The Prophetic Household – Shaykh Safi ur-Rahmaan Mubarakfoori

Taken from the “The Sealed Nectar” book

1. Khadijah Bint Khuwailid: In Makkah — prior to Hijra — the Prophet’s household comprised him (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) and his wife Khadijah bint Khuwailid. He was twenty-five and she was forty when they got married. She was the first woman he married. She was the only wife he had till she died. He had sons and daughters with her. None of their sons lived long. They all died. Their daughters were Zainab, Ruqaiya, Umm Kulthum and Fatimah.

Zainab was married to her maternal cousin Abu Al-‘As bin Al-Rabi‘ and that was before Al-Hijra. Ruqaiya and Umm Kulthum were both married to ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan – may Allah be pleased with him – successively (i.e. he married one after the death of her sister). Fatimah was married to ‘Ali bin Abi Talib; and that was in the period between Badr and Uhud battles. The sons and daughters that Fatimah and ‘Ali had were Al-Hasan, Al-Husain, Zainab and Umm Kulthum.

It is well-known that the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) was exceptionally authorized to have more than four wives for various reasons. The wives he married were thirteen. Nine of them outlived him. Two died in his lifetime: Khadijah and the Mother of the poor (Umm Al-Masakeen) — Zainab bint Khuzaima, besides two others with whom he did not consummate his marriage.

2. Sawdah bint Zam‘a: He married her in Shawwal, in the tenth year of Prophethood, a few days after the death of Khadijah. Prior to that, she was married to a paternal cousin of hers called As-Sakran bin ‘Amr.

3. ‘Aishah bint Abu Bakr: He married her in the eleventh year of Prophethood, a year after his marriage to Sawdah, and two years and five months before Al-Hijra. She was six years old when he married her. However, he did not consummate the marriage with her till Shawwal seven months after Al-Hijra, and that was in Madinah. She was nine then. She was the only virgin he married, and the most beloved creature to him. As a woman she was the most learnèd woman in jurisprudence.

4. Hafsah bint ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab: She was Aiyim (i.e. husbandless). Her ex-husband was Khunais bin Hudhafa As-Sahmi in the period between Badr and Uhud battles. The Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) married her in the third year of Al-Hijra.

5. Zainab bint Khuzaimah: She was from Bani Hilal bin ‘Amir bin Sa‘sa‘a. Was nicknamed Umm Al-Masakeen, because of her kindness and care towards them. She used to be the wife of ‘Abdullah bin Jahsh, who was martyred at Uhud, was married to the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) in the fourth year of Al-Hijra, but she died two or three months after her marriage to the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) .

6. Umm Salamah Hind bint Abi Omaiyah: She used to be the wife of Abu Salamah, who died in Jumada Al-Akhir, in the fourth year of Al-Hijra. The Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) married her in Shawwal of the same year.

7. Zainab bint Jahsh bin Riyab: She was from Bani Asad bin Khuzaimah and was the Messenger’s paternal cousin. She was married to Zaid bin Haritha — who was then considered son of the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) . However, Zaid divorced her. Allâh sent down some Qur’ânic verses with this respect:

“So when Zaid had accomplished his desire from her (i.e., divorced her), We gave her to you in marriage.” [33:37]

About her, Allâh has sent down some verses of Al-Ahzab Chapter that discussed the adoption of children in detail — anyway we will discuss this later. The Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) married her in Dhul-Qa‘dah, the fifth year of Al-Hijra.

8. Juwairiyah bint Al-Harith: Al-Harith was the head of Bani Al-Mustaliq of Khuza‘ah. Juwairiyah was among the booty that fell to the Muslims from Bani Al-Mustaliq. She was a portion of Thabit bin Qais bin Shammas’ share. He made her a covenant to set her free at a certain time. The Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) accomplished the covenant and married her in Sha‘ban in the sixth year of Al-Hijra.

9. Umm Habibah: Ramlah, the daughter of Abu Sufyan. She was married to ‘Ubaidullah bin Jahsh. She migrated with him to Abyssinia ( Ethiopia). When ‘Ubaidullah apostatized and became a Christian, she stoodfast to her religion and refused to convert. However ‘Ubaidullah died there in Abyssinia ( Ethiopia). The Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) dispatched ‘Amr bin Omaiyah Ad-Damri with a letter to Negus, the king, asking him for Umm Habibah’s hand — that was in Muharram, in the seventh year of Al-Hijra. Negus agreed and sent her to the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) in the company of Sharhabeel bin Hasnah.

10. Safiyah bint Huyai bin Akhtab: From the Children of Israel, she was among the booty taken at Khaibar battle. The Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) took her for himself. He set her free and married her after that conquest in the seventh year of Al-Hijra.

11. Maimunah bint Al-Harith: The daughter of Al-Harith, and the sister of Umm Al-Fadl Lubabah bint Al-Harith. The Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) married her after the Compensatory ‘Umrah (Lesser Pilgrimage). That was in Dhul-Qa‘dah in the seventh year of Al-Hijra.

Those were the eleven women that the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) had married and consummated marriage with them. He outlived two of them — Khadijah and Zainab, the Umm Al-Masakeen. Whereas the other nine wives outlived him.

The two wives that he did not consummate marriage with were, one from Bani Kilab and the other from Kindah and this was the one called Al-Jauniyah.

Besides these, he had two concubines. The first was Mariyah, the Coptic (an Egyptian Christian), a present gift from Al-Muqauqis, vicegerent of Egypt — she gave birth to his son Ibrâhim, who died in Madinah while still a little child, on the28 th or29 th of Shawwal in the year 10A.H., i.e.27 th January, 632 A.D. The second one was Raihanah bint Zaid An-Nadriyah or Quraziyah, a captive from Bani Quraiza. Some people say she was one of his wives. However, Ibn Al-Qaiyim gives more weight to the first version. Abu ‘Ubaidah spoke of two more concubines, Jameelah, a captive, and another one, a bondwoman granted to him by Zainab bint Jahsh.[]

Whosoever meditates on the life of the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) , will conceive that his marriage to this great number of women in the late years of his lifetime, after he had almost spent thirty years of his best days of youth sufficing himself to one old wife — Khadijah and later on to Sawdah, was in no way an overwhelming lustful desire to be satisfied through such a number of wives. These marriages were in fact motivated by aims and purposes much more glorious and greater than what normal marriages usually aim at.

The tendency of the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) towards establishing a relationship by marriage with both Abu Bakr and ‘Umar and his marriage to ‘Aishah and Hafsah — and getting his daughter Fatimah married to ‘Ali bin Abi Talib, and the marriage of his two daughters, Ruqaiyah and Umm Kulthum to ‘Uthman — indicate clearly that he aimed at confirming the relationship among the four men — whose sacrifices and great achievements in the cause of Islam are well-known.

Besides this, there was that tradition of the Arabs to honour the in-law relations. For them a son or a daughter-in-law was a means by which they sought the consolidation of relationship and affection with various phratries. Hostility and fights against alliances and affinities would bring an unforgettable shame, disgrace and degradation to them.

By marrying the Mothers of believers, the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) wanted to demolish or break down the Arab tribes’ enmity to Islam and extinguish their intense hatred. Umm Salamah was from Bani Makhzum — the clan of Abu Jahl and Khalid bin Al-Waleed. Her marriage to the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) produced good results. Khalid’s deliberately undecisive attitude at Uhud — for instance — was due to the Messenger’s marriage to Umm Salamah. Khalid went even further than that, in a short time he willingly became a keen obedient Muslim.

After the Messenger of Allâh’s marriage to Umm Habibah, Abu Sufyan, her father, did not encounter him with any sort of hostility. Similarly his marriage to Juwairiyah and Safiyah made the two tribes stop all sorts of provocation, aggression or hostility against Islam. Better still, Juwairiyah, herself, was one of the greatest sources of blessing to her own people. On the occasion of her marriage to the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) , his Companions set a hundred families of her people free. They said: “It is for their affinity with the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) .” No need to say what great good impression this gratitude had on everybody’s soul. One of the greatest motives of all is Allâh’s bidding his Prophet to educate and purify the souls of people who had known nothing whatsoever about courtesy, education and culture. He had to teach them to comply with the necessities of civilization and to contribute to the solidification and the establishment of a new Islamic society.

An essential fundamental rule of the Muslim society is to prohibit mixing of men and women. Providing direct education for women, though highly compelling, is impossible in the light of this Islamic norm. Therefore, the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) had to select some women of different ages and talents, and indoctrinate them systematically in order to educate she-bedouins and townswomen, old and young, and thus furnish them with the instruments of propagating the true faith. The Mothers of believers (i.e. wives of the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) ) were in such a convenient position that they could convey the state of the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) and his affairs to people (men and women). Being educated and taught the teachings and rules of Islam, his wives, especially those who outlived him, played a very important role in conveying Prophetic traditions Ahadith to the Muslims. ‘Aishah, for instance, related a large number of the Prophet’s deeds and statements.

His marriage to his paternal cousin Zainab bint Jahsh was a peculiar case which aimed at eradicating a deeply rooted pre-Islamic tradition — i.e. the adoption of children. In Al-Jahiliyah the Arabs used to consider an adopted person exactly like a real son or daughter as far as rights and sanctities are concerned. That Jahiliyah tradition had been so deeply rooted in their hearts that it was not easy to remove or uproot it. This tradition in fact affronts the basic principles of Islam; especially those concerned with marriage, divorce and inheritance and some other cases, and brought about lots of corruptions and indecencies. Naturally Islam stands against such deeds, and attempts to remove them from the Islamic society.

For the eradication of this tradition, Allâh, the Exalted, bid His Messenger (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) to marry his cousin Zainab bint Jahsh, who was an ex-wife to Zaid. She was at variance with Zaid to an extent that he intended to divorce her — that was at the time when the Confederates (Al-Ahzab) were making an evil alliance against the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) and against the Muslims. The Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) feared that the hypocrites, the idolaters, and the Jews would make a propaganda out of it and try to influence some Muslims of weak hearts. That was why he urged Zaid not to divorce her, in order not to get involved into that trial.

Undoubtedly this hesitation and partiality were alien to the character of the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) . They did not apply to the power of determination and will with which he had been sent. Allâh, the Exalted, blamed him for that by saying:

 “And (remember) when you said to him (Zaid bin Haritha may Allah be pleased with him – — the freed slave of the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) on whom Allâh has bestowed grace (by guiding him to Islam) and you (O Muhammad (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) too) have done favour (by manumitting him), ‘Keep your wife to yourself, and fear Allâh.’ But you did hide in yourself (i.e. what Allâh has already made known to you that He will give her to you in marriage) that which Allâh will make manifest, you did fear the people (i.e. Muhammad (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) married the divorced wife of his manumitted slave) whereas Allâh had a better right that you should fear him.” [33:37]

Finally Zaid divorced Zainab and the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) married her at the time he laid siege to Bani Quraiza. That was after she had finished her Iddat (i.e. period during which a widow or a divorcee may not remarry). Allâh Himself had already ordained it, and so gave him no other alternative. Allâh had even started the marriage Himself by saying:

 “So when Zaid had accomplished his desire from her (i.e. divorced her), We gave her to you in marriage, so that (in future) there may be no difficulty to the believers in respect of (the marriage of) the wives of their adopted sons when the latter have no desire to keep them (i.e. they have divorced them).” [33:37]

And that was in order to break down the tradition of child adoption in practice after He had done it in words:

 “Call them (adopted sons) by (the names of) their fathers, that is more just near Allâh.” [33:5]

“Muhammad ( saw) is not the father of any man among you, but he is the Messenger of Allâh, and the last (end) of the Prophets.” [33:40]

Lots of deeply-rooted traditions cannot be uprooted or demolished or even adjusted by mere words. They must be matched and associated with the action of the advocate of the Message himself.

This could be perceived through the deeds practised by the Muslims at Al-Hudaibiyah ‘Umrah (Lesser Pilgrimage) during which ‘Urwah bin Mas‘ud Al-Thaqafi saw certain Muslims tend to pick up any expectoration that fell down from the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) . He also saw them race to the water of his ablution and they almost quarrelled for it. There were others who competed to pledge allegiance to death and some others pledged not to flee from (the battlefield). Among those people, were eminent Companions like ‘Umar and Abu Bakr, who although dedicated all their lives to the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) and to the cause of Islam, but refused to carry out the Messenger’s ordres with respect to slaughtering sacrificial animals after the ratification of Al-Hudaibiyah Peace Treaty, the thing that perturbed and caused the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) to feel anxious. However, when Umm Salamah – may Allah be pleased with her – advised that he take the initiative and sacrifice his animals, his followers raced to follow his example; a clear evidence in support of the saying: Actions speak louder than words, in the process of exterminating a deeply-established tradition.

Hypocrites aroused a lot of suspicions and made a broad false propaganda against that marriage. Their acts and talks about that marriage had ill-effects on those Muslims whose Faith was still weak, particularly that Zainab was the fifth wife — and the Noble Qur’ân limited the number up to four only; Zaid was traditionally his son, and so a father marrying his son’s divorcee was a heinous sin in the eyes of the Arabians.

Al-AhzabSurah was revealed to shed full light on the two issues, i.e. Islam does not recognize adoption of children, and the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) is given (by Allâh) more freedom as regards the number of wives he can hold than other Muslims in order to achieve noble and honourable purposes.

However, the treatment of the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) to his wives was of honourable, noble, and superb nature. His wives were on tops in respect of honour, satisfaction, patience, modesty, and service (that is to say the performance of housework and marriage duties). Although the Messenger’s house-life was hard and unbearable, none of his wives complained. Anas said about the Prophet’s life: “According to my knowledge, the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) has never tasted a thin flattened loaf in all his lifetime, nor has he ever seen with his own eyes roasted mutton.”[]

‘Aishah said: “Over two months have elapsed — during which we have seen three crescents — and yet no fire has been kindled in the houses of the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) (i.e. they did not cook food).” “What did you eat to sustain yourselves?” ‘Urwah asked. She said “The two blacks: dates and water”[]. Lots of information about the hard life of the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) were told.

In spite of these hardships, straits and adversity of life in the house of the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam), none of his wives uttered a word of complaint worthy of reproach — but once. This exception was required by human instinctive inclinations. However, it was not so important and consequently it did not require the decree of a legislative rule. Allâh has given them an opportunity to choose between two things, as clearly stated in the following verses:

 “O Prophet (Muhammad (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam)! Say to your wives: ‘If you desire the life of this world, and its glitter, — then come! I will make a provision for you and set you free in a handsome manner (divorce). But if you desire Allâh and His Messenger, and the Home of the Hereafter, then verily, Allâh has prepared for Al-Muhsinat (good doers) amongst you an enormous reward.’” [33:28,29]

They were so noble and honest that none of them preferred ‘the life of this world and its glitter’ to the abode in the Hereafter.

Although they were many in number, nothing of the dispute occurrences that normally happen among co-wives, took place in their houses. Very few cases could be the only exception; but they were quite normal. Allâh reproached them for that, so they ceased to do such a thing. This incident is mentioned in At-Tahreem Chapter:

 “O Prophet! Why do you ban (for yourself) that which Allâh has made lawful to you …” [66:1] (to the end of the fifth verse).

Discussing polygamy — in my opinion — is not a necessity; since a person who is familiar with the Europeans, and indecent practices, sufferings, wickedness, their sorrows and distresses, the horrible crimes they commit in this respect as well as the trials, the disasters that they are involved in, and which emanate directly from their disregard of the principle of polygamy form a good reason (to justify the soundness of polygamy). The distorted picture of life in Europe with the ill-practices featuring it, could truthfully justify the existence and practice of polygamy. In this, there are Divine signs for all people possessed of lucid mind.

Prophet King or Slave Messenger : Imam Ibn Rajab

By al-Haafidh Ibn Rajab al-Hanbalee
Excerpt from the last chapter of Ibn Rajab’s famous book: al-Khushoo’ fis-Salaat

Al-Ibaanah Issue No.3

Bismillaahir-Rahmaanir-Raheem

The Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) chose the station of al-’uboodiyyah (slavery and servitude) over and above the station of kingship. Once – on the day of the conquest of Makkah – a man stood-up (out of reverence) for the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), who, being shocked, said to him, “Do not trouble yourself! Indeed, I am not a king. Rather, I am merely the son of a Qurayshee woman who eats dry meat.” [2]

It has also been authentically reported from the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) that he said, “Do not over praise me as the Christians over-praised ’Eesaa, son of Maryam. Indeed, I am only a slave. So call me the Slave of Allaah and His Messenger.” [3]

Imaam Ahmad (d.241H) – rahimahullaahu ta’aalaa – reports from Muhammad Ibn Fudayl, from ’Ammaarah, from Aboo Zur’ah who said: I do not know this except from Aboo Hurayrah – radiyallaahu ’anhu – who said: Jibreel was sitting with the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) looking towards the sky, when he saw an angel. So Jibreel – ’alayhis-salaam – said to him: Indeed, this angel has never descended before today. So when the angel had descended, he said: O Muhammad! I have been sent by your Lord (to inquire) whether He should make you a Prophet-King or a Slave-Messenger. [4]

And in a mursal narration from Yahyaa Ibn Katheer – rahimahullaah that the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “I eat as a slave eats, and I sit as a slave sits. Since indeed I am a slave.” [5] This has been related by Ibn Sa’d in at-Tabaqaat.

There is also a narration related by Aboo Ma’dhr from al-Maqburee from ’Aa‘ishah – radiyallaahu ’anhaa – that the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “An angel came to me and said: Allaah sends blessings upon you and says: If you wish you may be a Prophet-King or a Slave-Messenger. So Jibeel – ’alayhis-salaam – indicated to me that I should humble myself: So I said: A Prophet-Slave.” So ’Aa‘ishah said: So after that day, the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) never ate whilst reclining, saying, “I eat like a slave eats and I sit like a slave sits.” [6]

And from the mursal narrations of az-Zuhree – rahimahullaahu ta’aalaa – who said: we were informed that an angel came to the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), who had never come to him before. Accompanying him was Jibreel – ’alayhis-salaam. So the angel spoke, and Jibreel – ’alayhis-salaam – remained silent, so he said: Your Lord inquires whether you wish to be a king or a Prophet-Slave. So the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) looked towards Jibreel – ’alayhis-salaam – as if he was seeking his advice. So Jibreel indicated that he should be humble. So Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “A Prophet-Slave.” Az-Zuhree said: So it is said that from that day onwards, the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) never ate whilst reclining, until he departed from this world. [7]

And it is related in the Musnad, or in the Sunan of at-Tirmidhee, from Aboo Hurayrah radiyallaahu ’anhu), from the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) who said, “My Lord – the Mighty and Majestic – gave me the choice that the valley of Makkah be filled with gold, but I said: No! O Lord. However, grant food to me one day, and hunger the day after. So when I am hungry I humble myself before You and remember You, and when I am full, I am grateful to You.” [8]

Some of the knowledgeable people have said: Whoever claims al-’uboodiyyah (slavery and servitude to Allaah), but desires still remain with him, then he is lying in his claim. Indeed, al-’uboodiyyah will only be true for the one who annihilates his desires and establishes the will of his Master, where his name is what He called him (i.e. ’ibaadur-Rahmaan: the Slaves of the Most Merciful).

Al-Haafidh Aboo Nu’aym – rahimahullaahu ta’aalaa – relates in the book: Asmaa‘us-Sabaabah, by way of Shaykh Aboo Sulaymaan ad-Daraanee (d.215H) – rahimahullaahu ta’aalaa – who related from ’Alqamah Ibnul-Haarith al-Azdee, from his father, from his grandfather who mentioned the saying of Luqmaan the wise when he said to his son, “I have gathered my wisdom for you in six sentences: Work for this world in proportion to how long you shall remain in it, and work for the Hereafter in proportion to how long you shall remain in it. Commit acts of sin in proportion to how much you can endure it. Act for Allaah in accordance to how much you are in need of Him. Commit acts of disobedience in accordance to how much you can endure the punishment. Do not ask except from the One who is in need of no one. And when you intend to commit a sin against Allaah, then do it in a place where He cannot see you.”

Ibraaheem al-Khawwaas – rahimahullaahu ta’aalaa – said, “The cure for the hearts is in five things: reciting the Qur‘aan with reflection and contemplation; emptying the stomach (i.e. frequent fasting); praying at night; humbling oneself in the early hours of the morning; and being in the company of the saaliheen (righteous).”

Ibraaheem Ibn Adham (d.160H) – rahimahullaahu ta’aalaa – said in an admonition, when he was asked (by some people) about the saying of Allaah – the Most High -:

“Call upon Me and I will respond to you.” [Soorah Ghaafir 40:60]

(They said): We call upon Him, but He does not respond to us. So he said to them, “You know Allaah, yet you do not obey Him. You recite the Qur‘aan, but you do not act according to it. You know Shaytaan, but still agree with him. You claim to love Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), yet you abandon his Sunnah. You claim to love Paradise, yet you do not work for it. You claim to fear the Fire, yet you do not stop sinning. You say: Indeed death is true, yet you have not prepared for it. You busy yourselves with the faults of others, but you do not look at your own faults. You eat the sustenance that Allaah provides for you, yet you are not grateful to Him. You bury your dead, but you have not heeded its lesson.”

We ask Allaah to grant us the ability to please Him and to bestow upon us His mercy.

Footnotes:

[1] He is the Imaam, the haafidh, the zaahid (abstainer from this world), the admonisher Abul-Faraj ’Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Ahmad Rajab as-Salamee better known as Ibn Rajab al-Hanbalee. Ibn Fahd said about him, “The Imaam, the haafidh, the hujjah (proof), the knowledgeable Scholar, the dependable one. He was one of the Scholars who shunned the world, and one of the Imaams and worshippers. He was an instructive Scholar from the Scholars of Hadeeth – and an admonisher of the Muslims.” Ibn Fahd also said, “He – rahimahullaahu ta’aalaa – was a pious Imaam who shunned the world. Hearts inclined towards him with love, and the different sects accepted him. His sittings for advising the general people were of great benefit and used to open up the hearts.” As-Suyootee said about him, “The Imaam, the haafidh, the Scholar of Hadeeth, the admonisher ’Abdur-Rahmaan…” He learnt from some of the major Scholars of his time, such as Ibnul-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, al-Haafidh al-’Iraaqee, Ibnun-Naqeeb and others. He authored many books in the field of tafseer, hadeeth, biography and history, raqaa‘iq (heart-affecting matters) and also in fiqh. He is enumerated as one of the great scholars of Fiqh of the Hanbalee madbhab – as is proven by his excellent book: al-Qawaa’idul-Kubraa fil-Furoo’ – about which Ibn Muflih said, “It is a proof about his complete knowledge of the madhhab.” And al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar also spoke with similar praises about the book. He – rahimahullaah – died in the year 795H.

