, the author (rahimahullaah) gathered together the main points of the Islaamic Creed (‘Aqeedah). For this reason, the Board of the Educational Institutes assigned this book to be studied and taught during the second semester of the first year of study, so that it may serve as a pillar upon which one can establish his Creed at this stage.

Because I saw the importance of this book in terms of the topics it touches upon, its methodology and the lack of there being any explanation for it, I became determined, while seeking assistance from Allaah and hoping that He grant me correctness in intention and action, to put forth some words on it, in the attempt to clarify its ambiguous parts, explain its meanings and bring to light its main points.’

No doubt this book is of great importance for the Muslim with regard to establishing the correct Creed. This book is deserving of being taught and studied so that it may serve as a foundation for both the students of knowledge and the common Muslims. The topics touched upon by the author relate to the authentic Creed and Methodology, which all Muslims are obligated to have knowledge of. Consequently, we encourage everyone to purchase a copy of this magnificent book.

View the Table of Contents and Introduction @

[Book Reco] The Explanation of Al-Haaiyah – Shaykh Salih Al-Fawzan

The Explanation of Al-Haaiyah - Shaykh Salih Al-Fawzan

This is the highly beneficial English translation of Dr. Salih Al-Fawzan’s Explanation of Al-Haaiyah, a classical poem written by Abu Bakr bin Abi Dawud As-Sijistani about the Creed of Ahl As-Sunnah. 

246 Pages
Printed on Beautiful Natural Paper
Dimensions: 6X9

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Summarized Explanation of Al-Haa’iyyah – Sheikh Abdur-Razzaq ibn Abdil-Muhsin al-Badr – Abu Muhammad al-Maghribee [Audio|En]

From the summarized explanation of our Sheikh Abdur-Razzaq ibn Abdil-Muhsin al-Badr, hafidhahumallah. Shaykh taught at the Masjid, University of Madina.

Part 01: Listen / Download Mp3 Here (Time 01:01:45)[audio]

Part 02: Listen / Download Mp3 Here (Time 39:31)[audio]

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The Importance of Teaching Your Children The Correct Aqeedah – Shaykh Abdullah An-Najmi [Audio|Ar-En]

The Importance of Teaching Your Children The Correct Aqeedah by Shaykh Abdullah An-Najmi


The Noble Shaykh ‘Abdullah an-Najmi (May Allah Preserve Him) from the mashaayikh of Jeezan, SaudiArabia will deliver a LIVE tele-lecture with Muwahhideen Publications on Friday 26th April 2013. The Shaykh is a student of Ash-Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmi (rahimahullah) and Shaykh Zayd al-Madkhalee (hafidhahullah).

Allah says in His Book,

“O you who believe! Ward off from yourselves and your families a Fire (Hell) whose fuel is men and stones”
[At-Tahrim: 6]

Regarding this verse, the following narrations were reported from the Salaf –

‘Ali Ibn Abi Taalib (radhiyAllahu ‘anhu): “Discipline them, teach them.”

Ibn ‘Abbaas (radhiyAllahu ‘anhum): “Stay obedient to Allah, stay away from disobeying Allah and command your families to remember Allah, and He will save you from the Fire.”

Mujaahid (rahimahullah): “Fear Allah and obey him (practice taqwa) and tell your families to practice taqwa.”

Qataadah (rahimahullah): “A person protects his family by telling them to obey Allah and forbidding them from disobeying Him. He upholds Allah’s commandments and helps his family to uphold them. So if you see some disobedience of Allah you stop them from doing it, and you reprimand them.” [Al-Tabarî, Al-Tafsîr, Sûrah Al-Tahrîm] [From]

The Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, “Every one of you (people) is a shepherd. And every one is responsible for whatever falls under his responsibility.  A man is like a shepherd of his own family, and he is responsible for them.”

So parents have a responsibility to teach their children the affairs of this religion; the most important being the matter of ‘Aqeedah as this is the foundation to all success and rectification.

Shaykh ‘Abdullah an-Najmi (hafidhahullah) will admonish us concerning this crucial topic and explain to us the extreme importance of teaching our children the correct ‘Aqeedah.

We ask Allah to guide us to His Straight Path and make us firm upon it and may He, Al-Haafidh protect us and our children from all evil.

Listen / Download Mp3 Here (Time 37:54)

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Book Study: Aqeedatus-Salaf of as-Saaboonee – Expl. of Shaykh Rabee – Abu Muhammad al Maghribee [Audio|En]

Aqeedatus-Salaf of as-Saaboonee – Expl. of Shaykh Rabee The Explanation of the Creed of the Salaf,  by Imaam Abee Uthmaan Ismaa’eel bin Abdir-Rahmaan As-Saaboonee,rahimahullaah, as explained by our noble sheikh al-Allaamah Rabee’ bin Haadee Al-Madkhalee, hafidhahullaah.

You may download the original text of As-Saaboonee’s work here: عقيدة السلف أصحاب الحديث (PDF)

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Part 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 49 | 50 | 51 | 52 | 53 | 54 | 55 | 56 | 57 | 58 | 59 | 60 | 61 | 62 | 63 | 64 | 65 | 66 | 67 | 68 | 69 |

These are ongoing classes.other parts will be uploaded as they are made available by

From the tricks of shaytan is to make the people belittle the studying of Tawheed and Aqeeda

Put Tawheed First!!!

Shaykh Taamir Fatooh (may Allah preserve him upon good) said, from the tricks of shaytawn is to make the people belittle the studying of Tawheed and Aqeedatul-Islaamiyyah.   From the deceptions of shaytawn is to beatify and rises the other sciences in the eyes and hearts of the people, before understanding Tawheed soundly and correct ones Aqeedah.   No doubt all of the sciences of Islaam are important and they have their time and place, but Tawheed and correct Aqeedah must come first and foremost. It is from the tricks of shaytawn to mislead the Muslims from the correct path.  It is from the tricks of shaytawn to belittle understanding Tawheed and correcting ones Aqeedah.

Aboo Abdir-Rahmaan Abdur-Raqeeb

The Noble Shaykh Taamir Fatooh (May Allah Preserve Him) is from the mashaayikh of Egypt and is a student of Shaykh Hasan Ibn ‘AbdulWahhaab Marzuq al-Banna and is highly recommended by Shaykh Hasan and Shaykh Adil as-Sayyid (May Allah Preserve Them). 

Ummah & Unity : One Who Attempts To Bring Together Water & Fire, and A Reptile & Fish

The Likeness Of Those Who Seek To Unite The Muslims Even Though They Are Upon Divergent Beliefs, Is The Likeness Of One Who Attempts To Bring Together Water And Fire, And A Reptile And Fish

Sheikh Saaleh al Fawzaan (may Allaah preserve him) said:

As long as the Aqeedah is shaky and blemished, the Muslims cannot be united.  It is not possible to unite the one upon Bidah with the one upon the Sunnah, abadan.

It is not possible to unite the person of corrupted aqeedah with the person of sound aqeedah, even though they share the same name (i.e. they are both called Muslims).

It is inevitable to unite the word of the Muslims upon Tawheed, upon the correct aqeedah, upon the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah (Muhammad-sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam).

The Muslims must be together.  They are to be united, and that they follow that which comes from that (bond and unity), as long as this does not depart from obedience to Allaah and His Messenger (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam)

For that reason the Messenger (sallal-laahu alayhi wasallam) said:

”Allaah is pleased for you with three things:  ”that you worship Him (alone) and not to associate anything with Him; and that you (all) hold unto the Rope of Allaah and not to be divided; and that you give sincere advise to the one placed in charge over your affairs (i.e. the Muslim Ruler)” 

As for the one who calls to the unity of the Muslims, even though they differ in their aqeedah, this indeed cannot be possible.  The one who wants to unite the Muslims, even though they are upon divergent beliefs, even though they are upon shaky beliefs, this is but inconceivable like the one who attempts to bring together water and fire (This is not  possible);  Or bring together (as it is said) a reptile and a fish.   This is not possible ever, because the reptile lives on land and the fish lives in the sea…

[Source: Excerpt from a lecture delivered by sheikh Saaleh al Fawzaan at Masjid At-Tawheed in Taa-if.  Title of lecture: At Tahdeer Minal Furqati Wal Ikhtilaaf]   

Benefit shared by Abu Mu-aawiyah Abdullah bin AbuBakr

Sunnah & Bidah – A Lengthy explanation of the first three points from “Foundations of the Sunnah “

A Lengthy Explanation of the first three points from “Foundations of the Sunnah ”
Imaam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (d.241H)
Source: Al-Ibaanah Magazine, Issue No.1 – Dhul-Qa’dah 1415H / April 1995



Shaykh Aboo ’Abdullaah Yahyaa Ibn Abil-Hasan Ibnul-Bannaa narrated to us saying: My father Aboo ’Alee al-Hasan Ibn ’Umar Ibnul-Bannaa related to us saying: Abul-Husayn ’Alee Ibn Muhammad Ibn ’Abdullaah Ibn Bushraan al-Mu’addil related to us, saying: ’Uthmaan Ibn Ahmad Ibn as-Sammaak reported to us, saying: Aboo Muhammad al-Hasan Ibn ’Abdul-Wahhaab, Abun-Nabr narrated to us, reading it to him from his handwritten copy in the month of Rabee’ul-Awwal, in the year two-hundred and ninety three (293H) who said: Aboo Ja’far Muhammad Ibn Sulaymaan al-Munqaree, in Basrah related to us, saying: ’Abdoos Ibn Maalik al-’Attaar narrated to me, saying: [1] I heard Aboo ’Abdullaah Ahmad Ibn Hanbal [2] – rahimahullaah – say:

“The Fundamental Principles of the Sunnah [3] with us [4] are:

Clinging to that which the Companions [5] of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) were upon, taking them as our example to be followed, [6] avoiding innovation; [7] and every innovation is misguidance.” [8]


[1]: This is the isnaad (chain of narration connected to the text) which – just as in the case of the hadeeth of the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) – helps ascertain whether or not the statement and the ascription is authentically related back to the one it is being reported from. As regards the importance of the isnaad, then a few narrations from the Scholars of the early generations will be mentioned.

Sufyaan ath-Thawree (d.161H) – rahimahullaah – said:

“The isnaad is the weapon of the Believer. So if he has no weapon, with what will he fight?”[1]

Ibnul-Mubaarak (d.181H) – rahimahullaah – said:

“The isnaad with me is from the Religion. If there were no isnaad, then whosoever wanted would relate whatever they wanted. However, when it is said to him: Who narrated to you? He remains silent.” [2]

As regards the ascription to Imaam Ahmad, then a number of Scholars have agreed to its ascription from ’Abdoos Ibn Maalik al-’Attaar – one of the close students of the Imaam – and from these verifying Scholars are: Ibn Abee Ya’laa in Tabaqaatul-Hanaabilah (1/241-246), al-Laalikaa‘ee in Sharh Usoolul-I’tiqaad Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah (1/158-164) and also Ibnul-Jawzee in Manaaqib Ahmad (p. 222-228).

The text of this brief ’aqeedah was first printed by Daarul-Manaar in al-Mujaahid magazine (no. 28-29, Sha’baan – Ramadaan 1411H); and the original is a manuscript copy, transcribed by the Shaykh and muhaddith, Muhammad Naasirud-Deen al-Albaanee, rahimahullaah, in the month of Sha’baan 1374H, from the manuscript copy (no. 68, Q. 10-15) which is housed at the Dhaahiriyyah library in Damascus, Syria. We ask Allaah – the Most High – to grant us the ability to serialize the introduction of this valuable and concise tract, adding to it – for the benefit of the honourable readers – a brief commentary and explanation.

[2]: He is Aboo ’Abdullaah Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Hanbal ash-Shaybaanee – the Imaam of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah in his time. Born in Baghdaad in Rabee’ul-Awwal, 164H, he attended the circles of al-Qaadee Aboo Yoosuf (the student of Abee Haneefah) – rahimahullaah – where he studied fiqh. He left this in favour of hadeeth, which he began to study at the age of thirteen – having already memorized the Qur‘aan at a young age. He traveled extensively acquiring and learning ahaadeeth from over two-hundred and eighty teachers. From them are: Wakee’ Ibnul-Jarraah, Yahyaa Ibn Sa’eed al-Qattaan, ’Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Mahdee, Sufyaan Ibn ’Uyaynah, ash-Shaafi’ee, Yazeed Ibn Haaroon and others – rahimahullaah. He underwent severe torture and trial due to defending the correct ’aqeedah – the ’aqeedah of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah (the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), his Companions and those who followed them in ’aqeedah and manhaj) – being from those who were foremost in clinging to their way, whilst shunning the innovations.

Aboo ’Umayr said: “May Allaah have mercy upon him. There was no one having more patience regarding this world than him, nor anyone more closely resembling those who cam before him, nor anyone more rightfully amongst the righteous. This world was presented to him, but he rejected it, and he expelled innovations.” In his time, he was the Imaam of the people of Hadeeth specifically, and the Muslims in general.” [3]

Imaam ash-Shaafi’ee (d.204H) – rahimahullaah – said:

“I left Baghdaad, and I did not leave behind me a man better, having more knowledge, or greater Fiqh (understanding), nor having greater taqwaa (piety) than Ahmad Ibn Hanbal.”

Ishaaq Ibn Raahawayh (d.238H) said:

“I used to sit with Ahmad and Ibn Ma’een revising ahaadeeth; and I would say: What is the Fiqh (understanding) of it? What is its explanation? So they would remain silent, except for Ahmad.”

Aboo Daawood (d.275H) said:

“The lectures of Ahmad were sittings for the Hereafter. He would not mention in them any worldly affairs; and I never saw him mention this world.”

’Alee Ibnul-Madeenee (d.324H) – rahimahullaah – said:

“Indeed Allaah aided this Religion through Aboo Bakr as-Siddeeq on the day of apostasy, and through Ahmad Ibn Hanbal on the day of the trial.” [4]

Due to these qualities, he became a sign for Ahlus-Sunnah – as Qutaybah Ibn Sa’eed (d.240H) said, “If you see a man loving Ahmad, then know that he is a person of the Sunnah.”

And Abul-Hasan al-Ash’aree (d.324H) – rahimahullaah – said:

“Our statement which we hold and take as our Religion is: Clinging to the Book of Allaah, our Lord the Mighty and Majestic, and to the Sunnah of our Prophet, Muhammad (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), and what is narrated from the Companions, the Taabi’een and the Imaams of Hadeeth. This is what we cling to, and also that to which Aboo ’Abdullaah Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Hanbal – may Allaah enlighten his face, rais up his rank and grant him a magnificent reward – used to say, distancing ourselves from those who oppose his statement. Since he was the noble and complete Imaam, by whom Allaah made the truth clear, and removed the misguidance, and made the minhaaj (methodology) clear, and though whom Allaah annihilated the innovation of the innovators, the deviation of the deviant and the doubts of the doubters. So may Allaah have mercy upon him, the foremost Imaam.” [5]

Taajud-Deen as-Subkee (d.770H) – rahimahullaah – said, “Abul-Hasan al-Ash’aree is the foremost of Ahlus-Sunnah and Ahmad Ibn Hanbal…” [6]

Ibraaheem al-Harbee (d.285H) – rahimahullaah – said, “I saw Aboo ’Abdullaah, and it was as if Allaah had gathered for him the knowledge of the earlier people and the later people.”

Imaam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal died in the year 241H.

[3]: The term ‘Sunnah’ here, refers to the principles and foundations of the correct Islaamic ’aqeedah (belief) and manhaj (methodology), since the Salafus-Saalih (pious predecessors) would apply this term to matters of ’aqeedah and manhaj – as can be seen from their books and writings – for example: [i] Kitaabus-Sunnah of Imaam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (d.241H); [ii] as-Sunnah of al-Athram (d.273H); [iii] Kitaabus-Sunnah of Aboo Daawood (d.275H) – being part of his Sunan. [iv] Kitaabus-Sunnah of Ibn Abee ’Aasim (d.287H); [v] Kitaabus-Sunnah of ’Abdullaah (d.290H), the son of Ahmad Ibn Hanbal; [vi] as-Sunnah of al-Marwazee (d.292H); [vii] Sareehus-Sunnah of Ibn Jareer at-Tabaree (d.310H); [viii] as-Sunnah of al-Khallaal (d.311H); [ix] Sharhus-Sunnah of al-Barbahaaree (d.329H); [x] as-Sunnah of al-’Asaal (d.349H) and [xi] as-Sunnah of at-Tabaraanee (d.360H).

The term ‘Sunnah’ was employed in this context to differentiate those matters of ’aqeedah and manhaj of the Salafus-Saalih were upon, from that which was innovated by the deviant and misguided sects.

[4]: Meaning, with the Scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah and at the head of them in his time was Imaam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal. And in this regard, the way of the Salafus-Saalih was to point out to the people, the true followers and adherents to the Sunnah so that their ’aqeedah and manhaj (methodology) could be learnt and adhered to, as Imaam Ayyoob as-Sakhtiyaanee (d.131H) – rahimahullaah – said, “From the success of a youth, or a non-Arab is that Allaah guides him to a Scholar of the Sunnah.” [7]

And ’Amr Ibn Qays al-Mulaa‘ee (d.143H) said,

“If you see a youth when he begins to sprout, keeping company with Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah then have hope for him. If you see him keeping company with the people of Innovation, then fear for him, because the youth is according to his initial upbringing.” [8]

[5]: Companions: Arabic: Sahaabah, or Ashaab; singular: Sahaabee. As regards the Sharee’ah definition of ‘Sahaabee’ or ‘Companion,’ then:

al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar (d.825H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“The most correct of what I have come across is that a Sahaabee (Companion) is one who met the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) whilst believing in him, and died as a Muslim. So that includes one who lived with him for a long or short time, and those who narrated from him and those who did not, and those who saw him but did not sit with him and those who could not see him due to blindness.” [9]

Imaam an-Nawawee (d.676H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“The correct position is that whosoever accompanied the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), even for an hour, then that person is from his Sahaabah.” [10]

Imaam Ahmad (d.241H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“Every person who accompanied the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), whether for a year, month, a day, or even for an hour, or even just saw him is from his Companions.”[11]

Imaam al-Bukhaaree (d.256H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“H who accompanied the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) or saw him – from the Muslims – then he is from his Companions.” [12]

al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar said in Fathul-Baaree (7/1),

“That which al-Bukhaaree states is the saying of Ahmad and the great majority of the Scholars of Hadeeth.” Some of the proofs that the Scholars have used for this are: The saying of the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), “There will come upon the people a time when a group from amongst the people will go off to fight and it will be said to them: Is there any amongst you who has seen the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam)? So they will say: Yes. So victory will be granted to them. So a group will go off to fight and it will be said to them: Is there any amongst you who were the Companions of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam)? So they will say: Yes. So victory will be granted to them. Then a group will go off to fight and it will be said to them: Is there any amongst you who have seen the companions of the Companions of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam)? So they will say: Yes. So victory will be granted to them.” [13]

The Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) also said,

“You will not cease to be upon good as long as there amongst you those who accompanied me. By Allaah! You will not cease to be upon good as long as there are amongst you those who accompanied those who accompanied and saw me.” [14]

So these narrations contain a clear proof that a Muslim seeing the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) is granted virtue and excellence and is established as being from amongst the Companions.

Ibn Katheer (d.774H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“The fact that just seeing him (the Prophet) is enough for one to be called a Companion is clearly stated by al-Bukhaaree, Aboo Zur’ah and others who have written books regarding the names of the Companions – such as Ibn ’Abdul-Barr, Ibn Mandah, Aboo Moosaa al-Madanee, Ibnul-Atheer…” [15]

As regards the statement attributed to the taabi’ee and Imaam Sa’eed Ibnul-Musayyib – rahimahullaah – concerning the definition of a Companion, then this cannot be used as a proof at all. This is because al-Haafidh al-’Iraaqee – rahimahullaah – says, “The third saying is what is related from Sa’eed Ibnul-Musayyib, that he had not used to count someone as being a Companion, except one who accompanied the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) for a year or two and fought along with him in one or two battles. Ibnus-Salaah said, “What is meant by this if it is authentic from him – refers back to what the Scholars of Usool say (i.e. what is meant be companionship language wise). However, this definition contains restrictions, which will mean that we do not count as Companions those such as Jareer Ibn ’Abdullaah al-Bajalee – who obviously does not fulfill these conditions that are made – but such are people about whom we know of no difference of opinion with regards to them being Companions.” I say, this is not authentic from Ibnul-Musayyib, since the isnaad (chain of narration) from him contains Muhammad Ibn ’Umar al-Waaqidee – who is da’eef (weak) in hadeeth.” [16]

[6]: Here the Imaam – rahimahullaah – explains and lays down the signposts for the correct manhaj followed by Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah, and that is the methodology of the best and most excellent of mankind, the Companions, then those who followed them (the taabi’een), then those who followed them (the atbaa’ut-taabi’een).

So Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah cling to what the first three generations of Muslims were upon – the Salafus-Saalih – whose excellence has been testified to by the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) in his statement, “The most excellent of mankind is my generation, then those who follow them, then those who follow them.” [17] And he (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “The most excellent Ummah is the generation which I have been sent in, then those who followed them, then those who followed them.” [18]

As regards to the following generations, then they have not been praised with any specific excellence. Rather, they have, in general, been spoken ill of by the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam). Indeed, in some authentic narrations, after mentioning the excellence of the first three generations, the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “…then there will come a people amongst whom fatness will appear and who will testify without having been asked to do so.” [19] And in another narration, “…then there will come a people in whom you will not find any good.” [20] Also, there occurs in another authentic narration, the wording, “…then there will come a people who will testify without being asked to do so, who make promises but do not keep them, who are treacherous and not trustworthy and fatness will appear amongst them.” [21]

So it is the first three generations – the Salafus-Saalih – whose era has been praised with an excellence, whose path is to be followed and whose understanding of the Religion is to be accepted and affirmed. ’Aa‘ishah – radiyallaahu ’anhaa – said: A man came to the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and said, ‘Who is the most excellent of mankind?’ So the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “The generation which I am in, then the second, then the third.” [22]

And it is the first of these generations – the Companions – radiyallaahu ’anhum – who were the foremost in excellence from mankind; since they were: [i] those who learnt the Religion directly from the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and, “Being informed is not like seeing.” [23] [ii] those who knew best and understood the Religion – and this is the root of their excellence – as the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “Whosoever Allaah intends to show excellence to, He gives him the understanding of the Religion.” [24] [iii] They were those who followed it the best, and [iv] They were the ones who were furthest away from and remained free from innovations. About the excellence of the Salafus-Saalih, and the excellence of those who follow them, and the obligation to follow their path, Allaah – the Mighty and Majestic says,

“Those foremost of those who first migrated and those that helped them and those who follow them in goodness, Allaah is well-pleased with them and they are well-pleased with Him. He has prepared for them gardens underneath which rivers flow, to dwell therein forever. That is the supreme success.” [Sooratut-Tawbah 9:100]

And Allaah – the Most Perfect – says,

“Whosoever contends with the Messenger, even after guidance has been clearly conveyed to him, and follows a path other than that of the Believers; We shall leave him in the Path he has chosen and land him in Hell, what an evil destination.” [Sooratun-Nisaa‘ 4:115]

Indeed, “This is a clear definition and a decisive proof upon the worshipper, in making following the path of the Believers obligatory. And who were the Believers at the time this aayah was revealed, except the Companions (radiyallaahu ’anhum). Thus, Allaah has threatened those who leave their way and traverse other than their path, with lowliness and humiliation in this world; and a severe punishment in the Hereafter.” [25]

What further adds to the above decisive proofs, and is considered to be the correct explanation of those aayaat, are the ahaadeeth of the Propht (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), “Indeed my Ummah will split up into seventy-three. All of them are in the Fire except one.” It was said, ‘What is the one?’ He said, “The Jamaa’ah.” And in another narration, he said, “That which I and my Companions are upon.” [26]

He – sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam – also said,

“Those of you who survive after me shall see many differences of opinion. So hold fast to my Sunnah and to the Sunnah of the rightly-guided Caliphs after me. Cling to it tightly and beware of newly-invented matters, for every newly-invented matter is an innovation and every innovation is a going astray.” [27]

And the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said,

“The stars are the custodians of the sky, when the stars pass away, that which has been decreed for the sky will come upon it. I am the custodian for my Companions, so when I pass away there will come upon my Companions that which is decreed for them. And my Companions are the custodians for my Ummah, so when my Companions pass away, that which has been decreed upon my Ummah will come upon it.” [28] Below is a summary of the aforementioned proofs:

[i] That the iftiraaq (splitting-up) of the Ummah into various sects – on the basis of differences in ’aqeedah and manhaj – has been foretold.

[ii] All of the various firaq (sects) have been threatened with Hellfire, except those who adhere to the ’aqeedah and the manhaj of the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and his Companions, and that is al-Firqatun-Naajiyah (the Saved-Sect) and the Jamaa’ah.

[iii] That the authentic hadeeth about iftiraaq (splitting-up) is an explanation of, and in full agreement with the aayah from Sooratun-Nisaa‘ [4:115] in that all those who, “follow a path other than that of the Believers (the Companions),” have been threatened with Hellfire.

[iv] The obligation to follow the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and his Companions, and that is the way of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah, cannot be fulfilled, except by avoiding and shunning innovation and its people.

[v] When differences and innovations arise, it is obligatory to cling to the Sunnah, and also that which the Jamaa’ah have ijmaa’ (consensus and agreement) upon.

[vi] That the Companions were made examples to be followed and were for this Ummah, after the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), the custodians of the correct knowledge, manhaj and ’aqeedah.

[vii] The root of the Companions excellence is in their understanding of and clinging onto the correct ’aqeedah and manhaj and also in their defending it, preserving it, and in their conveying it.

[viii] This is also the root cause for the excellence of those who followed the Companions in the next two generations. So it is binding upon the Muslims to follow the path taken by the Salafus-Saalih, those Muslims who – living in the first three generations – adhered to the ’aqeedah and manhaj, and have been praised with an excellence over and above the rest of mankind.

[ix] Opposing the way of the Salafus-Saalih is considered iftiraaq (splitting-up) and opposing them in matters related to Islaamic manhaj is also considered iftiraaq. So whoever chooses to oppose their knowledge and understanding of the Revelation, has split from them; and has therefore split from the way of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah, and has taken one of the forbidden and innovated paths.

Indeed, Ibn Mas’ood (radiyallaahu ’anhu) said,

“Indeed, Allaah looked into the hearts of the servants and found the heart of Muhammad (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) to be the best of the hearts of the servants. So He chose him for Himself and sent him as a Messenger. Then He looked into the hearts of the servants after Muhammad (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and found the hearts of the Companions to be the best of the hearts of the servants. So He made them ministers of His Messenger, fighting for His Religion. So whatever the Muslims (i.e. the Companions) hold to be good, then it is good with Allaah, and whatever the Muslims hold to be evil, then it is evil with Allaah.” [29]

Imaam al-Barabahaaree (d.329H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“The foundations upon which the Jamaa’ah is made clear is the Companions of Muhammad (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam). They are Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah, so whoever does not take from them has gone astray and innovated; and every innovation is misguidance and misguidance and its people are in the Fire.” [30]

Indeed, “The truth is that which comes from Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. Th Sunnah is that which the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) laid down, and the Jamaa’ah is that which the Companions of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) united upon, in the Caliphate of Aboo Bakr, ’Umar and ’Uthmaan. So he who limits himself to the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and that which the Companions were upon, is successful and triumphs over all the people of innovation, is saved and his Religion is preserved – if Allaah wills. Since the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “My Ummah will split up into seventy-three sects,” and he told us that which would be the saved sect, saying, “That which I and my Companions are upon.” So this is the cure, the explanation, the dear affair and the straight and distinct road.” [31]

Ibn Mas’ood (radiyallaahu ’anhu) said,

“The Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) drew a line for us and said, “This is the Straight Path of Allaah.” Then he drew lines to its right and its left and said, “These are other paths; upon every one of them is a devil calling towards it.” Then he recited,

“Indeed, this is My Straight Path, so follow it. And do not follow other paths, they will separate you from His Path.” [32]

About the statement of Allaah, “And do not follow other paths,” ad-Daarimee relates in his Sunan (1/68) and al-Bayhaqee relates in al-Madkhal ilas-Sunan (no. 200) that Mujaahid (d.204H) said explaining this aayah, “Innovations and doubts.”

Abul-’Aaliyah (d.90H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“Learn Islaam. Then when you have learnt Islaam, do not turn away from it to the right, nor the left. Rather, be upon the Straight Path and be upon the Sunnah of your Prophet and that which his Companions were upon…And beware of these innovations because they cause enmity and hatred amongst you. Rather, stick to the original state of affairs which was there before they divided.” [33]

[7]: Arabic: Bida’ (singular: Bid’ah). Linguistically, bid’ah means: a newly invented matter. The Sharee’ah definition of bid’ah is: “A newly invented way (beliefs or actions) in the Religion, in imitation to the Sharee’ah (prescribed Law), by which nearness of Allaah is sought, not being supported by an authentic proof; neither in its foundations, nor the manner in which it is performed.” [34]

Imaam ash-Shaatibee (d.777H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“Everyone who follows the mutashaabihaat (those aayaat without a clear meaning), or twists the underlying meanings or gives a meaning to the aayaat not given to it by the Salafus-Saalih, or clings on to the very weak and unauthentic ahaadeeth, or takes that which is apparent as a proof – for every action, statement or belief in agreement with his objetives and intentions, not finding a fundamental proof for understanding it in that manner – then this is the method of deduction and derivation which gives rise to innovations and those who innovate.” [35]

Ibn ’Abdul-Haadee (d.745H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“It is not permissible to invent an interpretation about an aayah or a Sunnah which was not there in the time of the Salaf, nor did they have any knowledge of it, nor explain it to the Ummah. Since this would mean that the Salaf were ignorant of the truth in this matter and failed to reach it, whereas the late-coming opponent is somehow guided to the truth!” [36]

Imaam Ibnul-Qayyim (d.756H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“Inventing an explanation with regards to the Book of Allaah – to which the Salaf and the Scholars ar in opposition – necessitates one of two things; [i] either the explanation in itself a mistake, or [ii] that the sayings of the Salaf which run contrary to it are in error! And no one with an ounce of intellect would doubt that the one whose saying is in opposition to that of the Salaf is the one who is mistaken and in error.” [37]

And avoiding bida’ (innovations) is one of the great usool (foundations) of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah, and it involves: [i] keeping away from them; [ii] having hatred for them; [iii] warning the people about them; [iv] clarifying them to the people so that they do not fall into them; [v] refuting the innovators.

Imaam as-Saaboonee (d.449H) said about Ahlus-Sunnah,

“They follow the Salafus-Saalih – the Imaams and Scholars of the Muslims – and they cling to the firm Religion that they clung to and the firm truth. And they hate Ahlul-Bid’ah (people of innovation) who innovate into the Religion that which is not from it. They do not love them and they do not keep company with them. They do not listen to their sayings, nor sit with them, nor argue with them about the Religion, nor debate with them. Rather, they protect their ears from their futility – things which if they pass through the ears and settle in the hearts – will cause harm and will cause doubts and wicked ideas to appear. And concerning this, Allaah the Mighty and Majestic sent down:

“And when you see people engaged in vain discourse, then turn away from them unless they turn to different theme.” [Sooratul-An’aam 6:68].” [38]

Imaam ash-Shawakaanee (d.1255H) said,

“And this aayah contains a severe reprimand for those who allow people to sit with the innovators, those who twist the Words of Allaah, play around with His Book, and the Sunnah of His Messenger (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam). And refer them back to their own misleading desires and wicked innovations. Since, if he is unable to reprimand them and change them from what they are upon, then at the very least, he should avoid sitting with them – and that is easy for him, not difficult. And the innovators may make use of his presence with them – even though he may be free from their mistakes – through a doubt by which they will beguile the common people, in which case his presence will cause an extra evil, in addition to just listening to their evil.” [39]

The Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “Indeed, Allaah does not accept the repentance of an innovator, until he ceases from the innovation.” [40] And he (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “Every innovation is misguidance and going astray.” [41] And he also said, “Whosoever innovates, or accommodates an innovator, then upon him is the curse of Allaah, the Angels and the whole of mankind.” [42]

Sufyaan ath-Thawree – rahimahullaah – said,

“Innovations are more beloved to Iblees than sin. Since a sin may be repented from, but innovation is not repented from.” [43] The following narrations will highlight – if Allaah wills – the manhaj (methodology) adopted by our Salafus-Saalih with regards to the mubtadi’een (innovators). A man said to ’Abdullaah Ibn ’Umar, ‘Najdah (a man from the Khawaarij) says such and such.’ So Ibn ’Umar prevented himself from listening for fear of that some of it should enter into his heart. [44]

Imaam al-Hasan al-Basree (d.110H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“Do not sit with the people of innovations and desires, nor argue with them, nor listen to them.” [45]

Asmaa‘ Bint ’Ubayd said: Two of the people of vain desires and innovations entered upon Ibn Seereen (d.110H), and said, “O Abaa Bakr, may we speak with you?” So he said, “No!” They said, “May we recite an aayah?” He from the Book of Allaah said, “No, indeed either you must get up and leave me, or I will get up and leave.” So said, “O Abaa Bakr, what harm would they left, so some of the people it have done to you, for them to recite an aayah from the Book of Allaah?” He said, “I feared that they would read an aayah to me and distort it, and that would remain in my heart.” [46]

An innovator asked Ayyoob as-Sakhtiyaanee (d.131H), “O Abaa Bakr, may I ask you about a word?’ He turned away and indicated with his hand, “No, not even half of a word.” [47]

Ibraaheem Ibn Maysirah (d.132H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“He who honours an innovator has assisted him in the demolition of Islaam.” [48]

Aboo Qilaabah (d.140H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“Do not sit with the people of innovation, because I do not feel secure that they will not drown you in their misguidance and make part of what you used to know unclear to you.”[49]

Ibn ’Awn (d.150H) – rahimahullaah – said:

“Whosoever sits with an innovator is worse than him.” [50]

It was said to Imaam al-Awzaa’ee (d.157H) – rahimahullaah, ‘A person says, ‘I sit with Ahlus-Sunnah and I sit with the innovators.’ So al-Awzaa’ee said, ‘This person desires to fluctuate between the truth and falsehood.” [51] Commenting upon this statement, Ibn Battah said, “Indeed, al-Awzaa’ee has spoken the truth. And I say, indeed this person does not know the truth from falsehood, nor faith from disbelief.” [51]

Sufyaan ath-Thawree (d.164H) – rahimahullaah – said, “Whosoever listens to an innovator has left the protection of Allaah and is entrusted to the innovation.” [52]

And al-Fudayl Ibn ’Iyaad (d.187H) – rahimahullaah – said, “Do not sit with an innovator, for I fear that curses will descend upon you.” [53]

Imaam Maalik (d.197H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“How evil are the people of innovation, we do not give them salaam.” [54]

Imaam ash-Shaafi’ee (d.197H) – rahimahullaah – said, “That a person meets Allaah with every sin except Shirk is better than meeting Him upon any one of the innovated beliefs.”[55]

Aboo Daawood as-Sijjistaanee (d.275H) – rahimahullaah – said,

I said to Aboo ’Abdullaah Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, “If I see a man from the people of the Sunnah sitting with a man from the people of innovation, should I speak with him?” He said, “No, you should first inform him that the one whom you saw him with is a person of innovation. Either he will cease speaking to the innovator, so continue speaking with him, or if not, then consider him to be like him. Ibn Mas’ood said that a person is like his friend.” [56]

Indeed, the people of knowledge throughout the ages continued warning the masses against the innovators and considered this matter important enough to dedicate chapters in their various books about this. For example:

Aboo Daawood placed a chapter in his Sunan (4/197), called: “Chapter: Turning away from the innovators and having hatred for them.”

Al-Haafidh al-Mundhiree (d.656H) – rahimahullaah – placed a chapter in at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb (3/14) called: “Deterrent against loving the people of innovation, since a person will be with those whom he loves.”

Imaam an-Nawawee (d.676H) – rahimahullaah – says in al-Adhkaar (p.323), “Chapter: Disassociating from the people of innovation and sin.”

Imaam al-Bayhaqee (d.458H) – rahimahullaah – said in al-I’tiqaad (p.236), “Chapter: The prohibition from sitting with the people of innovation.”

Imaam al-Laalikaa‘ee (d.418H) said in Sharh Usoolul-I’tiqaad Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah (1/128), “What is related from the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) with respect to the forbiddance of debating with the innovators.”

Imaam al-Baghawee (d.516H) – rahimahullaah – said:

‘‘Indeed the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) informed about the division in this Ummah, and the manifestation of desires and innovations in it. And he designated salvation for those who follow his Sunnah and the Sunnah of his Companions, may Allaah be pleased with them. So it is upon the Muslim, that if he sees a man having something from innovations and desires in belief, or something neglected from the Sunnah, that he makes Hijrah (migration) from him, and he frees himself from him, and abandons him in life and death. So he must not greet him if he meets him, and he must not answer him if he (i.e. the innovator) begins the greeting, until he abandons his innovation and returns to the truth…So verily the hijrah from the people of desires and innovation continues until they repent.’’ [57]

Qaadee Aboo Ya’laa (d.333H) – rahimahullaah – said in Hajarul-Mubtadi’ (p. 32), “There is ijmaa’ (consensus) from the Companions and the taabi’een as regards disassociating and cutting-off from the innovators.”

It is also necessary to mention here, the distinction that the Scholars make between a newly-invented matter being bid’ah (innovation) and passing a judgement upon the one who is involved in it that he is a mubtadi’ (innovator).

[8]: Just as the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said in his sermons, “…and every innovation is misguidance and all that misguides, misguides to the Fire.” [59]

And ’Abdullaah Ibn ’Umar (radiyallaahu ’anhu) said,

“Every innovation is misguidance, even if the people think it is good.” [60]

Imaam al-Barbahaaree (d.329H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“Beware of small innovations, because they will grow until they become large. This was the case with every innovation introduced into this Ummah. It began as something small, bearing resemblance to the truth, which is why those who entered into it were misled and then were unable to leave it. So it grew and became the religion that they followed, and thus deviated from the Straight Path and left Islaam. And may Allaah have mercy upon you! Examine carefully the speech of everyone you hear from in your time particularly. So do not act in haste, and do not enter into anything from it until you ask and see: Did any of the Companions of the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) speak about it, or any of the Scholars? So if you find a narration from them about it, cling to it, do not go beyond it for anything and do not give precedence to anything over it and thus fall into the Fire.”[61]

Imaam al-Hasan al-Basree said,

“The Sunnah is – by Him besides whom none has the right to be worshipped – between those who exceed the limits and those who fall short. So be patient upon it, may Allaah have mercy upon you. For indeed, Ahlus-Sunnah were a minority from those who preceded and shall be a minority from those to come. They did not accompany the people of excessiveness when they exceeded, nor the people of innovation when they innovated. Rather, they persevered upon the Sunnah, until they met their Lord.” [62]

In summary, two major principles of manhaj – with regards to the ’aqeedah of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah – have been covered in the first part of this serialization: Firstly, “The source for the ’aqeedah is: the Book of Allaah, the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and the ijmaa’ (consensus) of the Salafus-Saalih.” Secondly, “Every newly invented matter in the Religion is an innovation, and every innovation is misguidance, and every misguidance is in the Fire.” [63]


[1] Related by Ibn Hibbaan in al-Majrooheen (1/27)

[2] Related by at-Tirmidhee in al-’Ilal (4/388), Ibn Hibbaan in al-Majrooheen (1/18) an al-Khateeb in al-Kifaayah (no. 393).

[3] For a comprehensive biography of the imaam, refer to Manaaqib Ahmad of Ibnul-Jawzee; and also Siyar A’laamun-Nubalaa‘ (11/177-358) of adh-Dhahabee – from which the above biography and most of the following narrations have been taken.

[4] Tadhkiratul-Huffaadh (2/432) of adh-Dhahabee. The trial mentioned here is the trial of torture and persecution that Imaam Ahmad, whilst refuting the kufr (disbelief) of those who declared that the Qur‘aan was created, and standing firm upon the correct belief that the Qur‘aan is the Word of Allaah, uncreated. An explanation of this matter will come in its appropriate place, if Allaah wills.

