Software Utils

In accordance with the command of Allaah (Subhaanahu wa Ta’aala) to assist one another in good:

{Help you one another in al-Birr and at-Taqwa (virtue, righteousness and piety); but do not help one another in sin and transgression}, [Soorah al-Maa.idah, Aayah 3]

…and the saying of the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam), as narrated by Anas ibn Maalik:

((None of you will have faith till he wishes for his (Muslim) brother what he likes for himself.)), [Saheeh al-Bukhaaree, Ref.1.12]

…we refer you to the following useful Software links: (all the below are freeware and are virus free) [Infact the following ones I regularly use]

  • SomePDFFree PDF to Word, PDF to Html, Text to PDF, PDF to TXT, PDF Image Extract convert tools!
  • Zamzar – To transform your lectures, videos, images and documents into different formats
  • pdfsam – A free open source tool to split and merge pdf documents
  • HTTrack – Free software offline browser – It allows you to download a World Wide Web site from the Internet to a local directory, building recursively all directories, getting HTML, images, and other files from the server to your computer. HTTrack arranges the original site’s relative link-structure
  • ReNamer [by den4b] – Files renamer
  • CHM Decoder – CHM Decoder may decode (decompile) your CHM file or ebook and extract all source files. Want you convert CHM to HTML? Try CHM Decoder now!
  • FlashGet – leading download manager and has the highest amount of users on the internet.
  • PC to Phone ( VOIP software) at affordable rates
  • Izarc – A free zipfile software much better than winzip that handles just about any kind of compression format including 7-ZIP, ACE,ARC, ARJ,BH, BZ2, CAB, DEB, GZ,HA, JAR, LHA, LZH,PAK, PK3, RAR, RPM, TAR,TGZ, TZ, ZIP and ZOO.
  • VLC multimedia player – A very nice freeware multimedia player which handles almost any kind of media format (audio, video).
  • Ease RM converter -This freeware can easily convert Realmedia files to various formats including MP3, WAV, WMA, OGG. It can also convert video files such as MP4, 3GP, ASF, ASX, WMV, MPG, MPEG, AVI to popular audio formats i.e. MP3, WAV, WMA, OGG, and RM.
  • Any Video Converter (free version) –  The most renowned free video converter for converting video files between various formats, with fast converting speed and excellent video quality.Input formats: avi, asf, mov, rm, rmvb, flv, mkv, mpg, 3gp, m4v, vob. Output formats: avi, wmv, mp4, 3gp, wmv, flv, MPEG-1 and MPEG-2, mpg (PAL or NTSC) .

Our Yahoo Group “salaf-us-saalih”

As Salam Alikum Dear Brothers and Sisters!

Brothers and Sisters are informed that the messages posted will be in accordance with Al-Islam as taught by As-Salaf As-Saalih, making efforts to avoid bida (innovations) in the deen. Messages will be in accordance with Al-Islam… NOT Nation, Sufi, Shia, blind adherence to an Imam, or any other deviant sect or group.
The Main purpose behind the creation of this group is:

  • Enrich our knowledge in Islam thorough mail (Especially  for Brothers / Sisters, who can read e-mail daily / once in two days)
  • I will post 1or 2 posts /day , Insha Allah

“If Allah wants to favor someone, He grants him comprehension (understanding) of this religion.” [Sahih Bukhari vol.1 # 71, Tirmidhi and Musnad Ahmad]

“It is only those who have knowledge amongst His slaves that fear Allah.” [Soorah Al-Fatir (35): 28]
Click to join salam

Click to join salaf-us-saalih

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/salaf-us-saalih

Alternatively email us
salaf-us-saalih-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

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Verification – Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan

Al-Istiqaamah Issue No.4 – Jumâdal-Awwal 1417H / November 1996

Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan – hafidahullaah – relates:

“Allaah – the Majestic, the Most High – orders us to verify any news that reaches us concerning a group or party from amongst the Muslims, when an evil news reaches us which necessitates fighting or opposing this group. Allaah – the Mighty, the Most High – orders us not be hasty and rush into this affair, until we have verified the matter. Allaah – the Most Perfect – said:

“O you who believe! When a wicked person comes to you with some news, ascertain and verify it, less you harm someone in ignorance and then afterwards regret for what you have done.” [Soorah al-Hujuraat 49:6]

Meaning: If some news reaches you about a group or party from amongst the people, concerning an action that they have done and which deserves to be fought against, then do not be hasty about the matter, nor announce war against them, nor attack them – until you have verified the authenticity of the report.”1

Imaam Muslim relates in his Saheeh (no.5):
Abu Hurayrah radiallaahu ‘anhu relates that the Prophet sallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “It is enough to render a man a liar that he relates everything he hears.”


1. Wujoobut-Tathbbat fil-Akhbaari wa Ihtiraamil-‘Ulemaa (pp.22-23).

The Master of Supplications and Spreading Mischief Through the Art of Lying

Al-Istiqaamah Issue No.2 – Safar 1417H / July 1996

THE MASTER OF SUPPLICATIONS

The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

“The master of supplications for seeking Allaah’s forgiveness is when a servant says: O Allaah! You are my Lord and none has the right to be worshipped except You. Indeed You created me and I am Your slave. I abide by my promise and covenant to You as best as I can. I seek refuge in You from the evils that I have done. I acknowledge Your favours upon me and I acknowledge my sin. So forgive me. Indeed none can forgive sin except You. [Allaahumma anta Rabbee, laa ilaaha illaa anta, khalaqtanee, wa anaa ‘abduka, wa anaa ‘alaa abdika wa wa’dika mastata’tu, a’oodhu bika min sharri maa sana’tu, aboo’u laka bi ni’matika ‘alayaa, wa aboo’u bi dhanbee, faghfirlee, fa innahu laa yaghfirudh-dhanooba illaa anta] Whosoever enters upon the evening saying this, then dies that night, would enter Paradise. And whosoever enters upon the morning saying this, then dies that day, will enter Paradise.” [Related by al-Bukhaaree (11/97-98) and Ahmad (5/356), from the narration of Shaddaad ibn Aws and Buraydah ibn al-Haseeb radiallaahu ‘anhumaa.]

A POINT OF BENEFIT

Ibn al-Qayyim (d.751H) – rahimahullaah – said in al-Waabilus-Sayyib (pp.16-17):
“Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (d.728H) said: “Knowing the path to Allaah lies in recognising Allaah’s favours and considering the sins and shortcomings of one’s self.” This is the meaning of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam’s saying – as occurs in the authentic narration from Shaddaad and Buraydah radiallaahu ‘anhumaa – that he said: “The master of supplications in seeking the forgiveness of Allaah is when a savant says: O Allaah! You are my Lord… “ So recognition of Allaah’s favours and consideration of one’s own sins and shortcomings have both been collectively mentioned in the (above) supplication, since he sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “I acknowledge Your favours upon me and I acknowledge my sins.” So recognition of Allaah’s Favours necessitates praising and thanking Him for His favours and bounties, which in turn necessitates love for Him. Whilst consideration of one’s own sins and shortcomings necessitates humility to Allaah and a feeling of lowliness and humbleness to Him. This in turn necessitates repenting to Allaah continuously, and that one considers himself as being poor and in need of Allaah.”

Spreading Mischief Through THE ART OF LYING

Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

“Indeed truthfulness leads to piety and obedience and piety and obedience lead to Paradise. And a person continues to be truthful until he is recorded with Allaah as a truthful person. And indeed lying leads to wickedness and wickedness lead to the Fire. And a person continues to lie until he is recorded with Allaah as a liar.” [Related by al-Bukhaaree (3/30) and Muslim (no.2607), from Ibn Mas’ood radiallaabu ‘anhu.]

DESTROYING COMPREHENSIVE BROTHERHOOD

Shaykh al-Albaanee – hafidhahullaah – said in Fiqhul-Waaqi’ (pp.13-14), whilst speaking about certain trials that have afflicted the Muslims, destroying their unity, weakening their resolve and splitting their ranks: “Part of this trial has struck at the root of the hearts of a great number of daa’ees (callers to Islaam) and students of knowledge, so that they have – regretfully – become divided between themselves. Some of them speaking ill of others, and the others criticising the remainder and refuting them. These rebuttals on their own, or these criticisms alone will neither harm the one refuting, nor the one refuted, since – with the people of justice – the truth is recognised by its light and its proofs, which is not the case with the people of blind-sectarianism and deviation. However, what will harm them is speech without knowledge, talking without restraint and speaking falsely about the servants of Allaah!

 

The Prophet’s Birth sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam

Al-Istiqaamah Issue No.3 – Rabî’ul-Awwal 1417H / August 1996

THE YEAR OF HIS NOBLE BIRTH

According to the most correct opinion of the Scholars, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was born in the city of Makkah in the year of the Elephant (in the year 570 or 571CE), in the month of Rabee’ul-Awwal. [1]

THE DAY OF HIS NOBLE BIRTH

There is an agreement amongst the Scholars that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was born on a Monday, since he sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was asked about fasting on a Monday, and he said: “On that day I was born and on that day Revelation descended upon me.” [2] However, as regards the exact date of his birth, then the Scholars have differed about this, although the majority of Scholars say that he sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was born on the 12th of Rabee’ul-Awwal.

Imaam an-Nawawee (d.676H) – rahimahullaah– said: “There is on agreement that he was born on Monday in the month of Rabee’ul-Awwal. There is a difference of opinion whether this day was the 2nd, 8th, 10th or 12th day of the month – and these ore the four most well-known opinions concerning this.” [3]

EVENTS AT THE TIME OF HIS BIRTH

Certain miraculous events are reported to have occurred at the time that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was born. However, most of them are not authentically related, rather they are da’eef (week) or mawdoo’ (fabricated) and therefore cannot be relied upon as decisive proof; such as the narration which relates that some of the galleries of Kisraa’s palace broke-up and collapsed, that the sacred-fire of the Magians died-out and that some of the churches on Lake Saawah collapsed and sank down.[4]

However, it is authentically related that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayi wa sallam said.

I am a result of the supplication of my father Ibraaheem and the glad-tidings brought by ‘Eesaa ‘alayhimus salaam. And my mother – when she bore me – saw that a light shone out from her, which lit up the palaces in Syria … ” [5]

CELEBRATING THE DAY OF HIS NOBLE BIRTH

Imaam al-Faakihaanee (d.734H) – rahimahullaah -said: [6]

“Celebrating his birthday has no basis in the Book nor the Sunnah, nor is this action recorded from any one of the Scholars of this Ummah; those who are taken as examples to be followed and who cling to the narrations. Rather it is a bid’ah (innovotion), which was introduced by the (deviated) Battaaloon sect.[7]”

As regards to the origins of this newly-invented celebration, then some of the research Scholars have stated that the first person to innovate this practice was ‘Umar ibn Muhammad al-Mulaa in the city of Mawsil in Iraaq, during the fourth century, as is mentioned by the Imaam Abu Shaamah (d.665H).[8] He was followed in this by the likes of Abul-Khattaab ‘Umar ibn Dihyaa: “who was employed in the west, then traveled to Syria, then he traveled to the city of Irbil in ‘Iraaq, during the fourth century, where he found its king Mudhaffarud-Deen ibn Zaynud-Deen showing a keen interest in the milaad (birthday) of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. So he composed a book for him called at-Tanweer fi Mawlidis-Siraajil-Muneer; so he recited this to the king who then rewarded him with one thousand deenaars.” [9]

Imaam Maalik (d.179H) – rahimahullaah – said:

‘Whosoever introduces into Islaam an innovation, and holds it to be something good, has indeed alleged that Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has betrayed his message. Read the saying of Allaah – the Most Blessed, the Most High:

“This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you and I have chosen for you Islaam as your religion.” [Soorah al-Maa’idah 5:3].

So that which was not part of the religion at that time, cannot be part of the religion today. And the last part of this Ummah cannot be rectified, except by that which rectified its first part.” [10]

Thus, had the practice of celebrating milaadun-Nabee (the birthday of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) been something praiseworthy then: “the Salaf (the Pious Predecessors) – may Allaah be pleased with them all – would have instituted it. For they were the ones having a greater love and honour for Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and a greater zeal for doing good. Indeed, the most perfect expression of love and honour for him is by following him, obeying him, carrying out his commands, upholding and reviving his Sunnah (guidance and example) – both inwardly and outwardly – and in spreading his message and striving in this, with the heart, the hand and the tongue. Such was the path of the Companions and those who followed them in goodness (i.e. beliefs and actions).” [11]


Footnotes:

[1]. Refer to Taareekh (p.53) of Khaleefah ibn Khayaat, as-Seerah (1/167) of Ibn Hishaam and also Tabaqaatul-Kubraa (1/62) of Ibn Sa’d.