For a complete biography, refer to: Inbaa‘ul-Ghamr bi Anbaa‘il-’Umar (3/175-176) and ad-Durarul-Kaaminah (2/321-322) of Ibn Hajr, Dhayl Tabaqaatul-Huffaadh (p.532) of as-Suyootee and Luhdhul-Labaadh (p.180-182) of Ibn Fahd al-Makkee. This article has been taken from the last chapter of his book: al-Khushoo’ fis-Salaah (p. 57-62).

[2] Saheeh: Related by Ibn Sa’d in at-Tabaqaat (1/23) in mursal form. However, it has been related in connected form by Ibn Maajah (no. 3312) and al-Haakim (3/47) from Aboo Mas’ood radiyallaahu ’anhu. Shaykh al-Albaanee authenticated it in as-Saheehah (no. 1876).

[3] Related by al-Bukhaaree (6/345), ad-Daarimee (2/320) and others, from ’Umar Ibnul-Khattaab radiyallaahu ’anhu.

[4] Related by Ahmad (2/321), al-Bazzaar (no. 4262) and al-Haythamee in al-Majma’ (9/18-19) where he said, “It has been narrated by Ahmad, al-Bazzaar and Abu Ya’laa, and its initial narrators are all the narrators of as-Saheeh.”

[5] Saheeh: Related by Ibn Sa’d in at-Tabaqaat (1/371) and Shaykh al-Albaanee authenticated it in Saheehul-Jaami’ (no. 8). Refer also to Takhreejul-Ihyaa‘ (2/4) of al-Haafidh al-’Iraaqee.

[6] Hasan: Related by al-Baghawee in Sharhus-Sunnah (no. 4683) and Abush-Shaykh in Akhlaaqun-Nabee (no. 213), and al-Haythamee authenticated it in al-Majma’ (9/19).

[7] Although this is a mursal narration, it does however, have support from those narrations that have already preceded, and it has a further witness from the narration of Ibn ’Abbaas – which is related by al-Baghawee (no. 3684) and Abush-Shaykh (no. 213-214).

[8] Da’eef Jiddan: Related by Ahmad (5/254) and at-Tirmidhee (no. 2348), from Aboo Umaamah radiyallaahu ’anhu. It was declared weak by Shaykh al-Albaanee in Da’eeful-Jaami’ (no. 3704).

 

The Story of the Boy and the King (from Surah Burooj) : Ibn Kathir

Imam Ahmad recorded from Suhayb that the Messenger of Allah said:Among the people who came before you, there was a king who had a sorcerer, and when that sorcerer became old, he said to the king, “I have become old and my time is nearly over, so please send me a boy whom I can teach magic.” So, he sent him a boy and the sorcerer taught him magic. Whenever the boy went to the sorcerer, he sat with a monk who was on the way and listened to his speech and admired them. So, when he went to the sorcerer, he passed by the monk and sat there with him; and on visiting the sorcerer the latter would thrash him. So, the boy complained about this to the monk. The monk said to him, “Whenever you are afraid of the sorcerer, say to him: `My people kept me busy.’ And whenever you are afraid of your people, say to them: `The sorcerer kept me busy.”’ So the boy carried on like that (for some time). Then a huge terrible creature appeared on the road and the people were unable to pass by. The boy said, “Today I shall know whether the sorcerer is better or the monk is better.” So, he took a stone and said, “O Allah! If the deeds and actions of the monk are liked by You better than those of the sorcerer, then kill this creature so that the people can cross (the road).” Then he struck it with a stone killing it and the people passed by on the road.

The boy came to the monk and informed him about it. The monk said to him, “O my son! Today you are better than I, and you have achieved what I see! You will be put to trial. And in case you are put to trial, do not inform (them) about me.”The boy used to treat the people suffering from congenital blindness, leprosy, and other diseases. There was a courtier of the king who had become blind and he heard about the boy. He came and brought a number of gifts for the boy and said, “All these gifts are for you on the condition that you cure me.” The boy said, “I do not cure anybody; it is only Allah who cures people. So, if you believe in Allah and supplicate to Him, He will cure you.” So, he believed in and supplicated to Allah, and Allah cured him.

Later, the courtier came to the king and sat at the place where he used to sit before. The king said, “Who gave you back your sight”The courtier replied, “My Lord.” The king then said, “I did” The courtier said, “No, my Lord and your Lord – Allah” The king said, “Do you have another Lord beside me” The courtier said, “Yes, your Lord and my Lord is Allah.” The king tortured him and did not stop until he told him about the boy. So, the boy was brought to the king and he said to him, “O boy! Has your magic reached to the extent that you cure congenital blindness, leprosy and other diseases”He said, ” I do not cure anyone. Only Allah can cure.” The king said, “Me” The boy replied, “No.” The king asked, “Do you have another Lord besides me”The boy answered, ” My Lord and your Lord is Allah.” So, he tortured him also until he told about the monk. Then the monk was brought to him and the king said to him, “Abandon your religion.” The monk refused and so the king ordered a saw to be brought which was placed in the middle of his head and he fell, sawn in two. Then it was said to the man who used to be blind, “Abandon your religion.” He refused to do so, and so a saw was brought and placed in the middle of his head and he fell, sawn in two. Then the boy was brought and it was said to him, “Abandon your religion.” He refused and so the king sent him to the top of such and such mountain with some people. He told the people, “Ascend up the mountain with him till you reach its peak, then see if he abandons his religion; otherwise throw him from the top.” They took him and when they ascended to the top, he said, ” O Allah! Save me from them by any means that You wish.” So, the mountain shook and they all fell down and the boy came back walking to the king. The king said, ” What did your companions (the people I sent with you) do” The boy said, “Allah saved me from them.” So, the king ordered some people to take the boy on a boat to the middle of the sea, saying, “If he renounces his religion (well and good), but if he refuses, drown him.” So, they took him out to sea and he said, “O Allah! Save me from them by any means that you wish.” So they were all drowned in the sea.

Then the boy returned to the king and the king said, “What did your companions do” The boy replied, “Allah, saved me from them.” Then he said to the king, “You will not be able to kill me until you do as I order you. And if you do as I order you, you will be able to kill me.” The king asked, “And what is that” The boy said, “Gather the people in one elevated place and tie me to the trunk of a tree; then take an arrow from my quiver and say: `In the Name of Allah, the Lord of the boy.’ If you do this, you will be able to kill me.” So he did this, and placing an arrow in the bow, he shot it, saying, “In the Name of Allah, the Lord of the boy.” The arrow hit the boy in the temple, and the boy placed his hand over the arrow wound and died. The people proclaimed, “We believe in the Lord of the boy!’’ Then it was said to the king, “Do you see what has happened That which you feared has taken place. By Allah, all the people have believed (in the Lord of the boy).”So he ordered that ditches be dug at the entrances to the roads and it was done, and fires were kindled in them. Then the king said, “Whoever abandons his religion, let him go, and whoever does not, throw him into the fire.” They were struggling and scuffling in the fire, until a woman and her baby whom she was breast feeding came and it was as if she was being somewhat hesitant of falling into the fire, so her baby said to her,”Be patient mother! For verily, you are following the truth!”)

Muslim also recorded this Hadith at the end of the Sahih. Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar related this story in his book of Sirah in another way that has some differences from that which has just been related. Then, after Ibn Ishaq explained that the people of Najran began following the religion of the boy after his murder, which was the religion of Christianity, he said, “Then (the king) Dhu Nuwas came to them with his army and called them to Judaism. He gave them a choice to either accept Judaism or be killed, so they chose death. Thus, he had a ditch dug and burned (some of them) in the fire (in the ditch), while others he killed with the sword. He made an example of them (by slaughtering them) until he had killed almost twenty thousand of them. It was about Dhu Nuwas and his army that Allah revealed to His Messenger :

(Cursed were the People of the Ditch. Of fire fed with fuel. When they sat by it. And they witnessed what they were doing against the believers. And they had no fault except that they believed in Allah, the Almighty, Worthy of all praise! To Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth! And Allah is Witness over everything.) (85:4-9)

This is what Muhammad bin Ishaq said in his book of Sirah — that the one who killed the People of the Ditch was Dhu Nuwas, and his name was Zur`ah. In the time of his kingdom he was called Yusuf. He was the son of Tuban As`ad Abi Karib, who was the Tubba` who invaded Al-Madinah and put the covering over the Ka`bah. He kept two rabbis with him from the Jews of Al-Madinah. After this some of the people of Yemen accepted Judaism at the hands of these two rabbis, as Ibn Ishaq mentions at length. So Dhu Nuwas killed twenty thousand people in one morning in the Ditch. Only one man among them escaped. He was known as Daws Dhu Tha`laban. He escaped on a horse and they set out after him, but they were unable to catch him. He went to Caesar, the emperor of Ash-Sham. So, Caesar wrote to An-Najashi, the King of Abyssinia. So, he sent with him an army of Abyssinian Christians, who were lead by Aryat and Abrahah. They rescued Yemen from the hands of the Jews. Dhu Nuwas tried to flee but eventually fell into the sea and drowned. After this, the kingdom of Abyssinia remained under Christian power for seventy years. Then the power was divested from the Christians by Sayf bin Dhi Yazin Al-Himyari when Kisra, the king of Persia sent an army there (to Yemen). He (the king) sent with him (Sayf Al-Himyari) those people who were in the prisons, and they were close to seven hundred in number. So, he (Sayf Al-Himyari) conquered Yemen with them and returned the kingdom back to the people of Himyar (Yemenis).

The Journey to Islam of a Monk from Rome – Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

Listen to the story here as told by Dr. Saleh as-Saleh (Rahimuhullah)
[audio https://salafiaudio.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/the-journey-to-islam-of-a-monk-from-rome-saleh-as-saleh.mp3]
Transcribed by – Fatimah bint Mohamed min Canada

Bismillahi rahmani raheem, alhamdulilahi rabil ‘alameen, wa sallallahu ‘alaah nabee-ina Muhammadin wa ‘alaah aleehi wasahbihi wasalam.

This is one fruit of the da’wah for the salif as salih, it was manifested in the baaytul maqdis, in the land of the Prophets in Palestine, May Allah (subhaanahu wa ta’alaa) relief it from the injustice of the Jews. In the beginning we remind ourselves of what Shaykh Albani (rahimullah) used to repeat, saying, “Alhamdulilahi ‘alaah n’matil islam, wa sunnah, alhamdulilah ‘alaah n’matil islaam, wa sunnah.” (All praises due to Allah,  for the favor of Islam, and sunnah, for the favor of Islam which Allah bestowed, and the favor of as sunnah which he bestowed).

Here’s the story of the formal priest or monk by the formal name, Daniel of Rome. And his current name is Ibrahim. May Allah persevere him and give him steadfastness on the path of uprightness. He said I was an imam from the people of Rome, son of a rich, very rich family. Who lived his life in enjoyment and comfort, childhood and youth. Much of my youth was spent in enjoyment with friends, enjoying cars, and prestigious ones. And I had wealth with me and money, could buy what I liked. Nothing was short for me. But even from that age, I had a feeling that there is something really missing in this life. And that there is something, a kind of emptiness. That I needed to fill. So not all of this means of life which are handed to me, were my goal and target. So I went into the direction of deen, of religion. And I began to read the injeel. The gospel. And go to church. And filled myself with reciting religious Christian books. From these books I began to find some answers, to my questions. But yet, incomplete and imperfect. I used to get up early each day, and go to the beach. Contemplating and pondering on the sea and reading the books and praying. Two months after this, I became convinced that I am unable to carry on a normal life after becoming religious. So I went to my father and I told him I cannot continue to work with him and I went to my mother, and my brothers, and I told them I decided to leave them and I prepared my luggage and took the train. Not knowing where I was going.

I arrived at the city of Bologna and I joined a monastery there and went on top of a high mountain and stayed on its top for about a month. Speaking to no one. Only reading and worshipping. I stayed for almost three years, moving from one monastery to another. Reading and worshipping.  Not like the other priests or monks who couldn’t leave their monasteries because I did not give the promise to become a monk in a specific monastery. And this promise normally prevents many from leaving these monasteries which they assign themselves to. After this trip, I decided to make another trip in other countries, other than Italy. So I began my journey. Long journey. From Italy. Passing by Slovenia,  Hungary, Austria, Romania, Bulgaria, Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, and from there to India. All in land. I heard the Adhan in Turkey. And I also heard the Adhan in Cairo, in a previous trip. However, this time the Adhan in Turkey affected me. And I loved it. And on my way back, at the Iranian/Pakistani borders, I came to encounter a Shiite person who invited me with his friends and began discussing Islam to me in accordance to the Shiite concepts. And they mentioned to me, the twelve Imams and they didn’t mention to me the Islam. The principle of Islam. Rather they focused on Shiiism and Ali (radiAllahu Ta’alaa anhu  – May Allah be pleased with him). And their awaiting of their Imam for their deliverance who will come in their opinion to deliver mankind. All of these discussions did not arouse an interest in me. And there were not answers to the many questions I’m searching for, concerning the truth.

So this Shiite person presented me with the offer to learn Islam in the city of Qum, the Iranian city, of Qum. And as you know, the city of Qum is the leading city of their schools, of shiism or rafidaah. So they offered that I stay with them at Qum for three months. However, I continued my journey and I left them. and I went to India. And when I stepped from the train, I saw people carrying lamps in the early dawn hours. Rushing in the direction of the city’s center. So I followed them. and I saw them making tawaff, circulating around a kaaf made of gold. There I realized that India is not place for me to look for what I was looking for. Afterwards, I returned to Italy. And I stayed one month, one complete month at the hospital. And I almost lost my life because of the illness I carried from India but Allah (subhanahu wa Ta’ala) preserved me, walhamdulilah and all praise is due to him. I left the hospital to my home. And I began to think about the next steps in my long journey. The steps I should take. So I became more determined to continue my search for the truth. I returned to the monastery and I began to practice the monk’s life in one of the monasteries in Rome. Where the chief monk asked me to deliver the speech of the word, and the promise on that night. I really thought deeply and in the morning I decided that I’m not going to give them the speech and this promise. So I left the monastery. I felt that there was something inside me, pushing me, to get out from the monastery.

Therefore, afterwards, I decided to go to al Quds, Jerusalem because of my belief in its holiness. So I left to al Quds, in land, passing through the same countries, I passed earlier in my journey to India. Until I reached Syria, Lebanon, ‘Amaan, and al Quds where I stayed for 1 week. Thereafter, I returned to Italy. And I had more and more questions. I returned to my home, and I opened the injeel, the gospel. And I felt that it was a must for me to read the gospel from the beginning. So I began with the Tura, going through the narrations of the Prophets of Bani Israel, the children of Israel, and through this stage, the true meanings of the message which Allah (subhaanahu wa Ta’alaa) revealed  became to crystallize. And I began to feel it. And this brought other questions which I did not find the answers to. I tried to find answers to these questions, through my search in my library filled with books connected to the gospel and the Torah. Thereupon, I remembered the sound of Adhan which I used to hear through my trips and thereupon, I realized that the Muslims believe in one god, no other god, except Him. and this is the thing which I really believed, so I said it is a must therefore that I should, learn Islam. So I began collecting books about Islam. And with me was the glorious Qur’an, translated into the Italian language. Which I bought on one of my trips. And after I read these books, I realized Islam is not as understood with many in the West as a religion of killing, and domination. Rather I found it as a religion of Rahma, of mercy. And I found it close in meaning, with the true meaning of Torah and the gospel.  So I decided to return to al Quds because I believed that the Quds was a place of the previous messages received by the Prophets.

However this time, I took the plane from Italy to Bayt al Maqdis. And I dwelt in a place used by the monks and those who come to the archery, the Armenian one in the old city. I didn’t carry in my suitcase except few clothes, and the translated meaning of the Qur’an to the Italian language, the gospel and the Torah. So I began to read more and more. And compare between what’s in the Qur’an and what’s in the Torah, and the gospel. So I realized it was close to the message of Mosaa, and ‘Isaa (‘alayhimu salam), the True one. So I began to speak to some Muslims, asking them about Islam. Until I met my dear friend, Waseem Hajeer. And we talked about Islam. And I met many friends, and they used to explain Islam to me. And after that, brother Waseem said to me that he will arrange for me a meeting and one of the callers to Allah  in al Quds. So the meeting was with the dear brother Amjad Salham. And we had a good talk about Islam. And one of the most things that really affected me was the story of the honorable companion, Salman al Fareesi, may Allah be pleased with him. because of the resemblance of my story to his, in terms of searching for the truth. Another meeting took place with brother Amjad and his companions. And from them was fadeelatu Shaykh, Hisham al ‘rif, hafidahullah. And as you know, Hisham al ‘rif, was on the path of the Salaf, May Allah persevere him and that he teaches at the masjid al Aqsa at the Quds. There a conversation between me and him, about Islam and its greatness took place. And I had some questions and he answered them. and I continued to visit with Amjad and Amjad used to clarify many of the issues to me.

Thereupon I had two choices. Either I follow upon the truth, or reject it. And I could not reject after I believed that Islam is the right path. And during this time, I was sitting alone, feeling that the moment has come to utter kalimatu Tawheed. The statement of Tawhid. And at the station of Tawhid and to utter the shahadah. And my brother Amjad came, and the time for Adhan for Salaatu Duhr, had commenced. Thereupon I uttered the Shahadah, ash hadu an la illaha ilal lah, wa ash hadu ana muhammadan rasoolulah. Brother Amjad hugged me and congratulated me on Islam. And we made Sujood of thankfulness of Allah, for this n’maah. And he asked me to make Ghusl, take a bath, and go to masjid al Aqsa, for suraatu duhr. And after the salaah was finished, I met the musaleen, the people praying, with the testimony of la illaha ilal lah, wa muhammadan rasoolulah, which Allah has bestowed upon me, and afterwards, I began seeking knowledge, and Allah (subhaanahu wa Ta’alaa) guided me to seek knowledge on the path upon which the Messenger (sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam) and his companions, May Allah pleased with them. walhamdulilah, ‘aalal islami, wa sunnah. And all praise to Allah for Islam and sunnah. Wa sallallahu ‘alaa Muhammadiin wa ‘alaah aleehi wa asahbihi ajma’een. This is the story of Brother Ibrahim, formerly Daniel. The former priest or monk of Rome, and his acceptance of Islam, after the long search for the truth. We ask Allah (subhanahu wa Ta’ala) to accept from him and to give him steadfastness, and to give us steadfastness with him on the deen of the truth. And to guide those who are seeking the truth as well. Walhamdulilahi rabil ‘alameen, wa sallalahu ‘alaa nabee-inaa Muhammad, wa ‘alaah aleehi wa sahbihi wa salim.

Was the Prophet (peace be upon him) created from light? – Al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah

Question:

Most people think that things were created from the light of Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and that his light was created from the light of Allaah.

They narrate, “I am the light of Allaah and everything is from my light” and also, “The first thing that Allaah created was the light of Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).” Is there any basis for this?

They also narrate “I am ‘Arab without (the letter) ‘ayn, i.e., Rabb, and I am Ahmad without (the letter) meem, i.e., Ahad.” Is there any basis for this?

Praise be to Allaah.

The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) has been described as being light from the light of Allaah. If what is meant by this is that he himself is from the light of Allaah, then this goes against the Qur’aan, which refers to his being human. If what is meant is that he is light in the sense that he brought the Revelation by which whoever Allah wills of His creation is guided, then this is correct. The committee has issued a fatwa concerning this matter, as follows:

“The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) has light which is the light of the message and guidance from Allaah, through which Allaah guides whomsoever He will of His slaves. No doubt the light of the message and of guidance comes from Allaah. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

‘It is not given to any human being that Allaah should speak to him unless (it be)by inspiration, or from behind a veil, or (that) He sends a Messenger to reveal what He wills by His Leave. Verily, He is Most High, Most Wise.

And thus We have sent to you (O Muhammad) Roohan (an Inspiration, and a Mercy) of Our Command. You knew not what is the Book, nor what is Faith? But We have made it (this Qur’aan) a light wherewith We guide whosoever of Our slaves We will. And verily, you (O Muhammad) are indeed guiding (mankind) to the Straight Path (i.e., Allaah’s religion of Islamic monotheism), —

The path of Allaah, to Whom belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. Verily, all the matters at the end go to Allaah (for decision).”[al-Shura 42:51-53]

This light is not derived from the Seal of the Awliya’ as some heretics claim. The body of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was blood and flesh and bone, and so on. He was created from a father and a mother, and had no existence before he was born. The reports which say that the first thing created by Allaah was the light of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), or that Allaah grasped a handful of the light from His Face and that this handful was Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), then He looked at it and it formed drops, and from each of these drops He created a Prophet, or He created all of creation from the light of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) – all of these reports and the like are not saheeh, and nothing like this has been narrated from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).”

From the fatwa quoted above, it is clear that this is a false belief.

As for the report which says “I am ‘Arab without (the letter) ‘ayn, i.e., Rabb, and I am Ahmad without (the letter) meem, i.e., Ahad” – the attributes of Lordship (ruboobiyah, from Rabb meaning Lord) and Absolute Unity (Ahad meaning One) are attributes that belong uniquely to Allaah, may He be glorified and exalted. It is not permissible for any one of His creation to be described as “the Lord (Rabb)” or as being One (Ahad) in absolute terms. These are attributes that belong exclusively to Allaah, and are not used to describe the Messengers or any other human beings. May Allaah bless our Prophet Muhammad and his family and companions.

Al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah li’l-Buhooth al-‘Ilmiyyah wa’l-Ifta’ (Standing Committee for Academic Research and the Issuing of Fatwas).

Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah, 1/310.

Question:

Is it said that Allaah created the heavens and earth for the purpose of creating the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)? What is the meaning of the words, “Were it not for you, the universe [lit. heavenly bodies] would not have been created”? Is there any basis for this hadeeth? Is it saheeh or not? Please give us the facts.

Answer:

The heavens and earth were not created for the sake of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). They were created for the reason mentioned by Allaah in the aayah (interpretation of the meaning):

“It is Allaah Who has created seven heavens and of the earth the like thereof (i.e., seven). His Command descends between them (heavens and earth), that you may know that Allaah has power over all things, and that Allaah surrounds (comprehends) all things in (His) Knowledge.”[al-Talaaq 65:12]

As for the hadeeth mentioned, it is falsely attributed to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and has no grounds for authenticity. May Allaah bless our Prophet Muhammad and his family and companions.

Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah, 1/312.

A Brief Discussion on Hijrah : Shaikh ‘Abdur-Rahmaan bin Qaasim An-Najdee

His Explanation of “Thalaathat-ul-Usool
Al-Ibaanah.com

In his explanation (sharh) of Imaam Muhammad bin ‘Abdil-Wahhaab’s treatise Thalaathat-ul-Usool, Shaikh ‘Abdur-Rahmaan bin Qaasim [Died 1392H], may Allaah have mercy on him, said:

The author states: “Hijrah means: Moving from a Land of Shirk to a Land of Islaam.” This is in order to preserve one’s religion. The Muhaajireen (migrants) were called by this name because they left behind their lands and homes where they had grown up, for the sake of Allaah, and instead joined a land in which they had no family or wealth. This was the case when they migrated to Madeenah. Therefore, everyone that separates himself from his homeland is a Muhaajir (migrant). The root of the word “Muhaajarah” comes from breaking away, separating oneself and remaining far away from somebody.