[5] al-Ibaanah ’an Usoolid-Diyaanah (no. 24) of Abul-Hasan al-Ash’aree.

[6] Tabaqaatush-Shaafi’iyyatul-Kubraa (2/250)

[7] Related by al-Laalikaa‘ee in Sharh Usoolul-I’tiqaad Ahlis-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah (no. 30)

[8] Related by Ibn Battah in al-Ibaanah (p. 133)

[9] al-Isaabah (1/4-5) of al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar

[10] Sharh Saheeh Muslim (16/85) of an-Nawawee

[11] al-Kifaayah fee ’Ilmir-Riwaayah (p. 99) of al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadee

[12] Saheehul-Bukhaaree (7/1 – with Fath) of Imaam al-Bukhaaree

[13] Related by al-Bukhaaree (no. 3649) and Muslim (no. 3456) from Aboo Sa’eed al-Khudree (radiyallaahu ’anhu)

[14] Related by Ibn Abee Shaybah in al-Musannaf (no. 3242) from Waathilah (radiyallaahu ’anhu). It was authenticated by Ibn Hajar in Fathul-Baaree (7/7) saying, “It’s isnaad is hasan.”

[15] Mukhtasar ’Uloomul-Hadeeth (p. 174) of Ibn Katheer

[16] Fathul-Mugheeth (p. 346) of al-Haafidh al-’Iraaqee

[17] Related by al-Bukharee (no. 2652) and Muslim (no. 2533) from ’Abdullaah Ibn Mas’ood (radiyallaahu ’anhu)

[18] Related by Muslim (no. 2534) from Aboo Hurayrah (radiyallaahu ’anhu)

[19] Saheeh: Related by at-Tirmidhee (no. 2334), Ibn Hibbaan (no. 2285) and others, from ’Imraan Ibn Husayn (radiyallaahu ’anhu). It was authenticated by Shaykh al-Albaanee Silsilatul-Ahaadeethus-Saheehah (no. 699)

[20] Hasan: Related by at-Tabaraanee from Ibn Mas’ood (radiyallaahu ’anhu). It was authenticated by Shaykh al-Albaanee in Saheehul-Jaami’ (no. 3293)

[21] Related by Muslim (7/186) and Aboo Daawood (no. 4657) from ’Imraan Ibn Husayn.

[22] Related by Muslim (no. 2536)

[23] Saheeh: Related by Ahmad (1/215) from ’Abdullaah Ibn ’Abbaas (radiyallaahu ’anhumaa)

[24] Related by al-Bukhaaree (1/25) and at-Tahaawee in Mushkilul-Aathaar (2/278), from Mu’aawiyah (radiyallaahu ’anhu).

[25] as-Sabeel ilaa Manhaj Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah (p. 16)

[26] The first hadeeth is mentioned by Aboo Daawood (no. 4598) and ad-Daarimee (2/249) and is Saheeh, and the second is related by at-Tirmidhee (no. 2792) and al-Haakim (1/128-129) and it is hasan. Shaykh al-Albaanee has authenticated them both in Silsilatul-Ahaadeethus-Saheehah (no. 204-205).

[27] Saheeh: Related by Ahmad (4/126), Aboo Daawood (no. 4607) and Ibn Maajah (no. 43), from ’Irbaad Ibn Saariyah (radiyallaahu ’anhu). It was authenticated by al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar in Takhreej Ahaadeeth Mukhtasar Ibnul-Haajib (1/137).

[28] Related by Muslim (16/82) and Ahmad (4/398), from Aboo Moosaa al-Ash’aree (radiyallaahu ’anhu)

[29] Related by Ahmad (no. 3600) and at-Tiyaalisee (no. 23). It was authenticated by al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar in ad-Diraayah (2/187), as did as-Sakhaawee in al-Maqaasidul-Hasanah (no. 959)

[30] Kitaab Sharhus-Sunnah (no. 2) of Imaam al-Barbahaaree

[31] Kitaab Sharhus-Sunnah (no. 82)

[32] Saheeh: Related by Ahmad (1/435), an-Nisaa‘ee (7/49) and ad-Daarimee (1/67-68). It was authenticated by Shaykh al-Albaanee in his checking to Kitaabus-Sunnah (no. 16-17) of Ibn Abee ’Aasim.

[33] Related by Ibn Battah in al-Ibaanah (no. 136) and Aboo Nu’aym in Hilyatul-Awliyaa‘ (2/218)

[34] al-I’tisaam (1/37) of the Imaam, the Scholar of usool, ash-Shaatibee

[35] al-I’tisaam (1/321) of ash-Shaatibee

[36] as-Saarimul-Munkee (p. 427) of Ibn ’Abdul-Haadee

[37] Mukhtasar Sawaa’iqul-Mursalah (2/128) of Ibnul-Qayyim

[38] Risalah fee I’tiqaad Ahlus-Sunnah Ashaabul-Hadeeth (p. 100) of Imaam as-Saaboonee

[39] Fathul-Qadeer (2/218) of ash-Shawkaanee

[40] Saheeh: Related by at-Tabaraanee in al-Awsat (no. 4360) and others. It was authenticated by Shaykh al-Albaanee in Silsilatul-Ahaadeethus-Saheehah (no. 1620)

[41] Saheeh: Related by Aboo Daawood (no. 4607), at-Tirmidhee (no. 2676) and others, and al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar authenticated it in Takhreejul-Ahaadeeth Ibnul-Haajib (1/137).

[42] Related by al-Bukhaaree (12/41), Muslim (9/140) and the hadeeth is general, as has been duly explained by al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar in Fathul-Baaree (13/281).

[43] Related by al-Laalikaa‘ee (no. 238)

[44] Related by al-Laalikaa‘ee (no. 199)

[45] Related by ad-Daarimee in his Sunan (1/121) and Ibn Battah in al-Ibaanatul-Kubraa (2/444)

[46] Related by ad-Daarimee in his Sunan (1/109)

[47] Fathul-Qadeer (2/128) of ash-Shawkaanee

[48] Related by al-Laalikaa‘ee (1/139)

[49] Related by al-Bayhaqee in al-I’tiqaad (p. 118) and ’Abdullaah Ibn Imaam Ahmad in as-Sunnah (p. 18).

[50] Related by Ibn Battah in al-Ibaanatul-Kubraa (no. 446)

[51] Related by Ibn Battah (1/456)

[52] Related by Aboo Nu’aym in al-Hilyah (7/26) and Ibn Battah (no. 444)

[53] Related by al-Laalikaa‘ee (no. 262) and Ibn Battah (no. 441)

[54] Related by al-Baghawee in Sharhus-Sunnah (1/234)

[55] Related by al-Bayhaqee in al-I’tiqaad (p. 158)

[56] Related by Ibn Abee Ya’laa in Tabaqaatul-Hanaabilah (1/60) and Ibn Muflih in Aadaabish-Shar’iyyah (1/263)

[57] Related by al-Baghawee in Sharhus-Sunnah (1/224)

[59] Saheeh: Related by an-Nisaa‘ee (1/224), from Jaabir (radiyallaahu ’anhu), and declared authentic by Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah in Majmoo’ul-Fataawaa (3/58).

[60] Related by al-Laalikaa‘ee (no. 126), Ibn Battah (no. 205), al-Bayhaqee in al-Madkhal ilas-Sunan (no. 191) and Ibn Nasr in as-Sunnah (no. 70). This narration refutes the concept of bid’ah hasanah (good innovation) with regards to beliefs and worship, and a more detailed explanation of this will come in a later issue – if Allaah wills.

[61] Kitaab Sharhus-Sunnah (no. 7-8) of al-Barbahaaree

[62] Related by ad-Daarimee in his Sunan (1/71-72)

[63] Mujmal Usool Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah fil-’Aqeedah (p. 7-9) of Dr. Naasir al-’Aql

Factors which nullify Iman and Islam : Muhammad bin Jamil Zino

Taken from his book “The Pillars of Islam and Iman – and what every muslim must know about the religion

“There are things which nullify Imân (Faith) i.e. Belief, just as there are things which nullify Wudhû’. If a person does any single one of them, he loses his state of ritual purity. The same is true with Belief. The nullifiers of Belief can be classified into four categories:First category: Denial of Rabb’s existence or reviling and speaking ill of Him.

Second category: Denial of Allâh’s right to be worshipped or worshipping anything or anyone along with Him.

Third category: Denial of any of Allâh’s Names or Attributes established in the Qur’ân and Sunnah or reviling them.

Fourth category: Denial of the role of Muhammed (pbuh) as the messenger of Allâh, or reviling His Message.

1. Denial of the existence of Rabb nullifies Imân

This first category encompasses several types:

1. Pure atheism; such as the belief of communists who deny that the universe has a creator and say: “There is no god, and life is a purely material phenomenon.” They attribute the creation and all actions to pure chance, or “nature” but forget the One Who created even the “chance” and the “nature”, as Allâh said:

“Allâh is the Creator of all things, and He is the Wakîl (Trustee, Disposer of affaires, Guardian, etc.) over all things.” (39:62)

This category of disbeliever is more hardened in their apostasy than the polytheist Arabs of post-islamic period, and even Satan himself, as those polytheist Arabs did admit the existence of their creator as the Qur’ân states about them saying:

“And if you ask them who created them, they will surely say: ‘Allâh…'” (43:87)

and the Qur’ân mentions the statement of Satan:

“(Iblîs) said: I am better then he, You (Allâh) created me from fire, and You created him from clay.” (38:76)

It is an act of disbelief for a Muslim to say, “Nature created something or that it came into being by chance.”

2. Or if a person claims to be the Rabb; as Pharaoh claimed saying:

“I am your lord, most high.” (79:24)

3. Or to claim that there are great saints [called “Qutb” in Sufi terminology, which literally means axes (of creation)] who have control over what happens in the universe, even if this claim is accompanied with the admissions that Allâh, the Soverign Lord exists. People who have this belief are in a worse condition than the idol worshippers before Islâm, who used to admit that Allâh is the Sole Controller of the affairs of the universe, as is indicated by Allâh’s statement:

“Say: ‘Who provides for you from the sky and from the earth? Or who owns hearing and sight? And who brings out the living from the dead and brings out the dead from the living? And who disposes the affairs? They will say: ‘Allâh.’ Say: ‘Will you not then be afraid of Allâh’s punishment (for setting up rivals in worship with Allâh?'” (10:31)

4. Or the statements of some Sufis that Allâh pervades in His creation, or became incarnate in it. The Sufi, Ibn Arabi, who is buried in Damascus, said:

“The Lord is a slave, and the slave is my Lord. I only wish I knew, which one is the Mukallaf.”

[Mukallaf is a basic Sharî’ah terminology, that refers to the essential role of the adult, sane human being: That he or she is charged by Allâh with a series of duties and responsibilities, orders and prohibitions, and he will be questioned on the basis of how well he discharged his responsibilities.]

And this transgressor of the Sufis has stated:

“And the dog and the pig is nothing other then our deity, nor is Allâh other then a monk in a church.”

And Hallâj (a Sufi of Baghdad) stated: “I am He (i.e. the Rabb) and He is I.” Due to this statement of his, which he would not retract; the scholars agreed that he should be executed as an apostate. High Exalted is Allâh above what such people say. 2. Shirk (polytheism) in Worship nullifies Imân

This second category includes the denail of Allâh as the object of worship or ascribing a partner along with Allâh. It too has various manifestations:

1. Those who worship the sun, the moon, the stars, the trees, Satan or any other created being, and abandon the worship of Allâh, Who created all these things which have no power to benefit nor to harm. Allâh said:

“And from among His Signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Prostrate not to the sun nor to the moon, but prostrate to Allâh Who created them, if you (really) worship Him.” (41:37)

2. Those who worship Allâh, and worship along with Him some of His creations, such as saints, as embodied in idols, grave-worship, etc. The Arab idol worshippers before Islâm were of this category, as they used to call upon Allâh only in times of hardship and pressing need, and would worship others in times of ease. As the Qur’ân described them:

“And when they embark on a ship, they invoke Allâh, making their Faith pure for Him only, but when He brings them safely to land, behold, they give a share of their worships to others.” (29:65)

They are characterized as Al-Mushrikûn, (i.e. those who associate and attribute partners with Allâh), even though they made supplication to Allâh Alone when they were afraid of drowning at sea, because they didn’t stay like that. Instead they called upon others after He saved them.

3. Since Allâh was displeased with the idol worshipping Arabs before Islam, He branded them as Kâfiroon (i.e. the disbelievers), and ordered His Prophet to fight them, because they called upon others besides Allâh at the time of ease. He didn’t accept their whole-heartedness when they called upon Him alone in hardship, and He labelled them Mushrikîn. Therefor, what can we say about certain Muslims today, who resort to dead saints at the time of ease as well as at the time of hardship? And they ask of them only Allâh has the power to bestow, like curing the sick, and granting sustance and guidance, etc., and they forget the Creator of those saints, whereas He is the only One Who cures, the Substainer, and the Guide. And those dead people have no power at all and cannot even hear those who are calling upon them, as Allâh stated:

“…And those, whom you invoke or call upon instead of Him, own not even a Qitmîr (the thin membrane over the datestone). If you invoke (or call upon) them, they hear not your call, and if (in case) they were to hear, they could not grant it (your request) to you. And on the Day of Resurrection, they will disown your worshipping them. And none can inform you (O Muhammed pbuh) like Him Who is the All-Knower (of each and every thing).” (35:13,14)

This verse is explicit to the effect that the dead cannot hear those who call upon them, and explicit in stating that their supplication is major Shirk.

Some of them might say: “We don’t believe that these saints and righteous people have the power to benefit or harm. We only take them as intermediaries who will intercede with Allâh on our behalf, and through them we get closer to Allâh.” Our reply to them is that the idolaters before Islâm used to hold a similar belief, as is mentioned in the Qur’ân:

“And they worship besides Allâh things that hurt them not, nor profit them, and they say: ‘These are our intercessors with Allâh.’ Say: ‘Do you inform Allâh of that which He knows not in the heavens and on the earth?’ Glorified and Exalted is He above all that which they associate as partners with Him!” (10:18)

This verse is explicit in proving that whoever worships and supplicates other then Allâh, he is a Mushrik even if he believes that those other beings cannot benefit nor harm, but only sees them as intercessors.
Allâh said about the idolaters:

“…And those who take Awliya’ (protectors and helpers) besides Him (say): ‘We worship them only that they may bring us near to Allâh.’ Verily, Allâh will judge between them concerning that wherein they differ. Truly, Allâh guides not him who is a liar, and a disbeliever.” (39:3)

This verse is explicit in proving the disbelief of those who call upon other than Allâh with the intention of getting thereby closer to Allâh.
The Prophet (pbuh) said:

“Because supplication is worship” (Tirmidhi)

4. Among the nullifiers of Belief is to rule by other than what Allâh has revealed; if it is accompanied by the belief that Allâh’s Laws are inappropriate or less appropriate, or that man made laws which contradict them are equally appropriate; Allâh said:

“…The command (or the judgement) is for none but Allâh. He has commanded that you worship non but Him (i.e. His Monotheism), that is the (true) straight religion, but most men know not.” (12:40)

And Allâh said:

“…And whosoever does not judge by what Allâh has revealed, such are the Kâfîrun (i.e. disbelievers – of a lesser degree as they do not act upon Allâh’s Laws).” (5:44)

If the ruler is applying a law other than what Allah has revealed, while believing that the revealed Law is the only Legitimate Law, but he is contradicting it on the basis of personal whims and inclinations or because of what he considers to be external pressure beyond his control, then he is injust and tyrannical or corrupt, but he did not cross the line of disbelief. This is according to the statement of Ibn Abbas who said:

“Whoever repudiates what Allâh has revealed, the he surely disbelieved, while one who accepted it (while acting in contradiction to it), he is unjust and corrupt.”

This is the interpretation of the verse chosen by the great exegete Ibn Jarîr At-Tabari, and ‘Atâ said with regard to the second state:

“A level of disbelief below the level which takes one out of Islâm.”

As for those who suspended the Laws of Allâh and replaced them with man-made laws which oppose them, believing in the validity of their man-made laws, they have disbelieved and gone out of Islâm by the consensus of the scholars.

5. Among the nullifiers of Belief is displeasure with Allâh’s Legislation, or the opinion that it is too confining and strict or that it imposes undue hardship. Allâh said:

“But no, by your Lord, they can have no Faith, until they make you (Muhammed pbuh) judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission.” (4:65)

Or to dislike the orded which is revealed, as Allâh said:

“But those who disbelieve (in the Oneness of Allâh – Islamic Monotheism), for them is destruction, and (Allâh) will make their deeds vain. That is because they hate that which Allâh has sent down (this Qur’ân and Islâmic laws, etc.), so He has made their deeds fruitless.” (47:8,9) 3. Shirk in Allâh’s Attributes nullifies Imân

This third category includes denail of some of all of Allâh’s Attributes or His Names or speaking ill of them.

1. It nullifies Belief when a believer denies the Names of Allâh or His Attributes which are established by the texts of the Qur’ân and the authentic Sunnah; for example, to deny that Allâh’s Knowledge is total, or His Power, or His Life or His Hearing or Sight or Speech or Mercy, or His Establishment over His Throne or His Transcendence above it, or His Descent to the lowest heaven or that He has a Hand or an Eye, or other than that of the Attributes which befit His Splendour and which do not resemble the attributes of anything in creation. Allâh said:

“…There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.” (42:11)

In this verse Allâh denied His Resemblance to His creatures, and attributed to Himself the faculties of hearing and sight; and all His other Attributes must be understood in the same way.

2. It is an error and misguidance to interpret something some of His affirmed Attributes, and to change the meanings of the words used to describe them from their primary meaning in the Arabic language to obscure meanings, like the interpretation of the word Istawâ which means ascension and establishment above something, to mean Istilâ which means to take power. Imam Al-Bukhâri in his Sahîh transmitted the authentic interpretation of Istawâ from Mujâhid and Abul-‘Âliyah, two of the prominent scholars among the Tabi’în, the successors of the Sahâbah. The diversionary interpretation of Allâh’s Attributes leads to their denial. As the interpretation of Istawâ meaning to take power is, in fact, a denial of one of Allâh’s Attributes, which is Allâh’s Elevation above His Throne, which is established in numerous places in the Qur’ân and Sunnah. Allâh said:

“The Most Beneficent (Allâh) Istawâ (rose over) the (mighty) Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty).” (20:5)

And Allâh said:

“Do you feel secure that He, Who is over the heaven (Allâh), will not cause the earth to sink with you…” (67:16)

And the Prophet (pbuh) said:

“Allâh recorded a Book which is with Him above the Throne.” (Agreed upon)

This type of interpretation of the Divine Attributes is a form of distortion as Shaikh Muhammed Amîn Shinqeeti states in his book “Manhaj wa Darâsât feel-Asmâ’i was-Sifât – Studies in the (Divine) Names and Attributes” on page 26:

“To sum up the issue, I would like to make two points. First the interpreter should consider Allâh’s Statement to the Jews:

“…say Hittatun…” (2:58)

Hittatun means repentance, they added a letter “N” in it and said “Hintatun”, Allâh called this addition a change. Allâh said in Surah Al-Baqarah:

“But those who did wrong changed the word from that which had been told to them for another, so We sent upon the wrong-doers Rijzan (a punishment) from the heaven because of their rebelling against Allâh’s obedience.” (2:59)

Likewise are those who interpret Allâh’s Attributes with diversionary interpretation. It was said to them Istawâ so they added an “L” and said Istawlâ. Consider the resemblance between the “L” they added and the “N” the Jews added (this point was originally mentioned by Ibn Al-Qayyim).

3. There are certain Attributes which are exclusive to Allâh, like Knowledge of the unseen, which no one in creation possesses. Allâh said in his book:

“And with Him are the keys of the Ghaib (all that is hidden), non knows them but He…” (6:59)

Allâh might reveal certain aspects of the unseen to His Messengers through Revelation when He wants, Allâh said:

“(He Alone) the All-Knower of the Ghaib (unseen), and He reveals to non His Ghaib (unseen) except to a Messenger (from mankind) whom He has chosen (He informs him of the unseen as much as He likes)…” (72:26,27)

Among the statements of disbelief and error is the statement of the poet Al-Busairy in Qasîdah Burdah describing the Prophet (pbuh)

“Verily, from your generosity is the world and its rival (that is the Hereafter) and a part of your knowledge is the knowledge of the Tablet and the Pen.”