[2]. Related by Muslim (2/820) and Ahmad (5/297).

[3]. Tahdheeb Seeratun-Nabawiyyah (p.20) of Imaam an-Nawawee.

[4]. Munkar: Related by Imaam adh-Dhahabee in as-Seeratun-Nabawiyyah (pp. 11-14), who said: “This narration is munkar ghareeb (rejected).”

[5]. Related by al-Haakim in al-Mustadrak (2/600) and Ibn Katheer in al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah (1/229) who said: “Its isnaad is good and strong.” Refer to as-Saheehah (no.1545) of Shaykh al-Albaanee for a detailed discussion concerning its authenticity.

[6]. Al-Mawrid fi ‘Amalil-Mawlid (pp.21-22).

[7]. The Battaaloon: they are one of the deviated Baatiniyyah sects from the Faatimids – as al-Maqreezee says in al-Khatat (1/490).

[8]. In al-Baa’ith ‘alaa Inkaaril-Bida’ wal-Hawaadith (pp.23-24). Ibn al-Jawzee stated something similar in Miraatuz-Zamaan (8/310).

[9]. Al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah (13/144-145) of al-Haafidh Ibn Katheer.

[10]. Related by al-Qaadee ‘lyaadh in ash-Shifaa fee Huqooqil-Mustafaa (2/676).

[11]. Iqtidaa’us-Siraatul-Mustaqeem (p.295) of Ibn Taymiyyah

Related Links:

The Ruling Concerning Miladun-Nabi : Shaykh bin Baz

By the Shaykh – the noble Scholar – ‘Abdul-Azeez bin Baaz [1]
Al-Istiqaamah Issue No.3 – Rabî’ul-Awwal 1417H / August 1996

All praise is for Allaah and the blessing of Allaah and His peace be upon the Messenger, and upon his Family, his Companions and all those who follow his guidance. After that:

It is not permissible to celebrate Milaadun-Nabee (the birthday of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), nor the birthday of anyone else, since this is from the acts of bid’ah (innovations) that have been newly-invented into the religion. 2 Neither did Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, nor the Rightly-Guided Khaleefahs (Successors), nor the Companions, may Allaah be please with them all, nor any of their followers from the first three excellent generations, celebrate this day – and they were the most knowledgeable of people concerning the Sunnah (the Prophetic guidance), and had the greatest love for Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and were the foremost in following his Sharee’ah (Prescribed Laws).

It has been authentically established from the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that he said: “Whosoever introduces into this affair of ours, that which is not part of it, will have it rejected.” 3

In another authentic narration, he sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “Hold fast to my Sunnah (guidance) and the way of the Rightly-Guided Khaleefahs after me, cling to it tightly. And beware of newly-invented matters, for every newly-invented matter is an innovation, and every innovation is misguidance.” 4

So these two narrations contain a strong warning against innovations in the religion, and acting upon them. This is why Allaah – the One free of all defects – says in His Clear Book:

“And whatever the Messenger gives you, take it. Whatever he forbids you from, then keep away from it.” [Soorah al-Hadeed 59:7].

Allaah – the Mighty and Majestic – said:

“Let those beware who withstand the command of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, unless some trials and afflictions befall them, or unless they are afflicted with a painful punishment.” [Soorah an-Noor 24:63].

Allaah – the Most High – said:

“And the first to embrace Islaam from the Muhaajirs and the Ansaar, and those who followed them in goodness, beliefs and actions. Allaah is well-pleased with them, and they are well-pleased with Him. He has prepared for them Gardens of Paradise, beneath which rivers flow, to live therein forever. That is the supreme achievement.” [Soorah at-Tawbah 9:100].

And Allaah – the Most High – said:

“This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen Islaam as your way of life.” [Soorah al-Maa’idah 5:3].

The verses with this meaning are plenty. So to accept this celebration, or any other newly-invented act of worship, implies that Allaah – the Most Perfect – did not complete and perfect the religion for this Ummah, and that the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not completely convey to his Ummah what was necessary regarding their duties, until the advent of those who came later and innovated in the religion of Allaah that for which they had no permission, claiming that they would draw closer to Allaah by such innovations. And this – without doubt – is a great danger and amounts to criticising Allaah – the Most Perfect – and His Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. For Allaah – the One free from all defects – has indeed perfected this religion for His servants, and has completed His favour upon them. And the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has clearly conveyed the Message, not leaving any way that leads to Paradise, nor any way that distances a person from the Fire, except that he explained it to his Ummah. This has been established in an authentic narration, from ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Amr radiallaahu ‘anhu, in which Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “Allaah did not send any Prophet except that it was his duty to inform his Ummah of the good that he knew, and to warn them about the evils that he knew.” 5

It is known that our Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is the best of all the Prophets and the last of them and the most perfect of them with regards to conveying the Message and advising the people. So if celebrating his milaad (birthday) was a part of the religion that Allaah – the Most Perfect chose, then the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would have most certainly explained it to his Ummah, or he would have celebrated it himself, or his noble Companions radiallaahu ‘anhum would have celebrated it. However, since nothing like this happened, then we know that the celebration of milaad has nothing to do with Islaam whatsoever. Rather, it is from those innovations which the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam warned his Ummah from, as has been shown in the preceding narrations.

There is another authentic narration similar in meaning to the two preceding ones, and it is his sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam’s saying in his Jumu’ah khutbah (Friday sermon): “Indeed the best speech is the Book of Allaah, and the best guidance and example is that of Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. And the worst affairs are the newly-invented ones, and every newly-invented matter is an innovation, and every innovation is misguidance.” 6

Due to this, a group of the Scholars rejected the practice of milaad and warned against it, acting upon the aforementioned proofs, and their like. However, some of the later Scholars differed, in that they have allowed such a practice, providing it does not entail any sinful and evil matters; such as exaggerating in the praise of Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, or free-mixing between men and women, or the playing of musical instruments and singing, and other such matters which are rejected by the pure Sharee’ah (Prescribed Law). They think that such a practice is a bid’ah hasanah (a good innovation in the religion). 7 However, the Sharee’ah principle is: whenever any dispute arises amongst the people, then the issue should be referred back to the Book of Allaah and to the Sunnah of His Messenger, Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Allaah – the Mighty and Majestic – said:

“O you who believe! Obey Allaah and obey the Messenger and those in authority amongst you. If you differ in anything amongst yourselves, then refer it back for judgment to Allaah and His Messenger, if you do truly believe in Allaah and the Last Day. That is better and more befitting for final determination.” [Soorah an-Nisaa 4:59].

Allaah – the Most High – said:

“And in whatever you differ, the judgement is with Allaah.” [Soorah ash-Shooraa 42:10].

So if we refer this issue – about the validity of celebrating milaad – back to the Book of Allaah, we find that the Book (i.e. the Qur’aan) commands us to follow the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in that which he brought, and it warns us against that which he prohibited. It also informs us that Allaah – the Most Perfect – has perfected the religion of Islaam for this Ummah. Thus, from this angle, there is nothing in what the Messenger came with concerning this celebration, and therefore it cannot be part of the religion which Allaah perfected for us and ordered us to adhere to by following the Messenger.

Then if we turn to the Sunnah of the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam we do not find in it that he sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam celebrated his own birthday, nor ordered its celebration, nor do we find any of the Companions radiallaahu ‘anhum celebrating it! Therefore, it will be absolutely clear to anyone who has the slightest insight and is desirous of truth and justice, that the practice of celebrating the Milaadun-Nabee (the birthday of the Prophet) is not part of t he religion, rather it is a bid’ah (innovation) which we have been warned against and ordered to abandon.

It is also a form of blind imitation of the Jews and Christians in their festivals. Therefore, the sensible person should not be deceived by the large number of people, from the various lands, who practice this, since the truth is not known by mere numbers, but the truth is known by the Sharee’ah proofs. Allaah – the Most High said concerning the Jews and the Christians:

“And they say: None shall enter Paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian! These are their own desires. Say to them: Bring your proof if you are indeed truthful.” [Soorah al-Baqarah 2:111].

And Allaah – the Most High – said:

“And if you were to obey most of those on earth, they would mislead you far away from Allaah’s path.” [Soorah al-An’aam 6:116].

Most of these milaad celebrations – as well as being an innovation – involve other types of evils as well; such as the free-mixing between men and women, singing and playing musical instruments, and the drinking and smoking of intoxicants. There are in such celebrations, something which is worse than all this, and it is the greater form of shirk (associating partners in the worship of Allaah), through exaggerating about Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, or the dead awliyaa (pious servants of Allaah), by supplicating to them, seeking their aid and help, or by believing that they have the knowledge of the ghayb (hidden Unseen), and other such matters of kufr (disbelief). Whereas it is authentically related from Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that he said: “Beware of ghuloo (exaggeration) in the religion. For indeed those who came before you were destroyed due to their exaggerating in the religion.” 8 And he ‘alayhis-salaatu was-salaam also said: “Do not over-elevate me as the Christians over-elevated Jesus, Son of Mary, but rather I am just a slave of Allaah. So call me the slave of Allaah and His Messenger.” 9

One of the strangest matters is that a great number of people who actively participate in this innovated celebration, and who defend it vigorously, do not take care of fulfilling those matters which Allaah has made obligatory upon them, such as praying the five daily Prayers, and this does not even bother many of them at all. Indeed many of them do not even think that they are committing a great sin! There is no doubt that this is due to their weak eemaan (faith) and their short sightedness and the Fact that their hearts are covered with the filth of sins and disobedience. We ask Allaah to protect and forgive us and all of the Muslims.

One of the strangest matters also is that some of them believe that Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is actually present at their milaad celebrations, so consequently the participants stand to greet and welcome him. However, this is from the greatest of lies and the worst form of ignorance, because the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam shall neither come out of his grave before the Day of Judgement, nor will he meet anyone, nor attend their gatherings. Rather, he shall remain in his grave until the Day of Judgement, whilst his noble rooh (soul) resides in the highest of places with his Lord in the home of the exalted, as Allaah – the Most High – said:

“Then you shall surely die, then you shall be raised-up again on the Day of Resurrection.” [Soorah al-Mu’minoon 23:15-16].

The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “I will be the leader of the children of Aadam on the Day of Resurrection, and I will be the first for whom the earth will split open, and will be the first to intercede and the first whose intercession will be accepted.” 10

So this noble aayah (verse) and this noble hadeeth – and those verses and ahaadeeth with a similar meaning – prove that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and others that have also died, will only come out of their graves on the Day of Resurrection. And this is a matter about which there is an agreement amongst the Muslim Scholars, there being no difference between them. So it is a must upon every Muslim, to carefully consider these matters and to beware of those innovations and deviations that have been introduced by the ignorant ones and their like, for which Allaah has not sent down any authority. It is Allaah’s help that is sought, and He alone is relied upon, and there is no might, nor any power, except with Allaah.

As for sending the salaah and the salaam (invoking praises and blessings of peace) upon Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, then this is from one of the best ways of drawing closer to Allaah and from those actions which are righteous. Allaah – the Most High – said:

“Indeed Allaah sends His salaah upon the Prophet (i.e. Allaah praises the Prophet to the angels), as do the angels (by supplicating for forgiveness for him) O you who Believe! Send your salaah upon him and invoke the best salaam (blessings of peace) for him.” [Soorah al-Ahzaab 33:56].

The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “Whosoever sends a single blessing upon me, then Allaah will send upon him ten blessings.” 11 So this is prescribed at all times, particularly at the end of every Prayer. Rather, a group from the people of Knowledge actually consider it obligatory in the final sitting of every Prayer, and consider it highly recommended at other times, such as after the adhaan (call to Prayer), and after mentioning the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam’s name, and also on the day of Jumu’ah (Friday), as is proven by the various authentic narrations.

May Allaah help us and all the Muslims to attain a sound understanding of the religion, and that He favours us all by causing us to cling to the Sunnah and causing us to beware of bid’ah (innovations in the religion). Indeed He is the Most Generous, the Most Kind. And may the salaah and salaam (Allaah’s praises and blessings of peace) be upon our Prophet Muhammad and upon his Family, his Companions and his followers.