The author says: “It is obligatory upon this ummah to migrate from a Land of Shirk to a Land of Islaam.” This is affirmed by the Book, the Sunnah and the unanimous consensus of the scholars. The one who abandons Hijrah is threatened with punishment. Several scholars have relayed that there is consensus on the obligation of Hijrah from the Land of Shirk to the Land of Islaam. In fact, Allaah obligated the Hijrah upon His Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and his Companions before He obligated fasting and Hajj, as is agreed upon in the books of principles and subsidiary issues, and well known from the Religion by necessity.

His statement: “And this is everlasting until the (Final) Hour is established” is based on the unanimous agreement of the trustworthy scholars. Shaikh-ul-Islaam (Ibn Taimiyyah) said: “One cannot be safe from Shirk unless he remains far away from its adherents.”

The author continues: “The proof for this is Allaah’s saying: “Verily, as for those whom the angels take (in death) while they are wronging themselves…” i.e. by residing amidst the disbelievers. This ayah was revealed concerning a group of people from the inhabitants of Makkah who professed Islaam but yet did not migrate. So Allaah says: “Verily, as for those whom the angels take (in death).” He is either referring to the Angel of Death and his supporters or just the Angel of Death alone, since the Arabs would speak to one person using the plural form. “…while they are wronging themselves…” by abandoning Hijrah. “They (angels) will say (to them): ‘In what (condition) were you?’” Meaning: Why did you keep living here and not make Hijrah? This is a rebuking, reprimanding, and scolding type of question. Its meaning is: Why did you continue to live here and not make Hijrah? Which side were you on? This is even though the angels know well what side those who didn’t make Hijrah, after it was obligated on them, were on.

Allaah’s saying: “We were weak and oppressed in the earth” means: “We were not able to make Hijrah. We did not have the ability to leave our land nor to travel through the earth.”

“They (angels) will say: ‘Was not the earth of Allaah spacious enough for you to migrate therein?’” This refers to Madeenah – such that they migrate to it and abandon the people of Shirk. The angels did not accept their excuse. And in a hadeeth, it states: “Whoever commingles with a polytheist and resides with him, then he is indeed like him.” [Reported by Abu Dawood and others in various ahaadeeth]

Concerning Allaah’s statement: “…Such men will find their abode in Hell – what an evil destination”, this means: What an evil path to Hell. This shows that the one who abandons Hijrah after it has been made obligatory on him is committing one of the major sins.

Allaah’s saying: “…Except the weak ones among men, and women and children…” refers to those who are unable to perform the Hijrah. The word “children” here refers to both male and female children before the age of puberty.

“Who cannot devise a plan” means: To separate themselves from the polytheists. So these types of people cannot devise a plan or do not have monetary means or power to leave. “Nor are they able to direct their way” means: They do not know of any way to leave from Makkah to Madeenah, since it had become a land of Islaam.

“These are the ones whom Allaah is (most) likely to forgive” meaning: He will pardon those who failed to make Hijrah due to weakness and valid excuses. When Allaah uses “likely” for Himself, it is binding since it is something He desires.

“And Allaah is Ever Oft-Pardoning, Most Forgiving.” This means that He is Oft-Pardoning, overlooking their trespasses, and Most Forgiving to those who turn to Him in repentance. He does not burden a soul with a responsibility except that He gave it the ability to handle it.

Ibn ‘Abbaas said: “My mother and I used to be from among the weak ones, and the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would supplicate for the weak ones while in prayer.”

Allaah says: “O My servants who believe (in Me)! Verily, My earth is spacious.” Allaah orders His believing servants to migrate from the land in which they are not able to establish the Religion to His vast earth. So He informs us that the earth is not constricted, but rather vast, encompassing all of the creatures. If a person is in a land in which he cannot openly practice his Religion, then indeed Allaah has made the earth vast for him so that he could worship him in it as He has commanded him.

Hijrah is likewise obligatory upon everyone that resides in a land in which sins are openly committed and he is not able to change that. Allaah then says: “So to Me alone, perform your worship.” This means: “Single Me out in worship in My vast earth, which I created as well as everything upon it for you. And I created you upon it to worship Me.”

In a qudsee hadeeth, Allaah says: “Son of Aadam, I created you for My sake (i.e. to worship Me.), and I created all things for your sake.”

The author states: “Al-Baghawee, may Allaah have mercy on him, said…” His nickname was Muhyee-us-Sunnah, Abu Muhammad Al-Husayn bin Mas’ood Al-Faraa’. He was the author of the Tafseer, Sharh-us-Sunnah and other books. He passed away in 516H.

He (i.e. Al-Baghawee) said: ‘The reason for the revelation of this ayah was due to some Muslims who had resided in Makkah and did not migrate (to Madeenah). Allaah called out to them using the title of Eemaan (for them).” He reported this on a group amongst the Taabi’een. So he is implying that the one who abandons Hijrah after it has been made obligatory on him is not a disbeliever. Rather, he is sinful and disobedient by having abandoned it. So he is still a believer, but yet has deficient Eemaan. Therefore, he is one of the sinful believers.

The author (i.e. Muhammad bin ‘Abdil-Wahhaab) continues: “The proof for Hijrah from the Sunnah is…”, i.e. proof for the obligation of performing Hijrah from the Land of Shirk to the Land of Islaam from the Sunnah of Muhammad (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), which we were ordered to follow.

The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Hijrah will not cease until repentance ceases…” This means: Migrating from the Land of Shirk to the Land of Islaam will not come to an end until the repentance comes to an end, i.e. until repentance ceases to be accepted from those who repent. This hadeeth shows that so long as repentance is accepted, Hijrah is obligatory due to its presence.

As for the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Abbaas: “There is no (more) Hijrah after the Conquest (of Makkah), but instead Jihaadand (good) intention” then what this means is: “There is no (more) Hijrah after the Conquest of Makkah from Makkah to Madeenah since Makkah had become a Land of Islaam after it was conquered. This was since a group of people wanted to migrate from Makkah to Madeenah thinking that this was something encouraged. So the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) explained to them that he only encouraged this when Makkah was a Land of Disbelief. But as for when it became a Land of Islaam, then it did not apply anymore. So this means: “There is no (more) Hijrah from Makkah to Madeenah.” But as for the establishment and continuity of Hijrah from the Lands of Shirk to the Lands of Islaam, then this is well-known by way of the texts and unanimous agreement.

Hijrah and Residing in the Lands of Disbelief : Shaykh Al-Albani

Translated by Abdullah MacPhee in Daarul-Hadeeth, Dammaaj

In the tape series ‘Al-Hudaa wa An-Noor’ tape # 617, Al-Imaam Al-Albaanee was asked:

“Residing in the lands of disbelief, like that is the question, the question is about this matter, and in addition to it the American people who are Muslims, the Americans who are originally Muslims, is it incumbent upon them to make hijrah from there?”

Al-Imaam Al-Albaanee answered:

“Is there any doubt about that? Because of these people He said: ‘Was not the earth of Allaah spacious enough for you to emigrate therein’ (An-Nisaa: 97)

However before your last question, the first part, what is it? I don’t know do you still insist on asking it that we answer it?”

(The questioner): “I would be grateful if you were to answer.”

(The Sheikh): “What?”

(The questioner): “I would be grateful if you were to answer.”

(The Sheikh): “I believe the first part of the question would be understood inclusively from answering the second part of it, however, perhaps from that which is best is to explain what has come in the Sunnah from the authentic hadeeths which warn the Muslim from taking the lands of disbelief as a homeland. There is in the science of Fiqh and Usool a Qiyaas called Al-Qiyaas Al-Awlawee. If the people of the land born and hereditarily (from there) when they embrace Islaam it is incumbent upon them to make hijrah to the lands of Islaam then more so the one who is on the opposite of that, being born in the lands of Islaam and raised and brought up, it is not permissible for him to travel, and I don’t say make hijrah, to the lands of disbelief. This is even more so.

However, with that I say the hadeeths have come one after the other prohibiting the Muslim from traveling to the lands of disbelief. From that is the hadeeth which Abu Dawud transmitted in his Sunan on the Prophet (peace be upon him); that he said with the best form of expression: ‘Whoever is close together with the polytheist then he is like him.’

And the being close together mentioned is mixing together, meaning living together. And other hadeeths have come emphasizing this meaning with the clearest wording. He (peace be upon him); says: ‘The Muslim and the polytheist, their fire is not to appear to one another.’

The Muslim and the polytheist, their fire is not to appear to one another. This is an expression meaning that it is incumbent upon the Muslim that his residence be far away from the residence of the polytheist, because the Arabs from their custom is that they light the fire in front of their abodes, in front of their tents, so the fire appears to the one approaching from a distance. So it is as if the Messenger (peace be upon him) is saying to the Muslim; stay far away, stay far away as much as you can from having the disbelieving polytheist see your fire. The Muslim and the polytheist, their fire is not to appear to one another. A third hadeeth also emphasizes this, and it is his (peace be upon him) statement: ‘I am free from every Muslim who resides amongst the polytheists.’

These are very clear texts that emphasize that it is not permissible for the Muslim to reside amongst the polytheists. And the wisdom in that is very clear. Not from the analogical stand point or the intellectual standpoint or experience wise, because this is a secondary matter with regards to the traditional texts. There are some hadeeths which it is possible to use as a basis to use as an answer to a question that could occur to some minds when they hear those hadeeths. What is the secret? What is the purpose? What is the wisdom of the prohibition from the Messenger (peace be upon him) of the Muslim from living together with the polytheist? There are two hadeeths suitable to mention as an answer to this question. The first is his (peace be upon him) statement: ‘The example of the righteous sitting companion is like the one who sells misk. Either he gives you some as a gift or you buy from him or you smell from him a good fragrance. And the example of the evil sitting companion is like the ironsmith. Either he is going to burn your clothes or you are going to smell from him an offensive smell.’

This is the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) bringing forth an example for the sitting on a reduced scale. A reduced scale sitting, you sit with one person. So he is saying to you, if he is righteous then the example of him is like the one who sells misk, to the end of the hadeeth, or if he is evil then he is like the ironsmith. Either he is going to burn your clothes or you are going to smell from him an offensive smell. The second hadeeth which emphasizes the first hadeeth and the reality increases it in emphasis, it is what Al-Imaam Muslim transmitted and perhaps Al-Bukhaaree also in the Saheeh on the Prophet (peace be upon him) that he said: ‘A man from those before you killed ninety nine people then afterwards he wanted to make Tawbah (repentance) so he asked about the most knowledge of the people on earth, so he was directed to a Raahib. He then went to him and said to him, ‘I have killed ninety nine people so is there any Tawbah for me?’ He said, ‘You killed ninety nine people and you ask is there any Tawbah for you! There is no Tawbah for you.’ He then completed with him number one hundred. Then he continued to ask until he was directed to a person of knowledge.’

Before hand he was directed to a Raahib, meaning an ignorant person engrossed in worship. So he gave a verdict with his ignorance so his outcome was that he added him to the murdered ones before him. The second time he was directed to a person of knowledge.

‘So he went to him and said to him, ‘I have killed one hundred people unjustly, is there any Tawbah for me?’ He said, ‘What prevents you from Tawbah? However, you are in an evil land so leave it to such and such town which its people are righteous.’ So he went to go to them, to the end of the hadeeth and it is well known inshaallaah.

The highlight is that this person of knowledge has an understanding of the Fiqh of this hadeeth or these hadeeths, and this does not declare impossible that these hadeeths the Messenger (peace be upon him) narrated them to us, this does not prevent this from being from the understanding of the Prophets beforehand (peace be upon him) because they all used to draw from one source of light (guidance). So therefore, this person of knowledge understands this reality, that the contaminated atmosphere it can infect the righteous person when he intermixes with it. This is an example from the stand point of diseases, the diseases that are contagious. And because of that it has come for this point the quarantine well known today and the Messenger (peace be upon him) has put in place his principle in the well known hadeeth: ‘If a plague occurs in a land and you are in it then don’t leave it, and if a plague occurs in a land and you are not in it then don’t enter it.’

Like that. Therefore, the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) when he prohibited the Muslims from taking the lands of disbelief as a homeland, that is only to protect their Aqeedah, their worship, their manners. So because of this he made it incumbent not upon the polytheists, this is an important matter also, rarely have I addressed it when I speak about the likes of this issue, the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) or the wise legislator, not only made it incumbent upon the polytheists when they embrace Islaam that they make hijrah to the lands of Islaam, rather he made it incumbent upon the Bedouins to make hijrah from their nomadic life to their sedentary life. This, in it is a regard for the same meaning because the Messenger (peace be upon him) says in some of the hadeeths: ‘Whoever becomes a Bedouin he becomes harsh.’

So when the Bedouin lives after being taught Tawheed and learning what is incumbent upon him for correcting his faith and his Islaam then he goes back to his nomadic area and lives there, he could be influenced by the harshness which is from the normal way of the Bedouins. So if the Messenger (peace be upon him) encouraged the Bedouins firstly to return to sedentary life, then he tied into that a legislative ruling, and it is that they don’t have any right to the spoils of war that the Muslims capture from fighting the disbelievers, then more so and more so and more so he makes it incumbent upon the Muslims to remain in their lands and that they don’t move to the lands of disbelief and polytheism and misguidance. Especially in these days because you know that the Jews and the Christians, even if they are misguided because of their going astray firstly from Tawheed which has reached them from their Prophets and again because of their denial of our Prophet (peace be upon him) they with that used to be upon something of good manners and good character and so on. And he who is in my age group or close to it, he knows that the women of the Christians in the lands of Islaam, they used to cover with a covering better than many of the Muslim women today. The meaning of this statement is that the people of the book, sinfulness and immorality and nudity was not widespread amongst them the widespread way that the people of intellect, if there are people of intellect amongst them from the disbelievers, complain about in their lands. So because of that how can it be permissible for a Muslim to expose himself to this society contaminated by immorality and this decadence? This is what I have in response to that question.”

Later on in the tape Al-Imaam Al-Albaanee said: “Here is a Shubhah that must be mentioned on this occasion and it is a deceptive Shubhah that many of the youths are deceived by. They say: ‘Yaa Sheikh, by Allaah, we here, religious freedom is more than that in our country.’ This from some angles is correct. However, I take them by surprise with the reality that they live in. I say to them: ‘Are you able to raise your voices with the Adhaan?’ He says: ‘No.’ I say: ‘Where is the freedom that you claim?’ Then I remind them of the long term. You, if you are fleeing with your deen, you cling, to the lands of disbelief, is it possible for you to conceive that you will be able to set up an Islamic state where you are in America, in France, and so on, except after centuries and long centuries? Which of the two affairs is more likely, that you return to your countries and work together with your brothers there to establish the Islamic society and the Islamic lifestyle from which springs the establishment of the Islamic state and ruling by Islaam, or is it more likely over there? No, by Allaah, they say, in the lands of Islaam it is more likely. Because changing those lands of disbelief to the likes of what the situation is in the Islamic lands requires centuries. Therefore you are living in delusions. You say: ‘We live in freedom greater than the lands of Islaam.’ This is a delusion and this is a fantasy. Yes you pray and you fast and so on, however, most of your fasting, most of your prayer is not in the legislated manner. Furthermore, put this regard aside, you hear from there problems which the youths are exposed to regarding marriage to some of the women of the people of the book, they claim, and having children afterwards, and the disputing when the woman divorces him, he did not divorce her, then his son or daughter remains with her not him and so on; Problems that we are constantly asked about. These don’t occur in the lands of Islaam. Due to that the reality which there is no doubt about is that it is not permissible for the Muslim today to live in the lands of disbelief. So if he is exiled from his land where he was born, it is allowed for him to move to another land from the lands of Islaam. This is what I recall or what I saw necessary to mention pertaining to examining this issue.

(A questioner): Yaa Sheikh, concerning this issue they mention something close to what you mentioned, a Shubhah that the lands have become similar in sinfulness and immorality, the lands of Islaam and the lands of disbelief, and the (Islamic) rulings are not being enforced. So what is your opinion?

(The Sheikh): We have said beforehand regarding sinfulness and immorality, it is not permissible to compare the lands of Islaam to those lands. As for regarding the rulings, correct, sadly, many of the Islamic rulings have been rendered void and have been abandoned. However, Qiyaas here is Qiyaas with the existence of the distinguishing factor because the lands of Islaam many of the rulings still exist in it upon Islaam and at the very least upon some of the Islamic madhhabs. As for there, only the Qaanoon (the man made law) exists there which has judicial power over all of them. So this also is a distortion. They want by it to justify what they are upon from the residing that opposes the Sharee’ah. Furthermore I also say, and as it is said: the speech is connected together, our Lord says in the Noble Qur’aan: ‘And whoever amongst you takes them as friends then verily he is one of them.’ (Al-Maa’idah: 51)

What do you think, the one who lives in a land of disbelief, is he having Muwaalaah (befriending, showing loyalty, supporting etc.) for that land or showing enmity to it? I want to hear the answer from the doctor to loosen up the atmosphere a little bit…

Whichever Muslim travels to a land of disbelief, is he having Muwaalaah for this land and its rulers or is he showing enmity?

(The doctor): No he is not having Muwaalaah, the land and its rulers and its government he is not having Muwaalaah for them.

(The Sheikh): He is not having Muwaalaah? Is he showing enmity?

(The doctor): He is averse, not showing enmity, yes showing enmity, however he perhaps does not do any act of enmity, however he is averse to it.

(The Sheikh): He is averse?

(The doctor): Yes

(The Sheikh): Then why does he take it as residence?

(The doctor): Because of this need as you have mention.

(The Sheikh): Na’am, in that case we say in response why… (A cut in the tape)

(The doctor): Because of the need to resided there.

(The Sheikh): However the need must prove to be true.

(The doctor): No, No. I am saying because of what you mentioned. The answer to your question is what you previously mentioned. The answer to your question is the Muslim who resides in the lands of the disbelievers, is he having Muwaalaah for them or showing enmity to them. If you consider merely residing Muwaalaah this is another matter. If you are asking about the Muwaalaah of the heart, no the Muslim is not having Muwaalaah for them, normally, he resides but he is not having Muwaalaah for them. Meaning he does not love them, pardon me, he is averse to their ways.

(The Sheikh): Pardon me, is Muwaalaah in the heart only or outwardly also?

(The doctor): In the heart and outwardly.

(The Sheikh): You intended in the heart.

(The doctor): He is not having Muwaalaah for them. He is not pleased with what they are upon. He disapproves of that. He calls to the opposite of it. He does not implement it upon himself. Meaning Muwaalaah is not materialized. I don’t see it to be materialized. He remaining amongst them is forbidden. This is a matter. As for Muwaalaah, it is not clear that he is having Muwaalaah. It is possible that he reside amongst a people while he is averse to them, averse to what they are upon.

(The Sheikh): Tayyib. He does not assist them, Yaa Ustaadh?

(The doctor): Yes he assists in the general way of life in the dunyaa. Is this from Muwaalaah?

(The Sheikh): Isn’t he upon their Qawaaneen (man made laws)?

(The doctor): Yes they rule him by it.

(The Sheikh): Tayyib. How is Muwaalaah? Muwaalaah is forbidden. How is it done?

(The doctor): Even in the lands of the Muslims we rule by un-Islamic laws.

(The Sheikh): pardon me, now let us finish with over there then we can come back to the lands of Islaam.

(The doctor): He firstly is residing with them. They themselves have the ability with the rule of law. They implement it, he carries it out. He is not able to avoid it, even if some avoid some things however he carries out most of it. However the laws of disbelief being implemented upon him, it is forced upon him. Is this Muwaalaah? This is a question that applies even to the lands of the Muslims.

(The Sheikh): No, No. It does not apply. Baarakallaah feek. However, I don’t know this jump, is it analogical, from the land of disbelief to the lands of Islaam.

(The doctor): No, it is a jump, the jump Yaa Sheikh is because of an answer to the question. Is merely their laws being applied on them, the laws are applied so he complies with them upon these laws. Is this Muwaalaah? The answer, yes their laws are applied on him. This is the answer to the question. Is this Muwaalaah? You mentioned that this is Muwaalaah. So I say if this is Muwaalaah then all of us in all lands, un-Islamic laws are applied on us.

(The Sheikh): They are not the same. Baarakallaah feek. I am going to say to you now as long as you continue to use Qiyaas. I say to you there is a very big difference. The Muslim he must have an abode, a place of shelter. He must have that. So he must have a land for this shelter, and this land it must either be a land, I don’t say Islamic now, let it be more specific than that beforehand, its residents are Muslims or another land its residents are disbelievers. So he chose to reside in the second land not the first, and another chose to reside in the first land. Is the example of the two the same?

(The doctor): No they are not the same.

(The Sheikh): Baarakallaah feek. That is what was thought. Because of that your Qiyaas of the land of disbelief with the Muslim land does not stand straight. Because the Muslim he must have as I have brought beforehand a place of shelter that he uses for shelter. Therefore, either this place of shelter of his is in a Muslim land or in a land of disbelief. So when he resides in a Muslim land, we say here going along with you, this one is forced to comply with this land in its rulings. However, I have said beforehand there is a difference between the rulings that are applied in the lands of Islaam and the rulings which are applied in the lands of disbelief even if it is five percent, ten percent whatever percentage. What is important is there is a difference. So this one who must have a place of residence and a residency, he is forced to live under these rulings. However, there is another difference. Now I bring forth for you an example for this land and that land. Regarding car insurance, in it as you know there are two types of insurance, compulsory insurance and voluntary insurance. Good, in some land he is forced to have the two types of insurance while in another land he is forced to have one type of insurance. The two lands in good and evil are similar, there is absolutely no difference, to bring the issue closer to comprehension. The Muslim chose the land in which the two types of insurance are forced on him. Is it said that this one is like the first one?

(The doctor): No, he is not like that one.

(The Sheikh): Therefore, Baarakallaah feek, it is necessary that the Muslim always takes into consideration that there is a difference. Let me mention an example, Muwaalaah, there is a difference in Muwaalaah. Muwaalaah is a must, like the Muslim who resides in the lands of Islaam and he pays many, many taxes and sales taxes. This one is excused. Where is he to go? Here it is not said to him: ‘Was not the earth of Allaah spacious enough for you to emigrate therein’ (An-Nisaa: 97)

As for that person who rules with a Qaanoon from beginning to end, he is a Kaafir, and every day, without exaggeration, at every interval changes enter it because it is from that which man has produced. The Qaanoon in the lands of Islaam is not like this in farness from Islaam. There is a difference in it be it small or large, this is not our subject. Therefore, we go along with you, the Muslim in the land of Islaam is having Muwaalaah, however, he is not able to do anything except this. This Muwaalaah is outward and it is not in the heart. As for there, it is in the heart and outward because he is able to escape from that by living in the lands of Islaam being forced to the likes of this bodily Muwaalaah not Muwaalaah of the heart. I hope that these matters are taken into consideration because the reality helps us to make the Muslims understand the Islamic rulings and so that they return to increasing the masses of their nation inside their land instead of increasing the masses of the disbelievers.