This world and the Hereafter are certainly part of the creation of Allâh and from His Generosity, not from the generosity or creation of the Messenger, as the poet claimed.
Allâh said:

“And truly, unto Us (belong) the last (Hereafter) and the first (this world).” (92:13)

Allâh’s Messenger (pbuh) does not know what is in the Preserved Tablet, nor what the Pen wrote, as the poet claimed, since this is part of the absolute unseen, which no one knows exept Allâh. As the Qur’ân mentioned:

“Say: None in the heavens and the earth knows the Ghaib (unseen) except Allâh.” (27:65)

As for the saints, it is only logical that they have less access to knowledge of the absolute unseen as they do not even have access to direct Revelation by which Allâh informed His Prophets and Messengers of certain aspects of the unseen, because Revelation does not descend on saints; it is reserved for Prophets and Messengers, so whoever else claims knowledge of the unseen, and whoever believes their claims, has nullified his belief in Islâm. The Prophet (pbuh) said:

“Whoever goes to a fortuneteller or astrologer and believes what he says, has disbelieved in what was revealed to Muhammad.” (Ahmad)

Occasionally the predictions of these fortuntellers do turn out true, but part of that is due to chance, because they are guessing and trying to extrapolate on what they already know. If they were really truthful in their claim to knowledge of the unseen, they would be right all the time, and they would have informed us the secrets of the Jews, and they could have uncovered all the buried treasures of the earth, and they would not be dependent on the people for money, taking their wealth from them under false pretenses.

4. Defamation of Prophets nullifies Imân

This fourth category is the rejection of any of the messengers of Allâh or defaming their characters. These are the following:

1. To deny the Message of Muhammed (pbuh) because the testimony that ‘Muhammed is the Messenger of Allâh’ is one of the pillars of Belief.

2. To disparage the Messenger of Allâh (pbuh) or his truthfulness, or his faithfulness in discharge of what he was entrusted with, or his chasteness or to revile him or make fun of him, or make light of him, or find fault with any of his documented behaviour.

3. To attack his authentic Ahâdîth (transmitted sayings) and disbelieve them, or to reject the true news which he has described for us including his documented prophecies. Examples are the appearance of the Dajjâl (the Antichrist) or the descent of Jesus who will rule by the Sharî’ah of Muhammed (pbuh) and other prophecies documented in the Qur’ân and Sunnah. It is a nullification of Imân to reject these matters after accepting the attribution of the Ahâdîth to the Prophet (pbuh) as being authentic.

4. To deny any of the Messengers sent by Allâh before Muhammed (pbuh) or to deny the stories and sayings in regards to them and their nations, as reported in the Qur’ân or by the Messenger of Allâh (pbuh) in authentic Ahâdîth.

5. To claim Prophethood after Muhammed (pbuh) for example Ghulam Ahmed, the Qâdiyâni (i.e. from Qadiyan, India), who claimed Prophethood, while the Qur’ân says in this verse:

“Muhammed (pbuh) is not the father of any man among you, but he is the Messenger of Allâh, and the Last (end) of the Prophets…” (33:40)

And the Messenger of Allâh (pbuh) said:

“I am the last one, after whom there will be no Prophet.” (Agreed upon)

And anyone who believes that there is a Prophet after Muhammed (pbuh) whether he is a Qâdiyâni (follower of the deviant heretic, Ghulâm Ahmad) or from any other group, he has disbelieved and nullified his Belief.

6. To describe the Prophet (pbuh) with attributes which belong to Allâh only, such as unlimited knowledge of the unseen, as some Sufis claim. One of their poets said:
“Oh (total) knower of the unseen, we resorted to you; Oh curer of the hearts, blessing upon you.”

7. To supplicate to the Prophet (pbuh) for what only Allâh has the power to bestow, such as supplicating for victory and help, cure of illness, etc., as is happening today among the Muslims, especially among the Sufis as their poet, Al-Busairy said:
“Whoever asks by the Messenger of Allâh gets victory, even if a lion meets him in the forest;
Never did time impose on me a hardship and I sought his protection except that I got his protection and no harm came to me.”

This conception of the station of the Prophet (pbuh) is Shirk, contradicting the unequivocal announcement of the Qur’ân:

“…And there is no victory except by the help of Allâh…” (8:10)

and contradicting the order of the Prophet (pbuh):

“When you ask, ask from Allâh, and when you seek help, seek the help from Allâh.” (Tirmidhi)

So what should we think about those who attribute to “saints” knowledge of the unseen, or make a Nadhr (a vow to give charity or perform some other optional good deed) for their sake, or dedicate animal sacrifices to them or ask of them what may only be requested of Allâh, such as sustenance or cure of illness, or victory, etc.? No doubt, these are Shirk.

8. We do not deny the miracles that appeared from the Messengers of Allâh nor those miraculous feets that came from the saints, but what we deny is making them partners with Allâh, supplicating them as we supplicate Allâh, and dedicating sacrifies to them, and undertaking a regime of optional worship for their sake. It has gotten to the point that the graves of some notable “saints” are showered with donations which are appropriated by the custodians and servants of these shrines, who then divide them among themselves, consuming people’s money under false pretenses. At the same time they are surrounded by multitudes of poor people who don’t get enough to eat for a day.
One poet said: “Our living don’t even get a Dhirham (a coin of silver), while thousands and thousands go to the dead.”

Not all of these shrines and graves even contain the body of a saint. But swindlers erect some of them as a means of taking the money of the gullible.

For example, one of my fellow teachers related to me that a certain Sufi Shaikh came to his mother’s house requesting a donation in order to erect a green flag to indicate the presence of a saint on a certain street, so she gave him some money. He bought some green cloth and fixed it to a wall and started telling people, “There is a Wali (saint) here, one of the friends of Allâh. I saw him in my dream.” And thus he started collecting money. One day the government decided to widen that street, which would require removing the grave. The man who had started the whole story started telling people that they had tried to remove it, but the equipment used had broken, and some people believed him, and this rumor started circulating, which caused the government to proceed with caution. The Mufti of that country himself told me that the government called him in the middle of the night to the site of that saint’s grave. He found it surrounded by soldiers. Then the excavator was brought and the grave was dug up. The Mufti looked inside and found nothing there, and knew the whole thing was a lie and fabrication.

Another example, which I heard from a teacher in the Haram in Makkah: One poor man met another and they complained to each other of their poverty. Then they saw a saint’s grave which was filled with welth. One said to the other: “Come on, let’s dig up a grave and put a saint in it, and the money will start rolling in.” His friend agreed, so they set out until they came to a braying donkey. They killed it and laid it to rest in a pit, they raised a mausoleum with a dome over it. And then both of them proceeded to roll around in the dust of the grave to get the Barakat (blessing) from it. When people passing by asked them what they were doing they said: “This is the grave of the saint Hubaish bin Tubaish, who worked miracles which defy description.” People were taking in by their spell and they began laying donations before the grave as charity and to fulfill vows, until they had gathered great wealth. When they started dividing it, they got into argument and started shouting at each other, which attracted a crowd of spectators. One of the two said: “I swear to you by this saint I didn’t take anything from you.” His friend said: “You swear to me by this saint while the both of us know there is a donkey in this grave that we buried together?” The people were astonished and felt foolish due to the donations they had made as vows, and took them back after beating the two men.

from “The Pillars of Islam and Iman – and what every muslim must know about the religion”
Written by: Muhammad bin Jamil Zino

Published by dar-us-salam


Explaining The Fundamentals Of Faith : Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen

Translated into English by: Dr. Saleh As-Saleh

Click the Below link to Download the PDF

Explaining the Foundations of Faith (Sharh Usool Al Eemaan) – Shaykh Uthaymeen – Dr Saleh as Saleh

1: The Religion of Islam 4: Belief In The Angels 7: Belief In the Last Day
2: The Pillars of Islam and Eeman 5: Belief In The Books 8: Belief In Al-Qadar
3: The Belief in Allah 6: Belief In the Messengers 9 : The Goals Of Islamic Belief –(Aqeedah)

Chapter 1: The Religion of Islam

Islam is the religion that Allah sent to Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) and made it the final and most complete religion for His slaves. Allah perfected, in this religion, the bounties that He bestowed on His salves, and accepts only Islam from them. He said, what translated means: “Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) is not the father of any man among you, but he is the Messenger of Allah, and the Last (end) of the Prophets.” [33:40], “This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you, and have chosen Islam for you as your religion.” [5:3], “Truly, the religion with Allah is Islam.” [3:19] and, “And whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted of him, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers” [3:85]

Allah obligated all mankind to follow Islam:

“Say (O Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam): “O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allah, to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth. There is none who has the right to be worshipped but He; It is He Who gives life and causes death. So believe in Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam), the Prophet who can neither read nor write, who believes in Allah and His Words (this Qur’aan, the Torah and the Gospel), and follow him so that you may be guided” [7:158]. Abu Hurayrah (radhi allahu anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) said, what translated means, “By Whom the soul of Muhammad is in His Hand! No member of this nation, no Jew or Christian, hears of me and does not believe in what I was sent with, but he will be of the people of the Fire.” [Saheeh Muslim]

Believing in the Messenger means believing in what was revealed to him, coupled with acceptance and submission; without them the belief is not sufficient. This is why Abu Talib, the Prophet’s (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) uncle, was not a believer in the Messenger, although he believed in what he was sent with and confirmed that Islam was the best religion, (but without acceptance or adherence to Islam).

Islam contains all of what brings benefit, which was also contained, in previous religions. Islam, however, is suitable for implementation anytime, anywhere and by any nation. Allah said to His Messenger (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam), what translated means, “And We have sent down to you (O Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam)) the Book (this Qur’aan) in truth, confirming the Scripture that came before it and dominant over it” [5:48]. The meaning of “suitable for implementation at anytime, anywhere and by any nation,” is that Islam brings only benefit to mankind, whenever and wherever it is implemented. Islam is not under the control, and thus is not to be altered by, any nation living at any given time at any given place, as some people would want it to be.

Islam is the religion of truth. It is the religion that Allah guaranteed aid and dominance for whoever firmly adheres by it. He said, what translated means, “It is He who has sent His Messenger (Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) with guidance and the Religion of Truth (Islam), to make it superior over all religions even though the disbelievers hate it.” [9:33] and, “Allah has promised those among you who believe, and do righteous, good deeds, that He will certainly grant them succession to (the present rulers) in the earth, as He granted it to those before them, and that He will grant them the authority to practice their religion, which He has chosen for them (Islam). And He will surely give them in exchange a safe security after their fear (provided) they (the believers) worship Me and do not associate anything (in worship) with Me. But whoever disbelieved after this, they are the rebellious (disobedient to Allah).” [24:55].

Islam contains belief and Law: It is a complete religion, both in its belief and in its Law. It demands from its followers the following:
1 Believing in Taw’hid (Oneness) of Allah and disbelieving in Shirk (polytheism).
2. Being truthful and not lying.
3. Being just, that is to deal comparable things with equality, and abandoning injustice.
4. Being honest and abandoning treachery.
5. Preserving one’s promises and contracts and not breaking them.
6. Being dutifully good to one’s parents and not cutting ties of kinship.
7. Keeping relations with relatives and not cutting them.
8. Being good with neighbors and not harming them.

In general, Islam orders Muslims to have the best possible conduct and forbids all bad behavior. It requires Muslims to enjoin every righteous deed and avoid every evil deed. Allah said, what translated means, “Verily, Allah enjoins justice, Al-I’hsan (excellence in religion), giving (help) to kith and kin, and forbids all evil (deeds), Al-Munkar (all that is prohibited) and injustice. He admonishes you, that you may take head)’ [16:90]

Chapter 2: The Pillars of Islam and Eeman

The Pillars of Islam are the cornerstones on which Islam is built. There are five pillars of Islam. They are mentioned in the Hadeeth of ibn Omar (radiyallaahu anhuma), that the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) said, what translated means, ‘Islam is built around five (pillars):

1. The testimony that there is no god except Allah and that Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) is His slave and Messenger,
2. To establish prayer,
3. To give Zakaat (obligatory charity),
4. To fast in Ramadhan, and,
5. To perform Hajj (pilgrimage).” [Saheeh Muslim and Saheeh al-Bukharee]

1. The Shahadah (the testimony) that there is none worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) is His slave and Messenger, requires solid belief, in the heart, in it. This belief must also be confirmed by the tongue. It is called Shahadah (testimony) to show that when a believer believes in it, his belief is as solid as if he is an eyewitness. This Shahadah is one cornerstone, although it contains many aspects that must be taken as belief. This testimony (comprised of two testimonies as is apparent), is considered one cornerstone, either because it contains testifying that Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) is only a conveyer of the Message from Allah and His slave and Messenger, thus completing the testimony that Allah is One or because these two testimonies together are the reason behind the acceptance of deeds by Allah. Deeds are neither valid nor accepted unless they are done with sincerity for the sake of Allah alone, and this is called “Ikhlas,” and through following the way of the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam).

Realizing the essence of this testimony, that there is no god except Allah, is a result of Ikhlas (sincerity) to Allah. Realizing the essence of testifying that Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) is His slave and Messenger, comes as a result of following the Messenger of Allah. This magnificent testimony leads to many sweet results. It frees the hearts and souls from being enslaved to the creation and from following other than the Messenger.

2. Establishing the prayers means to worship Allah by praying to Him. One must preserve the prayers by establishing them on time and in the best manner, as taught by the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam). Rewards for establishing the prayers include tranquility and happiness that are felt in the heart. Prayer also leads one to abandoning evil deeds and behavior.

3. Paying Zakat is worshipping Allah by paying the amount of charity obligated on the ones who have enough money or possessions that require paying Zakat. Paying the required Zakat leads to cleansing the heart from the evil of misery. It also fulfills the needs of Islam and Muslims.

4. Fasting Ramadhan contains worshipping Allah by fasting during the days of this month, by not eating or drinking from dawn to sunset. Fasting trains the souls to abandon what is preferred and desired, seeking the pleasure of Allah.

5. Performing Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah) is worshipping Allah by visiting the Holy House to perform the rituals of Hajj. Hajj trains the souls to spend time and physical effort, seeking to obey Allah. This is why Hajj is considered a type of Jihad (struggle).

These fruits of performing the pillars of Islam, along with many others we did not mention, make the Muslim nation pure and clean. They lead the nation to preserving the religion of Truth and dealing with the creation in the best manners of justice and truthfulness. All other acts of the religion depend on how well these pillars are preserved. The Ummah (Muslim nation) can reach success as long as its members preserve the religion. This Ummah will not reach the desired success as long as the religion is not fully respected and preserved.

Whoever wants to be certain of the above-mentioned facts, let him read the following Ayat (verses), “And if the people of the towns had believed and had piety, certainly, We should have opened for them blessings form the heaven and the earth, but they belied (the Messengers). So We took them (with punishment) for what they used to earn (of evil deeds). Did the people of the towns then feel secure against the coming of Our punishment by night while they were asleep? Or, did the people of the towns then feel secure against the coming of Our punishment in the forenoon while they play? Did they then feel secure against the plot of Allah? None feels secure form the plot of Allah except the people who are lost” [7:96-99]. Let him also read the history of previous nations, which gives valuable lessons for whoever is in possession of a mind that comprehends and is rightly guided. This history is a light for those whose hearts are not blocked from the truth. All our dependence is on Allah.

Pillars of Islamic Belief
Islam, as we explained before, is belief and Laws. We mentioned some pillars of the Laws. These pillars are the basis of Islamic Law. As for the Islamic ‘Aqeedah (creed), its pillars are: Believing in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Last Day and the good or bad that Qadar (predestination) brings. These pillars are mentioned in the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam).

Allah said, what translated means, “Righteousness is not that you (only) turn your faces towards the East and (or) the West (in prayers); but righteousness is (the quality) of the one who believes in Allah, the Last Day, the Angels, the Book and the Prophets” [2:177], and with regards to Qadar, “Verily, We have created all things with Qadar. And Our Commandment is but one, as the twinkling of an eye.” [54:49].

In the Sunnah, the Messenger of Allah said, in answer to Gibreel when he asked him about Iman (belief), “Iman is to believe in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Last Day, and to believe in the Qadar and what it brings of good or bad.” [ Saheeh Muslim]

Chapter 3: The Belief in Allah

1 – Belief In Allah’s Existence Allah’s existence is affirmed through Fitrah (the innate purity that Allah creates in every human being), the Mind, the Shari’ah (Islamic Law) and the senses.

a) As for the Fitrah, we say the following: Allah created the belief in Him in every human being. Mankind needs not to be taught this belief or think about how to possess it. However, the ones who have this Fitrah corrupted will not benefit from it. The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said, what translated means, “Every newly born will be born having Fitrah. However, his parents will either convert him to Judaism, Christianity or Majocism (fire worshipping).” [Saheeh al-Bukhari]

b) The Human Mind must be used to prove the existence of Allah. All this creation, of old and new, must have a Creator who invented and started it. This creation could not have come to existence on its own or by chance. It could not have created itself, because it did not exist beforehand. Therefore, how can it create? Also, the creation could not have been started by accident or chance. Everything that exists must have a Creator who brought it into existence. Creation is magnificent in organization, coherent and correlated in its existence. There is a reason and originator behind every act. All this nullifies the saying that this entire universe was started by chance. What was started by chance cannot be organized in its form because it did not have any organization before it was formed. What makes what was created by chance to be this organized? If all this creation neither could have created itself nor was it created by chance, then it must have an Originator, Allah, the Lord of the worlds. Allah mentioned this reasoning in the Quran, “Were they created by nothing, or were they themselves the creators?” [52:35].

This Ayah means that men were neither created without a Creator nor did they create themselves. Therefore, Allah is the One who created them. This is why when Jubair ibn Mut’im (radiyallaahu anhu) heard the Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) recite this Surah until he reached, “Were they created by nothing, or were they themselves the creators? Or did they create the heavens and the earth? Nay, but they have no firm belief. Or are with them the Treasures of your Lord? Or are they the tyrants with authority to do as they like?” [52:35-37],

Jubair, a disbeliever then, said, “My heart almost flew (from the power of this reasoning mentioned in the Surah). This was the first time that Iman entered my heart.” [Saheeh al-Bukhari]

c) – As for the Shari’ah, all divine religions testify to the fact that Allah created the world. All Laws that were sent with these divine and revealed religions contain what benefits mankind. This is evidence to the existence of a Wise and All-Knowing Lord Who knows what brings benefit to His creation, All divinely-revealed religions describe a universe that is self evident to the existence and ability of Allah, Who Creates what He Will.

d) – Also, the senses must be used to prove the existence of Allah. We know that Allah accepts the supplication from whoever seek His aid and help, and that He brings them the benefits that they desire. This is clear evidence to the existence of Allah, who said, what translated means, “And (remember) Noah, when he cried (to Us) aforetime We listened to his invocation.” [21:76] and, “(Remember) when you sought help from your Lord and He answered you?” [8:9].

Anas ibn Malik (radhi allahu anhu) said, “An Arabian (Bedouin) man entered (the Masjid) on Friday while the Prophet was delivering the speech. He said: ‘O Messenger of Allah! (Our) possessions are destroyed, (our) children are hungry. Ask Allah for us.’ He (the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) raised his hands in supplication (to Allah). All of a sudden, mountain-like clouds were formed. He did not descend from his Minbar (the podium) until I saw rain falling through his beard. On the second Friday, this Arabian man, or someone else, stood up and said: ‘O Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam), Buildings have collapsed and possessions are flooded. Ask Allah for us.’ He (the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) raised his hands and said: ‘O my Lord! Around us and not on us.’ Wherever he pointed to an area (of the sky), they (the clouds) dispersed.” [Saheeh al-Bukhari]

Allah’s acceptance of supplication has been and still is a known matter until today. It is given to those who are true in their seeking refuge in Allah and perform supplication in the correct manner to ensure its acceptance. Also, there are the signs that Allah gave His Prophets, which are called miracles. People witnessed or heard these miracles. They are clear evidence that the One who sent the Messengers exists, and He is Allah the All Mighty.