1. At-Tahdheer minal-Bid’ah (pp.3-6) of Shaykh Ibn Baaz.
2. Ash-Shaatibee said in al-‘ltisaam (1/33), about the technical definition of the word bid’ah (innovations): “A newly invented way in the Religion, in imitation of, or corresponding to the Sharee’ah, through which nearness to Allaah is sought. Such action is not supported by any authentic proof – neither the action itself, nor the way in which it is performed.”
3. Related by al-Bukhaaree (2/166) and Muslim (5/133), from ‘Aaishah radiallaahu ‘anhaa.
4. Saheeh: Related by Ahmad (4/126) and Abu Daawood (no.4607), from al-‘lrbaad ibn Saariyah radiallaahu ‘anhu. It was declared authentic by al-Haafidh Ibn Hajr in Takhreej Ahaadeeth Mukhtasar-Ibnul-Haajib (1/137).
5. Related by Muslim in his Saheeh (no. 1844).
6. Related by Muslim (6/153), from Jaabir ibn ‘Abdullaah radiallaahu ‘anhu.
7. Refer to the following article in refutation of this concept.
8. Saheeh: Related by Ahmad (1/215) and Ibn Maajah (no.3064), from Ibn ‘Abbaas radiallaahu ‘anhu. It was authenticated by al-Haafidh Ibn Taymiyyah in Majmoo’ul-Fataawaa (3/383).
9. Related by al-Bukhaaree (no.3445) and Muslim (no.1691), from ‘Umar radiallaahu ‘anhu.
10. Related by Muslim (7/59), from Abu Hurayrah radiallaahu ‘anhu.
11. Related by Muslim (no.408), from Abu Hurayrah radiallaahu ‘anhu.

The Original State

Ibn Battah relates in Ibaanah (no.136), that the noble Scholar and taabi’ee. Abul-‘Aaliyah (d.90H) – rahimahullaah – said:

“Learn Islaam. Then when you have learnt Islaamic do not turn away from it to the right, nor the left. But be upon the Straight Path and upon the Sunnah of your Prophet sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and that which his Companions were upon and beware of these innovations because they cause hatred and enmity amongst you. But stick to the original state of affairs which was there before they divided.”

Splitting and Differing – Shaykh Muhammad ibn Abdil-Lateef & Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ibraaheem

By Shaykh Muhammad ibn Abdil-Lateef (d.1376H) and Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ibraaheem (d.1389H) [1] – Al-Istiqaamah Issue No.4 – Jumâdal-Awwal 1417H / November 1996

Allaah – the Most High – said:

“O you who Believe! Have tawraa (fear and obedience) of Allaah as you should do, and do not die except that you are Muslims. And hold fast all together to the rope of Allaah and do not be divided. And remember the favour of Allaah upon you, for you were once enemies one to another, but He joined your hearts together, so that by His Grace, you became brothers. And you were on the brink of a pit of Fire, and He saved you from it. Thus does Allaah make His Signs clear to you, that you may become guided. Let there arise out of you a group of people inviting to all that is good, enjoining all that is good and forbidding all that is evil. They are the ones who are successful. And do not be like those who split up and differed amongst themselves, after the clear proofs had come to them. For them is a tremendous punishment. On the Day of Resurrection, some faces will be white and some faces will be black.” [Soorah Aal-‘Imraan 3:102-105].

One of the Scholars of tafseer (Qur’aanic explanation) said: “The faces of the people of Sunnah and Unity will be white, whereas the faces of the people of Sectarianism and Differing will be black.”

Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (d.728H) – rahimahullaah – said: “So Allaah – the Most High – ordered all of the Believers to cling to the Rope of Allaah collectively, and not to split-up. And clinging to this Rope of Allaah has been explained as meaning: Clinging to the Book of Allaah, to His Religion, to Islaam, to ikhlaas (purity of beliefs and actions to Allaah), to His Commands, to His Covenant, to His obedience and also to the Jamaa’ah. All of these explanations have been related from the Sahaabah (Companions) and also From those who followed them in righteousness – and all of it is correct. For the Qur’aan commands one with the Religion of Islaam; and that is Allaah’s Covenant, and His Command, and obedience to Him. It also entails clinging together collectively as a Jamaa’ah. And the Religion of Islaam – in its reality – is ikhlaas (purity and sincerity in beliefs and action) to and for Allaah alone.

Abu Hurayrah radiallaahu ‘anhu relates:
The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “Indeed Allaah is pleased with three things: That you worship Allaah alone without associating a partner along with Him; that you hold fast altogether to the Rope of Allaah and not to become divided; and that you give sincere advice to whomsoever Allaah puts in charge of your affairs.”2

And Allaah – the Most High – has made oppressing the Muslims, both their living and their dead, haraam (forbidden). And he has made sacred their blood, their wealth and their honour. And it is established from the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that he said during the farewell Hajj (Pilgrimage): “Indeed your blood, your property and your honour is sacred to each other, just like this day of yours, in this month of yours, in this city of yours. Have I not conveyed the message. Those who are present must convey (my words) to those who are absent. Perhaps the one to whom it is conveyed understands it better than the one who directly hears it.”3

Allaah – the Most High – said:

“Those who harm Believing men and women undeservingly, carry upon themselves the crime of slander and clear sin.” [Soorah al-Ahzaab 33:58].

Thus, whosoever harms any Believer, living or dead, not because of any sin sin which necessitates that – then he has entered into this Aayah (verse). And whosoever is a mujtahid (one who is sincerely striving to arrive at the truth), then there is no sin upon him. And if the mujtahid is harmed by someone, then he has harmed him undeservingly. And whosoever is sinful, but has repented from such sin, or he is forgiven due to some other reason; such that there is no punishment left for him – and then someone harms him, then he has harmed him undeservingly.”4

Abu Hurayrah radiallaahu ‘anhu relates:
“Do not envy one another. Do not inflate prices upon one another. Do not hate one another. Do not forsake one another. Do not undercut one another. But be worshippers of Allaah and be brothers. The Muslim is the brother of another Muslim he neither oppresses him, nor humiliates him, nor lies to him, nor holds him in contempt. And piety is right here – and he pointed to his chest three times. It is enough evil for a person to hold his brother Muslim in contempt. The whole of a Muslim for another Muslim is sacred; his blood, his property and his honour”5

Ibn ‘Umar radiallaahu ‘anhumaa relates:
The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “A Muslim is a brother to another Muslim. He neither oppresses him, nor humiliates him, nor forsakes him. Whosoever helps his brother, Allaah will help him. Whosoever removes one of the griefs of this world from a Muslim, then Allaah will remove one of his griefs on the Day of Resurrection. And whosoever hides a fault of any Muslim, then Allaah will hide one of his faults of the Day of Resurrection.”6

Anas radiallaahu ‘anhu relates:
The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “None of you will truly believe until you love for your brother what you loves for yourself.”7

The Prophet sallalaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:
“The example of the Believers in their mutual love and mercy is like the example of a body, if one part of the body feels pain, then all the body suffers in sleeplessness and fever.”8

And he sallallaahu ‘alavhi wa sallam said:
“The Believer to the Believer is like a solid structure, one part supporting the other.” And he interlaced his fingers to demonstrate this.9

This is what we have mentioned in this small treatise, and what we hold as part of our Religion and belief in front of Allaah. And in it is a sufficiency for whosoever desires right guidance and whosoever intends to seek the truth.

We ask Allaah – both for us and our Muslim brothers and sisters – safety and protection from those things that bring about His wrath and anger and painful punishment. And we seek refuge in Allaah from the passing away of His blessings, and that His grant of the state of safety and well-being is changed into something else. And we seek Allaah’s refuge from His sudden retribution and from all that which angers Him. O Allaah! We seek refuge in You from the severe trials and from the place of lowest misery and despicability, and from the evil that has been decreed, and from the abuse of the enemies. And Allaah is sufficient for us and what an excellent Guardian. And may Allaah send the praises and blessings upon Muhammad and upon his Family, Companions and followers.


1. Naseehatun Muhimmah fee Thalaathi Qadaayaa (pp.57-61).
2. Related by Muslim (3/1340) and Ahmad (2/367).
3. Related by al-Bukhaaree (3/573-574) and Muslim (3/1305-1307), from Abu Bakrah radiallaahu ‘anhu.
4. Minaahjus-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah (5/134-135).
5. Related by Muslim (no.2564).
6. Related by al-Bukhaaree (5/97) and Muslim (4/1996).
7. Related by al-Bukhaaree (1/57) and Muslim (1/67).
8. Related by al-Bukhaaree (no.6011) and Muslim (no.2586), from an-Nu’maan ibn Basheer radiallaahu ‘anhu.
9· Related by al-Bukhaaree (no.481) and Muslim (no.2585), from Abu Hurayrah radiallaahu ‘anhu

Questions Concerning Everyday Issues : Shaykh bin Bâz

Answered by the Noble Scholar and Muftee
Shaykh ‘Abdul-‘Azeez bin ‘Abdullaah bin Baaz [1]
Al-Istiqaamah Issue Issue No.2 – Safar 1417H / July 1996

INCREASING EEMAAN (FAITH)

[Q]: Firstly: I begin my question by seeking your advice that I may benefit from you with regards to how I may increase my eemaan (faith)?
Secondly: I wish to learn about the religion, however Islaamic books are very rare in my country (Algeria), except some books which are with some brothers – may Allaah reward them with goodness.
Thirdly: I work as a builder and the people that I work with do not really have sound faith and their speech is nothing more than gossip and obscenities.
Fourthly: I keep company with a brother whose beliefs are corrupt and who constantly speaks ill of the righteous and believing brothers and I feel very distraught about this. So I hope that you will direct me to a cure for this disease.

[A]: Firstly: We advise you to recite the Qur’aan frequently and that you increase in your hearing of it and in your recitation of it. Reflect and consider its meaning to the best of your ability and what you do not understand of it, then ask the people of knowledge of your country about it, or write to those outside of your country from the Scholars of Sunnah (Prophetic guidance).

We also advise you to increase in the dhikr (remembrance) of Allaah with such remembrances and supplications that are authentically related, such as saying laa ilahaa ilallaah (that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah), or saying subhaanallaah wal-hamdulillaah wa laa ilaha ilallaahu wallaahu akbar (declaring Allaah free from all imperfections, praising Him and declaring that none has the right to be worshipped except Him and that He is greater), and their like. For this purpose, we urge you to refer to books such as al Kalimut-Tayyib of Ibn Taymiyyah, al Waabilus-Sayyib of Ibn al-Qayyim, Riyaadhus-Saaliheen and al-Adhkaar both by Imaam an-Nawawee, and their like.

This is because the remembrance of Allaah increases eemaan (faith) and causes hearts to attain tranquility, as Allaah – the Most High – said: “Indeed in the remembrance of Allaah do hearts find tranquility.” [Soorah ar-Ra’dd 13:28].

Also preserve your five daily Prayers, your Fasting and the rest of your obligations – along with hoping in Allaah’s mercy and forgiveness and relying upon Him in all your affairs. Allaah – the Most High – said: “The Believers ate only those who, when Allaah is mentioned, feel a fear in the hearts, and when His Verses are recited to them, it increases their eemaan (faith), and they put their trust and rely upon Allaah alone. They are those who perform the Prayer and spend out of that which We have given them, they are Believers in truth. For them ate grades of dignity and nobility with their Lord, and also forgiveness and generous provisions.” [Soorah al-Anfaal 8:2-4].

Secondly: Islaamic books are easily found in every Muslim country, especially in public libraries and bookshops. So the one who seeks after them will find them. We advise you to refer to the people of knowledge of the Sharee’ah (Prescribed Law of Allaah) so that they may direct you to suitable books for you to read, borrow or buy. If there are any problems regarding this, then it is not fitting for us to stop answering your questions from the Pure Revelation – and We ask Allaah that He makes us firm in that, and only His help is sought.

Thirdly, Fourthly: It is upon you to keep good company and to sit in righteous gatherings in order to benefit from them and their manners and their knowledge and that they may assist you in cultivating obedience to Allaah. So be careful and beware of bad companionship, and evil gathering. Beware, so that they may not influence you, adversely affecting your morals and manners, such that you fall into ill-repute, or that they weaken your resolve and determination in fulfilling your religious obligations and the obligations to your family. Indeed, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam advised the Ummah to sit in good gatherings, and he warned them from the evil and foul gatherings, and he gave a noble example about this, when he said: “The example of a good companion and a bad companion is like that of a seller of musk, and the one who blows the blacksmith’s bellows. As for the seller of musk then either he will grant you some, or you buy some from him, or at the very least you enjoy a pleasant smell from him. As for the one who blows the blacksmith’s bellows, then either he will burn your clothes, or you will get an offensive smell from him.” This was related by al-Bukhaaree (4/323), from Abu Moosaa al-Ash’aree radiallaahu ‘anhu. 1

CONCERNING A WOMAN’S MAHR (DOWRY)

[Q]: I and many others have observed that many people are very excessive when it comes to the matter of the mahr (wedding dowry that is paid to the bride), and that they seek great amounts of mahr when it comes to the marriage of their daughters, and they stipulate as a condition the giving of other gifts to them, along with the mahr. This wealth that people demand in such cases, is it halaal (lawful) or haraam (unlawful)?