I put forth a very simple example. The Muslim in the lands of Islaam, Allaahu Akbar…

(I think there was a pause for the Adhaan)

Perhaps you recall with me a hadeeth in the Sunan of Abu Dawud and others. A man entered and said: ‘As-Salaamu Alaikum.’ So he (peace be upon him) said: ‘Ten.’ A second man entered: ‘As-Salaamu Alaikum wa Rahmatullah.’ ‘Twenty.’ A third man entered. He said: ‘As-Salaamu Alaikum wa Rahmatullah wa Barakaatuh.’ He said: ‘Thirty.’ They said: ‘O Messenger of Allaah, so and so entered so you said ten,’ to the end. He said: ‘The first said As-Salaamu Alaikum so ten good deeds were recorded for him. The second added so twenty were recorded for him. The third, thirty. These good deeds that the Muslim acquires in the lands of Islaam, does he acquire them there? What do you think?

(The doctor): No.

(The Sheikh): This is a very small example. So now I say to you, another example very small. This example differs from one Muslim land to another Muslim land, rather, from a Muslim locality to another Muslim locality in the same land, from a Muslim locality to another Muslim locality, rather, from house to house. Is there something more reduced than this? Is there something smaller than this? There is not. How is this? A Muslim land, however, and from it is this land, you say to him: ‘As-Salaamu Alaikum.’ He says to you: ‘Marhabaa.’ ‘When you are greeted with a greeting, greet in return with what is better than it or return it…’ (An-Nisaa: 86)

He is not raised in an Islamic manner. I am coming closer home a little bit with some small examples. As-Salaamu Alaikum, wa Alaikum As-Salaam. However, in the smallest example he entered and said: ‘As-Salaamu Alaikum.’ He left and said: ‘As-Salaamu Alaikum’ going about and automatically good deeds are recorded one after another. Allaah knows best from twenty four hours how much the total of these good deeds is. Why? Because he lives in a Muslim Salafee atmosphere. He knows his (peace be upon him) statement: ‘When one of you enters a sitting then let him give Salaams, and when he leaves let him give Salaams, for the first does not have more right than the second.’

This and other than it from the many examples that we have brought home to you the reality which we seek. It is not possible for you to see it in the lands of disbelief, never. And because of that we ask Allaah عز و جل to inspire our Muslim youths to return to the land of Islaam and that they learn the rulings of the Qur’aan and the Sunnah of the Messenger (peace be upon him) upon the methodology of As-Salaf As-Saalih and that they educate themselves and those they are close with upon this pure Islaam. And perhaps this much is enough inshaallaah. And all praise is due to Allaah Lord of all that exists.”

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Do Not Say: “They are Dead” : by Imam ash-Shanqiti

Imam ash-Shanqiti [1] , Adwaa’ul-Bayaan (10/21-23)
Al-Istiqaamah Magazine , Issue No.8 – Shawwal 1418H / February 1998

Allaah – the Most High – said:

“And do not say about those who are killed fighting in the Path of Allaah that they are dead. Rather, they are alive!” [Soorah al-Baqarah 2:154].

This verse is an apparent proof that the martyrs [those who are killed in the Path of Allaah] are not dead. Yet in another verse Allaah says, whilst addressing the Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam; who is better than any and every martyr :

“Indeed you will die, and they will die.” [Soorah az-Zumar 39:30].

The reply to this [apparent contradiction] is: That the martyrs are dead from a worldly point of view, this is why they can be inherited from, and why their wives can remarry again – a point about which the Scholars have ijmaa’ (consensus) upon. It is this death, the worldly death, that Allaah informed would occur to the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. This is why Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq radiallaahu ‘anhu said, when the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed away: “May my mother and father be sacrificed for you O Prophet of Allaah! By Allaah! Allaah will never combine two deaths for you. You have died the death that Allaah decreed for you … Whosoever worships Muhammad, let him know that Muhammad is dead.” Then he deduced this by reciting the [above] verse, and the Companions of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam accepted this.2

As for the life that Allaah affirmed in the Qur’aan for the martyrs, and the life that has been affirmed for the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in which he is able to return the greetings of salaam to whosoever sends it upon him, then both of them refer to the life of the barzakh (a state of existence between the present life and the Hereafter); an existence which cannot be truly comprehended by the people of this world. So with regards to the martyrs there is a reference to this in Allaah – the Most High’s – saying: “Rather, they are alive, but you do not perceive it.” [Soorah al-Baqarah 2:154]. The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam explained this verse by saying: “Their souls ore in the bellies of green birds, which hove lanterns suspended for them from Allaah’s Throne. They roam around in Paradise wherever they desire, then return to these lanterns …”3

As for [the life affirmed for] the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, then he said: “There is no one who sends the greetings of salaam upon me, except that Allaah returns my soul hock until I reply to their greeting.”4 And: “Indeed Allaah’s Angels roam around the earth conveying to me the greetings of salaams from my Ummah.”5 So this life also cannot truly be comprehended by the intellects of the people of this world. Since, along with this [fact], his sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam’s blessed soul resides in the loftiest part of Paradise with the companionship of the highest company; a company higher than the souls of the martyrs. Yet the reality of how his pure soul links itself to his noble body ‘alayhis-salaam – a body which the earth cannot consume – is a reality which no one knows, except Allaah alone. Thus, if this type of life was like the life that is understood by the people of this world, then why did Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq radiallaahu ‘anhu say that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was dead, and why was it permitted to bury him? [And if he sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not die] then why was there a need to appoint a khaleefah (succesor) after him. Also, those events; such as the [tragic] killing of ‘Uthmaan radiollaahu ‘anhu, or the differences which arose between the Companions, or that which occurred with ‘Aaishah radiallaahu ‘anhaa need not have happened if he sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam were still alive! Since if that were the case, they could have referred judgement back to him concerning those issues in which they differed [if he sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam were still alive and could fulfill such needs].

Thus, just as the Qur’aan is explicitly clear that the martyrs are actually living; due to Allaah – the Most High’s – saying: “Rather, they are alive.” Then likewise, the Qur’aan is just as explicitly clear that this state of living is one whose reality cannot be truly understood by the people of this world; due to Allaah’s saying: “But you do not perceive it.” Similarly, just as it is established that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is living in the grave; replying to the greetings of salaam, yet even though his Companions actually buried him, they were still unable to perceive this state of living. Thus, we know that this state of living is likewise a reality which cannot be truly understood by the people of this world. However, what could make this more clear is by considering the example of someone who is

asleep. The state of one who is asleep differs from that of one who is awake in many ways, including the fact that the one who sleeps experiences dreams which can be understood. And Allaah knows best.

Imaam Ibn al-Qayyim (d.751H)- rahimahullaah – said: “It is known by necessity that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam’s body is intact and has not decayed. The Companions asked him: How are we to send greetings of salaam upon you when your body has decayed! So he sallallaahu ‘alayhi we sallam replied: “Indeed Allaah has prohibited the earth from consuming the bodies of the Prophets.” So if his body was not in his grave, then why would he respond to this question! And it has been authentically established from him that he said: “Indeed Allaah’s Angels roam around the earth conveying to me the greetings of salaams from my Ummah.”7 It is authentic from him that he once came with Abu Bakr and ‘Umar [into the mosque] and said: “We shall be raised up like this on the Day of Resurrection.”8 It is also established that he sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saw the Prophet Moosaa praying in his grave on the night of his Israa (Heavenly Ascension), and he also saw him [on that same night] in the sixth or seventh Heaven.9 So the soul is in one place and is connected to the body, which resides in the grave. Similarly, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is in his grave; replying to the greetings of salaam sent to him, along with the fact that his soul resides in the loftiest part of Paradise along with the highest companionship. So there is no contradiction between these two matters; since the affairs of the souls is one thing, whilst that of the bodies is another.”10

So in these words is a proof that the life of the barzakh, that was previously mentioned, is a life whose reality is not known to the people of this world. About this Allaah – the Most High – said: “Rather, they are alive, but you do not perceive it.” And complete and perfect knowledge is only with Allaah.


1. Adwaa’ul-Bayaan (10/21-23).
2. Related by al-Bukhaaree (nos.124 1-2), from ‘Aaishah radiallaahu ‘anhaa. Refer also to al-Bukhaaree (no.3667, 4452).
3. Related by Muslim (no.1887), from Ibn Mas’ood radiallaahu ‘anhu.
4. Hasan: Related by Ahmad (no.10817), from Abu Hurayrah radiallaahu ‘anhu. It was authenticated by Ibn Taymiyyah in his Majmoo’ Fataawaa (1/233).
5. Saheeh: Related by an-Nasaa’ee (2/43). It was authenticated by Shaykh al-Albaanee in Saheeh Sunanin-Nasaa’ee (1/274).
6. Saheeh: Related by Abu Daawood (no.1047), from Abu Hurayrah. It was authenticated by Shaykh al-Albaanee in his Takhreejul – Mishkaat (no.1361).
7. Saheeh: Refer to footnote no.5
8. Da’eef: Related by Ibn Maajah (no.99). It was declared to be weak by Shaykh al-Albaanee in Takhreejul-Mishkaat (no.6054), because the chain of narrators contains Sa’eed ibn Marlamah, who is not a strong narrator.
9. Related by Muslim (7/102).
10. Kitaabur-Rooh.

Hijrah will Continue to Remain in Effect : Shaikh Saalih Al-Fawzaan

Q&A Section of Sharh Sitta Mawaadi’ min as-Seerah (pg. 67-68)
Al-Ibaanah.com

Question: Is Hijrah still applicable in this time of ours? And if it is, there must be a place of residence and provision for it. And it is not possible to achieve this…

Answer: Hijrah will remain in effect. The Messenger said: “Hijrah will not cease until repentance ceases. And repentance will not cease until the sun rises from its place of setting (i.e. the west).”

Hijrah is still in effect. So if a person is not able to establish his Religion in one area, he should go to another area where he will be able to establish his Religion along with the Muslims. And if he feels that he is not able to go to the lands of the Muslims, he should go to those lands in which he will be able to establish his Religion even if the country he goes to is a Land of Kufr (Disbelief). This is since some types of evil are less harmful than other types.

The Companions migrated to Abyssinia – which consisted of Christians – since there they were able to establish their Religion and be safe from the harms of the pagan Arabs (of Makkah). Allaah says: “So fear Allaah as much as you are able to.” [Surah At-Taghaabun: 16]

So if there is a country in which there exists a Muslim minority or perhaps many Muslims, he should go there and be with them – even if it is a country of disbelievers. If he is not able to go to one of the lands of the Muslims, he should look to minimize evil (from himself) however much he is able to.

Honouring the Parents is Preceeding al-Jihad in the way of Allaah – Shaykh Nazzam Sakkîjâ

Honouring the Parents is Preceeding al-Jihad in the way of Allaah
by Shaykh Nazzam Sakkîjâ
Translated by Farhat Abbas Abu Abdullaah al-Mirpuree


1. On the authority of Abdullaah bin Masood may Allaah be pleased with him, who said :

I asked the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) Which action is loved to Allaah ? he said : “Prayer on its time,” so I said : What next ? he said : “honouring parents,” so I said : what next ? He said : “al-Jihad in the way of Allaah[1].”

Footnotes

1. This is in the case of Jihad which is not fard ‘ayn


Putting off the Jihad for honouring the parents and accompanying them, because Paradise is under the feet of the mother

1. On the authority of Abdullaah bin ‘Umarooh bin al-Aaas may Allaah be pleased with him who said, a man came to meet the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) and said :

I want to go with you on the migration and the Jihad, because I want reward from Allaah Azza wa Jal, so he said : Are one of your parents alive? yes, both of them, so he said : You want reward from Allaah Azza wa jal? he said : yes, so he said : So go back to your parents and the goodness is in keeping them company.

2. In another narration on the authority of Abdullaah bin ‘Umarooh bin al-Aaas may Allaah be pleased with them, who said : a man came to the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) and asked to go on the Jihad, so he said :

Are your parents alive ? he said : yes. He said : With them is the Jihad. [2]

3. On the authority of Abdullaah bin ‘Umarooh bn al-Aaas may Allaah be pleased with them who said that a man came to the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) and said,

I have come to go with you on the migration, and I left my father crying, so he said, go back to them, and make them laugh, like you make them cry.

4. On the authority of Abee Huraira may Allaah be pleased with him, who said that a man came to the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) and said I want to go on the Jihad, so he said,

Are your parents alive ? he said : Yes so he said : With them is he Jihad.

5. On the Authority of Talha bin Muwayeeyah as-Salmee may Allaah be pleased with him, who said that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) came so I said O Messenger of Allaah I desire to go on Jihad in the way of Allaah ? he said :

Is your mother alive ? he answered yes. The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said : Under the feet of the parents there is Paradise.

6. On the authority of Muwayeeyah bin Jahmaa that Jahmaa came to the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) and said, O Messenger of Allaah I desire to participate along side you in a battle ? he said :

Do you have a mother ? he said : Yes, so he said : Serve them, Indeed the Pardise is with their feet.

7. Also on the authority of Muwayeeyah bin Jahmaa with the words : I came to the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) wanting to participate in the jihad, so the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said :

Do you have parents ? so I said yes, so he said : so serve them, indeed the Paradise is under their feet.

8. Abee Saeed may Allaah be pleased with him who said that a man came to the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) doing Hijra from Yemen, so he said :

Do you have one of your parents in Yemen ? he said : My father, he said : Did you listen to him ? he said no, he said return to him and listen to him, indeed listening to him is Jihad, and honouring them.

Footnotes

1. This is in the case of Jihad which is not fard ‘ayn

The Meaning and Ruling of Hijrah : Shaikh Ahmad bin Yahyaa An-Najmee

His explanation of Thalathat-ul-Usool
Al-Ibaanah.com

In his explanation of “The Three Fundamental Principles” of Imaam Muhammad bin ‘Abdil-Wahhaab, Shaikh Ahmad An-Najmee said:

The definition of Hijrah is: To abandon the Land of Shirk, i.e. to leave it, and to come to a Land of Islaam. This is since the word Hijrah is derived from the root hajr which means to abandon or leave off. The Muslims were commanded to abandon the Land of Shirk and go to the Land of Islaam. The ruling on Hijrah is that it is obligatory for the one who is able to do it. This is why Allaah informs us that there will be a group of people whom the angels will take in death while they are wronging themselves due to their lack of migrating and their preferring the Land of Shirk.

Allaah says: “Verily, as for those whom the angels take (in death) while they are wronging themselves (by not performing Hijrah), they (angels) will say (to them): ‘In what (condition) were you?’ They will reply: ‘We were weak and oppressed in the earth.’ They (angels) will say: ‘Was not the earth of Allaah spacious enough for you to migrate therein?’ Such men will find their abode in Hell – what an evil destination! Except the weak ones among men, women and children – who cannot devise a plan, nor are they able to direct their way. These are the ones whom Allaah is (most) likely to forgive, and Allaah is Ever Oft-Pardoning, Most Forgiving.” [Surah An-Nisaa: 97-99]

And He says: “O My servants who believe (in Me)! Verily, My earth is spacious so to Me alone, perform your worship.” [Surah Al-‘Ankaboot: 56]

Al-Baghawee, may Allaah have mercy on him, said: “The reason for the revelation of this ayah was due to some Muslims who had resided in Makkah and did not migrate (to Madeenah). Allaah called out to them using the title of Eemaan (for them).”

We derive from these verses that Hijrah is obligatory on the one who is able to do it, which requires him to move from a Land of Disbelief to a Land of Islaam. This is since in a Land of Disbelief, the believer is exposed to harm and the government will be against him as opposed to in his favor. Even though he may be safe from harm, he will still not be safe from having to seek judgement in laws that are not from Allaah’s Legislation, such as man-made laws, which they use to govern the people.

However, Hijrah in our present time must only be done with the permission from the country that one is migrating to. So if the country refuses to accept this emigrant, then he has no ability or power in the matter except by Allaah’s leave.

Things used to be easy (in the old days). But as for today, there is difficulty in Hijrah either from the side of the country that one is migrating from or from the side of the country that one is migrating to. So whoever is able to make Hijrah, with ease and no difficulty, to a Land of Islaam, then such a person is obligated to do that. Furthermore, some of the Muslim countries today apply strict measures against those who adhere to the Religion of Allaah in everything that he brings and leaves behind.

In summary, any Muslim that lives in a country, which the disbelievers rule based on man-made laws, must migrate from it if he is easily able to do it. And if it is not easy for him, then according to what is apparent (from the texts), he is excused due to Allaah’s saying: “Allaah does not burden a soul with more than it can handle.” [Surah Al-Baqarah: 286]. And with Allaah lies the success.

“Indeed Allâh will help those who help Him…” : Imâm ash-Shanqîtî

Imâm ash-Shanqîtî – [Adwaa ‘ul-Bayaan (5/703-704) ]
Al-Istiqaamah Magazine, Issue No.4 – Jumâdal-Awwal 1417H / November 1996
Al-Istiqaamah Magazine, Issue No.6 – Dhul-Qa’dah 1417H / March 1997

“Indeed Allaah will help those who help Him. Indeed Allaah is Exalted in Might, All-Powerful.” [Soorah Hajj 22:40]

Imaam ash-Shanqeetee (d.1393H) – rahimahullaah – said:

“Allaah – the Mighty and Majestic – explains in this noble Aayah that He has sworn to help and give victory to those who help Him. It is known that the help and victory of Allaah comes by following what He has prescribed, obeying His commend, avoiding His prohibitions, by helping His Messengers and their followers, aiding His Religion and fighting against His enemies and overpowering them – until the word of Allaah is made uppermost, whilst the word of His enemies is debased and mode low. Then Allaah – the Most High, the Most Magnificent – explains the charecteristics of those whom He has promised would receive His help and victory, distinguishing them from others. So He said – explaining those to whom He swore He would aid and give victory to – because He is the one to aid and give victory:

“Those who, if We establish them in the earth, establish the prayer, give the Zakaat, enjoin the good and forbid the evil.” [Soorah Hajj 22:41].

And that which this noble aayah indicates is that whosoever aids Allaah, then Allaah will aid Him. This is clearly explained in other than this place, such as His – the Most High’s – sayings.

“O you who Believe. If you help Allaah, Allaah will help you; and establish your feet firmly. But those who disbelieve, for them is destruction and Allaah will make their deeds vain.” [Soorah Muhammad 47:7].

“Indeed, Our Word has gone forth of old for our slaves, the Messengers, that they will certainly be victorious; and that Our forces will certainly be triumphant.” [Soorah as-Saafaat 37:171-173].

“Allaah has Decreed: It is My Messenger and I who will prevail.” [Soorah Mujaadalah 58:21].

“Allaah has promised to those amongst you who believe and do righteous actions that He will grant you the khilaafah in the land.” [Soorah an-Noor 24:55].

And in His – the Most High ‘s – saying:

“Those who, if We establish them in the earth, establish the prayer, give the Zakaat, enjoin the good and forbid the evil.” [Soorah Hajj 22:41].

In it is a proof that there is no promise from Allaah of His help, except by establishing the Prayer, paying the Zakaah, enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil. So it is these whom Allaah will establish upon the earth and will strengthen His Word through them. However, those who do not establish the salaah, nor pay the Zakaah, nor enjoin the good nor forbid the evil, then there is no promise for them from Allaah that He will aid and grant them victory. They are not from His party, nor are they his friends -those who have the promise of His help and victory. Rather, they are the party of Shaytaan and his friends. So if they were to expect the help of Allaah and the fulfillment of His promise upon them, then their example is like that of a hired worker who refuses to do the labour that he was hired for, yet he expects to be rewarded. So whosoever is like this, then he has no intellect!”1

So the help that we so desperately await, and the victory that we so strongly desire will only come about by: “The Muslims returning and repenting to their Lord, correcting their ‘aqeedoh (beliefs) and cultivating themselves and their families upon the pure and correct Islaam; putting into effect Allaah – the Most High’s – saying:

“Never will Allaah change the condition of a people, until they change themselves.” [Soorah ar-Ra’d 13:11].”2

1. Adwaa’ ul-Bayaan (5/703-704) of ‘Allaamah ash-Shanqeetee.
2. Al-‘Aqeedatut-Tahaawiyyah Sharh wat-Ta’leeq (p.47) of Shaykh al-Albaanee.

Q&A Concerning The Ideological Attack : Shaykh bin Baz

Shaykh bin Baz , Majmoo’ Fataawaa wa Maqaalaat Mutanawwi’ah (3/438-446)
Al-Istiqaamah Magazine , Issue No.8 – Shawwal 1418H / February 1998

[Q1]: What, in your opinion, is the definition of al-ghazwa al-fikree (the ideological attack)?

[A1]: Ideological warfare is a modern term which refers to a set of efforts in which a nation engages in order to conquer or influence another nation, so that [the attacked nation] takes a particular course of direction.

It is far more serious than military warfare, since it aims at secrecy, seeking to achieve subtle objectives initially; so that the attacked nation does not perceive it, nor prepare to halt it, nor stand in its way – thereby falling victim to [such an attack]. The eventual result of this onslaught is that this nation becomes sick in mind and sense; loving what the enemy wants it to love and hating what they want it to hate. It is a chronic disease which attacks and destroys nations, doing away with its personality, removing such meanings as foundations and strength. The nation which is struck by this [ideological attack] does not even feel what has hit it, or what it even is! That is why curing it becomes somewhat difficult, and making [the attacked nation] understand the ways of righteousness becomes a struggle.

This war takes place by means of school curriculums, general education, media, small and large size publications, and other such channels [that influence the thoughts of its people]. Through this the enemy hopes to deviate the nation from its beliefs; becoming attached to what the enemy throws at it. We ask Allaah for safety and protection from this.

[Q2]: Are the Arabs generally subject to this type of warfare, in particular the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia?

[A2]: Yes, the Muslims in general, including the Arabs, the Kingdom, and other than them, are all subject to a great ideological warfare from the nations of kufr (unbelief); from both the east and the west. The severest and most serious of these [ideological] onslaughts is:- [1] The war of the christian crusaders. [2] The zionist war. [3] The communist and atheistic war.

[THE CHRISTIAN CRUSADERS] The war of the christian crusaders is today at its most intense. Since Salaahud-Deen al-Ayyoobee achieved victory over the christians crusading in the Muslim lands with their strength and weapons, the christians realised that even though they had achieved [some] victories, these victories

were temporary ones that did not last. That is why they started thinking about the most destructive alternatives. After numerous case studies and assemblies they arrived at [something] that was far more dangerous and destructive than military warfare; which was that the christian nations, both individually and collectively, should launch an ideological attack on those Muslims who were just beginning to grow and develop. This is because conquering the hearts and thoughts [of people] is far more permanent than conquering their lands! The Muslim whose mind has not been corrupted cannot bear to see the unbelievers wielding authority, and ordering and prohibiting in his own country. Therefore such a Muslim strives his utmost to expel and distance them – even if he has to sacrifice his own life, or or his most cherished possession, for this cause. And this is what happened after the major conquest of the crusaders.