These miracles are activities that are beyond the capability of mankind. Allah gave them to His Messengers as a way of aiding them and giving them victory. An example of these miracles is the sign given of Moses. Allah ordered him to strike the sea with his stick, and the sea parted into twelve separate pads between mountains of water on each side of these parts, “Then We inspired Moses (saying): “Strike the sea with your stick. And it parted, and each separated part (of that sea water) became like the huge, firm mass of a mountain.” [26:63]. Another example is the miracle of Jesus. He was given the power by Allah to raise the dead from their graves and back into life. Allah said about him, what translated means, “And I bring the dead to life by Allah’s leave.” [3:49] and, “And when you (O Jesus) brought forth the dead by My Permission.” [5:110]

A third example is the miracle Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) performed. His tribe, Quraysh, asked him to perform a miracle. He pointed to the moon and it separated into two parts while his people were witnessing the incident. Allah said about this miracle, what translated means, “The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has been cleft asunder. And if they see a sign, they turn away, and say: “This is continuous magic.” [54:1-2].[4] All these miracles, that Allah gave to His Messengers as an aid and victory and that were witnessed by their nations, are proof that Allah exists.

2 – Belief In Allah’s Lordship This means to believe that Allah is the Lord, alone, and that He has no partners or helpers. The Rabb (Lord) is the One who Creates and Commands. There is no creator except Allah and there is no owner of the universe except Him. The Commandment and the Control is His. He said, what translated means, “Surely, His is the Creation and commandment.” [7:54] and, “Such is Allah your Lord; His is the Kingdom. And those whom you invoke or call upon instead of Him, own not even a Qitmir (the membrane over the date-stone).” [35:13]. Only a few people rejected Allah’s Lordship. These are the arrogant ones who deny what they believe deep in their hearts. This happened from Pharaoh, when he said to his people, as was mentioned in the Qur’aan, “I am your lord, most high.” [79:24] and, “O chiefs! I know not that you have a god other than me!” [28:38].

However, what he said was not his true belief. Allah said, what translated means, “And they belied them (Our Signs) wrongfully and arrogantly, though their own selves were convinced thereof” [27:14].

Also, Moses said to Pharaoh, as was mentioned in the Quran, ”Verily, you know that these Signs have been sent down by none but the Lord of the heavens and the earth as clear (evidences of His Oneness and Might). And I think you are, indeed, O Pharaoh, doomed to destruction.” [17:102]. The Arab disbelievers of old used to confirm Allah’s Lordship, although they associated others with Him in worship.

Allah said, what translated means, “Say: “Whose is the earth and whosoever is therein? If you know!” They will say: “It is Allah’s!” Say: “Will you not then remember?” Say: “Who is the Lord of the seven heavens and the Lord of the Great Throne?” They will say: “Allah.” Say: “Will you not then fear Allah?” Say: “In Whose Hands is the sovereignty of everything? And He protects (all), while against Whom there is no protector, if you know?” They will say: “(All this belongs) to Allah.” Say: “How then are you deceived and turn away from the truth?)” [23:84-89],

And indeed if you ask them: “Who has created the heavens and the earth?” They will surely say: “The All-Mighty, the All-Knower created them.” [43:9]

and, “And if you ask them who created them, they will surely say: “Allah.” How then are they turned away (from His worship)” [43:87].

Allah’s order comprises of both, His running of the universe and the Commandment. He is the One who controls the creation and the One who does what He will, according to His Wisdom. He is also the One who gives the Commandment organizing aspects of worship and dealings, according to His Wisdom. Whoever takes anyone, besides Allah, to be the one who commands acts of worship or types of dealings, will have committed Shirk (disbelief, association in worship) with Allah. This act negates Iman.

3 – The Belief That He Is the ILAH: Allah is the Ilah, meaning He is the Worshipped One Who has no partners. This Ilah is worshipped with love and reverence. He said, what translated means, “And your Lord is One Lord, there is none who has the right to be worshipped but He, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.” [2:163]

and, “Allah bears witness that none has the right to be worshipped but He, and the Angels, and those having knowledge (also give this witness); (He is always) maintaining His creation in Justice, none has the right to be worshipped but He, the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.” [3:18].

All things that are taken as gods, besides Allah, are false gods, “That is because Allah is the Truth (the Only True God), and what they (the disbelievers) invoke besides Him, it is falsehood. And verily, Allah is the Most High, the Most Great.” [22:62].

To call these things “gods,” does not make them gods. Allah said about some idols, Al-Lat, Al-’Uzzaa and Manat, “They are but names which you have named, you and your fathers, for which Allah has sent down no authority” [53:23].

Yousef (Joseph) said to his two companions in jail, as was mentioned in the Quran, “Are many different lords (gods) better or Allah the One, the Irresistible? You do not worship beside Him but only names, which you have forged, you and your fathers, for which Allah has sent down no authority.” [12:39-40].

All Messengers used to say to their nations, “Worship Allah! You have no other God but Him.” [23:23]. However, the disbelievers refused to accept this call. They took others as gods besides Allah. They worshipped them besides Allah, calling them when aid and help were needed. Allah refuted the disbelievers in their taking these idols as gods besides Him, using two logical arguments:

The first argument: These idols, that were taken by the disbelievers as gods, do not have any attributes that qualify them to be gods. These false gods were created and do not create. They can neither bring about benefit for whoever worships them, nor can they fend harm off. They cannot give life or take it away. They neither own nor are they partners in the kingdom of the heavens and earth. Allah said, what translated means, “Yet, they have taken besides Him other gods that created nothing but are themselves created, and possess neither hurt nor benefit for themselves, and possess no power (of causing) death, nor (of giving) life, nor of raising the dead)” [25:3],

“Say (O Muhammad): ‘Call upon those whom you asset (to be associate gods) besides Allah, they possess not even the weight of an atom, either in the heavens or on the earth, nor they have any share in either, nor is there for Him any supporter from among them.” [34:22-23] and,

“Do they attribute as partners to Allah those who created nothing but they themselves are created? No help can they give them, nor can they help themselves.” [7:191-192].

If this is the case with false gods, then taking them as gods is a true misguidance and the lowest of all acts. The second argument: The Mushrikeen (polytheists) are among those who confirmed that Allah, alone, is the Lord, the Creator, the One Who Has the ownership of everything and the One Who gives protection and no one can give protection to anyone from His Might. This confirmation requires from these disbelievers to worship Allah alone. He said, what translated means, “O Mankind! Worship your Lord (Allah), Who created you and those who were before you so that you may become among the pious. Who has made the earth a resting place for you, and the sky as a canopy, and sent down rain from the sky and brought forth therewith fruits as a provision for you. Then do not set up rivals unto Allah (in worship) while you know (that He Alone has the right to be worshipped).” [2:21-22],

“And if you ask them who created them, they will surely say: “Allah”. How then are they turned away (from His worship)?” [43:87]

and, “Say (O Muhammad): “Who provides for you from the sky and from the earth? Or who owns hearing and sight? And who brings out the living from the dead and brings out the dead from the living? And who disposes the affairs?” They will say: ‘Allah.” “Say: “Will you not then be afraid of Allah’s punishment?” Such is Allah, your Lord in truth. So after the Truth, what else can there be, save error? How then are you mined away? [10:31-32].

4 – The Belief In Allah’s Names and Attributes. This belief requires accepting whatever Allah described of Himself in His Book or in the Sunnah of His Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam). The Names and Attributes must be accepted without alteration [1], rejection [2], and precise description of their true nature or equating them with attributes of the creation. Allah said, what translated means, “And (all) the Most Beautiful Names belong to Allah, so call on Him by them, and leave the company of those who deny His Names. They will be requited for what they used to do.” [7:180],

“His is the highest description in the heavens and in the earth. And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.” [30:27] and, “There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the All Seer.” [42:11].

Two groups have fallen into misguidance concerning this matter:

One of them is Al-Mu’attilah (the refuters). This group rejected the Names and Attributes, or some of them, claiming that to accept them is to equate Allah with His creation. This claim is false for many reasons following are two of them:

1. This claim leads to false conclusions that Allah’s Words are in Opposition to each other. Allah is the One who confirmed these Names and Attributes and denied that there is anything that resembles Him. If confirming these Names and Attributes leads to equating Allah with the creation, then this will lead to the conclusion that Allah’s Words are full of discrepancies and refute each other.

2. For two things to have an attribute of some kind, does not mean that they are equal or look-likes. One can witness two persons who are both called “a human who hears, sees and speaks.” However, this description of both does not mean that they are of equal capabilities in their hearing, sight or speech. One can also see that animals have hands, legs and eyes. However, this does not mean that animals are equal in every respect with regards to their hands, legs and eyes. If disparity is this wide between that which creation possess of attributes or names, then the disparity between the Creator and creation is even greater and more evident.

The second misguided group is called “Al- Mushabbihah.” They confirmed the Names and the Attributes. Yet, they equated them with the names and attributes of the creation. They claimed that this is what the Texts mean. They claimed that Allah reveals to His slaves what they can comprehend. This claim is false for many reasons, some of them are: Allah’s resemblance with His creation is false and is refuted with the mind and the Laws of Shari’ah. Texts of the Qur’aan and Sunnah cannot lead to falsehood in their meanings.

Allah revealed what His slaves can understand of the general meaning. However, the true nature of what these meanings are like is a knowledge that only Allah possesses, especially with regards to the true nature of His Names and Attributes. Allah confirmed that He is the All-Hearer. Hearing means to comprehend sounds. However, the true nature of Allah’s Hearing is unknown. Creation vary in their hearing capability. The difference between Allah’s Hearing and the hearing of creation is even greater and more evident. Also, Allah confirmed that He Istawa (Mounted or Settled) on His Throne. To mount and settle on a throne is known in the general meaning of the word “mounted,” or “settled.” The true nature of Allah’s mounting on His Throne is unknown. Mounting on something varies with regards to different creation. To mount on a chair is unlike mounting on a wild camel. If Istiwaa’ is this different between creation, then how can the Istiwaa’ of Allah be compared to the Istiwaa’ of creation? The difference between them is greater and more evident. Benefits of Believing in Allah, in the way described above, leads to many benefits for the believers:

1. To truly realize the Taw’hid of Allah, by depending only on Him and hoping in, fearing and worshipping Him alone.
2. To prefect one’s love and reverence of Allah, and according to His Might as described by His Most-Beautiful Names and Most-High Attributes.
3. To truly give one’s worship to Allah, by adhering to His Commandments and abandoning His Prohibitions.


[1] TAAWEEL – Introducing change in a statement, leaving out the meaning understood by it, expressing and accepting such a meaning which the words may indicate in a doubtful sense. In the present context (i.e. Attributes of Allaah) it means rejecting the true meaning of Attributes of Allaah, as understood by the companions (radiyallaahu anhum), and giving preferences to one own understanding.

[2] TA’TEEL (Rejecting,Leaving or Vacating). It means negating the Attributes of Allaah and denying them with His Self. The difference between Taqweel and Ta’teel is that in the latter case the real meaning is denied which is proved by the Qur’aan and the Hadith. While in Tahreef the explanation of the text is done with such meanings that are false and the word does not prove them. So Ta’teel includes Tahreef. Wherever there is Tahreef, Ta’teel is certainly there, but the reverse is not true. If someone tries to prove the false meaning and denies the real meaning, he is committing both Ta’teel and Tahreef

Chapter 4: Belief In The Angels

The Angels are a matter of the unseen. They are created by Allah and they worship Him. They have no attributes that qualify them to be gods or lords. Allah created them from light, and He bestowed on them the bounty of obeying Him at all times. He gave them the power to carry and implement His orders, “And those who are near Him (the angels) are not too proud to worship Him, nor are they weary (of His worship). They glorify His praises night and day, (and) they never slacken (to do so).” [21:19-20]. They are so numerous that only Allah can count their numbers. Anas (radiyallaahu anhu) said, while narrating the story of the Prophet’s (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) ascension to heaven, that Al-Bait Al-Ma’amoor (the House in heaven that is always inhabited. It is, for the inhabitants of heaven, like the Kaa’bah for the people of earth) was raised for the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) in heaven so he can see it. Each day, seventy thousand Angels pray in this House, and when they exit from it, they will never get back into it (this shows how numerous the angels are).[Saheeh al-Bukharee and Saheeh Muslim]

Belief In The Angels Has three Parts

1. Belief in their existence.
Belief in what we were told of their names, such as Jibreel, and also belief in other angels whom we were not informed of their names.

2. Belief in what we were told of their attributes. The example to this is the description of Jibreel. The Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) told us that he saw Jibreel in the shape that Allah created him, having six hundred wings and larger than the horizon. The angels may change their shapes, by the order of Allah. They may take the shape of men. Allah sent Jibreel to Maryam (Mary) and he came to her in the shape of a man. He was also sent to Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam), while he was sitting down with his companions, in the shape of a man, wearing very white clothes with very dark hair, a stranger to the companions, yet no evidence of traveling was apparent on him. He sat next to the Prophet and laid his knees next to the Prophet’s knees and put his hands on the Prophet’s thighs. He asked the Prophet about Islam, Iman, Ih’san (excellence in the religion) and the Last Hour and its signs. The Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) answered him. Then, Jibreel left. The Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) said to his companions, “This was Jibreel, He came to you to teach you your religion.” [Saheeh Muslim popularly known as the HADEETH of JIBREEL]

Also, Allah sent the angels to Ibrahim (Abraham) and Lut in the shape of men.

Belief in the tasks that they perform, by the order of Allah. They praise Allah and worship him at all times without the slightest boredom or fatigue. Some angels may have special tasks to fulfill, a few have been mentioned below;

Jibreel is the honorable angel, whom Allah sends down with revelation to the Prophets and Messengers. Mikaeel is the angel who is controlling rain and Vegetation by the order of Allah. Israfeel is the angel who must blow in the Horn when the Hour (Last Day) has started and when it is time to resurrect the dead. An angel is the keeper and supervisor of Hell. The Angel of death captures the souls at death. There are angels who supervise fetuses in the wombs. When a fetus is four months old, Allah sends down an angel and orders him to record the fetus’s sustenance, maximum age, deeds and if miserable (destined to Hell) or happy (destined to Paradise). There are angels who record deeds of mankind. They have a record of everyone’s deeds. There are two angels for each person, one to the right and the other to the left. There are other angels who question the dead when they are in their graves. Two angels come to all dead persons and ask each one of them about the Lord he worshipped, the religion he followed and the Messenger he obeyed.

Benefits of Believing In The Angels
Knowing Allah’s Might, Strength and Power. All the strength of creation is a sign of the Strength of the Creator.
2. Thanking Allah because He takes care of mankind. He appointed angels to protect them, record their deeds and other beneficial tasks.
3. Loving the angels because they are true worshippers of Allah.

Some misguided people reject that the angels exist in a physical form. They claim that the angels are the potential for good that creation possesses. This is a direct rejection to the Book of Allah, the Sunnah of His Messenger (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) and the Ijmaa’ (consensus) of Muslims. Allah said, what translated means: “All the praises and thanks be to Allah, the (Only) Originator of the heavens and the earth, Who made the Angels messengers with wings, two or three or four).” [35:1], “And if you could see when the angels take away the souls of those who disbelieve (at death), they smite their faces and their backs.” [8:50], “And if you could but see when the unjust (disbelievers) are in the agonies of death, while the angels are stretching forth their hands (saying): “Deliver your souls.” [6:93], “Until when fear is banished from their (the angels’) hearts, they (the angels) say: “What is that your Lord has said?” They say: “The Truth. “And He is the Most High, the Most Great” [34:23] and, “And angels shall enter unto them from every gate (saying): ‘Peace be upon you for that you preserved in patience! Excellent indeed is the final Home (Paradise).” [13:23-24].

The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) said, what translated means, “When Allah likes a slave, He calls on Jibreel, saying: ‘Allah loves so and so (person), therefore, love him.’ Then, Gibreal loves him. Afterwards, Jibreel calls on the inhabitants of heaven, saying: ‘Allah loves so and so (person), therefore, love him.’ Then, the people of heaven love him. Afterwards acceptance (among the community of believers) will be granted for him in earth.”[3] and, “When the day of Friday comes, there stand angels at each of the Masjid’s doors. They record the first then the next (one to come to the Masjid). When the Imam sits down (waiting for the call to prayer to end so he can start the speech), they close the books and they come to listen to the Thikr (the remembrance of Allah contained in the Friday speech).” [Saheeh al-Bukharee]

The above texts are clear in their meaning that the angels have physical forms and are not a state of the mind, as the misguided claim. The true meaning of these texts, which states that the angels exist in a physical form, is accepted by the entire Ummah.

Chapter 5: Belief In The Books

Kutub (books) is plural for Kitab (a book). They are called Kutub because they are written (maktoob). Books, here means the Books that Allah sent down to His Messengers as a mercy and guidance for mankind. These Books are designed to lead mankind to what brings them happiness in this life and in the Hereafter.

There are four aspects of believing in the Books
To believe that they are truly sent down by Allah.

2. To believe in the Books that mankind were informed of, like the Qur’aan, sent down to Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam), the Torah, sent down to Moses, the Injeel (the Gospel), sent down to Jesus and the Zaboor (the Psalms), sent down to David. We also believe in the other Books, sent down by Allah, even though we do not know their names.

3. To believe in whatever the Books contained, like whatever is contained in the Qur’aan and sections of previous Books that have not been corrupted.

4. To implement the Commandments contained in these Books, unless Allah commanded to the contrary through Naskh (over ruling). We must accept whatever these Books contained of Commandments, even if we do not know the wisdom behind them. All previous Books were over-ruled by the Qur’aan. Allah said, what translated means, “And We have sent down to you (O Muhammad) the Book (this Qur’aan) in truth, confirming the Scripture that came before it and dominant over it.” [5:48]. This means that the Qur’aan is dominant over all other Books. Therefore, no Commandment contained in other than the Qur’aan can be implemented unless it is in agreement with the Qur’aan.

Benefits Of Believing In The Books
Knowing that Allah takes care of His slaves by sending down Books for their guidance.
2. Knowing Allah’s Wisdom in whatever He commands. He commanded each nation with what is suitable for them, “To each among you, We have prescribed a Law and a Clear Way.” [5:48].
3. Thanking Allah for His bounties, because He sent down these Books to lead mankind to guidance.

Chapter 6: Belief In the Messengers

The Messengers are sent to deliver a Message. They are the ones to whom Allah has sent down revelation and who conveys His Law to mankind. Allah ordered them to deliver these Messages.

The first Messenger to be sent was Noah and the last one was Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam). Allah said, what translated means, “Verily, We have inspired you (O Muhammad) as We inspired Noah and the Prophets after him.” [4:163]. Anas ibn Malik (radiyallaahu anhu) narrated that the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) said, during his Hadeeth about Shafa’ah (the right of intercession on mankind’s behalf that Allah grants to His Messenger on the Last Day), “Mankind come to Adam to intercede on their behalf but he declines, saying: ‘Go to Noah, the First Messenger that Allah sent…” [Saheeh al-Bukharee] Also, Allah said, what translated means, “Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) is not the father of any man among you, but he is the Messenger of Allah, and the Last (end) of Prophets.” [33:40].

Allah sent Messengers to every nation and provided them with Laws that their nations must follow. Some Messengers were sent to revive a Message of a previous Messenger. Allah said, what translated means, “And verily, We have sent among every nation a Messenger (proclaiming): “Worship Allah (alone), and avoid all Taghut (false deities).” [16:36], “And there never was a nation but a warner had passed among them).” [35:24] and, “Verily, We did send down the Torah (to Moses), therein was guidance and light, by which the Prophets, who submitted themselves to Allah’s will, judged the Jews.” [5:44].

The Messengers are only humans and they do not possess any attributes that qualify them to be gods. Allah described His Messenger, Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam), the master of all Messengers and the best of mankind, saying, what translated means, “Say (O Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam): “I possess no power of benefit or harm to myself except as Allah will. If I had the knowledge of the Unseen, I should have secured for myself an abundance of wealth, and no evil should have touched me. I am but a warner, and a bringer of glad tidings unto people who believe.” [7:188] and, “Say (O Muhammad): “It is not in my power to cause you harm, or to bring you to the Right Path.” Say: (O Muhammad): “None can protect me from Allah ‘s punishment (if I were to disobey Him), nor should I find refuge except in Him.” [72:21].