[A]: What is prescribed in the Sharee’ah is that the mahr should be a small amount and that people should not compete with each other in this regard, acting in accordance with the many ahaadeeth which are related about this. They should also help facilitate marriages and be keen in preserving the modesty and decency of the young Muslim men and women. And it is not permissible for the awliyaa (guardians of the brides-to-be) to demand and stipulate gifts for themselves, since they have no right at all in this matter. Rather the right belongs to the woman, and in some particular cases to the father. He may stipulate a condition as long as it does not harm the daughter, nor lead to the delaying of the marriage. However, if the father forgoes such a right then this is better and more preferable. Allaah – the One free from all defects – says: “And marry those amongst you who are single and also marry the pious of your male and female slaves. If they be poor, Allaah will enrich them out of His Bounty.” [Soorah an-Noor 24:32].

In the hadeeth of ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Aamir radiallaahu ‘anhu, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “The best dowry is that which is easy.” This was narrated by Abu Daawood and al-Haakim who authenticated it. And once a woman offered herself to the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam for marriage. However, one of his Companions desired to marry her, so the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said [regarding the mahr]: “Bring something, even if it be an iron ring.” So when he could not find even this, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam married them for the dowry that the man would teach whatever of the Qur’aan he knew to her. 2

And the dowry of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam’s wives was five-hundred dirhams, which is equivalent to one-hundred and thirty riyaals today. And his daughters were married for the mahr of four-hundred dinaars, which is equivalent to one-hundred riyaals today. Allaah – the Most High – said: “Indeed in the Messenger of Allaah you have a most beautiful example to follow.” [Soorah al-Ahzaab 33:21].

So whenever the difficulties relating to marriage are lightened, then preserving the modesty and decency of young men and women becomes easier, shameful and evil deeds decrease, and the Ummah – as a result – will increase in number. However if this matter is made difficult, and people continue competing with each other with regards to the mahr (dowry), then the number of marriages will decrease, fornication will become more widespread and more young men and women will remain unmarried – except those whom Allaah saves.

So my sincere advice to all the Muslims, wherever they may be, is to facilitate the marriage process and to cooperate in this and make it easy. They should turn away from demanding excessive mahr and avoid unnecessary hardships and difficulties in the waleemah (wedding-feast). Rather, they should content themselves with a waleemah that is according to the Sharee’ah, in which the burdens and difficulties for the husband and wife are minimal. May Allaah improve and rectify all the affairs of the Muslims and may He give them the guidance and ability to cling to the Sunnah (Prophetic guidance) in all matters. 3

IMPURITIES UPON ONE’S CLOTHING WHILST PRAYING

[Q]: If a person finds some impurity upon his clothes after he has finished praying in it, does the Prayer have to be prayed again?

[A]: Whosoever prays, and is unaware that there are impurities upon his body or his clothes during the Prayer, but only realises after he has completed it, then his Prayer will be deemed as correct, according to the most correct position of the Scholars. Similarly, if he was aware of such impurities before the Prayer, but then forgot about this at the time of praying and did not remember except after the Prayer, then his Prayer likewise will be correct. Allaah – the Mighty and Majestic said: “Our Lord! Do not take us to task if we forget or fall into error.” [Soorah al-Baqarah 2:286]. It has been authentically related about Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, that one day he sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam led the people in Prayer, wearing his shoes. Then the angel Jibreel came to him during the Prayer and informed him that there was some dirt on his shoes. So the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam removed them and continued with his Prayer and he did not repeat the Prayer.4 This is part of the ease which Allaah – the One free from all defects – has given to His servants out of His Mercy for them. However, if a person forgets that he had passed wind, then prays in that state, he must – by ijmaa’ (consensus) of the Scholars – repeat his prayer again, when he remembers. This is due to the saying of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam: “The Prayer will not be accepted without purification nor will charity be accepted from wealth that is unlawful.” This has been related by Muslim in his Saheeh (1/140) and the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam’s saying: “The Prayer of any one of you who has released wind will not be accepted, until he makes wudhoo (ablution).” Related by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim. 5

SLAUGHTERING FOR OTHER THAN ALLAAH

[Q]: The slaughtering of sheep and other such animals at the graves of the pious people, for their sake and in order to please and draw closer to them, is a custom amongst my family. I have tried to prevent them from doing so, but it has only made them more resolute in doing so. I have said to them that this is shirk (associating partners in the worship) of Allaah. But they respond by saying: We only worship Allaah the way He deserves to be worshipped. However, we visit the graves of the awliyaa (the pious friends of Allaah) and supplicate to Allaah, through the right of the pious people, so that harm and difficulties may be averted from us. I have said to them that this is not from the religion, but they just tell me to leave them alone upon what they are doing. So what do you suggest should be the cure for such people, and what do you suggest I do to counter act this bid’ah (innovation)?

[A]: It is known from the evidences related in the Qur’aan and the Sunnah that sacrificing for other than Allaah, in order to draw close to other than Allaah – whether sacrificing for the jinns, awliyaa, idols or other than that from the creation – is an act of shirk and is an act of jaahiliyyah (pre-Islaamic ignorance) that was practiced by the mushriks (those who worshipped the pious men, jinns, angels, stones, statues, etc, along with worshipping Allaah). Allaah- the Mighty and Majestic – said: “Say: Indeed my Prayer, my sacrifce, my living and my dying are all for Allaah Lord of the worlds. No partner do I setup with Him in this, and this is what I have been commanded, and I am the first of the Muslims.” [Soorah al-An’aam 6:162]. So Allaah – the Most Perfect – clearly explains in this verse that sacrificing to other than Allaah is like praying to other than Him. And Allaah – the Most High – said: “Indeed We have granted to the Prophet sallallaabu ‘alayhi wa sallam the Kawthar (a river in Paradise whose banks are lined with tents made from hollow pearls). Therefore turn in Prayer to your Lord and sacrifice to Him alone.” [Soorah al-Kawthar 108:1-2]. So Allaah – the One free from all defects – commanded His Prophet in these noble verses that he should pray only to His Lord and that he should sacrifice to only Him, which was opposite of what the mushriks did, in that they used to prostrate to other than Allaah and to sacrifice to other than Him. Allaah – the Most High – said: “And your Lord has commanded that you worship none but Him.” [Soorah al-Israa 17:23]. And He – the Most Perfect – said: “And they have not been commanded except to worship Allaah alone making the religion purely and sincerely for Him.” [Soorah al-Bayyinah 98:5]. And there are many other verses with the same meaning. So, since sacrificing is one of the acts of ‘ibaadah (worship), then it is obligatory to make this action purely and sincerely for Allaah alone, without directing it to other than Him. Also ‘Alee ibn Abee Taalib radiallaahu ‘anhu said that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “May Allaah curse the one who sacrifices to other than Allaah.” This has been related by Muslim in his Saheeh (no.765).

As for supplicating to Allaah and asking Him by the right of the awliyaa or by the right of His Messenger, or by the status of His Messenger – then this does not constitute shirk, but rather it is a bid’ah (innovation) which leads to shirk, in the opinion of the majority of Scholars. This is because du’aa (supplication) is an act of worship, and how it is to be done can only be known from the Revelation. And there is nothing authentically established from our Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to show the permissibility or validity of this type of tawassul (seeking the means of nearness to Allaah by invoking an intermediary) in which Allaah is asked through the right of His Prophet or the right of the awliyaa or any of His creation. So it is not permissible for any Muslim to innovate new forms of tawassul which has not been prescribed by Allaah, as He – the Most High – said: “Or do they have partners with Allaah who prescribe for them a religion which Allaah has not prescribed.” [Soorah ash-Shooraa 42:21]. And the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “Whosoever introduces into this affair of ours that which is not from it, will be rejected”, and in another authentic narration: “Whosoever does an action that I have not commanded, it will be rejected.” 7 And the meaning of this is that such innovated actions will be rejected and not accepted from its doer. Thus it is obligatory for the Muslims to restrict themselves to only what Allaah has prescribed and to beware of what people have innovated into the religion. As regards the prescribed forms of tawassul then they are: tawassul (seeking the means of nearness to Allaah) through His Names and His Attributes and by righteous actions, and by one’s eemaan (faith) in Allaah and His Messenger, and other righteous and prescribed actions similar to this. 9


1. Fataawaa Lajnatud-Daa’imah lil-Buhoothul-‘Ilmiyah wal-Iftaa (3/185-187).
2. Related by Abu Daawood in his Sunan.
3. Al-Fataawa (1/168-169).
4. Saheeh: Related by Abu Daawood (no.650) and al-Bayhaqee (2/431), from Abu Sa’eed al-Khudree radiallaahu ‘anhu. It was authenticated by an-Nawawee in al-Majmoo’ (2/189).
5. Fataawaa Muhimmah Tata’allaqu bis-Salaah (no.14).
6. Related by al-Bukhaaree (2/166) and Muslim (5/133), from ‘Aaishah radiallaahu ‘anhaa.
7. Related by Muslim (no.1817), from ‘Aaishah radiallaahu ‘anhaa.
8. Al-Fataawaa (1/17-18).

Understanding Islaam : Shaykh ibn al-‘Uthaymeen

Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen
Sharh Usoolul-Eemaan (pp.4-7)
Al-Istiqaamah magazine , Issue No.1 – Dhul-Hijjah 1416H / May 1996

The Shaykh said in Sharh Usoolul-Eemaan (pp.4-7):

[1] The deen (religion) of Islaam: It is the way of life that Allaah sent the Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with. By it, Allaah terminated the validity of all other religions, perfected this religion for His worshippers, completed His favour upon them and has chosen only this religion for them – no other religion will be accepted by Him from anyone. Allaah – the Most High – said:

“Muhammad is not the father of any man amongst you. Rather he is the Messenger of Allaah and the khaatim (last and final) of the Prophets.” [Soorah al-Ahzaab 33:40].

“This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islaam as your religion.” [Soorah al-Maa’idah 5:3].

“Indeed the religion with Allaah is Islaam.” [Soorah Aal-‘Imraan 3:19].

“Whosoever seeks a religion other than Islaam, never will it be accepted from him, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers.” [Soorah Aal-‘Imraan 3:85].

And Allaah – the Most High – obligated all of mankind to take Islaam as their religion. So Allaah said, whilst addressing His Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam:

“Say: O Mankind! Indeed I have been sent to you all as the Messenger of Allaah; to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth. None has the right to be worshipped except Him; it is He who gives life and cause death. So believe in Allaah and His Messenger – the Prophet who can neither read nor write – who believes in Allaah and His Words. So follow the Messenger of Allaah so that you may be rightly-guided.” [Soorah al-A’raaf 7:158].

And in Saheeh Muslim (1/93), from Abu Hurayrah radiallaahu ‘anhu that Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “By Him in whose Hand is the life of Muhammad! There is no one from this nation, be he a Jew or a Christian, who hears of me and dies whilst not having eemaan (faith) in what I have been sent with, except that he will be one of the companions of the Hellfire.”

And eemaan (faith) in the Prophet implies: affirming that which he was sent with, along with acceptance of it and submission to it. Without these two matters, mere affirmation is not sufficient. This is why even though Abu Taalib (the Prophet’s uncle) affirmed what was sent to the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and that Islaam was the best of religions, yet he did not accept his message nor submit to it; and thus he did not have eemaan in the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

[2] The religion of Islaam contains all that was beneficial from the previous religions. It is suitable for implementation in any age, any where and by any nation. Allaah – the Most High – said, whilst addressing His Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam:

“And We have sent down to you the Book in truth, confirming the Scripture that came before it, testifying to the truth contained therein whilst exposing the falsehood that has been added therein.” [Soorah al-Maa’idah 5:48].

That Islaam is suitable for implementation in any age, any where and by any nation does not mean that it becomes submissive to nations – being altered and changed by them – as some people falsely think. But rather it means that whenever it is truly adhered to then it brings benefit and goodness to that nation, as well as reforming and correcting it – in whatever age or place.

[3] The religion of Islaam is the religion of truth. It is the way of life that Allaah – the Most High – guaranteed His help and victory to those who truly adhere to it, and that He would make it dominant over all other religions. Allaah – the Most High – said:

“It is He who has sent His Messenger with the guidance and the religion of truth, that it may prevail over all other religions, even if the pagans detest it.” [Soorah at-Tawbah 9:33].

And Allaah – the Most High – said:

“Allaah has promised to those amongst you who truly have eemaan (true faith and belief) and act in obedience to Allaah and His Messenger, that He will grant them ruler ship upon the earth, just as He granted it to those before them, and that He will establish their Religion for them and grant them the authority to practice their Religion which He chose and ordered them with. And He will certainly change their situation to one of security, after their fear. Providing that they worship and obey Me, not associating anything else in worship with Me. Then, whoever rejects this favour by disobedience to their Lord – then they are the rebellious transgressors.” [Soorah an-Noor 24:55].