As for the Muslim who is exposed to the [effects] of this filthy war, he becomes ill in thought and desensitised to this disease. He does not see any danger with the presence of christians in the lands of the Muslims. Indeed, he may even think that their presence is a source of goodness which aids and advances civilisation. So the christians have sufficed themselves with this ideological warfare, as opposed to the military one, because it is more effective and more permanent. What need do they have of deploying troops or spending huge sums of money, when there exists amongst the children of the Muslims those who can actually fulfill their wishes – intentionally or unintentionally, with a price or without one! This is why they do not resort to openly fighting the Muslims with weapons and arms, except in rare cases when necessity dictates this. They resort to this in situations where speed is sought; such as what happened in Uganda and Pakistan; or when there is a need to stabilise the advancement, or establish centres, or to establish bases which engage in destructive ideological warfare; such as what happened in Egypt, Syria, Iraaq, and other countries, before their expulsion.

[THE ZIONIST JEWS] The zionist war is just the same. The jews strive their utmost to corrupt the beliefs, morals and manners of the Muslims. The jews scheme and crave after possessing the Muslim lands, as well as the lands of others. They have fulfilled some of their plans and continue striving hard to implement the rest of them. Even though they they do engage the Muslims in warfare involving strength and arms and have occupied some of their lands, they also fight them through spreading

and aiding the spread of] destructive thoughts, beliefs and ideologies; such as Freemasonry, Qadiaanisim, Bahaaism, Teejaanism, and others – seeking the support of the christians, and others, in order to fulfill their objects.

[THE COMMUNISTS AND ATHEISTS] As for the communist/atheist war, then presently it is spreading like wildfire across the Muslim lands.2 This happens as a consequence of their being an emptiness [with regards beliefs], weak eemaan (certainty of faith) in most people, wide spread ignorance, and the lack of a correct and healthy [Islaamic] cultivation and development. The communist parties from Russia and China, as well as others, have managed to ensnare [into this false ideology] every spiteful, malicious person; driven by those weak in faith, or having no faith at all! They selected these types of people as being their puppets and plants in that country; spreading through [such puppets] their filthy atheistic and communistic ideologies. They lured them with promises of high positions of power and status. Through them they tore apart the Muslim Ummah and they were made [to act as] the troops of Shaytaan. They were aided in this by the christians and the jews, who sometimes assisted in their preparation, whilst at other times they aided and supported them. Thus, even though they do have differences between them, yet they become a single hand against the Muslims. They view the Muslims as their worst enemy, that is why we see them co-operating with each other, as allies, against the Muslims. And Allaah’s aid is sought, and He suffices us and is the best of guardians.

[Q3]: What are the means which the west uses in order to spread their ideas and thoughts?

[A3]: The means that the west employs in order to spread their thoughts and ideas are many, from them:-

Firstly: The attempt to conquer the minds of the Muslim children. They do this by infusing in them western values and concepts so that they then believe that the best way to adopt in any matter is that of the west – whether it is with regards to what religion or sect they believe, or with regards to the languages that they speak, or the manners, customs and values with which they clothe themselves.

Secondly: Custody of a large group of the children of the Muslims in every country, concern for them and bringing them up, so that when they absorb western thoughts, they return to their countries with a halo of praise and compliment, until they acquire position and authority in their countries by which they circulate western ideologies and establish learning centres conforming to western curricula or are directly influenced by them.

Thirdly: Their active drive towards promoting the learning of western languages in the Muslim lands, making them compete with the Muslims’ languages, especially the Arabic language, which is language of the Qur’aan – by which this Book was sent and by which the Muslims worship their Lord;in their Salaah (Prayer), their rites of Hajj (Pilgrimage), their forms of remembrances and glorifications, etc. From this is the encouragement of destructive propaganda that fights against [the usage and learning] of [pure and classical] Arabic Language and attempt to weaken the conformity to it in the Muslim lands. They do this by calling to using colloquialism, and by arranging numerous studies that intend to ‘develop’ grammar in order to corrupt it; as well as formalising folk literature and and matters of national heritage.

Fourthly: Development of western universities and missionary schools in Muslim countries and also initiating the role of kindergarten and playschools, hospitals and clinics which they make as dens and nests for their evil aims. They encourage the higher classes to study in them (western and missionary schools and universities) and after them help in acquire leadership posts and great position until they become an aid for their masters in following their plots in the Muslim lands.

Fifthly: The attempt to control education curricula in Muslim lands and drawing out their politics, either directly; as occurred in some Muslim countries when the priest Dunlop undertook that task there, or by indirect methods. When the task was undertaken, most of the successful students who studied in Dunlop’s schools and graduated in them, arose as a destructive pickaxe in their country, or as one of the enemies most lethal weapons. [Such students] strive hard to influence the educational curriculum and steer it towards secularism – an ideology which does not centre around having eemaan (faith) in Allaah and His Messenger; but rather steers in the direction of atheism, or towards immorality and corruption.

Sixthly: The large number of individuals amongst the jews and christians who have undertaken the study of Islam, Arabic Language, compiling books, and taking positions of teaching in universities; until they created an ideological turmoil and confusion amongst the educated Muslims, which they hurl at those that they are teaching, or with which they fill their books – until some of those books became sources which writers and researchers refer to in matters of ideology or history. Many people who were responsible for creating some of these fitnahs (trials and turmoil) in the Muslim countries, were actually Muslims who graduated at the hands of the people. The praise and awe which surrounded such graduates helped them to achieve this, as well as achieve their post and positions; such as important posts in teaching and leadership. So they completed what their teachers had initiated [of corruption and destruction] and fulfilled what they couldn’t achieve, because they were of Muslim offspring and from the same skin, ascribing themselves to them and speaking their tongue – so we ask and seek Allaah’s help.

Seventhly: A large number of missionary workers calling to christianity have proceeded between the Muslims that they have performed their work on. [This missionary activity is done upon] well studied principles, and upon a large scale; employing hundreds of thousands of men and women. Huge financial budgets are put aside for this task, and [they are aided in such a way that] their task is made easier for them and obstacles are removed for them.

“They want to extinguish the Light (i.e, the Religion) of Allaah with their mouths, but Allaah will bring His Light to perfection and completion, even though the disbelievers hate it.” [Soorah as-Saff 61:8].

Just as the efforts of the missionaries are set up and aimed mostly at the common levels; then the efforts of the orientalist are directed to the educated – as I previously mentioned. The missionaries take on huge hardships in their work in the African Countries, and in the remote villages of the far extreme Muslim lands; in eastern Asia. After that, every so often, they hold conferences in order to review their accounts and their plans; then they analyse, adjust and implement. They met in Cairo in 1906, in Edinburgh in 1910, in Lucknow (India) in 1911, and in Jerusalem in 1935, and they continue to hold such assemblies, seminars and conferences – so glory be to the One in Whose Hand is the sole sovereignty of the heavens and the earth, and to Him return all affairs.

Eighthly: Spreading corruption in the Muslim societies; belittling the [status of women] with regards to their role in life, making her transgress the limits set by Allaah for her, creating in her a satisfaction in abstaining from the [correct] Path. They do this by spreading propaganda amongst the Muslims in various ways and manners, so that women freely mix with men, and so that women work in the places of men. By this, they aim to corrupt the Muslim society, and to put an end to the chastity and purity which is found therein. Additionally, by bringing up imaginary issues and false propaganda – [claiming] that Islaam oppresses women, and that Muslim women have very little rights – they want to take her out of her home, and put her wherever they may want; even though the limits that Allaah has set [in the Qur’aan] are clear; as are His commands [concerning these matters], and as is the Sunnah (Guidance) of His Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Allaah – the Most High – said:

“O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the Believing women to draw their jilbaabs (cloaks) over their entire body. That will be better, that they should be known (as free and respectable women), so as not to be harassed, And Allaah is Ever-Forgiving, Most-Merciful.” [Soorah al-Ahzaab 33:59].

And – the Most High – says:

“And let the Believing women draw their khimaars (head-scarves) over their faces, necks and chests, and not to display their beauty, except to their husbands, or their fathers, or their husband’s fathers, or their sons, or their husband’s sons …” [Soorah an-Noor 24:31].

And He says:

“And when you ask them for something, ask them from behind a screen; that is purer for your hearts and their hearts.” [Soorah al-Ahzaab 33:53].

“And stay in your houses, and do not display yourselves like that of the times of jaahiliyyah (pre-lslaamic ignorance).” [Soorah al-Ahzaab 33:33].

The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:
“Beware of entering into the company of women.” A man from the Ansaar said: O Messenger of Allaah, what about the husband’s brothers and relatives! He replied: “The husband’s brothers and relatives are death!”3

He sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam also said:
“A man must not be alone in the company of a women, for indeed the third of them is shaytaan.”4

Ninthly: The Building of churches and temples in the Muslim lands and spending great amounts of wealth on them; beautifying them, making them very conspicuous and noticeable, and building them in the largest and best of places.

Tenthly: Radio stations set up solely for the purpose of calling to christianity and communism, spreading their [false] objectives. They intend to misguide, through such false ideas, the children of the innocent and naive Muslims – who neither understand, nor did they receive a sufficient Islaamic education. This is the case, in particular, in Africa where the Bible is published and distributed in plenty of hotels, etc. [They also] send missionary publications and false preaching to many of the Muslim children.

These are some of the means utilised by the enemies of Islaam today – from east and the west – in waging war against the Muslim’s thought, [intending by this ideological attack] to put an end to correct righteous thought, so that they are replaced by [false and] foreign ideas; whether eastern or western. And – O noble reader – as you can see, these means involve tremendous efforts, enormous amounts of money and a multitude of soldiers. All of this is done in order to take the Muslims away from Islaam, even if they do not actually embrace christianity, judaism or marxism. Since their primary goal in doing this is to take the Muslims away from Islaam, so that when this stage is achieved, then whatever [misguidance] follows becomes far easier to implement.

However, despite all this we say: that Allaah will frustrate them in their hopes, and will nullify their plans – but only if the Muslims are sincere in their fight against them, cautious and alert to their plans, and obedient and upright upon their Religion; as Allaah said:

“But if you remain patient and become pious and obedient to Allaah, their plots will not harm you in the least. Indeed, Allah encompasses all that they do.” [Soorah Aal-lmraan 3:120].

Since they are spreaders of corruption, Allaah Will not give total facilitation to their actions. Rather Allaah – the Most High- said:

“They plot and plan, and Allaah plans, and indeed Allaah is the best of planners.” [Soorah al-Anfaal 8:30].

“Indeed they are planning a plan, but I am planning a plan, but give a respite to the disbelievers; deal gently with them for a while.” [Soorah at-Taariq 86:15-17].

“O you who Believe! If you help Allaah [by acting upon that which He has commanded you to do], He will help you against your enemies, and make your foothold firm.” [Soorah Muhammad 47:7].

“And indeed Allaah will help those who help His Cause. Truly, Allaah is Most-Powerful, Most-Mighty. Those who, if We give them power and authority in the land, establish the Salaah (Prayer), give the Zakaah, command the good and forbid the evil. And with Allaah rests the end of all affairs.” [Soorah al-Hajj 22:40-41].

And there are many verses carrying this same meaning.

Thus, without a doubt, the matter requires the Muslims to have some common sense and some contemplation, some study about the course of action that should be taken, about the most suitable stance they should take, and that they should be heedful and have some awareness which will make them capable of understanding the schemes of their enemies, and active upon rendering them futile and false. This shall not be accomplished for them except by adhering to Allaah, adherence to His guidance, returning to Him, repenting to Him and seeking His aid. Additionally, by bearing in mind His guidance in everything, especially with regard to the relation of the believers with the unbelievers, and by understanding Soorah “Say, O Disbelievers” and what Allaah the Most High – mentions in His statement:

“Never will the jews and the christians be pleased with you until you follow their religion and way of life.” [Soorah al-Baqarah 2:120].

Also [what He mentions in] His statement:

“And they will not stop fighting you, until they turn you back from your Religion; if they are able.” [Soorah al- Baqarah 2:217]

I ask Allaah – the Most High – that He grants right guidance to this Ummah, with regards to their affairs, and that He grants protection to it from the plots of its enemies, and that He grants it firmness and obedience, both in speech and action – so that there can be for them might, strength and honour; as Allaah desires for them. Indeed He is the only One Who has the power to do so. And may Allaah extol, and send the blessings of peace upon our Prophet Muhammad, and upon his Family, his Companions, and followers.


1. Majmoo’ Fataawaa wa Maqaalaat Mutanawwi’ah (3/438-446).
2. This certainly was the care at the time this lecture was given fourteen years ago, in 1404H.
3. Related by al-Bukhaaree (9/289) and Muslim (no.2172), from ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Aamir radiallaahu ‘anhu.
4. Saheeh: Related by at-Tirmidhee (no.1181), from Jaabir ibn Samarah radiallaahu ‘anhu. It was authenticated by al-Albaanee in as-Saheehah (no.430).

 

The Conditional Promise – Al-Ibaanah Magazine

Al-Ibaanah Magazine, Issue No.1 – Dhul-Qa’dah 1415H / April 1995

Allaah has promised to those of you who believe and do righteous actions, that He will certainly grant them succession (khilaafah) upon the earth, as He granted it to those before them; and that He will grant them authority to practice their Religion, the one that He has chosen for them and He will change their state from one of fear in which they lived, to one of peace and security. They will worship Me alone, not associating any partner with Me.  But whosoever disbelieves after this, then they are the rebellious ones.” [Soorah Noor 24:55]

’Ubayy Ibn Ka’b relates that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said: “Give glad-tidings to this Ummah of high position, establishment upon this earth, victory and a lofty status in this world and in the Hearafter.” [1]

Al-Haafidh Ibn Katheer (d.774H) – rahimahullaah – said: [2]

“This is a promise from Allaah – the Most High – to His Messenger, may the Prayers of Allaah and the peace be upon him, that he will make this Ummah the khulafaa‘ (successors) upon the earth.  Meaning that they will be the leaders and rulers over mankind, by whom nations will be corrected and to whom mankind will submit.  And that He will replace their state of fear in which they lived, to one of security and dominion.  Allaah – the Blessed, the Most High – has fulfilled His promise, and to Him belongs all praise and thanks.  For the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) did not die until Allaah made him conquer Makkah, Khaybar, al-Bahrain, the remaining lands of the Arabian peninsula and the whole of Yemen.  He took jizyah (protection tax) from the Magians of Hajar and from the people of the surrounding areas of Syria.  The Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) received gifts from Heraclius – the king of Rome; the ruler of Egypt and Alexandria – the Mawqawqis; the kings of Oman; and Negus, the king of Ethiopia, who became king after Ashamah died – may Allaah have mercy upon him and grant him nobility.

After the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) died, Allaah having chosen for him the reward that is with Him, Aboo Bakr as-Siddeeq was then established as his Khaleefah (successor), taking charge unwaveringly.  Aboo Bakr took the Arabian peninsula and put it in order.  He sent forth armies of Islaam to the lands of Persia, under the command of Khaalid Ibnul-Waleed (radiyallaahu ’anhu).  They conquered parts of these lands, slaying a number of it’s inhabitants.  A second army was sent to the lands of Syria, under the leadership of Aboo ’Ubaydah (radiyallaahu ’anhu) and those who followed him.  A third army was sent to Egypt under the leadership of ’Amr Ibnul-’Aas (radiyallaahu ’anhu).  It was during his time that the armies sent to Syria conquered the cities of Busra, Damascus and it’s environs from the land of Hawraan and it’s surroundings.  Allaah – the Mighty and Majestic – took the soul of Aboo Bakr – choosing for him the reward which is with Him.  Allaah blessed the people of Islaam by inspiring as-Siddeeq to chose ’Umar al-Faarooq as a successor.

’Umar then stood up, taking charge completely.  The heavens will not witness – after the Prophets – anyone like ’Umar, whether in the strength of his reign, or in the fulfillment of justice.  It was during his time that the conquest of Syria was completed; as was that of Egypt to it’s farthest reaches, as well as the province of Persia.  He destroyed Kisraa (Chosroes) and humiliated him to the utmost, forcing him to retreat back to the farthest reaches of his kingdom.  Similarly, ’Umar destroyed Qaysar (Caesar), wrestling from his hands the lands of Syria and bottling him up in Constantinople.  He spent the wealth (conquered from them) in the path of Allaah – as the Messenger of Allaah had informed and promised – may the most complete salaam and most purest salaat be bestowed upon the Messenger from his Lord.

Then there was the rule of ’Uthmaan, under whom the possessions of Islaam extended to the furthest eastern and western reaches of the earth.  The lands of the west were conquered to the farthest reaches of what lies there – Andulus, Cyprus, the lands of Qayrawaan and the lands of Ceuta – which is next to the all encompassing ocean; and to the farthest lands of China.  Kisraa was killed and his kingdom totally vanquished.  The cities of al-’Iraaq, Khuraasaan and Ahwaaz were conquered and the Muslims slew a large number of Turks.  Allaah having humiliated the Turks and their great king Kha-Khaan.  The wealth of the east and the west was collected and brought to the Ameerul-Mu‘mineen (leader of the Believers) ’Uthmaan Ibn ’Affaan (radiyallaahu ’anhu).  All of this came about as a result of his recitation, study and gathering the Ummah upon the preservation of the Qur‘aan.

It is confirmed in the Saheeh that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said: “Indeed Allaah gathered up the earth for me, so that I saw it’s east and it’s west.  Indeed the dominion of my Ummah will reach what was gathered up for me, from it.” [3] We fluctuate in what Allaah has promised us with and in what His Messenger has promised.  Allaah and His Messenger have spoken the truth.  We ask Allaah to grant us eemaan (faith) in Him and His Messenger, and that we establish gratitude of what Allaah has given us, in the matter that He is please with.

’Umar related to us, that Sufyaan related to us from ’Abdul-Malik Ibn ’Umayr, from Jaabir Ibn Samurah who said: I heard the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) say: “The affair of the people will continue to be upright whilst twelve men are in charge in of them.”  The Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) then said something which I could not make not.  So I asked my father: What did the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) say?  He replied: “They are all from Quraysh.”  This narration is also narrated by al-Bukhaaree. [4]

In this narration there exists a clear evidence that all twelve of these man must be leaders from Quraysh.  They are not the twelve imaams claimed by the Shaee’ah, because many of them had no leadership over the Muslims.  As for these twelve, they will be from Quraysh and they will be just rulers.  The glad-tidings of their appearance have also occurred in the previous scriptures.  Furthermore, it is not necessary that they succeed one another.  Rather, their appearance in the Ummah could be successive or separate.  Four of them were in order, namely, Aboo Bakr, ’Umar, ’Uthmaan and ’Alee (radiyallaahu ’anhum).  After these four there was a gap.  Others amongst the twelve appeared as and when Allaah willed.  It is possible that some of them will appear during a time which only Allaah – the Most High – knows.  Amongst them will be the Mahdee whose name will be that of the Messenger (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), and his kunyaa (nickname) that of his kunyaa.  He will fill the earth with justice as it is filled with tyranny and injustice.

Imaam Ahmad, Aboo Daawood, at-Tirmidhee and an-Nisaa‘ee have all reported from the hadeeth of Sa’eed Ibn Juhmaan, from Safeenah – the mawlaa (master) of the Messenger of Allaah (sallalaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said: “The Khilaafah (successorship) after me will last for thirty years.  Then kingship will appear.” [5]

Indeed ar-Rabee’ Ibn Anas has said that Abul-’Aaliyah has remarked concerning this aayah: “The Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and his Companions were in Makkah for ten years afraid, secretly calling to Allaah and His worship alone, He has no partner.  They remained in such a state that they were ordered to migrate to al-Madeenah.  They were ordered by Allaah to fight.  Whilst they were (in al-Madeenah) they were in constant fear (of attack).  They would go to sleep armed and awake armed.  They remained patient upon that state for as long as Allaah willed, until one day when one individual from amongst the Companions said: “O Messenger of Allaah!  Will we remain in a state of fear until the end of time?  Will there not come a time when we will be in a state of security, so that we may lay down our weapons?”  The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) then said: “Be patient for a while, for there will come a time when any man from amongst you will sit in a crowd unharmed.”  Allaah sent down this aayah and made his Prophet victorious over the Arabian Peninsula.  The Companions of the Prophet were now safe and they could lay down their weapons.  Allaah – the Most High – then took the soul of His Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and the Muslims remained in such a state during the leadership of Aboo Bakr, ’Umar and ’Uthmaan; until the Muslims fell into what they fell into from discord.  So fear entered into their hearts and they took armies and guards for protection.  For they had changed, so Allaah changed their state.  One of the Salaf has remarked that the khilaafah of both Aboo Bakr and ’Uthmaan was true.  He then recited this aayah, al-Baraa‘ Ibn ’Aazib has said: “This aayah was revealed whilst we were in a state of extreme fear.”

This noble aayah is similar in meaning to His statement – the Most High – :

And remember when you were few and were reckoned weak in the land and were afraid that men might kidnap you, but He (i.e. Allaah)provided a safe place for you, and strengthened you with His help and provided you good things so that you might be grateful.” [Sooratul-Anfaal 8:26]

And the statement of Allaah – the Most High – : “As he granted that to those before them.”  This aayah is similar to what Allaah said about Moosaa (’alayhis-salaam) that he said to his people:

“It may be that your Lord will destroy your enemy and make you succeed (the present rulers) upon earth, so that He may see how you act.” [Sooratul-A’raaf 7:129]

Allaah – the Most High – said:

And We wished to confer a favour upon those who were oppressed in the land; and to make them leaders and to make them heirs; and to establish them upon earth...” [Soorah Qasas 28:5-6]

And Allaah’s statement: “And that He will change their state after the fear in which they lived to one of security and peace.”  This is similar to what the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said to ’Adee Ibn Haatim when ’Adee came as a delegation to the Messenger.  The Messenger (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said: “Do you know Hira?”  ’Adee replied: ‘I have not seen it, but I have heard of it.”  The Messenger (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) then said: “By Him in Whose Hand is my soul!  Allaah will complete this matter (i.e. Islaam) until a woman will be able to travel from Hira, until she goes around the House not needing the protection of anyone.  And you will surely conquer the treasure of Kisraa Ibn Hurmuz.”  I (i.e. ’Adee) replied: “Kisraa Ibn Hurmuz!”  The Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) replied: “Yes!  Kisraa Ibn Hurmuz.  Money will be spent until no one will accept it.”  ’Adee Ibn Haatim said: “Now here is the woman leaving from Hira until she goes around the House.  And I was from amongst those who conquered the treasure of Kisraa.  And by Him in Whose Hand is my soul!  The third matter will come to pass because the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) has said so.”