The Messengers are only humans. They get sick and they die, they need to eat and drink and they have other human needs. Abraham described his Lord, saying, as was mentioned in the Qur’aan, “And it is He Who feeds me and gives me to drink And when I am ill, it is He Who cures me; And Who will cause me to die, and then will bring me to life (again).” [26: 79-81]. Also, the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) said, what translated means, “I am only human, just like you, I forget as you forget, therefore, when I forget, remind me.” [Saheeh al-Bukharee and Saheeh Muslim]

Allah described the Messengers, while praising them, that they reached the highest attainable degrees in worshipping Him. He said about Noah, what translated means, “Verily, he was a grateful slave.” [17:3], and about Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam), “Blessed be He Who sent down the Criterion (of right and wrong, this Qur’aan) to His slave (Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) that he may be a Warner to the ‘Alamin (Mankind and the Jinn).” [25:1], and about Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, “And remember Our slaves, Abraham Isaac and Jacob, (all) owners of strength (in worshipping Us) and (also) of religious understanding. Verily, We did choose them by granting them the Remembrance of the home (in the Hereafter). And they are in Our Sight, verily, of the Chosen and the Best.” [38:45-47], and about Jesus, “He was not more than a slave. We granted Our favor to him, and We made him an example to the Children of Israel.” [43:59].

Belief In The Messengers Has Four Parts

1. To believe that the Messages are truly from Allah. Whoever disbelieves in one Messenger, will have disbelieved in all Messengers. Allah said, what translated means, “The people of Noah belied the Messengers.” [26:105]. Allah considered the people of Noah disbelievers in all Messengers, although they only disbelieved in one Messenger. Therefore, the Christians, who disbelieve in Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) and do not follow him, are disbelievers in Jesus, the Son of Mary. Jesus gave the glad tidings of the coming of Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) to the Christians. This glad tidings will be of no benefit to the Christians if they do not follow Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) to guidance and the Straight Path.

2. To believe in the Messengers whom we were told about, like Muhammad (sallallaau alaihi wa-sallam), Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Noah (alaihum as-salam). These are the five strongest Messengers. Allah mentioned them in two verses of the Qur’aan, “And (remember) when We took from the Prophets their Covenant, and form you (O Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam)), and from Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus, son of Mary.” [33:7] and, “He (Allah) has ordained for you the same Religion (Islam) which He ordained for Noah, and that which We have inspired in you (O Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam)), and that which We ordained for Abraham, Moses and Jesus, saying you should establish Religion (by implementing the Commandments) and make no divisions in it.” [42:13]. We must also believe in all other Messengers and Prophets whom their names were not mentioned to us, “And, indeed We have sent Messengers before you (O Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam)), of them some We have related to you their story and some We have not related to you their story.” [40:78].

3. To believe in all what the Messengers have conveyed to us.

4. To implement the Laws of the Messenger who was sent to us, Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam), the final Messenger. Allah sent Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) to all mankind, “But no, by your Lord, they can have no Faith, until they make you (O Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam)) judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission.” [4:65].

Benefits Of Believing In The Messengers

1. Knowing how Allah takes care of His slaves by sending them Messengers to guide them to His Path. The Messengers teach their nations how to worship Allah, because the human mind cannot know how Allah should be worshipped without guidance from Him.
2. Thanking Allah for this great bounty.
3. Dutifully loving, respecting and praising the Messengers of Allah. They are Allah’s Messengers; they worshipped Him, conveyed His Message and gave the best advice to His slaves.

Many rebellious people rejected their Messengers, claiming that Allah’s Messengers cannot be human. Allah mentioned this claim and refuted it, “And nothing prevented men from believing when the Guidance came to them, except that they said: “Has Allah sent a man as (His) Messenger?” Say: “If there were on the earth, angels walking about, in peace and security, We should certainly have sent down for them from the heaven an angel as a Messenger.”” [17:94- 95]. Allah refuted this claim, saying that the Messengers must be sent from among humans, because they are sent to the people of earth, who are humans. If the inhabitants of earth were angels, then Allah would have sent Messengers from among the angels to them. Allah mentioned what the disbelievers in the Messengers said, “You are no more than, human beings like us! You wish to turn us away from what our fathers used to worship. Then bring us a clear authority (a clear sign that supports what you say).” Their Messengers said to them: “We are no more than human beings like you, but Allah bestows His grace to whom He will of His salves. it is not ours to bring you an authority (proof) except by the permission of Allah.” [14:10-11]

Chapter 7: Belief In the Last Day

The Last Day is the Day when mankind will be resurrected to be asked about their deeds and receive reward or punishment for them. It is called “the Last Day,” because it is the last day, no day after that. Afterwards, people of Paradise will permanently reside and take their places in it, and people of Hell will permanently reside and take their places in it.

Belief In The Last Day Has Three Parts

1. To believe in the Resurrection. – The Resurrection happens when the Horn will be blown for the second time. Afterwards, mankind will be resurrected to face the questioning by the Lord of the worlds. They will neither be wearing shoes nor circumcised, and they will be naked and visible to others on this state, (however, everyone will be absolutely preoccupied with what they are going to face and the hardship of the Day of Resurrection). Allah said, what translated means, “As We began the first creation, We shall repeat it, (it is) a promise binding upon Us. Truly, We shall do it.” [21:104].

The Resurrection is a true event that the Qur’aan, the Sunnah and the consensus of Muslims have confirmed. Allah said, what translated means, “After that, surely you will die. Then (again), surely, you will be resurrected on the Day of Resurrection.” [23:15-16]. The Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) said, what translated means, “On the Day of Resurrection, Mankind wilt be resurrected while they are bear-footed and naked.” [Saheeh al-Bukharee and Saheeh Muslim]

The Muslims are unanimous on confirming the Day of Resurrection. This is the wisdom of Allah, for He decreed that creation will have a day of reckoning for their deeds after He sent them Messengers to inform them of His Commandments. He said, what translated means, “Did you think that We had created you in play (without any purpose), and that you would not be brought back to Us?” [23:115] and, “Verily, He Who has given you (O Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam)) the Qur’aan will surely bring you back to the Ma’ad (place of return).” [28:85].

2. To believe in the Reckoning – In the Last Day, the slave will be rewarded or punished for his deeds. This fact was also confirmed by the Qur’aan, the Sunnah and the consensus of Muslims. Allah said, what translated means, “Verily, to Us will be their return. Then verily, for Us will be their Reckoning.” [88:25-26], “Whoever brings a good deed shall have ten times the like thereof to his credit, and whoever brings an evil deed shall have only the recompense of the like thereof and they will not be wronged.” [6:160] and, “And We shall set up balances of justice on the Day of Resurrection, then none will be dealt with unjustly in anything. And if there be the weight of a mustard seed, We will bring it And Sufficient are We as Reckoners.” [21:47].

The Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) said, what translated means, “Allah will bring the believer closer to Him, and will shield him form being exposed (for his evil deeds in front of everyone). He will say: ‘Do you remember such and such (evil) deed? Do you remember such and such (evil) deed?’ He will say: ‘Yes, O my Lord!’ When He gets his confessions for his evil deeds, and he (the salve) thinks that he is close to destruction, he will say: ‘I have preserved you (from being exposed in front of others for these evil deeds) during your lifetime. Today, I forgive them for you.’ Then, he will be given his record of deeds. As for the disbelievers and the hypocrites, they will be called in public: ‘These are the ones who lied on their Lord (did not follow His Guidance sent down with their Prophets). Therefore, Allah’s curse will befall the unjust ones.” [Saheeh al-Bukharee and Saheeh Muslim]

And,“Whoever intends to perform a good deed, and performs it, Allah will record it for him as ten deeds, to seven hundredfold, to many more folds. Whoever intends to commit and evil deed, and commits it, Allah will record it as one evil deed.” [Saheeh al-Bukharee and Saheeh Muslim]

Muslims are unanimous that the Day of Reckoning will come. This is the Wisdom of Allah. He revealed the Books, sent down the Messengers and commanded that they be accepted, followed and obeyed. He commanded that whoever oppose them (the Books and the Messengers) are to be fought. He permitted shedding their blood, and the seizure of their children, women and possessions. If there will not be a Day of Reckoning, then this Commandment will be time wasted. Allah is immune form such joyful play. “Then surely, We shall question those (people) to who it (the Book) was sent and verily, We shall question the Messengers. Then surely, We shall narrate unto them (their whole story) with knowledge, and indeed We were not absent.’ [7:6.7].

3. To believe in Paradise and Hell. They are the final destination for whoever deserves either one of them, and for eternity. Paradise is the destination of the ultimate happiness and joy that Allah prepared for the believers who feared Him, believed in what He required from them to believe and obeyed Him and His Messenger. They are the ones who were sincere to Allah and followers of His Messenger. Paradise contains, of Allah’s bounties, “What no eye has ever violated, what no ear has ever heard of and what no mind has ever imagined (of joys that Allah hid for the believers).” [4] Allah said, what translated means, “Verily, those who believe (in Allah) and do righteous, good deeds, they are the best of creatures. Their reward with their Lord is Gardens of Eternity, underneath which rivers flow, they will abide therein forever, Allah Well-Pleased with them, and they with Him. That is for him who fears his Lord.” [98:7-8] and, “No person knows what is kept hidden for them of joy as a reward for what they used to do.)’ [32:17].

As for Hell, it is the destination of torment and punishment that Allah prepared for the unjust disbelievers. They are the ones who disbelieved in Him and disobeyed His Messengers. Hell contains kinds of punishment and torment that no one could ever imagine. Allah said, what translated means, “And fear the Fire, which is prepared for the disbelievers.” [3: 131] “We have prepared for the wrongdoers, a Fire whose walls will be surrounding them. And if they ask for help (relief, water etc.) they will be granted water like boiling oil that will scald their faces. Terrible the drink, and an evil dwelling.” [18: 29] and, “Verily, Allah has cursed the disbelievers, and has prepared for them a flaming Fire (Hell). Wherein, they will abide forever, and they will find neither a protector nor a helper. On the Day when their faces will be turned and rolled form all sides in the Fire, they will say: “Oh, would that we had obeyed Allah and obeyed the Messenger (Muhammad).” [33:64-66]

Belief in Life After Death: Believing in the Last Day requires Muslims to also believe in life after death and in the following:

1. The questioning in the grave. The dead will be asked, in their graves, about the lord, the religion and the Prophet they followed during their lifetime. Allah will lead the believer to say what is necessary, saying, “Allah is my Lord. My religion is Islam. My Prophet is Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam).” As for the unjust, Allah will lead him to misguidance saying, in answer to the above questions “What! What! I do not know.” Also! the hypocrites and the ones who always had doubts about Allah, the religion and the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam), will say, “I do not know. I heard people say something and I followed them.” [Saheeh al-Bukharee and Saheeh Muslim]

2. The torment or joy in the grave. The unjust, the disbelievers and the hypocrites will be tormented in their graves. Allah said, what translated means, “And if you but see when the wrongdoers are in the agonies of death, while the angels are stretching forth their hands (saying): “Deliver your souls; this day you shall be recompensed with the torment of degradation because of what you used to utter against Allah other than the truth. And you used to reject his Ayat (proofs, signs, evidences, etc.) with disrespect” [6: 93] and about Pharaoh’s people, “The Fire; they are exposed to it, morning and afternoon, and on the Day when the Hour will be established (it will be said to the angels): “Cause Pharaoh ‘s people to enter the severest Torment” [40:46].

Zaid ibn Thabit (radiyallaahu anhu) narrated that the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) said to his companions what translated means, “I would have asked Allah to let you hear what I am hearing from the punishment in the grave, but for the fear that you would not bury each other after that” Then the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) turned his face towards them, saying, “Seek refuge in Allah from the torment of the Fire.” They said, “We seek refuge in Allah from the torment of the Fire.” He said, “Seek refuge in Allah from the torment of the grave.” They said, “We seek refuge in Allah from the torment of the grave.” He said, “Seek refuge in Allah from all calamities, apparent or hidden.” They said, “We seek refuge in Allah from all calamities, apparent or hidden.” He said, “Seek refuge in Allah from the calamity of Al-A‘war Ad-Dajjal (the False Messiah).” They said, “We seek refuge lit Allah from the calamity of Al-A‘war Ad-Da.jjal.” [Saheeh Muslim]

As for joys of the grave, they are given to the believers. Allah said, what translated means, “Verily, those who say: “Our Lord is Allah (alone),” and then they stood fast on them (these words that they say), on them the angels will descend (at the time of their death) (saying): “Fear you not, nor grieve! But receive the glad tidings of Paradise which you have been promised?” [41:30] and, “Then why do you not (intervene) when (the soul of a dying person) reaches the throat? And you at the moment are looking on? But We (our angels who take the soul) are nearer to him than you, but you see not. Then why do you not, if you are exempt from the reckoning and recompense (punishment). Bring back the soul (to its body), if you are truthful? Then if he (the dying person) be of those near ones (close to Allah), (there is for him) rest and provisions, and a Garden of Delights (Paradise).” [56: 83-89].

Al-Baraa’ ibn ‘Azib narrated that the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) said about the believer, that after he is asked by the angels (about the lord, the religion and the Messenger he followed) and after he replies (saying that his Lord is Allah, his religion is Islam and his Messenger is Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam), “A caller from heaven will say: ‘My slave has said the truth. Therefore, furnish him (his grave) from Paradise, dress him from Paradise and open a door for him to Paradise.” Then he said, “He will receive from its tranquility and perfume. His grave will be enlarged for him the distance that his sight reaches.” [Musnad Ahmad & Aboo Dawood]

Benefits of Believing in the Last Day
The desire to do righteous, good deeds, seeking the good results in the Last Day.
2. The fear from committing and approving of evil deeds, fearing the torment of the Day of Reckoning.
3. The believer feels that this belief makes him forget the hardships he faces in this life. He is preoccupied with working righteousness trying to reach the joys and good rewards of the Last Day.

Some disbelievers reject the idea of life after death saying that this is not possible. This claim is false. Religion, the senses and the mind are used to refute this claim.

As for Religion, Allah said, what translated means: “The disbelievers pretend that they will never be resurrected (for the account). Say (O Muhammad): “Yes! By my Lord, you will certainly be resurrected, then you will be informed (and recompensed for) what you did, and that is easy for Allah.” [64:7] All Scriptures are unanimous on this matter.

As for the Senses, Allah demonstrated to his slaves how He raised the dead in this life. In Surat Al-Baqarah. Allah mentioned five examples:

1. The People of Moses said to him, “We will no believe in you unless we see Allah without a barrier.” They were seized by death and then Allah resurrected them. To remind the Children of Israel with this story, Allah said, what translated means, “And (remember) when you said: “O Moses: We shall never believe in you till we see Allah Plainly.” But you were seized with a thunder-bolt (lightening) while you were looking. Then We raised you up after your death, so that you might be grateful.” [2:55-56].

2. The story of the murdered man whom the Children of Israel differed as to who killed him. Allah ordered them to sacrifice a cow and strike him with some of its parts. so he can tell them who killed him, “And (remember) when you killed a man and fell into dispute among yourselves as to the crime. But Allah brought forth that which you were hiding. So We said: “Strike him (the dead man) with a piece of it (the cow).” Thus Allah brings the dead to life and shows you His signs so that you may understand.” [2:72-73].

3. The story of the nation that escaped from its land for fear of death by the hands of their enemies, although their number was in the thousands. Allah made death seize them and then raised them back to life, “Did you (O Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam)) not think of those who went forth from their homes in thousands, fearing death? Allah said to them: “Die.” And then He restored them to life. Truly, Allah is full of Bounty to mankind, but most men thank not.” [2:243].

4. The story of the person who passed by a village that all its inhabitants had died. He could not imagine that Allah can resurrect them. Allah made death seize him for a hundred years and then raised him from the dead, Or (think you of) such as he who passed by a town all in utter ruins. He said: “Oh! How will Allah ever bring it to life after it’s death?” So Allah caused him to die for a hundred years, then raised him up (again). He said: “How long did you remain (dead)?” He (the man) said: “(Perhaps) I remained (dead) a day or a part of a day.” He said: “Nay, you have remained (dead) for a hundred years, look at your food and at your drink, they show no change; and look at your donkey! And thus We have made of you a Sign for the people. Look at the bones, how We bring them together and clothe them with flesh.” When this was clearly shown to him, he said: “I Know (now) that Allah is Able to do all things.” [2:259].

5. The story of Abraham who asked Allah to show him how He raises the dead. Allah ordered him to kill four birds, cut them in parts and spread the parts over the surrounding mountains. He told him to call the dead birds, and that he did. These parts were collected (by Allah’s Power) and the birds came back to life and they came to Abraham. Allah said, what translated means, “And (remember) when Abraham said: “My Lord! Show me how You give life to the dead. “ He (Allah) said: “Do you not believe?” He (Abraham) said: “Yes (I believe), but to be stronger in faith.” He said: “Take four bird, then cause them to incline towards you (slaughter them, Cut them into pieces), and then put a portion of them on every hill, and call them, they will come to you in haste. And know that Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise.” [2:260].

These are five examples of incidents that happened. They prove that raising the dead can happen by the will of Allah. We mentioned before that Jesus raised the dead from their graves, by the will of Allah.

As for the Mind, there are two ways to correctly use it to confirm raising the dead:

1. Allah is the One who started the creation of heavens and earth. The One who is Capable of starting the creation is also Capable of restarting it. Allah said, what translated means, “And He is Who originates the creation, then will repeat it (after it has been perished), and this is easier for Him.” [30:27] and, “As We began the first creation, We shall repeat it, (it is) a promise binding upon Us. Truly, We shall do it.” [21:104] and to the one who denied that Allah will give life to the bones when they have rotted away, “Say (O Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam)): “‘He will give life to them Who created them for the first time! And He is the All-Knower of every creation.” [36:79].

2. It is noticed that the soil can become dry and that trees and plants die. When Allah sends the rain, the soil comes back to life and plants of all kinds grow and become green. The One who brings life back to the dead soil is Capable of raising the dead. Allah said, what translated means, “And among His Signs (in this), that you see the earth barren, but when We send down water (rain) to it, it is stirred to life and growth (of vegetation). Verily, He Who gives it life, surely. (He) is Able to give life to the dead (on the Day of Resurrection). Indeed! He is Able to do all things.” [41: 39] “And We send down blessed water (rain) from the sky then We produce therewith gardens and grain (all harvests that are reaped). And tall date-palms, with ranged clusters; A provisions for (Allah’s) slaves. And We give life therewith to dead land. Thus will be the Resurrection (of the dead).” (50:9-11].

Some misguided people reject punishment or joy in the grave claiming that this cannot happen. They claim that if one exhumes the dead, he will find the grave as it was left and that it did not change in size. This claim is rejected by the Shari’ah, the senses and the mind:

As for the Shari’ah, we mentioned some texts before. These texts confirm the punishment or joy in the grave. Ibn Abbas (radiyallaahu anhuma) said, “The Prophet passed by some walls in Madinah. He heard the screams of two persons who were being punished in their graves.” The Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) mentioned the reasons behind this punishment, “One of them did not protect himself (his clothes) form urine. The other one was spreading (sawing) differences (between people).” [Saheeh ab-Bukharee]

As for the Senses, we know that, while dreaming, the one who is asleep sees that he is enjoying a huge space or that he is feeling pain because he is squeezed in a small area. Sometimes, one’s sleep is interrupted because of such nightmares, although he is still in his bed. Sleeping is similar to dying. Allah said, what translated means, “It is Allah Who takes away the souls at the time of their death, and those that die not during their sleep. He keep those (souls) for which He had ordained death and sends the rest for a term appointed. Verily, in this are signs for a people who think deeply.” [39:42]

As for the Mind, sometimes one sees dreams that may later happen in real life. Some Muslims may see the Prophet in their dreams. Whoever sees the Prophet, on the shape that he was described in books of Hadith, is saying the truth in that he saw him. This happens while one is still in his bed. If this is the case in this material life, what about matters of the other life?

As for their claim that when one exhumes a dead body, that no signs of abnormal change, either in the body or the grave itself, are detected, we say the following:

1. The Shari’ah cannot be rejected by depending on these doubts. These doubts can easily be refuted, providing one uses his mind. There is a popular saying: “There are many who refute a truth, while the problem lies with their limited comprehension.”