[4] The religion of Islaam is a complete religion comprising both ‘aqeedah (beliefs) and sharee’ah (laws).

  • It commands them with tawheed (to single out Allaah alone for worship) and prohibits them from shirk (associating partners with Allaah, in that which is particular to Him).
  • It commands them with being truthful and prohibits them from lying.
  • It commands them with ‘adl (justice) and prohibits them from injustice and oppression.
  • It commands them with fulfilling trusts and prohibits them from acting treacherously.
  • It commands them keeping promises and prohibits them from breaking them.
  • It commands them with kindness and good treatment of parents and prohibits them from disobedience to them in that which is not sinful.
  • It commands them with joining the ties of relations and prohibits them from severing them.
  • It commands them with good treatment of neighbours and prohibits the causing of harm to them.

In short, Islaam orders alls that is good, from manners and morals, and prohibits all that is evil from it. Likewise, it orders all actions which are righteous and good and prohibits all actions that are evil and harmful. Allaah – the Most High – said:

“Indeed Allaah enjoins upon you justice, kindness and the giving of good to relatives and near ones. And He prohibits you from all shameful and evil deeds, oppression and transgression. Thus He admonishes you, that you may take heed and be reminded.” [Soorah an-Nahl 16:90].

Thalaathat-ul-Usool: The Three Fundamental Principles [Complete Translation]

The Three Fundamental Principles
Of the Imaam and Mujaddid Muhammad bin ‘Abdil-Wahhaab [Died 1206H]
– may Allaah have mercy on him –

Translated by Abu Maryam Isma’eel AlArcon,
al-Ibaanah e-books

[Read or Download Arabic Matn (Text) Here] [PDF] [27 Pages]

About the Book:

Before you is a complete translation of the great classical treatise “Thalaathat-ul-Usool” [The Three Fundamental Principles] of Imaam Muhammad bin ‘Abdil-Wahhaab. The source used for this translation was a booklet with the title “The Creed of the Saved Sect” printed by Maktab-ul-Islamee in 1993 [5th Edition] with checking by Zuhair Shawaish. This book is not to be confused with “al-Usool-uthThalaatha” which is another work written by Imaam Ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab.

This treatise needs no introduction, as it is one of the Islamic works that is most studied and taught throughout the world. In fact, many of the scholars recommend the students of knowledge to begin their path of learning by studying and mastering this booklet. The reason for this is because it was written by the author in a simple manner and comprising of the basic fundamentals of this Religion in brief. The material contained in the treatise was designed to be easily memorized and understood.

It is our intent, by producing this treatise, to provide the English audience with the source of this tremendous work so that they may study it in gatherings and use it as a reference. There are several explanations available for “The Three Fundamental Principles” that were written in recent times, such as that of Imaam Muhammad bin Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen, Shaikh Zayd Al-Madkhalee and Shaikh Saalih Aali Shaikh.

[Download the PDF Here]

Read the Text Below :

The Three Fundamental Principles

In the Name of Allaah, the Most Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy.

Know, may Allaah have mercy on you, that we are obligated to learn four matters:

  1. First: Knowledge, which means: awareness of Allaah, awareness of His Prophet, and awareness of the Religion of Islaam, based on evidences.
  2. Second: Acting on this.
  3. Third: Calling to it.
  4. Fourth: Patience with the harm that befalls due to it.

The proof for this is Allaah’s saying:

“In the Name of Allaah, the Most Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy. By the time! Verily mankind is at loss – except for those who believe and perform righteous deeds, and advise one another towards the truth and advise one another towards patience.” [Surah Al-‘Asr]

Ash-Shaafi’ee, may Allaah have mercy on him, said: “Had Allaah not sent down a proof to His creation other than this surah (chapter), it would have been sufficient for them.”

Al-Bukhaaree, may Allaah have mercy on him, said: “Chapter: Knowledge comes before speech and action.”

The proof for this is Allaah’s saying:

“So know that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allaah, and seek forgiveness for your sins.” [Surah Muhammad: 19]

So He began by mentioning knowledge before speech and action.

Know, may Allaah have mercy on you, that it is obligatory upon every Muslim male and female to learn and act upon the following three things:

First: That Allaah created us, provided sustenance for us, and did not leave us neglected. Rather, He sent a Messenger to us. So whoever obeys him will enter Paradise, whereas whoever disobeys him will enter the Hellfire.

The proof for this is Allaah’s statement:

“Verily, We sent to you a Messenger, to be a witness over you, just as we sent a Messenger to Pharaoh. But Pharaoh disobeyed the Messenger (i.e. Moosaa) so We seized him with a severe punishment” [Surah Al-Muzzammil: 15-16]

Second: Allaah is not pleased with anyone being mixed into worship with Him – neither an angel brought close nor a prophet that was sent.

The proof for this is:

“And verily the masaajid belong to Allaah, so do not call unto anyone along with Allaah.” [Surah Al-Jinn: 18]

Third: Whoever obeys the Messenger (i.e. Muhammad) and singles Allaah out (in worship), it is not permissible for him to take as allies those who oppose Allaah and His Messenger, not even if they are close relatives.

The proof for this is Allaah’s saying:

“You will not find any people who believe in Allaah and the Last Day making friendship with those who oppose Allaah and His Messenger, even if they are their fathers or their sons or their brothers or there kindred. For such He has written Faith in their hearts, and strengthened them with Rooh (light and guidance) from Himself. And He will admit them into Gardens under which rivers flow to dwell therein forever. Allaah is pleased with them and they with Him. They are the party of Allaah. Verily it is the party of Allaah that will be the successful.” [Surah Al-Mujaadilah: 22]

Know, may Allaah grant you the ability to obey Him, that Al-Haneefiyyah, the Religion of Ibraaheem, is that you worship Allaah alone, making the religion sincerely (i.e. solely) for Him. This is what Allaah ordered all of mankind to do, and this is the purpose for which He created them, as Allaah says:

“And I did not create the Jinn and mankind except to worship Me.” [Surah AdhDhaariyaat: 56]

The meaning of “to worship Me” is “to single Me out (in worship).”

The greatest thing that Allaah commanded is Tawheed, which means: Singling Allaah out in worship. And the greatest thing that Allaah warned against is Shirk, which is: Supplicating to others along with Him.

The proof for this is Allaah’s statement:

“And worship Allaah (alone) and do not mix anything (in worship) with Him.” [Surah An-Nisaa: 36]

So if it said to you: What are the three fundamental principles that mankind is obligated to know?

Then say: That the servant knows his Lord, his Religion and his Prophet Muhammad, may the peace and blessings of Allaah be on him.

The First Fundamental Principle:

So if it is said: Who is your Lord?

Then say: My Lord is Allaah, the One who nurtured me and nurtured all of creation through His favors. And He is the One whom I worship, there being to me no (false) deity worshipped that is equal to Him.

The proof for this is Allaah’s statement:

All praise be to Allaah, Lord of the ‘Alameen (i.e. all of creation).” [Surah AlFaatihah: 1]

The word ‘Aalam refers to everything apart from Allaah, and I am part of that creation. So if it is said to you: How did you come to know of your Lord?

Then say: By way of His signs and His creations. And among His signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. And among His creations are the seven (levels of) heaven and the seven (levels of) earth, as well as whoever [and whatever] lies in them and between them. The proof for this is Allaah’s statement:

“And from among His signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Do not prostrate yourselves to the sun or to the moon, but rather prostrate yourselves to Allaah who created them, if it is He whom you truly worship.” [Surah Fussilat: 37]

And His statement:

“Verily, your Lord is Allaah, who created the heavens and the earth in six days, and then rose over the Throne. He brings the night as a cover over the day, which it follows rapidly. And He made the sun, the moon and the stars subjected to His Command. Surely, to Him belongs the Creation and the Command. Blessed is Allaah, Lord of the Worlds.” [Surah Al-A’raaf: 54]

The word Rabb (Lord) means One who is worshipped. The proof for this is Allaah’s saying:

“O mankind! Worship your Lord who created you and those before you, so that you may be dutiful to Him. He is the One who made the earth a resting place for you, and the sky as a canopy, and sent down water from the sky and brought forth therewith fruits as a provision for you. So do no set up rivals with Allaah in worship knowingly.” [Surah Al-Baqarah: 21-22]

Ibn Katheer, may Allaah have mercy on him, said: “The creator of these things is the One who truly deserves to be worshipped.”

The types of worship that Allaah commanded, such as Islaam, Eemaan and Ihsaan, which includes: Supplication (Du’aa), Fear (Khawf), Hope (Rajaa), Reliance (Tawakkul), Longing (Raghbah) and Dreading (Rahbah), Submissiveness (Khushoo’), Awe (Khashyah), Repentance (Inaabah), Seeking Assistance (Isti’aanah), Seeking Refuge (Isti’aadhah), Asking for Help (Istighaathah), Offering Sacrifices (Dhabah), Making Oaths (Nadhar) and all of the other types of worship that Allaah commanded – all of these belong to Allaah, alone. The proof for this is Allaah’s saying:

“And the masaajid belong to Allaah, so do not call unto anyone along with Allaah.” [Surah Al-Jinn: 18]

So whoever directs any part of these (acts of worship) to other than Allaah, then he is a polytheist, disbeliever. The proof for this is Allaah’s saying:

“And whoever calls unto another god besides Allaah, of which he has no proof for, his reckoning is only with his Lord. Surely, the disbelievers will not be successful.” [Surah Al-Mu’minoon: 117]

It is stated in a hadeeth: “The supplication is the core of worship.” [1]

The proof for this (i.e. supplication) is Allaah’s saying:

“And your Lord says: ‘Supplicate to Me, I will respond to you. Verily those who are to proud to worship Me will enter the Hellfire in disgrace.’” [Surah Ghaafir: 60]

The proof for Fear (khawf) is Allaah’s saying:

“So do not fear them, but fear Me if you are true believers.” [Surah Aali ‘Imraan:175]

The proof for Hope (Rajaa) is Allaah’s saying:

“So whoever hopes to meet his Lord, then let him perform righteous deeds, and not mix anyone into the worship of his Lord.” [Surah Al-Kahf: 110]

The proof for Reliance (Tawakkul) is Allaah’s saying:

“And upon Allaah (alone) put your reliance if you are truly believers.” [Surah AlMaa’idah: 23]

And His saying:

“And whoever relies upon Allaah, then He is sufficient for Him.” [Surah At-Talaaq:3]

The proof for Longing (Raghbah) and Dreading (Rahbah) and Submissiveness (Khusoo’) is Allaah’s saying:

“Verily, they used to rush to do good deeds, and they would call on Us, longing (His reward) and dreading (His punishment), and they used to humble themselves submissively before Us.” [Surah Al-Anbiyaa: 90]

The proof for Awe (Khashyah) is Allaah’s saying:

“So do not be in awe of them, but have awe of Me.” [Surah Al-Baqarah: 150]

The proof for Repentance (Inaabah) is Allaah’s saying:

“And turn to your Lord in repentance and submit to Him (as Muslims).” [Surah Az-Zumar: 54]

The proof for Seeking Assistance (Isti’aanah) is Allaah’s saying:

“You alone do we worship and in You alone do we seek assistance.” [Surah AlFaatihah: 4]

And in the hadeeth: “When you ask for assistance then seek assistance in Allaah.” [02]

The proof for Seeking Refuge (Isti’aadhah) is Allaah’s saying:

“Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of the Daybreak.” [Surah Al-Falaq: 1] And:

“Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of Mankind.” [Surah An-Naas: 1]

The proof for Asking for Help (Istighaathah) is Allaah’s saying:

“And remember when you sought help from your Lord and He responded to you…” [Surah Al-Anfaal: 9]

The proof for offering sacrifices (Dhabah) is Allaah’s saying:

“Say: Verily my prayer, my sacrificial offerings, my living and my dying are for Allaah, Lord of the Worlds. He has no partner. And of this I have been commanded, and I am the first of the Muslims.” [Surah Al-An’aam: 162-163]

And from the Sunnah is: “May Allaah curse the one who offers a sacrifice to other than Allaah.” [03]

The proof for Making Oaths (Nadhar) is Allaah’s saying:

“They are those who fulfill their vows and fear a Day whose evil will be widespread.” [Surah Al-Insaan: 7]

The Second Fundamental Principle:

Knowing the Religion of Islaam, based on evidences. This (i.e. Islaam) means submitting to Allaah by way of Tawheed, surrendering one’s (full) obedience to Him, and absolving oneself from Shirk and its people. This can be divided into three levels:

1. Islaam
2. Eemaan, and
3. Ihsaan

Each one of these levels has its own pillars.