Ahmad reports upon ’Ubayy Ibn Ka’b who said that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) has said: “Give glad tidings to this Ummah of ease of life, exalted stature, establishment of their Religion, and victory and leaderhsip upon the earth.  Whoever does acts of the Hereafter for this world, he will have no portion of the Hereafter.” [6]

And the statement of Allaah: “They worship Me alone and do not associate anything with Me.”  Ahmad reports upon Mu’aadh who said: ‘I was sitting behind the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and I except the end of his saddle.  The Prophet said to me: “O Mu’aadh Ibn Jabal!”  I said: “Here I am O Messenger of Allaah in your service.”  The Prophet said: “Do you know what is the Right of Allaah upon His servants?”  I said: “Allaah and His Messenger know best.”  He said: “The Right of Allaah upon the servants is that they worship Him and do not associate anything with Him.”  The Prophet continued to ride on for some time and then he said to me: “O Mu’aadh Ibn Jabal!”  I said: “Here I am O Messenger of Allaah at your service.”  The Prophet said: “Do you know what is the right of the servants upon Allaah if they worship Him alone?”  I said: “Allaah and His Messenger know best.”  He said: “The right of the servants upon Allaah is that He does not punish whomsoever does not associate anything with Him.”  This narration is also narrated in the two Saheehs. [7]

And the statement of Allaah: “But whoever disbelieved after this, and they are the rebellious ones.”  Meaning, whoever steps outside my obedience after that promise, has stepped outside the Command of His Lord, and sufficient is that as a sin.  Since the Companions of the Prophet (radiyallaahu ’anhum) were the most upright and obedient of the people after the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) in fulfilling the commands of Allaah – the Mighty and Majestic – their victory was accordingly.  The Companions of the Prophet made the Word of Allaah supreme, so Allaah Himself aided them in such a manner that He subdued for them the rest of mankind, as well as their lands.

When the people after the Prophet’s Companions fell short in adhering to some of Allaah’s Commands, their victory accordingly fell short.  It is, however, affirmed in both Saheehs (i.e. al-Bukhaaree and Muslim) in many ways from the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) that he said: “There shall not cease to be a group from my Ummah, victorious upon the truth, not being harmed by those who abandoned them or go against them, until Allaah’s favour comes, and they are like that.” [8] And in a narration: “Until the last of them fights the Anti-Christ (Maseehud-Dajjaal).” [9] All of these narrations are authentic and there is no contradiction between them.”

Imaam ’Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Naasir as-Sa’dee (d.1376H) said:

“This is one of His true promises whose meaning and accomplishment has been witnessed.  He promised those who came with eemaan (faith) and ’amalus-saalih (righteous and correct actions) from this Ummah, that He will cause them to be successors upon this earth, so that they are the ones in authority and in charge of the affairs.  Further, that He would establish their Religion – that which He was pleased with for them, which is the Religion of Islaam, which gained ascendancy over all other religions.  He was pleased with it for this Ummah, due to its excellence, nobility and favours upon it, in that He enabled them to establish it, and to establish it’s laws and prescriptions – relating both to manifest and non-manifest matters – upon themselves and upon others, so that the people of other religions and the rest of the disbelievers conquered and humbled.

And that He would change their condition of fear to one of security, since it was previously the case that one of them would not be able to manifest his Religion, and they suffered harm and injury from the disbelievers.  The united body of Muslims was very small in number, in comparison to the rest of the people of the earth, who combined to attack them and hope for their downfall.  However, Allaah promised them these things when the aayah was sent down, at a time when they were not witnessing ascendancy and establishment upon this earth, nor the ability to fully establish the Religion of Islaam and full security – such as would enable them to worship Allaah, not associating anything with Him – in a state of not having to fear anyone besides Allaah.

So the first and foremost of this Ummah combined eemaan and righteous and correct action to a degree surpassing everyone else, so He established them in the land and gave them authority over the people, and granted them the conquest of the east and the west.  They attained full security and complete authority and establishment – and this is one of the astounding signs of Allaah.  This applies until the Hour is established – that whenever the Muslims combine eemaan (faith) and righteous and correct action – then that which Allaah promises will certainly occur.  Indeed Allaah only grants that they be overcome by the unbelievers and the hypocrites, and that they suffer humiliation when the Muslims neglect eemaan and righteous and correct action.” [10]

Footnotes:

[1] Saheeh: Related by Ahmad (5/134) and al-Haakim (4/311); and it was authenticated by al-Haafidh al-Mundhiree in Targheeb wat-Tarheeb (1/31).

[2] Tafseer Qur‘aanil-’Adtheem (3/311-313)

[3] Related by Muslim (8/171) and Aboo Daawood (no. 4252), from Thawbaan (radiyallaahu ’anhu).

[4] Related by al-Bukhaaree (6/416), Muslim (6/3-4) and Ahmad (5/101), the wording is from Ahmad.

[5] Saheeh: Related by Aboo Daawood (no. 4646), at-Tirmidhee (2/35) and others.  It was authenticated by at-Tabaree in his I’tiqaad (p. 8), and by al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar in Fathul-Baaree (13/182).

[6] Saheeh: Related by Ahmad (4/134) and al-Haakim (4/311) and it was authenticated by al-Albaanee in Ahkaamul-Janaa‘iz (p. 52).

[7] Related by al-Bukhaaree (6/58) and Muslim (1/232)

[8] Related by Muslim (6/52-53) and at-Tirmidhee (2/36), from Thawbaan (radiyallaahu ’anhu).

[9] Saheeh: Related by Ahmad (4/492), Aboo Daawood (1/388-389) and al-Haakim (4/450), from ’Imraan Ibn Husayn (radiyallaahu ’anhu).  It was authenticated by al-Albaanee in as-Saheehah (no. 1959).

[10] Tayseerul-Kareemir-Rahmaan (4/123)

’Ubayy ibn K’ab relates that the Prophet – sallallâhu ’alayhi wa sallam – said:

“Give good-tidings to this Ummah of high position, establishment upon this earth, victory and a lofty status in this world and in the Hereafter.”

Related by Ahmad (5/134) and al-Hâkim (4/311) and authenticated by al-Hâfidh al-Mundharî in Targhîb wat-Tarhîb (1/31).

Rulings in Regards to Hijrah : By the Committee of Major Scholars

[Q.1]: How can we make hijrah (migration) for the sake of Allaah nowadays?

[A.1]: The praise is for Allaah.  Hijrah (migration) for the sake of Allaah means moving from the land of Shirk to the land of Islaam, as the Muslims moved from Makkah before its people became Muslim to al-Madeenah, because it had become the city of Islaam after its people had pledged their allegiance (bay’ah) to the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and asked him to make hijrah to them. So Hijrah means migrating to join other Muslims. Hijrah may also take the form of moving from one land of Shirk to another land of Shirk where evil is less prevalent and there is less danger to the Muslims, as when some of the Muslims migrated from Makkah, at the command of the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), to Abyssinia (Ethiopia).

And Allaah is the Source of Strength.  May Allaah bless our Prophet Muhammad and his Family and his Companions, and grant them peace. [1]

[Q.2]: What are the necessary qualities that must be present in a country for it to be regarded as daarul-harb (land of war) or daarul-kufr (land of disbelief)?

[A.2]: The Praise is for Allaah Every land or region in which the rulers and those in authority uphold the limits set by Allaah and they rule their people in accordance with Islaamic Sharee’ah, and the people are able to carry out what Islaam has enjoined upon them, is considered to be Daarul-Islaam (the land of Islaam).  The Muslims in such lands have to obey their rulers with regard to that which is right (ma’roof) and be sincere towards them, helping them to take care of the affairs of state and giving them moral and practical support. They should live there, and not go to live anywhere else except to another place which is under Islaamic rule where they may be better off. This is like the case of al-Madeenah after the Hijrah of the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), when the Islaamic state was established there, and like Makkah after the Conquest, when the Muslims took power there and it became Daarul-Islaam after it had been daarul-harb and it had been obligatory for the Muslims there who were able to leave, to migrate from it.

Every country or region in which the rulers and those in authority do not uphold the limits set by Allaah and do not govern those who are under their care by the rules of Islaam, and in which the Muslims are not able to establish the rituals of Islaam, is daarul-kufr (the land of kufr). This is like Makkatul-Mukarramah before the Conquest, when it was daarul-kufr.  The same applies to any land in which the people belong to the religion of Islaam, but those who are in authority govern by laws other than those revealed by Allaah, and the Muslims are not able to establish the rituals of their Religion.  They have to migrate from that place, fleeing so that their religious commitment will not be compromised, to a land which is ruled by Islaam and where they will be able to do that which is required of them by Sharee’ah. Whoever is unable to migrate men, women or children will be excused, but Muslims in other lands are obliged to save them and bring them from the kaafir lands to the Muslim land. Allaah the Exalted says:

Verily, as for those whom the angels take (in death) while they are wronging themselves (as they stayed among the disbelievers even though emigration was obligatory for them), they (angels) say (to them): In what (condition) were you? They reply: We were weak and oppressed on the earth. They (angels) say: Was not the earth of Allaah spacious enough for you to emigrate therein? Such men will find their abode in Hell what an evil destination! Except the weak ones among men, women and children who cannot devise a plan, nor are they able to direct their way. These are they whom Allaah is likely to forgive them, and Allaah is Ever Oft Pardoning, Oft-Forgiving.” [Sooratun-Nisaa‘ 4:97-99]

And what is wrong with you that you fight not in the Cause of Allaah, and for those weak, ill-treated and oppressed among men, women, and children, whose cry is: Our Lord! Rescue us from this town whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from You one who will protect, and raise for us from You one who will help.” [Sooratun-Nisaa‘ 4:75]

But whoever is able to establish the rituals of Islam within his family and establish evidence against the rulers and people in authority, and bring about reform, making them change their ways, then it is prescribed for him to stay among them, because there is the hope that by staying there he may be able to convey the message and reform them so long as he is safe from temptation and fitnah.

And Allaah is the source of strength. May Allaah bless our Prophet Muhammad.

Footnotes:

[1] Fataawal-Lajnatud-Daa‘imah (12/50)

[2] Fataawal-Lajnatud-Daa‘imah (12/51)

Why is My Supplication Not Answered? Shaykh Ibn Uthaymeen

By the Noble Scholar, Shaykh Muhammad Ibn Saalih al-’Uthaymeen [1]
Majmoo’ul-Fataawaa war-Rasaa‘il (no. 155)
Al-Istiqaamah Magazine, Issue No.3 – Rabî’ul-Awwal 1417H / August 1996.

[Q]: ‘Allaah says: ‘‘And your Lord says: Call upon Me and I will, respond to your supplication.’’ [Soorah Ghaafir 40:60] So why is it that a person’s du’aa (supplication) is sometimes unanswered?’

[A]: ‘‘All praise is due to Allaah, Lord of the worlds. May the Prayers and Peace be upon our Prophet Muhammad, and upon his Family and his Companions.  I ask Allaah for the ability to be correct in belief, speech and actions, for myself and for my brothers.

Allaah says:

‘‘And your Lord says: Call upon Me and I will respond to your supplication. Verily those who are too arrogant to worship Me will, enter Hell in humiliation.’’ [Soorah Ghaafir 40:60]

The questioner stated that he did indeed make du’aa (supplication) to Allaah – the Mighty and Majestic – but it was not answered by Allaah. So he is in doubt with respect to this noble aayah (verse), in which Allaah promises to answer the one who supplicates to Him, and indeed Allaah – the Most Perfect – never breaks His promise.

So the clarification of this is that there are certain conditions that need to be fulfilled in order for a supplication to be answered.  These conditions are:

Firstly: Sincerity to Allaah – the Mighty and Majestic. That is to say, one must be sincere in his du’aa (supplication), so he turns to Allaah – the One free from all imperfections with an attentive heart, being truthful in his turning to Him, knowing that Allaah – the Most Perfect, the Most High – is capable of answering his du’aa (supplication) and hoping that the du’aa will be answered.

Secondly: During du’aa, the caller should feel that he is in need of Allaah – the Most Perfect, the Most High – in fact in dire need; and that only Allaah alone answers the supplication of the one in distress and the One who removes evil.

Thirdly: That the one making du’aa should refrain from haraam (unlawful) matters, as this acts as a barrier between the person and his du’aa (supplication) being answered – as has been established in the authentic hadeeth, from the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) who said: ‘‘Indeed Allaah – the Most High -is good and accepts only that which is good. Allaah has ordered the Believers to do that which He commanded the Messengers. Allaah – the Most High -has said:

‘‘O you Messengers! Eat of the good things and do righteous actions.’’ [Sooratul-Mu‘minoon 3:51 ]

And Allaah – the Most High – says:

‘‘O you who Believe! Eat of the good things wherewith We have provided you. ’’ [Sooratul-Baqarah 2:172]

Then he mentioned (the case of) a man who, having journeyed far is dishevelled and dusty and who spreads out his bands to the sky (saying): ‘O Lord! O Lord,’ whilst his food is unlawful, his drink unlawful and he is nourished unlawfully. So how can he be answered!’ [2] So the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) explained the un-likelihood that this person’s du’aa would be answered, even after fulfilling the apparent factors which aid the du’aa being answered. The apparent factors being:

[i]: Raising ones’ hands towards the sky, meaning towards Allaah – the Mighty and Majestic – since Allaah is above the heavens, above His ’Arsh (Throne). Extending the hands out towards Allaah -the Mighty and Majestic – is amongst the causes of du’aa being responded to, as is shown in the narration from the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) that he said: ‘‘Indeed your Lord is Alive, Most generous. He feels shy that when his servant raises his bands towards Him, calling upon Him, that He should return him empty, having nothing.’’[3]

[ii]: This man called upon Allaah – the Most High – using the name Rabb (Lord).  Seeking tawassul (the means of nearness to Allaah) with this name is also regarded as one of the causes for du’aa to be responded to, since the Rabb is the Creator, the Owner, the Governor of all affairs – and the reigns of the Heavens and the earth are in His Hands.  Due to this, you will find that most of the supplications made in the Noble Qur‘aan are by this name:

‘‘Our Lord! We have heard the call of one calling us to faith: ‘Believe you in the Lord,’ and we have believed. Our Lord! Forgive us our sins, and remit from us our evil deeds, and take to Yourself our souls in the company of the righteous. Our Lord! Grant us what You did promise unto us through Your Messengers, and do not disgrace us on the Day of judgement, for You never break Your promise. And their Lord has accepted of them, and answered them: Never will I suffer to be lost the work of any of you, whether male or female.’’ [Soorah Aal-‘lmraan 3:193-195]

So tawassul (seeking the means of nearness to Allaah) by this name is one of the causes for the du’aa to be responded to.

[iii]: This man was a traveller, and journeying is often a cause for du’aa to be responded to, because a person feels more in need of Allaah – the Mighty and Majestic – when travelling, than when a person is resident with his family. He was dusty and dishevelled, seeming very insignificant in himself, as if the most important thing to him was to implore Allaah and to call upon Him – in any condition he may be – whether dusty and dishevelled, or in ease and oppulance. Being dusty and dishevelled is also instrumental, like in the hadeeth attributed to the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) in which he said: Indeed Allaah boasts to the people of the Heaven about the people standing at ’Arafah, saying: ‘‘Look at My servants who have come to Me dusty and dishevelled.’’ [4] However, these factors did not bring about anything, because his food, his nourishment and his clothing were all haraam (unlawful). So the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) remarked: ‘‘So how can he be answered!’’

Therefore, if these conditions are not satisfied, then the question concerning the du’aa (supplication) being answered will seem distant. However, if the conditions are satisfied and the one supplicating is still not answered, then this is due to a wisdom which Allaah – the Mighty and Majestic – knows, and the one supplicating does not know what this wisdom is; and maybe that you like a thing and it is bad for you.

So when these conditions are fulfilled and the one supplicating is not answered, then either he has been protected from an evil which is greater than what he has asked for, or Allaah stores it for him until the Day of Resurrection, and he then gets a greater reward. This is so, because the one who makes du’aa – calling upon Allaah alone, fulfilling the conditions and not being answered, but rather being saved from a greater evil – is in the position of having carried out the causes yet has been prevented from being answered, and therefore has a two-fold reward. One reward for making du’aa (supplication), and another reward for bearing the trial of not being answered. So that which is greater and more complete is stored for him with Allaah – the Mighty and Majestic.

Also of importance is that the one supplicating should not express dissatisfaction if his du’aa is apparently not being answered, for this action in itself is a reason for the du’aa not being answered – as the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said: ‘‘A servants du’aa continues to be answered as long as be does not ask for anything sinful or breaking the ties of relations, and as long as be does not become impatient.’’ It was said: How does one become impatient O Messenger of Allaah? He said: ‘‘He says: I have supplicated, I have supplicated, yet it has not been answered.’’ [5] He therefore becomes dispondant and abandons supplicating. So it is not befitting that the one supplicating should become impatient about being answered, then become disappointed and dispondant, and thereby abandon making du’aa. Rather, one should call upon Allaah, since every du’aa you make to Allaah is an act of worship, which brings you closer to Him and increases your reward.

So my brother, you should take to making du’aa (supplication) in all affairs, be it general or specific, in difficulty or in ease. And if it was that supplication was only a means of worshipping Allaah – the One free from all imperfections, the Most High – then that would be sufficient. So it is more befitting that a person strives in this – and with Allaah lies the success and the ability.’’

Footnotes:

[1] Majmoo’ul-Fataawaa war-Rasaa‘il (no. 155)
[2] Related by Muslim (no. 1015) from Aboo Hurayrah (radiyallaahu ’anhu)
[3] Saheeh: Related by Ahmad (5/438) and Aboo Daawood (no. 1488). It was authenticated by al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar in Fathul-Baaree (11/143).
[4] Saheeh: Related by Ibn Hibbaan (no. 1006), from ’Abdullaah Ibn ’Amr (radiyallaahu ’anhu). It was authenticated by Shaykh al-Albaanee in Saheehul-Jaami’ (no. 1868).
[5] Related by al-Bukhaaree (11/140) and Muslim (no. 2735), from Aboo Hurayrah (radiyallaahu ’anhu)

 

Foundation for the Islâmic Awakening : by Shaykh al-Albani

Shaykh Muhammad Nâsir ud-Dîn al-Albânî [1]
Al-Istiqaamah Magazine, Issue No.4 – Jumâdal-Awwal 1417H / November 1996
Taken from al-Asaalah magazine (11/84-87).

[Q]: What are the foundations that will enable the Islaamic world to arise again anew?

[A]: That which I believe, is what has been reported in the authentic hadeeth – which is a clear answer to this question, and to those questions similar to it which are asked in our present time – and that is the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam’s saying: “When you deal in ‘eenah (a transaction involving usury), take hold of the tails of cows, become content with agriculture and abandon jihaad in the path of Allaah, then Allaah will permit your humiliation and He will not remove it from you, until you return to your Religion.”2 Thus the foundation is to return to Islaam.

This very fact has been pointed out by Imaam Maalik (d.179H), rahimahullaah, in a statement transmitted from him, which is worthy of being written in gold ink: and that is his saying: “Whosoever introduces into Islaam an innovation, and holds it to be something good, has indeed alleged that Muharnrnad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has betrayed his message. Read the saying of Allaah – the Most Blessed – the Most High:

“This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you and I have chosen for you Islaam as your religion.” [Soorah al-Maa’idah 5:3].

So that which was not part of the religion at that time, cannot be part of the religion today. And the last part of this Ummah cannot be rectified, except by that which rectified its first part.”3

The last sentence is the essential part with regards to the answer to this question, since he said: “And the last part of this Ummah cannot be rectified, except by that which rectified its first part.” So, just as the affair of the Arabs in jaahillyyah (pre-Islaamic ignorance) was not rectified, except by the advent of the Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam via Divine Revelation – which brought them happiness in this world and will bring them salvation in the Hereafter – then likewise, re-establishing a happy and successful Islaamic life cannot be based upon anything other than returning to the Qur’aan and the Sunnah (the Prophetic guidance).

However, this matter is in need of some clarification, due to the presence of a multitude of Islaamic groups and parties in our midst today, each of them claiming to have set out the correct manhaj (methodology) which will bring about the Islaamic society and the rule of Islaam.

We know from the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that the path to be taken in order to realise this objective (of bringing about the Islaamic society and the rule of Islaam) is a single path, and that is the one which Allaah – the Mighty and Majestic – mentions in His saying:

“Indeed this is My Straight Path, so follow it, and do not follow other paths that will separate you from His Path.” [Soorah al-An’aam 6:152].

And Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam explained this to his Companions, since: One day he drew a straight line for them on the ground and then drew many short lines on both sides of it. He then recited the previous aayah (verse) whilst he was moving his noble finger over the straight line, and he said: “This is Allaah ‘s Path.” He then pointed to the other lines and said: “These are other paths, and at the head of each one their is a devil calling towards it.”4

Our Lord – the Mighty and Majestic – emphasised in another aayah this very same point which was mentioned in the previous aayah; along with the explanation of Allaah’s Messenger sallullaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in the hadeeth. Allaah – the Most High – said:

“And whosoever opposes the Messenger, even after the guidance has been clearly conveyed to him, and follows a path other than that of the Believers, we shall leave him in the path he has chosen and land him in Hell, what an evil destination.” [Soorah an-Nisaa 4:115].

This aayah (verse) contains a great wisdom, since He – the Most Perfect – placed the path of the Believers in conjunction with that which the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam brought. And the fine point of this wisdom was also indicated by the Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in the hadeeth of al-lftiraaq (the

authentic narration concerning the splitting-up of this Ummah into seventy-three sects), when he was asked about the Saved-Sect, so he replied: “It is that which I and my Companions are upon today.”5

So what is the wisdom in Allaah – the Mighty and Majestic – mentioning the path of the Believers in the previous aayah’ And what is the underlying point of Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam mentioning his Companions straight after mentioning himself, in the previous hadeeth?

The answer to this is: that these noble Companions are the very people who received the two Revelations (the Qur’aan and the Sunnah) from Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, who explained it to them directly – without an intermediary – and this is contrary to all those who came after them. And there is no doubt that the affair is as Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “Indeed, the one present sees that which the absent one does not.”6 This is why the eemaan (faith) of the Companions was greater than those who came after them, and this is what has been clearly indicated by the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in the authentic hadeeth: “The best of mankind is my generation, then those who follow them, then those who follow them.”7 Therefore, it is not possible for any Muslim to independently understand the Book and the Sunnah. Rather one must seek aid in understanding them by returning to the understanding of the noble Companions, who took their understanding from the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam; via his statements, his actions and his tacit approvals.

Thus, along with calling to the Book and the Sunnah, it is absolutely essential to attach to this the understanding and the practice of the Salafus-Saalih (the Pious Predecessors: the first three generations of Muslims whose excellence has been testified to in the above hadeeth); acting upon the preceding verses and hadeeth, which order clinging to the path of the Believers, which has been explained to be the path upon which the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, his Companions and those who followed them in beliefs and actions, were upon.