2. Life in the grave is a matter of the unseen. The senses cannot unveil the unseen. If matters of the unseen are unveiled by the senses, then belief in the unseen will not have any useful meaning, in which case believing or disbelieving is irrelevant, since there would be no matters of the unseen to believe in.

3. Only the dead feel the punishment or joy in the grave. Also, the one who is dreaming is the only one who is experiencing the pain of being squeezed in a small space or the joy of being in an open area. Others do not feel the same as the one who is experiencing these dreams, although he is still in his bed. The Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) used to receive revelation while he was among his companions and the companions did not hear the revelation. Sometimes, the angel came in the shape of an invisible man. The companions did not see the angel while he was delivering revelation to the Messenger.

4. Humans have limited comprehension and understanding of the universe. They only understand what Allah gave them the capability to understand. They do not understand all of the existence. The seven heavens, the earth and all that which is therein praise Allah. Allah, sometimes, gives the power to some of His creation to hear such praise. Humans cannot hear such praise. Allah said, what translated means, “The seven heavens and the earth and all that is therein, glorify Him and there is not a thing but glorifies His praise. But you understand not their glorification. Truly, He is Ever Forbearing, Oft-Forgiving.” [17:44]. Also, devils and the Jinn go about in the earth. The Jinn came to the Messenger and listened to his recitation of the Qur’aan. When he finished, they went back to their nation to convey the Message to them. However, this creation is out of the reach of human’s Comprehension, “O Children of Adam! Let not Satan deceive you, as he got your parents (Adam and Eve) out of Paradise, stripping them of their raiment, to show them their private parts. Verily, he and his soldiers see you from where you will not see them. Verily, We made the devils protectors (and helpers) for those who believe not.” [7:27]. Creation can neither reach what is beyond their comprehension nor understand all the existence. Therefore, one cannot dispute ‘flatters of the unseen that he cannot comprehend.

Chapter 8: Belief In Al-Qadar

Al-Qadar is Allah’s predestination of measurements and sustenance of everything and everyone, according to His Knowledge and Wisdom.

Aspects Of Belief In Al-Qadar

1. Knowledge – The belief that Allah’s Knowledge encompasses everything, every matter, major or minor, and time frames of everything that happens in this universe. Allah’s Knowledge encompasses all of His Actions and actions taken by His slaves.

2. Writing – The belief that Allah recorded everything in a Book that He kept with Him, called “A1-Lawh’ Al-Mah’foodh” (The Preserved Book). He said, what translated means, “Know you not that Allah knows all that is in heaven and on earth? Verily, it is (all) in the Book (Al-Lawh’ Al-Mah’footh). Verily, that is easy for Allah.” [22:70].

Abdullah-ibn-Amr-ibn-al-Aas (radiyallaahu anhuma) said that he heard the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) say, what translated means, “Allah recorded the measurement of all matters pertaining to Creation fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and earth.” [Saheeh Muslim]

3. The belief that nothing, whether related to Allah’s Actions or actions taken by His slaves, can happen without His Permission. He said, what translated means, “And your Lord Creates whatsoever He wills and chooses.” [28: 68], “ And Allah does what He will.” [14: 27] and, “He it is Who shapes you in the wombs as He pleases.” [3: 6]. As for actions taken by His creation, Allah said, “Had Allah willed, indeed He would have given them power over you, and they would have fought you.” [4:90] and, “And if Allah had willed, they would not have done so. So leave them alone with their fabrications.” [6:137].

4. The belief that Allah created all creation, all what they possess of attributes and all their actions, “Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is the Guardian over all things.” [39:62] and, “He has created everything, and has measured it exactly according to its due measurements.” [25: 2]. Also, Abraham said to his people, as was mentioned in the Qur’aan, “While Allah has created you and what you make.” [37:96].

Believing in the Al-Qadar, as described above, does not mean that people have no power over the actions they chose to take. Islamic Shari’ah and Reality confirm that the person has a will of his own:

As for the Shari’ah, Allah said about one’s own will, what translated means, “So, whosoever wills, let him take a Return to his Lord (by obeying His Commandments).” [78:39] and, “So go to your tilt (have sexual relations with your wives) when and how you will (not in the anus).” [2:223]. As for one’s own power over his actions, “So keep your duty to Allah as much as you can; listen and obey.” [64:16] and, “Allah burdens not a person beyond his scope. He gets reward for that (good) which he has earned, and he is punished for that (evil) which he has earned.” [2:286].

As for the Reality of things, every human knows that he has a power and a will of his own. He uses his power and will to indulge in or avoid actions of his choice. Mankind distinguish between what they do by their own power and between what they have no power over, like shivering due to illness or extreme cool. However, the power and will of mankind is under the control of Allah’s Will and Power, “To whomsoever among you who wills to walk straight. And you will not, unless (it be) that Allah wills, the Lord of the worlds.” [8 1:28-29]. The universe is Allah’s property and nothing happens in His Kingdom without His Knowledge and Permission.

Belief in Al-Qadar, as explained above, does not provide an excuse for mankind to sin or abandon what they are obligated to do. This excuse can be rejected using the following arguments:

1. Allah said, what translated means, “Those who took partners (in worship) with Allah will say: “If Allah had Willed, we would not have taken partners (in worship) with Him, nor would our fathers, and we would not have forbidden anything (against His Will). “Likewise bellied those who were before them, till they tasted of Our Wrath. Say: “Have you any knowledge (proof) that you can produce before us? Verily, you follow nothing but guess and you do nothing but lie” [6:148]. The disbelievers did not have a valid excuse when they said that what they did was according to A1-Qadar. If this excuse was valid, then why will Allah punish them for their sins?

2. Allah said, what translated means, “Messengers as bearers of good news as well as of warning in order that mankind should have no plea against Allah after the Messengers And Allah is Ever All-Powerful, All-Wise.” [4:165]. Sending down the Messengers took place according to A1-Qadar, also. This is why the disbelievers cannot use Al-­Qadar as an excuse for not believing, because Al-Qadar provided them with the means to escape Allah’s punishment by following His Messengers.

3. Ali-ibn-Abi Talib (radiyallaahu anhu) said that the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) said, what translated means, “One’s final destination, in Hell or Paradise, is already determined for each one of you.” A man said, “Should we depend (on this fact), O Messenger of Allah (meaning to abandon working deeds)?” He said, “No. Perform deeds, because everyone will be helped (to go on the path that he chooses and reach his destiny).” Then he read the Ayah. “As for him who gives (in charity) and keeps his duty to Allah and fears Him…” [92:5].” [1]

4. Allah conveyed His Commandments to His slaves and did not require them to do what is beyond their capacity. “So keep your duty to Allah (and fear Him) as much as you can.” [64:16], and “Allah burdens not a person beyond his scope.” [2:286]. If the slave is forced to do whatever deeds he performs, then Allah would have required from him what is beyond his capacity, and this is a false belief. For this reason, Allah forgives sins that take place because of ignorance or forgetfulness.

5. Al-Qadar is a matter of Allah’s Knowledge. No one can uncover his own Qadar but after it happens. One’s intention to perform a deed precedes the action itself. He does not know what Al-Qadar holds for him. Therefore, Al-Qadar is not a valid excuse for sinning and abandoning the Commandments.

6. One always seeks what is convenient for him. No one of sane mind would abandon what brings material benefit to him, saying that Al-Qadar forced him to take this course of action. Therefore, why would one use Al-Qadar as an excuse for abandoning what brings benefit to him in matters of religion and not do the same for matters of life?

If a man has to choose between two countries to move to, one of them is chaotic, full of incidents of murder, looting, rape, insecurity and hunger. Would he choose to go to this country or would he go to another country, which is safe for him and secure, with abundance in material joys, where one’s honor, possessions and human rights are preserved? There is no doubt that this man would choose the second country, where he will be safe and secure. No one of sane mind would choose to go to the first country, claiming that this is his Qadar. Therefore, why would one choose what ends him up in Hell, rather than Paradise, in the Last Life, claiming that this is his Qadar?

When one is sick and is given a medicine to take, he will take the medicine even though he does not like its taste. When one is told to go on a diet, he would not eat the food that he likes, in order to satisfy this diet and to stay fit. No one of sane mind would refuse to take medicines or go on medical diets, claiming that this is his Qadar. Therefore, why would one abandon implementing Allah’s and His Messenger’s Commandments, thus bringing Allah’s Wrath on him, claiming that this is his Qadar?

7. If one of those, who abandon the Commandments and indulge in sinning, comes under attack on his honor or possessions, would he accept the excuse of the attacker, if he says that he attacked him because it was his Qadar to attack him, and therefore he is not to be blamed? Indeed No! Therefore, why does this person refuse Al-Qadar as an excuse for whoever attacked him, while he depends on Al-Qadar as an excuse for abandoning Allah’s rights on him?

It was reported that Omar ibn Al-Khattab (radiyallaahu anhu) was brought a man who was caught stealing. Omar ordered that this man’s hand be cut off. The man said, “Wait, O leader of the believers. I only stole because this was in the Qadar of Allah.” Omar said, “And we are cutting your hand because it is in the Qadar of Allah.”

Benefits Of Belief In Al-Qadar
Depending on Allah alone when one indulges in any action. Taking the necessary precautions is not the cause of one’s success in the intended actions. All matters are under the full control of the Qadar of Allah.

2. When one succeeds in performing an action, he must not be proud of himself. All good deeds are successfully performed because of Allah’s bounty, because He ordained that this matter to be successful. To be proud will make one forget to thank Allah for permitting him to successfully perform this deed.

3. Believing in Al-Qadar leads one to feel satisfied, safe and secure. All incidents that happen to a person are a result of Allah’s Qadar. One should not feel miserable for losing or not gaining what he likes. All this happens according to the Qadar of Allah. Allah is the King and Lord of the heavens and earth and His Qadar will happen exactly as He Will, “No calamity befalls on the earth or in yourselves but is inscribed in the Book of Decrees (Al-Lawh’ Al-Mah’footh), before We bring it into existence. Verily, that is easy for Allah. In order that you may not be sad over matters that you fail to get, nor rejoice because of that which has been given to you. And Allah likes not prideful boasters.” [57:22-23]. The Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) said, what translated means, “Pleasing is the attitude of the believer. All of his matters are righteous. This is only for the believer. If a joy is brought to him, he thanks (Allah for it). This is better for him. If a calamity befalls him, he is patient. This is also good for him.” [Saheeh Muslim]

Two groups fell into misguidance with regard to Al­-Qadar:

1. Al-Jabriyyah – This group claimed that the person is forced to do whatever he does and that he has no power or will of his own.

2. Al-Qadariyyah – They claimed that the person has a will and power independent of Allah’s Will and Power.

The Shari’ah and Real Life are used to refute the first group, Al-Jabriyyah.

As for the Shari’ah, Allah confirmed that humans have a will and power of their own, ‘Among you are some that desire this world and some that desire the Hereafter. [3:152], “And say: “The Truth is from your Lord.” Then whosoever wills, let him believe, and whosoever wills, let him disbelieve. Verily, We have prepared for the unjust, a Fire whose walls will be surrounding them.” [18:29] and. “Whosoever does righteous, good deeds, it is for (the benefit of) his own-self and whosoever does evil, it is against his own-self, and your Lord is not at all unjust to (His) slaves.” [41:46].

As for Real Life, everyone knows the difference between his actions, like eating, drinking, selling and buying, and between what is beyond his power, like shivering and accidentally falling off a roof, for example. The first type of actions are his. He chooses them on his own will using his own power. The second type of actions are beyond his control.

The Shari’ah and The Mind are also used to refute the second group, Al-Qadariyyah.

As for the Shari’ah, Allah created everything and nothing happens without His permission. He said that all actions taken by His slave happen by His Will, “Allah had willed, succeeding generations would not have fought against each other, after clear Verses of Allah had come to them, but they differed, some of them believed and others disbelieved, If Allah had willed, they would not have fought against one another, but Allah does what He likes.” [2:253] and, “And if We had willed, surely! We would have given every person his guidance, but the Word from Me took effect (about evil­doers), that I will fill Hell with Jinn and mankind together.” [32:13].

As for The Mind, the universe is Allah’s Kingdom and mankind are a part of this Kingdom. Therefore, all mankind are owned by Allah. The slave cannot do anything in this Kingdom unless its Lord, Allah, gives him permission.


[1] Saheeh aL-Bukhari & Saheeh Muslim (the wordings are by Al-Bukhari)]. Muslim’s narration of this Hadith reads, “All will be helped to satisfy what they were created for.” The Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wa-sallam) ordered the companions to perform righteous, good deeds and not to depend on Al-Qadar.

Chapter 9 : The Goals Of Islamic Belief –(Aqeedah)

A person’s goals are the destination that he wishes to reach by taking certain actions. The Islamic ‘Aqeedah (belief) has goals and values that are the destination of whoever preserves it:

1 – Seeking the Pleasure of Allah and worshipping Him alone. Allah is the Creator who has no partners. Therefore, He alone must be worshipped and His Pleasure must be intended by every action one takes.

2 – Freeing the mind from the confusion caused by not following this ‘Aqeedah. Whoever does not believe in this ‘Aqeedah is either an atheist who is worshipping material means or is a follower of misguidance and darkness caused by false beliefs.

3 – Gaining psychological and intellectual satisfaction. The ones who believe in this ‘Aqeedah do not fall victim to psychological complexes or confusion. This ‘Aqeedah builds a direct and strong relationship between the Lord and His salve. The believer accepts Allah as the Lord, the Legislator and The King. He is satisfied with this belief. His heart is pleased with the following of Islam and he would not exchange this pleasure for anything else.

4 – Purifying one’s intentions and deeds. This ‘Aqeedah protects one from falling into misguidance in acts of Worship or in dealings with others. It requires its followers to follow the path set by the Messengers. This path leads to Safety and Purity in the hearts and actions.

5 – Being serious with regards to all matters. One does not pass the chance to do righteous, good deeds, but he takes any chance to gain Allah’s rewards. One is always on his guard against any path that leads to sin, fearing Allah’s punishment. This ‘Aqeedah requires its followers to believe in the Resurrection and the Day of Reckoning, “(For all there will be degrees (or ranks) according to what they did. And your Lord is not unaware of what they do ” [6:132].

The Prophet also encouraged this attitude, “The strong believer is better and more liked by Allah than the weak believer. However, each one of them has (a certain degree of ) goodness. Seek what brings benefit to you and depend on Allah. Do not be weak if any calamity befalls you, do not say: ‘Had I done that, then this would not have happened.’ Only say: ‘Allah has ordained (this matter) and whatever He will He does.’ “Had I,” opens the door wide for the Devil to do his work” [Saheeh Muslim]

6 – Establishing a strong nation that strives to preserve its religion and solidify its gains. This nation disregards the losses it concurs while striving to preserve the religion. Allah said, what translated means, “Only those are the believers who have believed in Allah and His Messenger, and afterwards doubt not but strive with their wealth and their lives for the cause of Allah. Those! They are the truthful” [49:15].

7 – Reaching happiness in this life and in the Last Life, by leading individuals and groups to guidance and gaining their Lord’s bounties and good rewards, “Whoever works righteousness, whether male or female, while he (or she) is a true believer (in Allah) verily, to him We will give a good life (in this world), and We shall pay them certainly a reward in proportion to the best of what they used to do (Paradise in the Hereafter).” [16:97].

These are some of the goals that Islam seeks for its followers to reach. We pray that Allah helps us and the rest of Muslims to reach them.

Preserving the Usool : Shaikh al-Uthaimeen

Shaikh Muhammad Bin Saalih al-Uthaimeen [1] – from the Book Tuqrîbut-Tadmuriyyah (pp.7.14)

Source: Al-Ibaanah Magazine, Issue No.2 – Rabi’ul-Awwal 1416H / August 1995

The Messenger of Allaah explained to the people -completely and clearly-what their Lord had revealed for them; both the detailed matters and the important ones, the apparent matters and the hidden ones, to such an extent that he taught them what they needed to know with respect to matters of eating, drinking, marriage, clothing and housing. So he taught them the ettiquettes of eating, drinking and relieving one’s self; the ettiquettes of marriage; the ettiquettes of clothing and of entering and leaving the house – just as he taught them what they needed to know with regard to the worship of Allaah -The Mighty and Majestic-such as purification, Prayer, Zakaah, fasting, Pilgrimage and other than this.

He taught them what they needed to know with regard to the social behaviour with the people, such as kindness to parents, keeping ties of kinship, good companionship with friends and neighbours and other than this.He taught them how to conduct themselves in matters of buying and selling, pawning, leaving deposits, leasing, renting, giving and receiving donations, and other such matter, to such an extent that Abu Dharr(radhi Allaahu anhu) said: “Indeed the Messenger of Allaah passed away and there is not a bird flapping its wings in the sky, except that he mentioned to us some knowledge about it” (2)

Foundations of the Deen

Salmaan al-Farsee (radhi Allaahu anhu) narrated that it was said to him:Your Prophet has taught you everything, even how to relieve yourselves?So he said to them:”Yes indeed! And he has prohibited us from facing the qiblah (direction of prayer) whilst relieving ourselves…”(3) Along with this, he also taught them the foundation of all these acts of worship, manners and social interactions.

This foundation being what the worshippers hold as ‘aqeedah (belief) concerning Allaah-the deity who is worshipped and who alone deservs to be worshippped -regarding His Dhaat (Essence), His Names, His Attributes and His Actions, and what follows from this regard to His Universal Laws and His prescribed Laws, which is based upon His ultimate Wisdom and utmost mercy.The Companions learnt all this from the Prophet, clearly and without any ambiguity, and all this was built upon the complete “Tawheed” of Allaah (to single out Allaah alone for worship), having as its foundations two great pillars: Affirmation and Negation.

As for affirmation: It is affirming what is due to Allaah-the Most High-from the rights of His Lordship, worship, and His names, attributes and actions.

As for negation: Then it is negating any partners to Allaah-the Most High-in all that is due to Him.

The People of Sunnah

Those who followed in goodness (ie in aqeedah and manhaj) from those who reached the period of the companions , or those who came after them from the Imaams of guidance-who deserved the Pleasure of Allaah – remained upon this path, as Allaah-the Most High-said:

“The first to embrace Islaam from the Muhaajireen(those who migrated from Makkah to al-Madeenah) and the Ansaar(those who lived in al-Madeenah and aided them after migration) and those who follow them in goodness(correct aqeedah and manhaj).Allaah is well pleased with them, as they are well pleased with Him.He has prepared for them Gardens beneath which rivers flow, to dwell therein forever.This is the suporeme achievement”(4)

Then they were followed by those who came later, being blind to the truth, or pretending to be blind to the truth.So they went astray and led others astray either due to inabilities or shortcomings, or due to enmity and oppression. They innovated in the Deen of Allaah -the Most High – that which did not belong to it, in matters of aqeedah (beliefs), ibaadah (acts of worship) and sulook (manners).They did this by altering the texts of the Book and the Sunnah; and of it was possible, they rejected them entirely!

Brief History of the Innovated Sects

Shaykh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah ( d.728H) said: “And know that most of the innovations connected to ‘uloom(sciences) and acts of worship occured in this Ummah at the end of the period of the Rightly guided Khaleefahs; just asa the Prophet informed, when he said: “Those of you who live long after me will see a great deal of differences. So Hold fast to my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the Rightly Guided Khaleefahs after me”…So when the period of the Rightly Guided Khaleefahs had passed and the rule of kingship appeared, deficiencies appeared in the leaders, and therefore deficiency spread also to the people of knowledge and Deen.So during the end of the rule of ‘Alee (radhi Allaahu anhu) – the innovation of the Khwaarij (5) and Raafidah (6) appeared; this being connected to the issue of leadership and khilaafah, and what was connected to this from actions and Shareeah rulings.