The Level of Islaam:

The pillars of Islaam are five:

  1. The testimony that there is no deity that has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah;
  2. Establishing the Prayer;
  3. Giving the Zakaat;
  4. Fasting in Ramadaan;
  5. Performing Hajj to Allaah’s Sacred House.

The proof for the testimony of Faith is Allaah’s saying:

“Allaah bears witness that there is no deity that has the right to be worshipped except Him, and so do the angels and those who possess knowledge. He is always maintaining His creation with justice. None has the right to be worshipped but Him – the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.” [Surah Aali ‘Imraan: 18]

The meaning of it (i.e. the testimony of Faith) is: There is no one that has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, alone. Laa Ilaaha negates everything that is worshipped besides Allaah, while IllaaAllaah affirms the worship of only Allaah, free from any partner being mixed in with His worship, just as there is no partner mixed in with His Dominion.

An explanation of this, which will clarify it further, is found in Allaah’s saying:

“And remember when Ibraaheem said to his father and to his people: ‘Verily, I am free from all that you worship – except for He who created Me, and verily He will guide me.’ And He made it a statement that will endure among his offspring that they may turn back to.” [Surah Az-Zukhruf: 26-28]

And Allaah’s saying:

“Say: ‘O People of the Scripture (i.e. Jews and Christians)! Come to a word that is just between us and you – that we worship none but Allaah alone and that we associate no partners with Him; and that none of us shall take others as lords besides Allaah.’ Then if they turn away, say: ‘Bear witness that we are Muslims.’” [Surah Aali ‘Imraan: 64]

The proof for testifying that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah is His saying:

“Verily there has come to you a Messenger from amongst yourselves. It grieves him that you should receive any injury or difficulty. He is anxious over you (to be guided) and he is full of kindness and mercy towards the believers.” [Surah AtTawbah: 128]

The meaning of testifying that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah is: Obeying him in what he has commanded, believing him in what he has informed us of, avoiding what he forbade and warned against, and not worshipping Allaah except by what he (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) prescribed.

The proof for Prayer and Zakaat and the explanation of Tawheed is found in Allaah’s saying:

“And they were not commanded except that they should worship Allaah, making the religion (i.e. worship) solely for Him alone, and that they should perform the prayer and give the Zakaat. And that is the right Religion.” [Surah Al-Bayyinah: 5]

The proof for Fasting is Allaah’s saying:

“O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you just as it was prescribed for those before you, in order that you may acquire Taqwaa (dutifulness to Allaah).” [Surah Al-Baqarah: 183]

The proof for Hajj is Allaah’s saying:

“And the Hajj (pilgrimage) to the House (Ka’bah) is a duty that mankind owes to Allaah for those who are able to do it. And whoever disbelieves (by denying Hajj), then indeed Allaah is not in need of any of His creation.” [Surah Aali ‘Imraan: 97]

The Level of Eemaan:

Eemaan consists of more than seventy branches. The highest of them is saying Laa Ilaaha IllaaAllaah and the lowest of them is moving a harmful object from the road. And Hayaa (modesty) is a branch from Eemaan. [04]

Its pillars are six:

  1. That you believe in Allaah,
  2. His angels,
  3. His books,
  4. His Messengers,
  5. the Last Day, and that you believe in
  6. Al-Qadar (Divine PreDecree) – the good of it and the bad of it.

The proof for these six pillars is Allaah’s statement:

“Righteousness (birr) is not that you turn your faces towards the east and the west (in prayer), but rather righteousness (birr) is (for) the one who believes in Allaah, the Last Day, the Angels, the Books and the Prophets.” [Surah AlBaqarah: 177]

And the proof for Al-Qadar (Pre-Decree) is Allaah’s saying:

“Verily, We have created all things with Qadar (divine pre-decree ordained for it).” [Surah Al-Qamar: 49]

The Level of Ihsaan:

Ihsaan is one pillar, which means: To worship Allaah as if you see Him, but even if you don’t see Him, He indeed sees you. [05]

The proof for this is Allaah’s saying:

“Verily, Allaah is with those who have Taqwaa (dutifulness to Allaah) and those who have Ihsaan.” [Surah An-Nahl: 128]

And His saying:

“And put your trust in the All-Mighty, the Most Merciful, who sees you when you stand up (for prayer at night), and (who sees) your movements among those who prostrate themselves (to Him). Verily, He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.” [Surah Ash-Shu’araa: 217-220]

And His saying:

“There is no deed that you (O Muhammad) do, nor any portion of the Qur’aan that you recite, nor any deed that you (humans) do, except that We are witnesses to it, whilst you are doing it.” [Surah Yoonus: 61]

The proof from the Sunnah is the famous hadeeth of Jibreel, which is reported from ‘Umar bin Al-Khattaab (رضي الله عنه) who said: “One day we were sitting with the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) when there appeared to us a man with extremely white garments and extremely black hair. No trace of journeying could be seen on him nor did any amongst us recognize him. Then he sat in front of the Prophet, lining up his knees with his (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) knees and placing his palms upon his (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) thighs, and said: ‘O Muhammad, inform me about Islaam.’ So he (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said: ‘It is that you testify that there is no deity that has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah. And that you establish the prayer, give the Zakaat, fast during Ramadaan and perform the Hajj (pilgrimage) to (Allaah’s) House, if you are able to do it.’ He said: ‘You have spoken truthfully.’ So we were amazed that he had asked him and then told him that he was truthful.

Then he said: ‘Now inform me about Eemaan.’ So he (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said: ‘It is that you believe in Allaah, His angels, His (revealed) books, His messengers, the Last Day, and that you believe in Al-Qadar, the good of it and the bad of it.’ He said: ‘You have spoken truthfully. Now inform me about Ihsaan.

He (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said: ‘It is that you worship Allaah as if you see Him, but even though you don’t see Him, He indeed sees you.’

He then said: ‘Now inform me about the (Final) Hour.’ He (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said: ‘The one who is being asked does not have any more knowledge of it than the one who is asking.’ He said: ‘So then inform me about its signs.’ He (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said: ‘It will be when the mother gives birth to her (female) master, when the barefooted, barren and lowly shepherds will compete with one another in constructing tall buildings.’

Then he left and we remained (seated) there for a while. Then he (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said: ‘O ‘Umar, do you know who the questioner was?’ I said: ‘Allaah and His Messenger know best.’ He (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said: ‘That was Jibreel who came to you to teach you your Religion.’”

The Third Fundamental Principle

Knowledge of your Prophet, Muhammad: He is Muhammad, the son of ‘Abdullaah, the son of ‘Abdul-Mutallib bin Haashim. Haashim was from the (the tribe of) Quraysh and Quraysh was from the Arabs. And the Arabs are from the offspring of (Prophet) Isma’eel, son of (Prophet) Ibraaheem. May Allaah send the best of His peace and blessings on him and on our Prophet (Muhammad) (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم).

He lived for sixty-three years, forty of which was prior to his prophethood and twentythree of which he spent as a prophet, messenger. He became a prophet due to (Allaah’s saying): ْ“ اقْرَأ Read” [Surah ‘Alaq: 1] and a messenger due to: ُيَا أَيُّهَا الْمُدَّثِّر “O you wrapped in garments.” [Surah Al-Muddathir: 1]

His homeland was Makkah, and he (later) migrated to Madeenah. Allaah sent him to warn against Shirk (polytheism) and to call to Tawheed (pure monotheism). The proof for this is Allaah’s saying:

“O you wrapped in garments. Rise and warn! And magnify your Lord (Allaah). And purify your garments. And abandon ar-rujz (idols). And do not give away something in order to have more. And be patient for the sake of your Lord.” [Surah Al-Muddathir: 1-7]

The meaning of: “Rise and warn” is warn against Shirk and call to Tawheed. “And magnify your Lord” means glorify Him by way of Tawheed. “And purify your garments” means cleanse your actions from Shirk. “And abandon ar-rujz.” “Rujz” means statues, and “Abandon” means leave them and free yourself from them and those who worship them. He remained doing this for ten years, calling the people to Tawheed. And after ten years, he was ascended up to the heaven, where the five daily prayers were made obligatory on him. So he prayed in Makkah for three years and thereafter, he was ordered to make the Hijrah (migration) to Madeenah.

Hijrah means Moving from a land of Shirk to a land of Islaam. It is obligatory upon this ummah to migrate from a land of Shirk to a land of Islaam, and this is everlasting until the (Final) Hour is established. The proof for this is Allaah’s saying:

“Verily, as for those whom the angels take (in death) while they are wronging themselves (by not performing Hijrah), they (angels) will say (to them): ‘In what (condition) were you?’ They will reply: ‘We were weak and oppressed in the earth.’ They (angels) will say: ‘Was not the earth of Allaah spacious enough for you to migrate therein?’ Such men will find their abode in Hell – what an evil destination! Except the weak ones among men, and women and children – who cannot devise a plan, nor are they able to direct their way. These are the ones whom Allaah is (most) likely to forgive, and Allaah is Ever Oft-Pardoning, Most Forgiving.” [Surah An-Nisaa: 97-99]

And Allaah’s saying:

“O My servants who believe (in Me)! Verily, My earth is spacious so to Me alone, perform your worship.” [Surah Al-‘Ankaboot: 56]

Al-Baghawee, may Allaah have mercy on him, said: “The reason for the revelation of this ayah was due to some Muslims who had resided in Makkah and did not migrate (to Madeenah). Allaah called out to them using the title of Eemaan (for them).”

The proof for Hijrah from the Sunnah is his (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) saying: “Hijrah will not cease until repentance ceases. And repentance will not cease (to be accepted) until the sun rises from where it sets (i.e. the west).” [07]

So when he settled in Madeenah, he (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) commanded all of the remaining Laws of Islaam, such as Zakaat, Fasting, Hajj, Adhaan, Jihaad, commanding good and forbidding evil, as well as the other laws of Islaam. He remained doing this for ten years, and then passed away, peace and blessings of Allaah be on him, while his Religion remained.

This was his Religion – there was no good except that he directed his ummah towards it, and there was no evil except that he warned them against it. The good that he directed his ummah to was: Tawheed and everything that Allaah loves and is pleased with. The evil that he warned his ummah about was: Shirk and everything that Allaah hates and rejects.

Allaah sent him to all of mankind, and He made it an obligation upon everyone from the two species of Jinn and mankind to obey him. The proof for this is Allaah’s saying:

“Say: ‘O people! Verily, I am the Messenger of Allaah sent to all of you.’” [Surah Al-A’raaf: 158]

Allaah perfected and completed his Religion through him (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم). The proof for this is Allaah’s saying:

“This day [08] I have completed your Religion for you, and perfected my Favor upon you. And I am pleased with Islaam as a Religion for you.” [Surah Al-Maa’idah: 3]

The proof that he (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) died is Allaah’s saying:

“You will surely die and they too will surely die. Then on the Day of Recompense, you will be disputing before your Lord.” [Surah Az-Zumar: 30-31]

When people die they will be resurrected. The proof for this is Allaah’s saying:

“From it (the earth) We created you, and to it We shall return you, and from it We shall bring you out once again.” [Surah TaHa: 55]

And Allaah’s saying:

“Allaah has brought you forth from the earth. Afterwards, He will return you into it and (then) bring you forth (once again, i.e. resurrection).” [Surah Nooh: 17-18]

After being resurrected, they will be judged and recompensed for their actions. The proof for this is Allaah’s saying:

“And to Allaah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth, that He may recompense those who do evil with that which they have done (i.e. Hellfire), and reward those who do good with what is best (i.e. Paradise).” [Surah An-Najm: 31]

Whoever rejects the resurrection, disbelieves. The proof for this is Allaah’s saying:

“The disbelievers claim they will never be resurrected. Say (O Muhammad): ‘Yes, by my Lord! You will certainly be resurrected then you will be informed of what deeds you did.’ And that is easy for Allaah.” [Surah At-Taghaabun: 7]

Allaah sent all of the messengers, giving good tidings and warning. The proof for this is Allaah’s saying:

“Messengers bearing good news and warning – in order that mankind could have no plea against Allaah after (the coming of) the Messengers.” [Surah AnNisaa: 165]

The first of them was Nooh and the last of them was Muhammad, who was the Seal of
the Prophets.

The proof that Nooh was the first of them is Allaah’s saying:

“Verily, We sent the revelation to you (O Muhammad), just as We sent the revelation to Nooh and the prophets after him.” [Surah An-Nisaa: 163]

Every nation that Allaah sent a messenger to, from Nooh up to Muhammad, he (i.e. the messenger) would command them to worship Allaah alone and forbid them from worshipping the Taaghoot. The proof for this is Allaah’s saying:

“And We have indeed sent a messenger to every nation (saying): ‘Worship Allaah (alone) and avoid the false deities (Taaghoot).” [Surah An-Nahl: 36]

Allaah obligated all of His servants to disbelieve in the Taaghoot and believe in Allaah. Ibn Al-Qayyim, may Allaah have mercy on him, said: “The meaning of Taaghoot is someone or thing for whose sake a worshipper transgresses limits, such as those who are worshipped, followed or obeyed.”