And here, a very important question arises, which many of the Islaamic groups and parties neglect; and that is: How does one obtain knowledge of the understanding and the practical application of the Sunnah that the Companions adhered to?

The answer to this is: that there is no way in obtaining this knowledge, except by returning to ‘ilmul-hadeeth (the knowledge of hadeeth); ‘ilm mustalahul-hadeeth (the science of hadeeth) and the science of al-jarh wat-ta’deel (the science of verifying the condition of the narrators) – applying its principles and its terms such that the Scholars are able to distinguish that which is authentic from the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, from that which is not.

So in ending the answer to the question, we say in the the dearest possible manner, to those who desire to bring back to Islaam its honour, strength, supremacy and rule, that you must actualise two matters:

Firstly: to bring back to the minds of the Muslims the knowledge of the Sharee’ah (Laws) of Islaam; purified from all the innovations that have entered into it, which was not part of it on the day when Allaah – the Most Blessed, the Most High – revealed His saying:

“This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you and I have chosen for you Islaam as your religion.” [Soorah al-Maa’idah 5:3].

Accomplishing this matter requires a huge and tremendous effort on the part of the Muslim Scholars in all parts of the world.

Secondly: It is a must that this purified knowledge is coupled with constant and steadfast action.

Thus, the day the Muslims return to understanding their religion as the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam understood it; and then act upon this purified Islaam in the correct manner, in all aspects of life, then that will be the day that the Muslims will rejoice at the help of Allaah and His victory. So this is what I am able to write in this short time. I ask Allaah that He grants us and all the Muslims the correct understanding of Islaam – in light of the Book, the authentic Sunnah (guidance) of His Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and that which the Salafus-Saalih (Pious Predecessors) were upon – and that He grants us the ability to act in accordance with it. Indeed Allaah is the One who hears and responds.


1. Taken from al-Asaalah magazine (11/84-87).
2. Saheeh: Related by Abu Daawood (no.3462) and al-Bayhaqee in as-Sunanul-Kubraa (5/316), from ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Umar radiallaahu ‘anhu. It was authenticated by Ibn Taymiyyah in Majmoo’ul-Fataawaa (29/30).
3. Related by al-Qaadee ‘Iyaadh in ash-Shifaa (2/676).
4. Hasan: Related by Ahmad (1/435) and an-Nasaa’ee (7/49), from Ibn Mas’ood radiallaahu ‘anhu. It was authenticated by al-Albaanee in Dhilaalul-Jannah fee Takhreejis-Sunnah (no.16).
5. Hasan: Related by at-Tirmidhee (no.2796) and al-Haakim (1/128), from ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘Aas radiallaahu ‘anhu. It was authenticated by al-Haafidh al-‘lraaqee in Takhreejul-lhyaa (3/199).
6. Saheeh: Related by lbn Sa’d in at-Tabaqaat (2/176),from ‘Alee radiallaahu ‘anhu. It was authenticated by al-ALbaanee in Saheehul-Jaami’ (no.1641).
7. Related by al-Bukhaaee (5/199) and Muslim (7/184), from Ibn Mas’ood radiallaahu ‘anhu.

Sunnah & Bidah – A Lengthy explanation of the first three points from “Foundations of the Sunnah “

A Lengthy Explanation of the first three points from “Foundations of the Sunnah ”
Imaam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (d.241H)
Source: Al-Ibaanah Magazine, Issue No.1 – Dhul-Qa’dah 1415H / April 1995

Bismillaahir-Rahmaanir-Raheem

THE TEXT:

Shaykh Aboo ’Abdullaah Yahyaa Ibn Abil-Hasan Ibnul-Bannaa narrated to us saying: My father Aboo ’Alee al-Hasan Ibn ’Umar Ibnul-Bannaa related to us saying: Abul-Husayn ’Alee Ibn Muhammad Ibn ’Abdullaah Ibn Bushraan al-Mu’addil related to us, saying: ’Uthmaan Ibn Ahmad Ibn as-Sammaak reported to us, saying: Aboo Muhammad al-Hasan Ibn ’Abdul-Wahhaab, Abun-Nabr narrated to us, reading it to him from his handwritten copy in the month of Rabee’ul-Awwal, in the year two-hundred and ninety three (293H) who said: Aboo Ja’far Muhammad Ibn Sulaymaan al-Munqaree, in Basrah related to us, saying: ’Abdoos Ibn Maalik al-’Attaar narrated to me, saying: [1] I heard Aboo ’Abdullaah Ahmad Ibn Hanbal [2] – rahimahullaah – say:

“The Fundamental Principles of the Sunnah [3] with us [4] are:

Clinging to that which the Companions [5] of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) were upon, taking them as our example to be followed, [6] avoiding innovation; [7] and every innovation is misguidance.” [8]

COMMENTARY:

[1]: This is the isnaad (chain of narration connected to the text) which – just as in the case of the hadeeth of the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) – helps ascertain whether or not the statement and the ascription is authentically related back to the one it is being reported from. As regards the importance of the isnaad, then a few narrations from the Scholars of the early generations will be mentioned.

Sufyaan ath-Thawree (d.161H) – rahimahullaah – said:

“The isnaad is the weapon of the Believer. So if he has no weapon, with what will he fight?”[1]

Ibnul-Mubaarak (d.181H) – rahimahullaah – said:

“The isnaad with me is from the Religion. If there were no isnaad, then whosoever wanted would relate whatever they wanted. However, when it is said to him: Who narrated to you? He remains silent.” [2]

As regards the ascription to Imaam Ahmad, then a number of Scholars have agreed to its ascription from ’Abdoos Ibn Maalik al-’Attaar – one of the close students of the Imaam – and from these verifying Scholars are: Ibn Abee Ya’laa in Tabaqaatul-Hanaabilah (1/241-246), al-Laalikaa‘ee in Sharh Usoolul-I’tiqaad Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah (1/158-164) and also Ibnul-Jawzee in Manaaqib Ahmad (p. 222-228).

The text of this brief ’aqeedah was first printed by Daarul-Manaar in al-Mujaahid magazine (no. 28-29, Sha’baan – Ramadaan 1411H); and the original is a manuscript copy, transcribed by the Shaykh and muhaddith, Muhammad Naasirud-Deen al-Albaanee, rahimahullaah, in the month of Sha’baan 1374H, from the manuscript copy (no. 68, Q. 10-15) which is housed at the Dhaahiriyyah library in Damascus, Syria. We ask Allaah – the Most High – to grant us the ability to serialize the introduction of this valuable and concise tract, adding to it – for the benefit of the honourable readers – a brief commentary and explanation.

[2]: He is Aboo ’Abdullaah Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Hanbal ash-Shaybaanee – the Imaam of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah in his time. Born in Baghdaad in Rabee’ul-Awwal, 164H, he attended the circles of al-Qaadee Aboo Yoosuf (the student of Abee Haneefah) – rahimahullaah – where he studied fiqh. He left this in favour of hadeeth, which he began to study at the age of thirteen – having already memorized the Qur‘aan at a young age. He traveled extensively acquiring and learning ahaadeeth from over two-hundred and eighty teachers. From them are: Wakee’ Ibnul-Jarraah, Yahyaa Ibn Sa’eed al-Qattaan, ’Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Mahdee, Sufyaan Ibn ’Uyaynah, ash-Shaafi’ee, Yazeed Ibn Haaroon and others – rahimahullaah. He underwent severe torture and trial due to defending the correct ’aqeedah – the ’aqeedah of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah (the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), his Companions and those who followed them in ’aqeedah and manhaj) – being from those who were foremost in clinging to their way, whilst shunning the innovations.

Aboo ’Umayr said: “May Allaah have mercy upon him. There was no one having more patience regarding this world than him, nor anyone more closely resembling those who cam before him, nor anyone more rightfully amongst the righteous. This world was presented to him, but he rejected it, and he expelled innovations.” In his time, he was the Imaam of the people of Hadeeth specifically, and the Muslims in general.” [3]

Imaam ash-Shaafi’ee (d.204H) – rahimahullaah – said:

“I left Baghdaad, and I did not leave behind me a man better, having more knowledge, or greater Fiqh (understanding), nor having greater taqwaa (piety) than Ahmad Ibn Hanbal.”

Ishaaq Ibn Raahawayh (d.238H) said:

“I used to sit with Ahmad and Ibn Ma’een revising ahaadeeth; and I would say: What is the Fiqh (understanding) of it? What is its explanation? So they would remain silent, except for Ahmad.”

Aboo Daawood (d.275H) said:

“The lectures of Ahmad were sittings for the Hereafter. He would not mention in them any worldly affairs; and I never saw him mention this world.”

’Alee Ibnul-Madeenee (d.324H) – rahimahullaah – said:

“Indeed Allaah aided this Religion through Aboo Bakr as-Siddeeq on the day of apostasy, and through Ahmad Ibn Hanbal on the day of the trial.” [4]

Due to these qualities, he became a sign for Ahlus-Sunnah – as Qutaybah Ibn Sa’eed (d.240H) said, “If you see a man loving Ahmad, then know that he is a person of the Sunnah.”

And Abul-Hasan al-Ash’aree (d.324H) – rahimahullaah – said:

“Our statement which we hold and take as our Religion is: Clinging to the Book of Allaah, our Lord the Mighty and Majestic, and to the Sunnah of our Prophet, Muhammad (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), and what is narrated from the Companions, the Taabi’een and the Imaams of Hadeeth. This is what we cling to, and also that to which Aboo ’Abdullaah Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Hanbal – may Allaah enlighten his face, rais up his rank and grant him a magnificent reward – used to say, distancing ourselves from those who oppose his statement. Since he was the noble and complete Imaam, by whom Allaah made the truth clear, and removed the misguidance, and made the minhaaj (methodology) clear, and though whom Allaah annihilated the innovation of the innovators, the deviation of the deviant and the doubts of the doubters. So may Allaah have mercy upon him, the foremost Imaam.” [5]

Taajud-Deen as-Subkee (d.770H) – rahimahullaah – said, “Abul-Hasan al-Ash’aree is the foremost of Ahlus-Sunnah and Ahmad Ibn Hanbal…” [6]

Ibraaheem al-Harbee (d.285H) – rahimahullaah – said, “I saw Aboo ’Abdullaah, and it was as if Allaah had gathered for him the knowledge of the earlier people and the later people.”

Imaam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal died in the year 241H.

[3]: The term ‘Sunnah’ here, refers to the principles and foundations of the correct Islaamic ’aqeedah (belief) and manhaj (methodology), since the Salafus-Saalih (pious predecessors) would apply this term to matters of ’aqeedah and manhaj – as can be seen from their books and writings – for example: [i] Kitaabus-Sunnah of Imaam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (d.241H); [ii] as-Sunnah of al-Athram (d.273H); [iii] Kitaabus-Sunnah of Aboo Daawood (d.275H) – being part of his Sunan. [iv] Kitaabus-Sunnah of Ibn Abee ’Aasim (d.287H); [v] Kitaabus-Sunnah of ’Abdullaah (d.290H), the son of Ahmad Ibn Hanbal; [vi] as-Sunnah of al-Marwazee (d.292H); [vii] Sareehus-Sunnah of Ibn Jareer at-Tabaree (d.310H); [viii] as-Sunnah of al-Khallaal (d.311H); [ix] Sharhus-Sunnah of al-Barbahaaree (d.329H); [x] as-Sunnah of al-’Asaal (d.349H) and [xi] as-Sunnah of at-Tabaraanee (d.360H).

The term ‘Sunnah’ was employed in this context to differentiate those matters of ’aqeedah and manhaj of the Salafus-Saalih were upon, from that which was innovated by the deviant and misguided sects.

[4]: Meaning, with the Scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah and at the head of them in his time was Imaam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal. And in this regard, the way of the Salafus-Saalih was to point out to the people, the true followers and adherents to the Sunnah so that their ’aqeedah and manhaj (methodology) could be learnt and adhered to, as Imaam Ayyoob as-Sakhtiyaanee (d.131H) – rahimahullaah – said, “From the success of a youth, or a non-Arab is that Allaah guides him to a Scholar of the Sunnah.” [7]

And ’Amr Ibn Qays al-Mulaa‘ee (d.143H) said,

“If you see a youth when he begins to sprout, keeping company with Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah then have hope for him. If you see him keeping company with the people of Innovation, then fear for him, because the youth is according to his initial upbringing.” [8]

[5]: Companions: Arabic: Sahaabah, or Ashaab; singular: Sahaabee. As regards the Sharee’ah definition of ‘Sahaabee’ or ‘Companion,’ then:

al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar (d.825H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“The most correct of what I have come across is that a Sahaabee (Companion) is one who met the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) whilst believing in him, and died as a Muslim. So that includes one who lived with him for a long or short time, and those who narrated from him and those who did not, and those who saw him but did not sit with him and those who could not see him due to blindness.” [9]

Imaam an-Nawawee (d.676H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“The correct position is that whosoever accompanied the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), even for an hour, then that person is from his Sahaabah.” [10]

Imaam Ahmad (d.241H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“Every person who accompanied the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), whether for a year, month, a day, or even for an hour, or even just saw him is from his Companions.”[11]

Imaam al-Bukhaaree (d.256H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“H who accompanied the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) or saw him – from the Muslims – then he is from his Companions.” [12]

al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar said in Fathul-Baaree (7/1),

“That which al-Bukhaaree states is the saying of Ahmad and the great majority of the Scholars of Hadeeth.” Some of the proofs that the Scholars have used for this are: The saying of the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), “There will come upon the people a time when a group from amongst the people will go off to fight and it will be said to them: Is there any amongst you who has seen the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam)? So they will say: Yes. So victory will be granted to them. So a group will go off to fight and it will be said to them: Is there any amongst you who were the Companions of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam)? So they will say: Yes. So victory will be granted to them. Then a group will go off to fight and it will be said to them: Is there any amongst you who have seen the companions of the Companions of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam)? So they will say: Yes. So victory will be granted to them.” [13]

The Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) also said,

“You will not cease to be upon good as long as there amongst you those who accompanied me. By Allaah! You will not cease to be upon good as long as there are amongst you those who accompanied those who accompanied and saw me.” [14]

So these narrations contain a clear proof that a Muslim seeing the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) is granted virtue and excellence and is established as being from amongst the Companions.

Ibn Katheer (d.774H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“The fact that just seeing him (the Prophet) is enough for one to be called a Companion is clearly stated by al-Bukhaaree, Aboo Zur’ah and others who have written books regarding the names of the Companions – such as Ibn ’Abdul-Barr, Ibn Mandah, Aboo Moosaa al-Madanee, Ibnul-Atheer…” [15]

As regards the statement attributed to the taabi’ee and Imaam Sa’eed Ibnul-Musayyib – rahimahullaah – concerning the definition of a Companion, then this cannot be used as a proof at all. This is because al-Haafidh al-’Iraaqee – rahimahullaah – says, “The third saying is what is related from Sa’eed Ibnul-Musayyib, that he had not used to count someone as being a Companion, except one who accompanied the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) for a year or two and fought along with him in one or two battles. Ibnus-Salaah said, “What is meant by this if it is authentic from him – refers back to what the Scholars of Usool say (i.e. what is meant be companionship language wise). However, this definition contains restrictions, which will mean that we do not count as Companions those such as Jareer Ibn ’Abdullaah al-Bajalee – who obviously does not fulfill these conditions that are made – but such are people about whom we know of no difference of opinion with regards to them being Companions.” I say, this is not authentic from Ibnul-Musayyib, since the isnaad (chain of narration) from him contains Muhammad Ibn ’Umar al-Waaqidee – who is da’eef (weak) in hadeeth.” [16]

[6]: Here the Imaam – rahimahullaah – explains and lays down the signposts for the correct manhaj followed by Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah, and that is the methodology of the best and most excellent of mankind, the Companions, then those who followed them (the taabi’een), then those who followed them (the atbaa’ut-taabi’een).

So Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah cling to what the first three generations of Muslims were upon – the Salafus-Saalih – whose excellence has been testified to by the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) in his statement, “The most excellent of mankind is my generation, then those who follow them, then those who follow them.” [17] And he (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “The most excellent Ummah is the generation which I have been sent in, then those who followed them, then those who followed them.” [18]

As regards to the following generations, then they have not been praised with any specific excellence. Rather, they have, in general, been spoken ill of by the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam). Indeed, in some authentic narrations, after mentioning the excellence of the first three generations, the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “…then there will come a people amongst whom fatness will appear and who will testify without having been asked to do so.” [19] And in another narration, “…then there will come a people in whom you will not find any good.” [20] Also, there occurs in another authentic narration, the wording, “…then there will come a people who will testify without being asked to do so, who make promises but do not keep them, who are treacherous and not trustworthy and fatness will appear amongst them.” [21]

So it is the first three generations – the Salafus-Saalih – whose era has been praised with an excellence, whose path is to be followed and whose understanding of the Religion is to be accepted and affirmed. ’Aa‘ishah – radiyallaahu ’anhaa – said: A man came to the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and said, ‘Who is the most excellent of mankind?’ So the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “The generation which I am in, then the second, then the third.” [22]

And it is the first of these generations – the Companions – radiyallaahu ’anhum – who were the foremost in excellence from mankind; since they were: [i] those who learnt the Religion directly from the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and, “Being informed is not like seeing.” [23] [ii] those who knew best and understood the Religion – and this is the root of their excellence – as the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “Whosoever Allaah intends to show excellence to, He gives him the understanding of the Religion.” [24] [iii] They were those who followed it the best, and [iv] They were the ones who were furthest away from and remained free from innovations. About the excellence of the Salafus-Saalih, and the excellence of those who follow them, and the obligation to follow their path, Allaah – the Mighty and Majestic says,

“Those foremost of those who first migrated and those that helped them and those who follow them in goodness, Allaah is well-pleased with them and they are well-pleased with Him. He has prepared for them gardens underneath which rivers flow, to dwell therein forever. That is the supreme success.” [Sooratut-Tawbah 9:100]

And Allaah – the Most Perfect – says,

“Whosoever contends with the Messenger, even after guidance has been clearly conveyed to him, and follows a path other than that of the Believers; We shall leave him in the Path he has chosen and land him in Hell, what an evil destination.” [Sooratun-Nisaa‘ 4:115]

Indeed, “This is a clear definition and a decisive proof upon the worshipper, in making following the path of the Believers obligatory. And who were the Believers at the time this aayah was revealed, except the Companions (radiyallaahu ’anhum). Thus, Allaah has threatened those who leave their way and traverse other than their path, with lowliness and humiliation in this world; and a severe punishment in the Hereafter.” [25]

What further adds to the above decisive proofs, and is considered to be the correct explanation of those aayaat, are the ahaadeeth of the Propht (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), “Indeed my Ummah will split up into seventy-three. All of them are in the Fire except one.” It was said, ‘What is the one?’ He said, “The Jamaa’ah.” And in another narration, he said, “That which I and my Companions are upon.” [26]

He – sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam – also said,

“Those of you who survive after me shall see many differences of opinion. So hold fast to my Sunnah and to the Sunnah of the rightly-guided Caliphs after me. Cling to it tightly and beware of newly-invented matters, for every newly-invented matter is an innovation and every innovation is a going astray.” [27]

And the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said,

“The stars are the custodians of the sky, when the stars pass away, that which has been decreed for the sky will come upon it. I am the custodian for my Companions, so when I pass away there will come upon my Companions that which is decreed for them. And my Companions are the custodians for my Ummah, so when my Companions pass away, that which has been decreed upon my Ummah will come upon it.” [28] Below is a summary of the aforementioned proofs:

[i] That the iftiraaq (splitting-up) of the Ummah into various sects – on the basis of differences in ’aqeedah and manhaj – has been foretold.

[ii] All of the various firaq (sects) have been threatened with Hellfire, except those who adhere to the ’aqeedah and the manhaj of the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and his Companions, and that is al-Firqatun-Naajiyah (the Saved-Sect) and the Jamaa’ah.

[iii] That the authentic hadeeth about iftiraaq (splitting-up) is an explanation of, and in full agreement with the aayah from Sooratun-Nisaa‘ [4:115] in that all those who, “follow a path other than that of the Believers (the Companions),” have been threatened with Hellfire.

[iv] The obligation to follow the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and his Companions, and that is the way of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah, cannot be fulfilled, except by avoiding and shunning innovation and its people.

[v] When differences and innovations arise, it is obligatory to cling to the Sunnah, and also that which the Jamaa’ah have ijmaa’ (consensus and agreement) upon.

[vi] That the Companions were made examples to be followed and were for this Ummah, after the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), the custodians of the correct knowledge, manhaj and ’aqeedah.

[vii] The root of the Companions excellence is in their understanding of and clinging onto the correct ’aqeedah and manhaj and also in their defending it, preserving it, and in their conveying it.

[viii] This is also the root cause for the excellence of those who followed the Companions in the next two generations. So it is binding upon the Muslims to follow the path taken by the Salafus-Saalih, those Muslims who – living in the first three generations – adhered to the ’aqeedah and manhaj, and have been praised with an excellence over and above the rest of mankind.

[ix] Opposing the way of the Salafus-Saalih is considered iftiraaq (splitting-up) and opposing them in matters related to Islaamic manhaj is also considered iftiraaq. So whoever chooses to oppose their knowledge and understanding of the Revelation, has split from them; and has therefore split from the way of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah, and has taken one of the forbidden and innovated paths.

Indeed, Ibn Mas’ood (radiyallaahu ’anhu) said,

“Indeed, Allaah looked into the hearts of the servants and found the heart of Muhammad (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) to be the best of the hearts of the servants. So He chose him for Himself and sent him as a Messenger. Then He looked into the hearts of the servants after Muhammad (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and found the hearts of the Companions to be the best of the hearts of the servants. So He made them ministers of His Messenger, fighting for His Religion. So whatever the Muslims (i.e. the Companions) hold to be good, then it is good with Allaah, and whatever the Muslims hold to be evil, then it is evil with Allaah.” [29]

Imaam al-Barabahaaree (d.329H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“The foundations upon which the Jamaa’ah is made clear is the Companions of Muhammad (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam). They are Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah, so whoever does not take from them has gone astray and innovated; and every innovation is misguidance and misguidance and its people are in the Fire.” [30]

Indeed, “The truth is that which comes from Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. Th Sunnah is that which the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) laid down, and the Jamaa’ah is that which the Companions of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) united upon, in the Caliphate of Aboo Bakr, ’Umar and ’Uthmaan. So he who limits himself to the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and that which the Companions were upon, is successful and triumphs over all the people of innovation, is saved and his Religion is preserved – if Allaah wills. Since the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “My Ummah will split up into seventy-three sects,” and he told us that which would be the saved sect, saying, “That which I and my Companions are upon.” So this is the cure, the explanation, the dear affair and the straight and distinct road.” [31]

Ibn Mas’ood (radiyallaahu ’anhu) said,

“The Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) drew a line for us and said, “This is the Straight Path of Allaah.” Then he drew lines to its right and its left and said, “These are other paths; upon every one of them is a devil calling towards it.” Then he recited,

“Indeed, this is My Straight Path, so follow it. And do not follow other paths, they will separate you from His Path.” [32]

About the statement of Allaah, “And do not follow other paths,” ad-Daarimee relates in his Sunan (1/68) and al-Bayhaqee relates in al-Madkhal ilas-Sunan (no. 200) that Mujaahid (d.204H) said explaining this aayah, “Innovations and doubts.”