The kingship of Mu’aawiyah was a kingship of mercy, so when it passed, the rule of Yazeed came and fitnah (trials and discord) took place within it: the killling of al-Husayn in Iraaq, the fitnah of the people of Hurrah in al-Madeenah and the seige of Makkah when ‘Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr made his stand. Then Yazeed passed away and the Ummah split-up. Ibn az-Zubayr in the Hijaaz, Banu Hakam in ash-Shaam (Syria, Jordan and Palestine) and the jump to power of Mukhtaar ibn Abee’Ubayd and others in ‘Iraaq. All of this took place at the end of the period of the Companions, when there only remained the likes of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abaas, ‘Abdullah ibn Umar, Jaabir ibn ‘Abdullah, Abu Saeed al-Khudree and others. The innovations of the Qadarriyah (7) and the Murjiah (8) then occured and it was refused by those Companions who remained, as they had, along with others, refuted the innovations of the Khawaarij and the Raafidah.

A Brief Summary

Ibn al-Qayyim (d.751H) (rahimahhullaah) said: “The innovation of the Qadariyyah started at the end of the period of the Companions. So those that remained at the end of the periods of the Companions.So those who remained at that time, such as ‘Abdullah ibn Umar, Ibn Abbas, and their like, oppsed and refuted it. Then the innovation of the Murjiah occured, after the period of the Companions, so those of the major ‘Tabiyoon who faced it, refuted it.Then came the innovation of the ‘Jahyimmah’ (9) after the passing away of the Tabbi’oon. Its evil reached alarming proportions and the matter had become dire during the age of the Imaams such as Ahmad (d.241H) and those with him.There appeared after this, the innovation of hulool (incarnation), this appeared with, and in the time of al-Hallaaj.

So whenever Shaytaan brought about an innovation from these innovations, or from other than them, Allaah established from His party an army, those who refuted it and warned the Muslims against it-all for the sake of sincerity and sincere advice for Allaah, His book, His Messenger and the people of Islaam”(11)

Compilation of the Aqeedah

Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajr (d.852H) (rahimahhullaah) said: “From that which occured was:compilation of hadeeth, then tafseer, then the compilation of issues of fiqh (jurisprudence) eminating from pure opinion, and then the compilation of matters related to actions of the heart.

As for the firts matter; it was opposed by ‘Umaar, Abu Moosaa and a few others whilst the majority allowed it. As for the second:It was oppsed by a group from the Tabioon such as Imaam ash-Sha’bee(d.104H) and a small group. Imaam Ahmad’s opposition of this intensified.

Also from that which occured was the compilation of the sayings about Usool ud-Deen (fundamentals of the Deen). Some embarked to affirm it (ie the attributes of Allaah), whilst others negated it. The former went to the extent of making tashbeeh (resembling Allaah to his creation), whilst the latter went to the extent of making ta’teel (denying the attributes of Allah). The rejection of this from the Salaf such as Abu Haneefah(d.150H), Abu Yoosuf(d.182H) and ash-Shaafiee(d.204H), and their sayings with regards to censuring the people of Kalaam (philosphical speech and theology) is well known. The reason for such censure was that the people of ‘Kalaaam’ spoke about those matters which both the Prophet and his Companions remained quiet about. It is established from Maalik(d.179H) that there did not exist at the time of the Prophet nor that of AbuBakr (radhi Allaahu anhu) or Umar (radhi Allaahu anhu), anything from these desires – meaning: the innovation of the Khawaarij, the Raafidah and the Qadiriyyah. Indeed, those who came after the first three excellent generations expanded upon matters which the Imaams of the Tabioon and those who followed them, rejected.

The people of Kalaam did not content themselves, until they filled the Deen with issues and the sayings of the philosphers. They made this philoshopy the basis and the fundamental principle to which everything was refered back to, and all that which opposed it from the narrations (of the Prophet, his Companions and the Salaf who followd them) then ta’weel (false interpretation ) was made of them, even if they were averse to the result. Nor did they content themselves with just this.They claimed that what they had compiled was the noblest branch of knowledge and the most deserving to be acquired; and that those who did not use what they had laid down, then they were from the laymen and the ignorant ones.

So delight is for the one who clings to what the Salaf were upon, and distances himself from the innovations that the khalaf (the latecomers who oppsed the aqeedah and manhaj of the Salaf) introduced.However, if one cannot keep away from it, then let him take only that which he needs and let the way of the Salaf be his intended goal.”(12)


(1)From the Shayk’s introduction to his book:Taqreebut-Tadmuriyyah (pp.7-14) -slightl edited.

(2) Saheeh:Related by Ahmad (5/153), at-Tiyaalasee(n0.479)and at-Tabaranee in al-Kabeer(no.1647).Its isnaad is saheeh)

(3)Related by Muslim(1/152) and Abu Dawood(no.8)

(4)Soorah at-Tawbah 9:100

(5)The Khawaarij were the first sect in Islam to split from the way of the Prophet and his Companions.They arose in the khilaafah of ‘Alee (radhi Allaahu anhu) making khurooj (rebellion) against him, before the arbitration between him and Muawiyah (radhi Allaahu anhu).From their false aqeedah (beliefs) is:allowing rebellion against the legitimate Muslim ruler-whether pious or wicked , and declaring the Muslim to be kaafir (disbeliever) due to a commission of a major sin. They were discussed by the Prophet as the Dogs of Hellfire. Refer to Maqaalaatul-Islaamiyeen(1/168) of Abul-Hasan ash-Asharee, al-Bidaayah(8/22-44) of Ibn Katheer and Fathul-Baree(12/282-302) of Ibn Hajr.

(6) The Raafidah (the rejectors) are an extreme sect of the Sheeah who rejected Zayd ibn Alee ibn ‘Alee ibn al-Husayn due to his refusal to condemn Abu Bakr and Umar (radhi Allaahu anhu).They rapidly deteriorated in ‘aqeedah’, morals and Deen-until the present day-where their beliefs are those represented by the Ithna Ashariyyah Shee’ahs of Iraan. From their false beliefs are: declaring all but three or five of the companions to be disbelievers, the belief that their imaams have knowledge of the Unseen past, present and future, considering the imaamah to be one of the main pillars of eemaan (faith) and the incompleteness of the Quraan. Refer to: Maqalaatul-Islamiyeen (1/65), al-Farq baynal-Firaq (no.21) of Abdul-Qaahir al-Baghdaadee and Talbees Iblees (pp.94-100) of Ibn ul-Jawzee.

(7)The Qadariyyah are the follwers of Mabad ibn al-Juhanee, and from their false beliefs are; that Allah has no prior knowledge of anything until it come into existence; that it is people -and not Allah -who are creators of their own actions, denying aqeedah in the Punishment of the Grave, and denying that the authentic hadeeth is an evidence for the aqeedah, unless it is related in mutaawatir form. Refer to al-Milal wan-Nihal(1/72) of ash-Shahrastaanee and Sawnul-Mantaq wal-Kalaam (p.160) of as-Suyotee.

(8) The Murjiaah are those who reject that actions are a part of eemaan (faith) and they say that eemaan is affirmation of the heart and atatement of the tingue only.The extreme from amonngst them limit eemaan to belief of the heart only .They also deny that eemaan increases and decreases.Refer to al-Maqaalat (1/214) and al-Farq baynal-Firaq (p.202)

(9) The Jahyimmah are the followers of Jahm ibn Safwaan, who unleashed upon this Ummah the horrific innovation of ta’teel (denial of Allah’s attributes) either directly, or by twisting the meaning of Hand of Allah to mean:His power and generosity. They also deny that Allah is above creation, above His Throne, as well as holding the belief that Paradise and Hellfire are not ever-lasting. Refer to ar-Radd ‘alal-Jahyimmah by Imaam Ahmad and also ad-Daarimee and al-Ibaanah (p.141) of Abdul-Hasan al-Assharee.

(10) Majmooul-Fataawaa (10/354-368) of Ibn Taymiyyah.

(11) Tadheeb Sunan Abee Dawood (7/61) of Ibn al-Qayyim.

(12) FathulBaree (13/253) of Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalaanee.

(13) Ar-Radd ‘alal-Jahyimmah waz-Zaanadiqah( p.2) of Imaam Ahmad.

Begin by Learning the Fundamentals of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah

Author:Ahmad bin Muhammad ash-Shihhee
Source:His book Al-Wasaayah as-Saniyyah (pg. 17-27)
Translator:abu maryam

From the Book : Magnificent Points of Advice for those who have turned to the Way of the Salaf – Ahmad Ash-Shihhee

Know, may Allaah grant you the ability to obey Him, that I do not mean by “Fundamentals” , the three categories of Tawheed only. Rather I intended that first, and secondly I meant by it, the other fundamentals, which Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah have agreed on and due to which they have separated themselves from the people of innovation and sects, such as the (the principles of):

Showing al-Walaa wal-Baraa (Loyalty and Disavowment), commanding the good and forbidding the evil, the (correct) stance towards the Sahaabah (Companions) – respecting and defending them, the position with respect to the Leaders, the stance with regard to the transgressors and sinners, and the position towards the People of Innovation – speaking against them and dealing with them.

This goes as well for all the other fundamentals that Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah have agreed upon and which they have put in their books on Creed, in order to clarify the truth and separate themselves from the people of deviation, calamities, vain desires and division – even though the source for some of these principles may be related to actions and not Creed. [1]

So if you have gotten a firm grasp in understanding these points and fundamentals, then, by the Will of Allaah, you will be fortified against many of the misconceptions that are gushing throughout the Islamic world.

But when many of those who have repented become negligent in this matter and do not initiate their repentance by learning the fundamentals and methodology of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah, they become confused and lost with just the slightest of misconceptions! We ask Allaah to save and protect us!

Whoever reflects on the condition of these people, will find many instances and examples for this confusion and shakiness, amongst which are:

The First Example:

You find the person who has turned to the Way of the Salaf, in the beginning, strict and determined to keep far away from the people of innovation and sects. This lasts for some time, but then he is presented a misconception from one who clothes himself in the garb of Salafiyyah, which in brief is:

“Staying away from the people of innovation and not sitting or mixing with them is not correct.”

“This causes many benefits to be missed out on.”

“There is no one after Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) that is infallible. Even the Sahaabah made mistakes…”

And he does not hear these doubt-raising arguments except that you see his heart become diseased. And you see him drinking (from) this misconception faster than he drinks water. And lo and behold, thereafter, he begins to mix and associate with the people of innovation, becoming soft and easy-going with the principles of Salafiyyah, while doing this in the name of Salafiyyah!

This confusion only came about due to his failure to engage in learning the Qur’aan and the Sunnah, according to the understanding of the Salaf (Predecessors) of this ummah. And it was due to his failure to study the Fundamentals of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah. This is since if he were to have devoted time to seeking of knowledge, he would have known that this misconception is false and at variance with the position of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah towards the people of desires and innovation, in the past and present.

And he would have known that the statement of this false-claimer (to Salafiyyah): “There is no one after Allaah’s Messenger that is infallible” and “everyone make mistakes” are words of truth, but by which falsehood is intended. This is because when anyone amongst Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah – from the Sahaabah and those who followed after them in goodness – made an error, their error did not come as a result of following desires, or failing to follow the narrations or distorting the texts or chasing after what is unclear and ambiguous from these texts, as is the case with the people of innovation. Rather, their error would come due to one of them not being aware of the proof for it or his knowing about it yet not considering it to be authentic, or any of the other reasons for which they have an excuse.

The following saying of Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was revealed concerning them and concerning those who follow them in goodness: “When the judge issues a ruling, making Ijtihaad in the matter and is correct, he gets two rewards. And if he gives a ruling, making Ijtihaad in the matter, and is mistaken, he gets (only) one reward.” [2]

This is contrary to the People of Innovation and Sects, since they do not have any concern for the narrations, and they give precedence to their intellects over the texts from the Book and the Sunnah! Rather, they establish principles that are in opposition to the principles of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah! So these kinds of people are not to be sought excuses for, as that false-claimer (to Salafiyyah) had made excuses for them. And no one includes them in the same row as that of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah except for someone who is ignorant or an arrogant innovator! Another example is:

The Second Example:

You find the person who has repented, in the beginning, enthusiastic and eager to criticize the people of innovation, but without any guidelines or knowledge. So he remains in this state for some period of time. Then he hears the misconceptions from those who claim to be upon Salafiyyah, saying that:

“Criticizing others is not from the way of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah!”

And that “It hardens the hearts!” [3]

And that “So and so person used to criticize the groups (jamaa’aat), but then he reverted (i.e. went back to his old ways) as a result of that!”

So these doubts are not presented to him except that he turns around in his heels, and begins to reject this grand principle (of criticizing), which the Religion is established upon. Rather, perhaps you may even find him, after that, calling the people to abandon this principle, claiming that it hardens the hearts!

The truth with regard to this matter is that Criticizing is a grand principle, which the pure Religion is established upon. It is a strong aspect in safeguarding the methodology of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah from distortions. And it is a magnificent form of worship and a noble way of seeking nearness to Allaah, which causes the Muslim’s Eemaan to increase. However, this is only if it is implemented upon its proper conditions, such as having sincerity (i.e. not doing it except to please Allaah) and other conditions. So its state is the same as the state of any other act of worship, it increases one’s Eemaan.

So the discrepancies are not in the principle, but rather they are in the person who implements this principle (of criticizing and refuting) without any (proper) guidelines. So when the misconception is met with acceptance in his heart, he finds fault with the principle (of criticizing) instead of finding fault in himself for his lack of applying the principle in a good manner.

This is why we see in the Imaams of guidance – from the Sahaabah, the Taabi’een, and those who followed them in goodness –abstinence (zuhd), dutifulness to Allaah (taqwaa), fear of Him (khashya) and a soft heart along with their excessive criticism and talk concerning individuals and groups.

Look at ‘Abdullaah Ibn Al-Mubaarak and Ahmad bin Hanbal.

And look at Yahyaa bin Ma’een and ‘Alee Ibn Al-Madeenee.

And look at Abu Haatim Ar-Raazee and Al-Bukhaaree.

The biographies of all of these scholars are filled with examples of their piety, fear and dutifulness to Allaah. So this confusion and instability is due to this repentant individual’s lack of sincerity and honesty in repenting to Allaah. And it is due to his lack of giving attention to learning the principles of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah from the beginning.

Because of this, my repentant brother, you must beware of this kind of dangerous trap. And you must know that there is no way for you to be saved from these contagious misconceptions and these destructive traps unless Allaah grants you success (in that) and you begin by (first) learning the Fundamentals of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah. So be firm in this aspect, with earnestness and enthusiasm and strong determination, as Allaah says: “Hold onto that which We have given you with might (i.e. determination).” [Surah Al-Baqarah: 63]

And you must be truthful and have sincerity: “As for those who strive hard with regard to Us (i.e. Our Cause), We will surely guide them to Our Paths (i.e. Allaah’s Religion). Verily, Allaah is with the good doers.” [Surah Al-‘Ankaboot: 69]

And have certainty in the saying of Allaah: “And if We had ordered them (saying): ‘Kill yourselves (i.e. the innocent ones kill the guilty ones)’ or ‘Leave your homes’, very few of them would have done it. But if they had done what they were told, it would have been better for them, and it would have strengthened their Faith (Eemaan). And indeed We would have then bestowed on them a great reward from Ourselves. And indeed We would have guided them to a Straight Way.” [Surah An-Nisaa: 66]

And beware of losing heart and being weak and of yielding to that which befalls you in the Way of Allaah (i.e. in your path to repentance). Do not forget Allaah’s saying: “But they never lost heart for that which befell them in Allaah’s Way, nor did they weaken or degrade themselves. And Allaah loves the patient ones.” [Surah Aali Imraan: 146]


[1] Translator’s Note: An example of this point would be the inclusion of the issue of wiping over the socks for ablution. The source for this issue stems from action, yet many of the scholars of the past, including Ahmad bin Hanbal, put it in their books on Creed, since by it they distinguished themselves from the people of desires and innovation, who rejected this aspect of the Sunnah based on it not conforming to their intellects.

[2] Reported by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim

[3] This is one of their outlandish claims! – Since the hardening of one’s heart can only occur due to opposing the Commandments of Allaah and His Messenger, not by following them. How can the heart of a person who forbids the evil, especially innovations and deviant beliefs, become hardened?

“Calamities will be presented to the hearts just like a reed mat is woven stick by stick. So any heart that is immersed with them will have a black mark put on it, and any heart that rejects them will have a white mark put on it, to the point that there will become two types of hearts: A white heart that is like a stone, no fitnah (calamity) will be able to cause harm to it, so long as the heavens and the earth exist. And the other is a black heart, which is dust-colored like a vessel that is upturned, not enjoining what is good and not forbidding what is evil, except for that which it is immersed in from vain desires.” [Saheeh Muslim:  (Eng.) 1/267]

Shaykh Muhammad Amaan al-Jaamee on the Books a Student of Knowledge Should Read in the Areas of ‘Aqeedah, Tafseer, Hadeeth & Fiqh


The Shaykh was asked which books he advises a student of knowledge to read in the areas of ‘Aqeedah, Tafseer, Hadeeth and its science, and Fiqh.


He specifically stated that a student should memorize and understand (in the topic of ‘Aqeedah):

(1) al-Usool ath-Thalaathah,
(2) Shuroot us-Salaah wa Arkaanihaa wa Wajibaatihaa,
(3) al-Qawaa’id ul-‘Arba’ah,
(4) Shuroot Laa Ilaaha illAllaah,
(5) Nawaaqid ul-Islaam, and
(6) Kitaab ut-Tawheed, all by Shaykh ul-Islaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab.

As for (7) Kashf ush-Shubuhaat, then he said that if a person memorizes it, then that is good, but he did not stress it as with the above works.

Also, he did not stress memorizing (8) al-Waasitiyyah, but instead said that a student can either memorize it or learn it and understand it well.
He also mentioned that a person should study (9) the various treatises contained in Majmoo’ Fataawaa Shaykh ul-Islaam Bin Taymiyyah (presumably al-Fatwa al-Hamawiyyah al-Kubraa, ar-Risaalat ut-Tadmuriyyah, al-‘Eemaan, etc., although he did not name names), and (10) Sharh ut-Tahaawiyyah by Ibn Abee al-‘Izz al-Hanafee (d. 792) if he wants to expand his scope regarding the subject of Asmaa’ was-Sifaat.

As for the other subjects, I do not recall him specifically saying that a student should memorize anything except for the one who desires to learn about the differences between the four madhaahib in Fiqh. He said that it is befitting for such a person to memorize a matan (lower level Fiqh manual) for each of the four madhaahib.

In the area of hadeeth, he mentioned:

(1) al-Arba’een an-Nawawiyyah,
(2) ‘Umdat ul-Ahkaam, and
(3) Buloogh ul-Maraam.

Although he did not specifically say that one should memorize them, I have heard other Scholars (such as Shaykh Saalih ibn ‘Abdul-‘Azeez Aal ash-Shaykh) say that one should begin his course in hadeeth with the memorization and study of al-Arba’een. The more famous explanations for it are that of an-Nawawee (d. 676) himself, which is a very brief explanation for beginners, that of Ibn Daqeeq al-‘Eed (d. 702), which is perhaps a middle-level explanation, and that of Ibn Rajab (d. 795), which is more advanced and thorough than the rest.

The Scholars have also recommended that the more advanced and dedicated students should memorize and learn the other two: ‘Umdat ul-Ahkaam and Buloogh al-Maraam by ‘Abdul-Ghanee al-Maqdisee (d. 600) and Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalaanee (d. 852) respectively.

As for tafseer:

He said that a person should start with the tafseer of ‘Abdur-Rahmaan as-Sa’dee (d. 1376), titled Tayseer al-Kareem al-Rahmaan fee Tafseer Kalaam il-Manaan, because its author is a well-known Salafee (and hence does not fall into the same ta’weel and mistakes of the other lower-level tafaaseer, such as al-Jalaalayn).

He then said that if a person can find a Salafee teacher to guide him, he should study Fath ul-Qadeer of Shawkaanee (d. 1250) – this is because the teacher will help him:
(a) Be alert to some of the mistakes of Shawkaanee regarding as-Sifaat, and
(b) Help him with the more difficult aspects of the ‘Arabic language that occur in the book.

Finally, he mentioned Tafseer Ibn Katheer, stating that it is okay if a student studies from one of the various abridgements available nowadays (like that of ar-Rifaa’ee).

Taken From 22 Question About the Salafee Da’wah.
Shaykh Muhammad Amaan ibn ‘Alee al-Jaamee

Translated By:
Abu ‘Abdul ‘Azeez al-Misree

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