The Tawaagheet (pl. of Taaghoot) are many, but their heads are five:

(1) Iblees (the Devil), may Allaah curse him;
(2) whoever is worshipped while being pleased with that;
(3) whoever calls the people to worship himself;
(4) whoever claims to have knowledge of the Unseen, and
(5) whoever rules by other than what Allaah has revealed.

The proof for this is Allaah’s saying:

“There is no compulsion in the Religion. Verily, the right path has become distinct from the wrong path. So whoever disbelieves in the Taaghoot and believes in Allaah, then he has taken hold of the firmest handhold that will never break. And Allaah is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.” [Surah Al-Baqarah: 256]

This is what is meant by the statement Laa Ilaaha IllaaAllaah.

And in the hadeeth: “The head of the matter is Islaam and its main pillar is the Prayer. And its highest part is Jihaad in the Cause of Allaah.” [09]

And Allaah knows best. May Allaah send His peace and blessings on Muhammad, his family and his Companions.

[End of the Treatise]

Footnotes:

[01]Reported by At-Tirmidhee with a weak chain of narration. However it is authentically reported from An-Nu’maan bin Basheer with the wording: “The supplication is worship.” This was reported by Ahmad (18351), At-Tirmidhee and others with an authentic chain of narration. Refer to Saheeh alJaami’-us-Sagheer (3407) as well as Da’eef al-Jaami’-us-Sagheer (3003), both from Imaam AlAlbaanee, rahimahullaah.

[02] An authentic hadeeth based on its several paths of narration, reported by Ahmad and At-Tirmidhee.

The first part of it is: “O young lad. I will teach you some words: Safeguard Allaah and you will find Him before you; If you ask (for something), then ask (it from) Allaah; and when you ask for assistance, then seek assistance in Allaah.”

The remainder of the hadeeth as occurs in al-Mishkaat (5302) is: “And know that if the ummah were to gather together to benefit you with something, they would not be able to benefit you except with something that Allaah has already written for you. And if they were to gather together to harm you with something, they would not be able to harm you except with something that Allaah has already written against you. The pens have been lifted and the pages have dried.” Refer to Saheeh al-Jaami’-us-Sagheer (7957) and Saheeh Sunan AtTirmidhee (2043) of Imaam Al-Albaanee, rahimahullaah.

[03] This is a portion of a hadeeth found in Saheeh Muslim on the authority of ‘Alee (رضي الله عنه). The complete hadeeth reads: “May Allaah curse the one who curses his father. And may Allaah curse the one who offers a sacrifice to other than Allaah. And may Allaah curse the one who accommodates an innovator.” This hadeeth is found in the Musnad of Imaam Ahmad (no. 953 and 1305). Also refer to Saheeh Sunan An-Nasaa’ee (4119)

[04] This is based on an agreed upon hadeeth; i.e. reported by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim.

[05] Part of a hadeeth reported by Muslim on the authority of ‘Umar (رضي الله عنه) and by Al-Bukhaaree from Abu Hurairah (رضي الله عنه).

[06] An authentic hadeeth reported by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim

[07]Reported by Ahmad (16882) and Abu Dawood (See Saheeh Sunan Abee Dawood: 2166). The second part of it is found in Saheeh Muslim from the narration of Abu Hurairah (رضي الله عنه).

[08]Translator’s Note: What is meant by “This Day” is the day of Jumu’ah (Friday), which occurred on the Day of ‘Arafah after ‘Asr during the Prophet’s farewell pilgrimage. This is what has been related in the Saheeh of Imaam Al-Bukhaaree from ‘Umar bin Al-Khattaab (رضي الله عنه).

[09] Reported by At-Tabaraanee from Mu’aadh with the wording: “The head of this matter is Islaam. And whoever submits to Islaam is saved. Its main pillar is the Prayer. And its highest part is Jihaad. No one will attain it except for the best amongst them.” This is a weak hadeeth. Refer to Da’eef al-Jaami’-us-Sagheer (3077).

Related Link:

Book Study  Resources for “Three Fundamental Principles”
https://abdurrahman.org/islamic-book-study/thalaathat-ul-usool-the-three-fundamental-principles/

The Tafsir of Surat Al-Qiyamah : Ibn Kathir

 The Tafsir Ibn Kathir of Surat Al-Qiyamah (Chapter – 75)

Which was revealed in Makkah

[بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ ]

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

[لاَ أُقْسِمُ بِيَوْمِ الْقِيَـمَةِ – وَلاَ أُقْسِمُ بِالنَّفْسِ اللَّوَّامَةِ – أَيَحْسَبُ الإِنسَـنُ أَلَّن نَّجْمَعَ عِظَامَهُ – بَلَى قَـدِرِينَ عَلَى أَن نُّسَوِّىَ بَنَانَهُ – بَلْ يُرِيدُ الإِنسَـنُ لِيَفْجُرَ أَمَامَهُ – يَسْـَلُ أَيَّانَ يَوْمُ الْقِيَـمَةِ – فَإِذَا بَرِقَ الْبَصَرُ – وَخَسَفَ الْقَمَرُ – وَجُمِعَ الشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ – يَقُولُ الإِنسَـنُ يَوْمَئِذٍ أَيْنَ الْمَفَرُّ – كَلاَّ لاَ وَزَرَ – إِلَى رَبِّكَ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْمُسْتَقَرُّ – يُنَبَّأُ الإِنسَـنُ يَوْمَئِذِ بِمَا قَدَّمَ وَأَخَّرَ – بَلِ الإِنسَـنُ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ بَصِيرَةٌ – وَلَوْ أَلْقَى مَعَاذِيرَهُ ]

(1. Nay! I swear by the Day of Resurrection.) (2. And nay! I swear by An-Nafs Al-Lawwamah.) (3. Does man think that We shall not assemble his bones) (4. Yes, We are able to put together in perfect order the tips of his fingers.) (5. Nay! Man desires to break out ahead of himself.) (6. He asks: “When will be this Day of Resurrection”) (7. So, when Bariqa the sight.) (8. And the moon will be eclipsed.) (9. And the sun and moon will be joined together.) (10. On that Day man will say: “Where (is the refuge) to flee”) (11. No! There is no refuge!) (12. Unto your Lord will be the place of rest that Day.) (13. On that Day man will be informed of what he sent forward, and what he left behind.) (14. Nay! Man will be well informed about himself,) (15. Though he may put forth his excuses.)

The Oath about the Final Return on the Day of Resurrection and the Refutation against the Plots of the Thinkers

It has been mentioned previously on more than one occasion that if the thing that is being sworn about is something that is being negated, then it is permissible to use the word “La” (Nay) before the oath to emphasize the negation. Here, what is being sworn about is the affirmation of the final abode and the refutation against the claim of the ignorant that the resurrection of bodies will not occur. This is why Allah says,

[لاَ أُقْسِمُ بِيَوْمِ الْقِيَـمَةِ – وَلاَ أُقْسِمُ بِالنَّفْسِ اللَّوَّامَةِ ]

(Nay! I swear by the Day of Resurrection. And nay! I swear by An-Nafs Al-Lawwamah.) Qatadah said, “This means, I swear by both of these things.” This has also been reported from Ibn `Abbas and Sa`id bin Jubayr. Concerning the Day of Judgement, it is well known what it is. In reference to An-Nafs Al-Lawwamah, Qurrah bin Khalid reported from Al-Hasan Al-Basri that he said about this Ayah, “Verily, by Allah, we think that every believer blames himself. He says (questioning himself), `What did I intend by my statement What did I intend by my eating What did I intend in what I said to myself’ However, the sinner proceeds ahead and he does not blame himself.” Ibn Jarir recorded from Sa`id bin Jubayr that he said concerning Allah’s statement,

[وَلاَ أُقْسِمُ بِالنَّفْسِ اللَّوَّامَةِ ]

(And nay! I swear by An-Nafs Al-Lawwamah) “He criticizes himself in good and bad.” Similar has been reported from `Ikrimah. Ibn Abi Najih reported from Mujahid: “He is sorry for what he missed (of good deeds) and he blames himself for it.” Allah said;

[أَيَحْسَبُ الإِنسَـنُ أَلَّن نَّجْمَعَ عِظَامَهُ ]

(Does man think that We shall not assemble his bones) meaning, `on the Day of Judgement does he think that We are not able to return his bones and gather them from their various places’

[بَلَى قَـدِرِينَ عَلَى أَن نُّسَوِّىَ بَنَانَهُ ]

(Yes, We are able to put together in perfect order the tips of his fingers.) meaning, `does man think that We will not gather his bones Surely, We will gather them and We are quite able to put together his fingertips. This means Our power is suitable to gather (and recreate) them, and if We wished We could surely resurrect him with more than what he originally had. We could make his Banan, which are the tips of his fingers, all equal (in length).’ Concerning Allah’s statement,

[بَلْ يُرِيدُ الإِنسَـنُ لِيَفْجُرَ أَمَامَهُ ]

(Nay! Man desires to break out ahead of himself.) Sa`id reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said, “This means to proceed forward.” Mujahid said about,

[لِيَفْجُرَ أَمَامَهُ]

(to break out ahead of himself.) “This means that he wants to proceed ahead following his own whims.” `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said, “This refers to the disbeliever who denies the Day of Reckoning.” Ibn Zayd said the same thing. Thus, Allah says after this,

[يَسْـَلُ أَيَّانَ يَوْمُ الْقِيَـمَةِ ]

(He asks: “When will be this Day of Resurrection”) meaning, he says when will the Day of Judgement be His question is only a question of denying its occurrence, and rejecting its existence. This is as Allah says,

[وَيَقُولُونَ مَتَى هَـذَا الْوَعْدُ إِن كُنتُمْ صَـدِقِينَ قُل لَّكُم مِّيعَادُ يَوْمٍ لاَّ تَسْتَـَخِرُونَ عَنْهُ سَاعَةً وَلاَ تَسْتَقْدِمُونَ ]

(And they say: “When is this promise if you are truthful” Say: “The appointment to you is for a Day, which you cannot put back for an hour nor put forward.”) (34:29-30) Here Allah says,

[فَإِذَا بَرِقَ الْبَصَرُ ]

(So, when Bariqa the sight.) Abu `Amr bin Al-`Ala’ recited this Ayah as Bariqa with a Kasrah under the letter Ra, which means to be diminished. That which he (Abu `Amr) has said resembles the statement of Allah,

[لاَ يَرْتَدُّ إِلَيْهِمْ طَرْفُهُمْ]

(Their gaze returning not towards them.) (14:43) meaning, they will be looking this way and that way in horror. Their gaze will not be able to rest upon anything due to the severity of the terror on that Day. Others recited it as Baraqa with a Fathah over the letter Ra, and its meaning is close to the first recitation (Bariqa). The intent here is that the eyes will be dazzled, humbled, diminished, and humiliated on the Day of Judgement due to the severity of the horrors and the greatness of the matters that they will witness on that Day. Concerning Allah’s statement,

[وَخَسَفَ الْقَمَرُ ]

(And the moon will be eclipsed.) meaning, its light will go away.