Abul-’Aaliyah (d.90H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“Learn Islaam. Then when you have learnt Islaam, do not turn away from it to the right, nor the left. Rather, be upon the Straight Path and be upon the Sunnah of your Prophet and that which his Companions were upon…And beware of these innovations because they cause enmity and hatred amongst you. Rather, stick to the original state of affairs which was there before they divided.” [33]

[7]: Arabic: Bida’ (singular: Bid’ah). Linguistically, bid’ah means: a newly invented matter. The Sharee’ah definition of bid’ah is: “A newly invented way (beliefs or actions) in the Religion, in imitation to the Sharee’ah (prescribed Law), by which nearness of Allaah is sought, not being supported by an authentic proof; neither in its foundations, nor the manner in which it is performed.” [34]

Imaam ash-Shaatibee (d.777H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“Everyone who follows the mutashaabihaat (those aayaat without a clear meaning), or twists the underlying meanings or gives a meaning to the aayaat not given to it by the Salafus-Saalih, or clings on to the very weak and unauthentic ahaadeeth, or takes that which is apparent as a proof – for every action, statement or belief in agreement with his objetives and intentions, not finding a fundamental proof for understanding it in that manner – then this is the method of deduction and derivation which gives rise to innovations and those who innovate.” [35]

Ibn ’Abdul-Haadee (d.745H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“It is not permissible to invent an interpretation about an aayah or a Sunnah which was not there in the time of the Salaf, nor did they have any knowledge of it, nor explain it to the Ummah. Since this would mean that the Salaf were ignorant of the truth in this matter and failed to reach it, whereas the late-coming opponent is somehow guided to the truth!” [36]

Imaam Ibnul-Qayyim (d.756H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“Inventing an explanation with regards to the Book of Allaah – to which the Salaf and the Scholars ar in opposition – necessitates one of two things; [i] either the explanation in itself a mistake, or [ii] that the sayings of the Salaf which run contrary to it are in error! And no one with an ounce of intellect would doubt that the one whose saying is in opposition to that of the Salaf is the one who is mistaken and in error.” [37]

And avoiding bida’ (innovations) is one of the great usool (foundations) of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah, and it involves: [i] keeping away from them; [ii] having hatred for them; [iii] warning the people about them; [iv] clarifying them to the people so that they do not fall into them; [v] refuting the innovators.

Imaam as-Saaboonee (d.449H) said about Ahlus-Sunnah,

“They follow the Salafus-Saalih – the Imaams and Scholars of the Muslims – and they cling to the firm Religion that they clung to and the firm truth. And they hate Ahlul-Bid’ah (people of innovation) who innovate into the Religion that which is not from it. They do not love them and they do not keep company with them. They do not listen to their sayings, nor sit with them, nor argue with them about the Religion, nor debate with them. Rather, they protect their ears from their futility – things which if they pass through the ears and settle in the hearts – will cause harm and will cause doubts and wicked ideas to appear. And concerning this, Allaah the Mighty and Majestic sent down:

“And when you see people engaged in vain discourse, then turn away from them unless they turn to different theme.” [Sooratul-An’aam 6:68].” [38]

Imaam ash-Shawakaanee (d.1255H) said,

“And this aayah contains a severe reprimand for those who allow people to sit with the innovators, those who twist the Words of Allaah, play around with His Book, and the Sunnah of His Messenger (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam). And refer them back to their own misleading desires and wicked innovations. Since, if he is unable to reprimand them and change them from what they are upon, then at the very least, he should avoid sitting with them – and that is easy for him, not difficult. And the innovators may make use of his presence with them – even though he may be free from their mistakes – through a doubt by which they will beguile the common people, in which case his presence will cause an extra evil, in addition to just listening to their evil.” [39]

The Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “Indeed, Allaah does not accept the repentance of an innovator, until he ceases from the innovation.” [40] And he (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “Every innovation is misguidance and going astray.” [41] And he also said, “Whosoever innovates, or accommodates an innovator, then upon him is the curse of Allaah, the Angels and the whole of mankind.” [42]

Sufyaan ath-Thawree – rahimahullaah – said,

“Innovations are more beloved to Iblees than sin. Since a sin may be repented from, but innovation is not repented from.” [43] The following narrations will highlight – if Allaah wills – the manhaj (methodology) adopted by our Salafus-Saalih with regards to the mubtadi’een (innovators). A man said to ’Abdullaah Ibn ’Umar, ‘Najdah (a man from the Khawaarij) says such and such.’ So Ibn ’Umar prevented himself from listening for fear of that some of it should enter into his heart. [44]

Imaam al-Hasan al-Basree (d.110H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“Do not sit with the people of innovations and desires, nor argue with them, nor listen to them.” [45]

Asmaa‘ Bint ’Ubayd said: Two of the people of vain desires and innovations entered upon Ibn Seereen (d.110H), and said, “O Abaa Bakr, may we speak with you?” So he said, “No!” They said, “May we recite an aayah?” He from the Book of Allaah said, “No, indeed either you must get up and leave me, or I will get up and leave.” So said, “O Abaa Bakr, what harm would they left, so some of the people it have done to you, for them to recite an aayah from the Book of Allaah?” He said, “I feared that they would read an aayah to me and distort it, and that would remain in my heart.” [46]

An innovator asked Ayyoob as-Sakhtiyaanee (d.131H), “O Abaa Bakr, may I ask you about a word?’ He turned away and indicated with his hand, “No, not even half of a word.” [47]

Ibraaheem Ibn Maysirah (d.132H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“He who honours an innovator has assisted him in the demolition of Islaam.” [48]

Aboo Qilaabah (d.140H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“Do not sit with the people of innovation, because I do not feel secure that they will not drown you in their misguidance and make part of what you used to know unclear to you.”[49]

Ibn ’Awn (d.150H) – rahimahullaah – said:

“Whosoever sits with an innovator is worse than him.” [50]

It was said to Imaam al-Awzaa’ee (d.157H) – rahimahullaah, ‘A person says, ‘I sit with Ahlus-Sunnah and I sit with the innovators.’ So al-Awzaa’ee said, ‘This person desires to fluctuate between the truth and falsehood.” [51] Commenting upon this statement, Ibn Battah said, “Indeed, al-Awzaa’ee has spoken the truth. And I say, indeed this person does not know the truth from falsehood, nor faith from disbelief.” [51]

Sufyaan ath-Thawree (d.164H) – rahimahullaah – said, “Whosoever listens to an innovator has left the protection of Allaah and is entrusted to the innovation.” [52]

And al-Fudayl Ibn ’Iyaad (d.187H) – rahimahullaah – said, “Do not sit with an innovator, for I fear that curses will descend upon you.” [53]

Imaam Maalik (d.197H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“How evil are the people of innovation, we do not give them salaam.” [54]

Imaam ash-Shaafi’ee (d.197H) – rahimahullaah – said, “That a person meets Allaah with every sin except Shirk is better than meeting Him upon any one of the innovated beliefs.”[55]

Aboo Daawood as-Sijjistaanee (d.275H) – rahimahullaah – said,

I said to Aboo ’Abdullaah Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, “If I see a man from the people of the Sunnah sitting with a man from the people of innovation, should I speak with him?” He said, “No, you should first inform him that the one whom you saw him with is a person of innovation. Either he will cease speaking to the innovator, so continue speaking with him, or if not, then consider him to be like him. Ibn Mas’ood said that a person is like his friend.” [56]

Indeed, the people of knowledge throughout the ages continued warning the masses against the innovators and considered this matter important enough to dedicate chapters in their various books about this. For example:

Aboo Daawood placed a chapter in his Sunan (4/197), called: “Chapter: Turning away from the innovators and having hatred for them.”

Al-Haafidh al-Mundhiree (d.656H) – rahimahullaah – placed a chapter in at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb (3/14) called: “Deterrent against loving the people of innovation, since a person will be with those whom he loves.”

Imaam an-Nawawee (d.676H) – rahimahullaah – says in al-Adhkaar (p.323), “Chapter: Disassociating from the people of innovation and sin.”

Imaam al-Bayhaqee (d.458H) – rahimahullaah – said in al-I’tiqaad (p.236), “Chapter: The prohibition from sitting with the people of innovation.”

Imaam al-Laalikaa‘ee (d.418H) said in Sharh Usoolul-I’tiqaad Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah (1/128), “What is related from the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) with respect to the forbiddance of debating with the innovators.”

Imaam al-Baghawee (d.516H) – rahimahullaah – said:

‘‘Indeed the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) informed about the division in this Ummah, and the manifestation of desires and innovations in it. And he designated salvation for those who follow his Sunnah and the Sunnah of his Companions, may Allaah be pleased with them. So it is upon the Muslim, that if he sees a man having something from innovations and desires in belief, or something neglected from the Sunnah, that he makes Hijrah (migration) from him, and he frees himself from him, and abandons him in life and death. So he must not greet him if he meets him, and he must not answer him if he (i.e. the innovator) begins the greeting, until he abandons his innovation and returns to the truth…So verily the hijrah from the people of desires and innovation continues until they repent.’’ [57]

Qaadee Aboo Ya’laa (d.333H) – rahimahullaah – said in Hajarul-Mubtadi’ (p. 32), “There is ijmaa’ (consensus) from the Companions and the taabi’een as regards disassociating and cutting-off from the innovators.”

It is also necessary to mention here, the distinction that the Scholars make between a newly-invented matter being bid’ah (innovation) and passing a judgement upon the one who is involved in it that he is a mubtadi’ (innovator).

[8]: Just as the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said in his sermons, “…and every innovation is misguidance and all that misguides, misguides to the Fire.” [59]

And ’Abdullaah Ibn ’Umar (radiyallaahu ’anhu) said,

“Every innovation is misguidance, even if the people think it is good.” [60]

Imaam al-Barbahaaree (d.329H) – rahimahullaah – said,

“Beware of small innovations, because they will grow until they become large. This was the case with every innovation introduced into this Ummah. It began as something small, bearing resemblance to the truth, which is why those who entered into it were misled and then were unable to leave it. So it grew and became the religion that they followed, and thus deviated from the Straight Path and left Islaam. And may Allaah have mercy upon you! Examine carefully the speech of everyone you hear from in your time particularly. So do not act in haste, and do not enter into anything from it until you ask and see: Did any of the Companions of the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) speak about it, or any of the Scholars? So if you find a narration from them about it, cling to it, do not go beyond it for anything and do not give precedence to anything over it and thus fall into the Fire.”[61]

Imaam al-Hasan al-Basree said,

“The Sunnah is – by Him besides whom none has the right to be worshipped – between those who exceed the limits and those who fall short. So be patient upon it, may Allaah have mercy upon you. For indeed, Ahlus-Sunnah were a minority from those who preceded and shall be a minority from those to come. They did not accompany the people of excessiveness when they exceeded, nor the people of innovation when they innovated. Rather, they persevered upon the Sunnah, until they met their Lord.” [62]

In summary, two major principles of manhaj – with regards to the ’aqeedah of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah – have been covered in the first part of this serialization: Firstly, “The source for the ’aqeedah is: the Book of Allaah, the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and the ijmaa’ (consensus) of the Salafus-Saalih.” Secondly, “Every newly invented matter in the Religion is an innovation, and every innovation is misguidance, and every misguidance is in the Fire.” [63]

Footnotes:

[1] Related by Ibn Hibbaan in al-Majrooheen (1/27)

[2] Related by at-Tirmidhee in al-’Ilal (4/388), Ibn Hibbaan in al-Majrooheen (1/18) an al-Khateeb in al-Kifaayah (no. 393).

[3] For a comprehensive biography of the imaam, refer to Manaaqib Ahmad of Ibnul-Jawzee; and also Siyar A’laamun-Nubalaa‘ (11/177-358) of adh-Dhahabee – from which the above biography and most of the following narrations have been taken.

[4] Tadhkiratul-Huffaadh (2/432) of adh-Dhahabee. The trial mentioned here is the trial of torture and persecution that Imaam Ahmad, whilst refuting the kufr (disbelief) of those who declared that the Qur‘aan was created, and standing firm upon the correct belief that the Qur‘aan is the Word of Allaah, uncreated. An explanation of this matter will come in its appropriate place, if Allaah wills.

[5] al-Ibaanah ’an Usoolid-Diyaanah (no. 24) of Abul-Hasan al-Ash’aree.

[6] Tabaqaatush-Shaafi’iyyatul-Kubraa (2/250)

[7] Related by al-Laalikaa‘ee in Sharh Usoolul-I’tiqaad Ahlis-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah (no. 30)

[8] Related by Ibn Battah in al-Ibaanah (p. 133)

[9] al-Isaabah (1/4-5) of al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar

[10] Sharh Saheeh Muslim (16/85) of an-Nawawee

[11] al-Kifaayah fee ’Ilmir-Riwaayah (p. 99) of al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadee

[12] Saheehul-Bukhaaree (7/1 – with Fath) of Imaam al-Bukhaaree

[13] Related by al-Bukhaaree (no. 3649) and Muslim (no. 3456) from Aboo Sa’eed al-Khudree (radiyallaahu ’anhu)

[14] Related by Ibn Abee Shaybah in al-Musannaf (no. 3242) from Waathilah (radiyallaahu ’anhu). It was authenticated by Ibn Hajar in Fathul-Baaree (7/7) saying, “It’s isnaad is hasan.”

[15] Mukhtasar ’Uloomul-Hadeeth (p. 174) of Ibn Katheer

[16] Fathul-Mugheeth (p. 346) of al-Haafidh al-’Iraaqee

[17] Related by al-Bukharee (no. 2652) and Muslim (no. 2533) from ’Abdullaah Ibn Mas’ood (radiyallaahu ’anhu)

[18] Related by Muslim (no. 2534) from Aboo Hurayrah (radiyallaahu ’anhu)

[19] Saheeh: Related by at-Tirmidhee (no. 2334), Ibn Hibbaan (no. 2285) and others, from ’Imraan Ibn Husayn (radiyallaahu ’anhu). It was authenticated by Shaykh al-Albaanee Silsilatul-Ahaadeethus-Saheehah (no. 699)

[20] Hasan: Related by at-Tabaraanee from Ibn Mas’ood (radiyallaahu ’anhu). It was authenticated by Shaykh al-Albaanee in Saheehul-Jaami’ (no. 3293)

[21] Related by Muslim (7/186) and Aboo Daawood (no. 4657) from ’Imraan Ibn Husayn.

[22] Related by Muslim (no. 2536)

[23] Saheeh: Related by Ahmad (1/215) from ’Abdullaah Ibn ’Abbaas (radiyallaahu ’anhumaa)

[24] Related by al-Bukhaaree (1/25) and at-Tahaawee in Mushkilul-Aathaar (2/278), from Mu’aawiyah (radiyallaahu ’anhu).

[25] as-Sabeel ilaa Manhaj Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah (p. 16)

[26] The first hadeeth is mentioned by Aboo Daawood (no. 4598) and ad-Daarimee (2/249) and is Saheeh, and the second is related by at-Tirmidhee (no. 2792) and al-Haakim (1/128-129) and it is hasan. Shaykh al-Albaanee has authenticated them both in Silsilatul-Ahaadeethus-Saheehah (no. 204-205).

[27] Saheeh: Related by Ahmad (4/126), Aboo Daawood (no. 4607) and Ibn Maajah (no. 43), from ’Irbaad Ibn Saariyah (radiyallaahu ’anhu). It was authenticated by al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar in Takhreej Ahaadeeth Mukhtasar Ibnul-Haajib (1/137).

[28] Related by Muslim (16/82) and Ahmad (4/398), from Aboo Moosaa al-Ash’aree (radiyallaahu ’anhu)

[29] Related by Ahmad (no. 3600) and at-Tiyaalisee (no. 23). It was authenticated by al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar in ad-Diraayah (2/187), as did as-Sakhaawee in al-Maqaasidul-Hasanah (no. 959)

[30] Kitaab Sharhus-Sunnah (no. 2) of Imaam al-Barbahaaree

[31] Kitaab Sharhus-Sunnah (no. 82)

[32] Saheeh: Related by Ahmad (1/435), an-Nisaa‘ee (7/49) and ad-Daarimee (1/67-68). It was authenticated by Shaykh al-Albaanee in his checking to Kitaabus-Sunnah (no. 16-17) of Ibn Abee ’Aasim.

[33] Related by Ibn Battah in al-Ibaanah (no. 136) and Aboo Nu’aym in Hilyatul-Awliyaa‘ (2/218)

[34] al-I’tisaam (1/37) of the Imaam, the Scholar of usool, ash-Shaatibee

[35] al-I’tisaam (1/321) of ash-Shaatibee

[36] as-Saarimul-Munkee (p. 427) of Ibn ’Abdul-Haadee

[37] Mukhtasar Sawaa’iqul-Mursalah (2/128) of Ibnul-Qayyim

[38] Risalah fee I’tiqaad Ahlus-Sunnah Ashaabul-Hadeeth (p. 100) of Imaam as-Saaboonee

[39] Fathul-Qadeer (2/218) of ash-Shawkaanee

[40] Saheeh: Related by at-Tabaraanee in al-Awsat (no. 4360) and others. It was authenticated by Shaykh al-Albaanee in Silsilatul-Ahaadeethus-Saheehah (no. 1620)

[41] Saheeh: Related by Aboo Daawood (no. 4607), at-Tirmidhee (no. 2676) and others, and al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar authenticated it in Takhreejul-Ahaadeeth Ibnul-Haajib (1/137).

[42] Related by al-Bukhaaree (12/41), Muslim (9/140) and the hadeeth is general, as has been duly explained by al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar in Fathul-Baaree (13/281).

[43] Related by al-Laalikaa‘ee (no. 238)

[44] Related by al-Laalikaa‘ee (no. 199)

[45] Related by ad-Daarimee in his Sunan (1/121) and Ibn Battah in al-Ibaanatul-Kubraa (2/444)

[46] Related by ad-Daarimee in his Sunan (1/109)

[47] Fathul-Qadeer (2/128) of ash-Shawkaanee

[48] Related by al-Laalikaa‘ee (1/139)

[49] Related by al-Bayhaqee in al-I’tiqaad (p. 118) and ’Abdullaah Ibn Imaam Ahmad in as-Sunnah (p. 18).

[50] Related by Ibn Battah in al-Ibaanatul-Kubraa (no. 446)

[51] Related by Ibn Battah (1/456)

[52] Related by Aboo Nu’aym in al-Hilyah (7/26) and Ibn Battah (no. 444)

[53] Related by al-Laalikaa‘ee (no. 262) and Ibn Battah (no. 441)

[54] Related by al-Baghawee in Sharhus-Sunnah (1/234)

[55] Related by al-Bayhaqee in al-I’tiqaad (p. 158)

[56] Related by Ibn Abee Ya’laa in Tabaqaatul-Hanaabilah (1/60) and Ibn Muflih in Aadaabish-Shar’iyyah (1/263)

[57] Related by al-Baghawee in Sharhus-Sunnah (1/224)

[59] Saheeh: Related by an-Nisaa‘ee (1/224), from Jaabir (radiyallaahu ’anhu), and declared authentic by Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah in Majmoo’ul-Fataawaa (3/58).

[60] Related by al-Laalikaa‘ee (no. 126), Ibn Battah (no. 205), al-Bayhaqee in al-Madkhal ilas-Sunan (no. 191) and Ibn Nasr in as-Sunnah (no. 70). This narration refutes the concept of bid’ah hasanah (good innovation) with regards to beliefs and worship, and a more detailed explanation of this will come in a later issue – if Allaah wills.

[61] Kitaab Sharhus-Sunnah (no. 7-8) of al-Barbahaaree

[62] Related by ad-Daarimee in his Sunan (1/71-72)

[63] Mujmal Usool Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah fil-’Aqeedah (p. 7-9) of Dr. Naasir al-’Aql

The Disputes Between Ahlus-Sunnah themselves and Disputes Between Ahlus-Sunnah and Ahlul-Bid’ah

Shaykh Muhammad Nasir Uddin al-Albani / [Al-Asaala h, Issue 18}  

Question: Are there any differences between (1) the disputes that take place between Ahl-us-Sunnah themselves and (2) the talk that is directed from a person of Ahl-us-Sunnah to an innovator? And what are they?

Answer: There is no doubt that there are differences between the two at times and at other times there aren’t any. The area of distinction between what occurs amongst the Ahl-us-Sunnah themselves from disputes and debates and between what occurs amongst Ahl-us-Sunnah on one side and the innovators on the other side, is clear and evident.

This is because the obligation is that when there occurs a debate and refutation between the Ahl-us-Sunnah themselves, then it must be from the aspect of Allaah’s saying: “By the time. Verily, mankind is truly at loss. Except those who believe and do righteous deeds and enjoin one another towards the truth and enjoin one another towards patience.” [Surah Al-‘Asr:1-3]

So any debate or dispute that occurs between the Ahl-us-Sunnah, then it must be based on the likes of this part of the verse: “And they enjoin one another towards the truth and they enjoin one another towards patience.” This is also how it must be when the Ahl-us-Sunnah debate from one side and those who oppose them with regard to the Sunnah – and they are the innovators – debate from the other side. However, the manners of conduct may differ between the Ahl-us-Sunnah versus themselves and between the Ahl-us- Sunnah versus the innovators. So what is obligatory when there occurs a dispute between the Ahl-us-Sunnah themselves, is that they take into account the saying of Allaah: “Merciful to one another” [Surah Al-Fat’h: 29] when doing that. As for when there occurs a dispute between these Muslims from Ahl-us-Sunnah and the people of innovation, then there may be some harshness and severity in the manners of conduct, which is suitable for this innovation and goes well against their innovation. This is one difference between Ahl-us-Sunnah versus themselves from one perspective and Ahl-us-Sunnah when they are debating or refuting the innovators from another perspective.

However, we must consider something with regard to each side, by which we do not exalt one group over another nor criticize one group over another, and it is that we do not violate the principle found in Allaah’s saying: “Call unto the Way of your Lord with wisdom.”

So many times when a person of the Sunnah refutes another person of the Sunnah, the refutation does not just require wisdom, but rather it requires what is more important than that, from what has been stated in the likes of Allaah’s saying: “And do not let your hatred of a people cause you to be unjust. Be just! That is closer to Taqwaa.” [Surah Al-Maa’idah: 8]

But many times, there occurs vile manners when they are refuting one other. And unfortunately, this has now become manifest recently in current times in such a way as we would love for it not to be present within the Sunni community, which we call the Salafee community. This is what I was able to say in response to this question.

[Al-Asaala h, Issue 18]