[وَجُمِعَ الشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ ]

(And the sun and moon will be joined together.) Mujahid said, “They will be rolled up.” In explaining this Ayah, Ibn Zayd recited the following Ayat,

[إِذَا الشَّمْسُ كُوِّرَتْ – وَإِذَا النُّجُومُ انكَدَرَتْ ]

(When the sun is wound round and its light is lost and is overthrown, and when the stars fall.) (81:1,2) It has been reported from Ibn Mas`ud that he recited the Ayah as, (وَجُمِعَ بَيْنَ الشَّمْسِ وَالْقَمَرِ) (and the sun and the moon will be joined between each other.) Allah said,

[يَقُولُ الإِنسَـنُ يَوْمَئِذٍ أَيْنَ الْمَفَرُّ ]

(On that Day man will say:”Where (is the refuge) to flee”) meaning, the human will see these horrors on the Day of Judgement and he will want to flee. He will say, “Where (is the place) to flee to” This means, where is the escape or refuge Allah then says,

[كَلاَّ لاَ وَزَرَ – إِلَى رَبِّكَ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْمُسْتَقَرُّ ]

(No! There is no refuge! Unto your Lord will be the place of rest that Day.) Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn `Abbas, Sa`id bin Jubayr and several others of the Salaf said, “There will be no salvation.” This Ayah is similar to Allah’s statement,

[مَا لَكُمْ مِّن مَّلْجَأٍ يَوْمَئِذٍ وَمَا لَكُمْ مِّن نَّكِيرٍ]

(You will have no refuge on that Day nor there will be for you any denying.) (42:47) meaning, `there will be no place for you to hide.’ This is like what Allah says here,

[لاَ وَزَرَ]

(There is no refuge.) meaning, `there will be no place for you to seek shelter.’ Thus, Allah says,

[إِلَى رَبِّكَ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْمُسْتَقَرُّ ]

(Unto your Lord will be the place of rest that Day.) meaning, the place of return and the final destination. The Deeds of Man will be placed before Him on the Day of Judgement Then Allah says,

[يُنَبَّأُ الإِنسَـنُ يَوْمَئِذِ بِمَا قَدَّمَ وَأَخَّرَ ]

(On that Day man will be informed of what he sent forward, and what he left behind.) meaning, he will be informed of all of his deeds, the old of them and the recent of them, the first of them and the last of them, the small of them and the large of them. This is as Allah says,

[وَوَجَدُواْ مَا عَمِلُواْ حَاضِرًا وَلاَ يَظْلِمُ رَبُّكَ أَحَدًا]

(And they will find all that they did, placed before them, and your Lord treats no one with injustice.) (18:49) Likewise, Allah says here,

[بَلِ الإِنسَـنُ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ بَصِيرَةٌ – وَلَوْ أَلْقَى مَعَاذِيرَهُ ]

(Nay! Man will be well informed about himself, though he may put forth his excuses.) meaning, he will be a witness against himself, knowing full well what he did, even though he will try to make excuses and deny it. This is as Allah says,

[اقْرَأْ كَتَـبَكَ كَفَى بِنَفْسِكَ الْيَوْمَ عَلَيْكَ حَسِيبًا ]

((It will be said to him): “Read your book. You are sufficient as a reckoner against yourself this Day.”) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said,

[بَلِ الإِنسَـنُ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ بَصِيرَةٌ ]

(Nay! Man will be well informed about himself.) “His hearing, his sight, his two hands, his two legs and his limbs.” Qatadah said, “This means he is a witness against himself.” In another narration from Qatadah he said, “By Allah! If you wish to see him, you would see him as someone who sees the shortcomings of the people and their sins, yet he is heedless of his own sins.” It used to be said, “Verily, it is written in the Injil: `O Son of Adam, do you see the small splinters in the eye of your brother and disregard the tree stump that is in your eye, so you do not see it”’ Mujahid said,

[وَلَوْ أَلْقَى مَعَاذِيرَهُ ]

(Though he may put forth his excuses.) “This means, even though he argues in defense of it, he is a witness against it.” Qatadah said,

[وَلَوْ أَلْقَى مَعَاذِيرَهُ ]

(Though he may put forth his excuses.) “Even though he will try to make false excuses on that Day, they will not be accepted from him.” As-Suddi said,

[وَلَوْ أَلْقَى مَعَاذِيرَهُ ]

(Though he may put forth his excuses.) “This means his argument.” This is as Allah says,

[ثُمَّ لَمْ تَكُنْ فِتْنَتُهُمْ إِلاَّ أَن قَالُواْ وَاللَّهِ رَبِّنَا مَا كُنَّا مُشْرِكِينَ ]

(There will then be no Fitnah for them but to say: “By Allah, our Lord, we were not those who joined others in worship with Allah.”) (6:23) Allah also says,

[يَوْمَ يَبْعَثُهُمُ اللَّهِ جَمِيعاً فَيَحْلِفُونَ لَهُ كَمَا يَحْلِفُونَ لَكُمْ وَيَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُمْ عَلَى شَىْءٍ أَلاَ إِنَّهُمْ هُمُ الْكَـذِبُونَ ]

(On the Day when Allah will resurrect them all together; then they will swear to Him as they swear to you (O Muslims). And they think that they have something. Verily, they are liars!) (58:18) Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas:

[وَلَوْ أَلْقَى مَعَاذِيرَهُ ]

(Though he may put forth his excuses.) “This is apologizing. Haven’t you heard that Allah said,

[لاَ يَنفَعُ الظَّـلِمِينَ مَعْذِرَتُهُمْ]

(The Day when their excuses will be of no profit to wrongdoers.) (40:52) and He says,

[وَأَلْقَوْاْ إِلَى اللَّهِ يَوْمَئِذٍ السَّلَمَ]

(And they will offer submision to Allah on that Day.) (16:87) and He says,

[فَأَلْقَوُاْ السَّلَمَ مَا كُنَّا نَعْمَلُ مِن سُوءٍ]

(Then they will (falsely) submit: “We used not to do any evil.”) (16:28) and their statement,

[وَاللَّهِ رَبِّنَا مَا كُنَّا مُشْرِكِينَ]

(By Allah, our Lord, we were not those who joined others in worship with Allah.) (6:23)”

[لاَ تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ – إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا جَمْعَهُ وَقُرْءَانَهُ – فَإِذَا قَرَأْنَـهُ فَاتَّبِعْ قُرْءَانَهُ – ثُمَّ إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا بَيَانَهُ – كَلاَّ بَلْ تُحِبُّونَ الْعَاجِلَةَ – وَتَذَرُونَ الاٌّخِرَةَ – وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ نَّاضِرَةٌ – إِلَى رَبِّهَا نَاظِرَةٌ – وَوُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ بَاسِرَةٌ – تَظُنُّ أَن يُفْعَلَ بِهَا فَاقِرَةٌ ]

(16. Move not your tongue concerning to make haste therewith.) (17. It is for Us to collect it and that it be recited.) (18. And when We have recited it to you, then follow its recitation.) (19. Then it is for Us to make it clear.) (20. But no! Rather you love the present life of this world,) (21. And neglect the Hereafter.) (22. Some faces that Day shall be Nadirah.) (23. Looking at their Lord.) (24. And some faces that Day will be Basirah,) (25. Thinking that some calamity is about to fall on them.)

How the Prophet received the Revelation

This is Allah teaching His Messenger how to receive the revelation from the angel. For verily, he (the Prophet ) was rushing in his attempts to grasp the revelation and he would be reciting the revelation with the angel while he was reciting it. Therefore, Allah commanded him that when the angel brings some revelation to him he should just listen. Allah would make sure to collect it in his chest, and He would make it easy for him to recite it in the same way that it was revealed to him. Allah would explain it, interpret it and clarify it for him. So the first phase was gathering it in his chest, the second phase was recitation and the third phase was its explanation and clarification of its meaning. Thus, Allah says,

[لاَ تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ ]

(Move not your tongue concerning to make haste therewith.) meaning, with the Qur’an. This is as Allah says,

[وَلاَ تَعْجَلْ بِالْقُرْءانِ مِن قَبْلِ إَن يُقْضَى إِلَيْكَ وَحْيُهُ وَقُل رَّبِّ زِدْنِى عِلْماً]

(And be not in haste with the Qur’an before its revelation is completed to you, and say: “My Lord! Increase me in knowledge.”) (20:114) Then Allah says,

[إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا جَمْعَهُ]

(It is for Us to collect it) meaning, `in your chest.’

[وَقُرْءَانَهُ]

(and that it be recited.) meaning, `that you recite it.’

[فَإِذَا قَرَأْنَـهُ]

(And when We have recited it to you,) meaning, `when the angel has recited it to you from Allah,’

[فَاتَّبِعْ قُرْءَانَهُ]

(then follow its recitation.) meaning, `listen to it then recite it as he taught you to recite it.’

[ثُمَّ إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا بَيَانَهُ ]

(Then it is for Us to make it clear.) meaning, `after memorizing it and reciting it, We will explain it to you, clarify it and inspire you with its meaning according to what We intended and legislated.’ Imam Ahmad recorded from Ibn `Abbas that he said that the Messenger of Allah used to struggle very hard to grasp the revelation and he used to move his lips (rapidly with the recitation). The narrator, Sa`id, then said, “Ibn `Abbas said to me, `I will move my lips like the Messenger of Allah used to move his lips (in order to show you).”’ Then, the subnarrator said, “And Sa`id said to me, `I will move my lips like I saw Ibn `Abbas moving his lips (in order to show you).”’ Then Allah revealed,

[لاَ تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ – إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا جَمْعَهُ وَقُرْءَانَهُ ]

(Move not your tongue concerning to make haste therewith. It is for Us to collect it and that it be recited.) Ibn `Abbas said, “This means He will collect it in his chest to recite it.

[فَإِذَا قَرَأْنَـهُ فَاتَّبِعْ قُرْءَانَهُ ]

(And when We have recited it to you, then follow its recitation.) meaning, listen to it and pay attention.

[ثُمَّ إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا بَيَانَهُ ]

(Then it is for Us to make it clear (to you).) So after this, when Jibril would leave, he would recite it as Jibril had taught him to recite it.” This has also been recorded by Al-Bukhari and Muslim. Al-Bukhari’s wording says, “So whenever Jibril would come to him he would be silent, and when Jibril had left he would recite it just as Allah, the Mighty and Sublime had promised him.”

The Cause of rejecting the Day of Judgement is Love of the World and Heedlessness of the Hereafter

Concerning Allah’s statement,

[كَلاَّ بَلْ تُحِبُّونَ الْعَاجِلَةَ – وَتَذَرُونَ الاٌّخِرَةَ ]

(But no! Rather you love the present life of this world. And neglect the Hereafter.) meaning, the only thing that has caused them to reject the Day of Judgement and oppose the true revelation and the Mighty Qur’an Allah revealed to His Messenger is that their only concern is the present worldly life. They are preoccupied and distracted from the Hereafter.

Seeing Allah in the Hereafter

Then Allah says,

[وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ نَّاضِرَةٌ ]

(Some faces that Day shall be Nadirah.) which comes from the word Nadarah, which means splendid, radiant, glowing, delighted with goodness.

[إِلَى رَبِّهَا نَاظِرَةٌ ]

(Looking at their Lord.) meaning, they will see Him with their very eyes. This is just as was recorded by Al-Bukhari in his Sahih,

«إِنَّكُمْ سَتَرَوْنَ رَبَّكُمْ عِيَانًا»

(Verily, you all will see your Lord with your own eyes.) The believers seeing Allah in the abode of the Hereafter has been confirmed in the authentic Hadiths from numerous routes of transmission with the scholars of Hadith. It is not possible to deny this or refuse it. Examples would be the Hadiths of Abu Sa`id and Abu Hurayrah, and they are both recorded in the Two Sahihs. They both mentioned that some people said, “O Messenger of Allah! Will we see our Lord on the Day of Judgement” The Prophet said,

«هَلْ تُضَارُّونَ فِي رُؤْيَةِ الشَّمْسِ وَالْقَمَرِ لَيْسَ دُونَهُمَا سَحَابٌ؟»

(Are you harmed by seeing the sun and the moon when there are no clouds beneath them) They replied, “No.” The Prophet then said,

«فَإِنَّكُمْ تَرَوْنَ رَبَّكُمْ كَذَلِك»

(Then you will surely see your Lord like that.) In the Two Sahihs it is recorded from Jabir that he said, “The Messenger of Allah looked at the moon on a night when it was full, and he said,

«إِنَّكُمْ تَرَوْنَ رَبَّكُمْ كَمَا تَرَوْنَ هَذَا الْقَمَرَ، فَإِنِ اسْتَطَعْتُمْ أَنْ لَا تُغْلَبُوا عَلَى صَلَاةٍ قَبْلَ طُلُوعِ الشَّمْسِ وَلَا قَبْلَ غُرُوبِهَا، فَافْعَلُوا»

(Verily, you will see your Lord just as you see this moon! So if you are able to avoid missing a prayer before the rising of the sun (Fajr prayer) or before its setting (`Asr prayer) then do so.)” Among the Hadiths, which Muslim was alone in recording, is a narration from Suhayb that the Prophet said,

«إِذَا دَخَلَ أَهْلُ الْجَنَّةِ الْجَنَّةَ قَالَ يَقُولُ اللهُ تَعَالى: تُرِيدُونَ شَيْئًا أَزِيدُكُمْ؟ فَيَقُولُونَ: أَلَمْ تُبَيِّضْ وُجُوهَنَا؟ أَلَمْ تُدْخِلْنَا الْجَنَّةَ وَتُنَجِّنَا مِنَ النَّارِ؟ قَالَ: فَيَكْشِفُ الْحِجَابَ، فَمَا أُعْطُوا شَيْئًا أَحَبَّ إِلَيْهِمْ مِنَ النَّظَرِ إِلَى رَبِّهِمْ، وَهِيَ الزِّيَادَة»

(When the people of Paradise enter the Paradise, Allah will say, `Do you want me to give you anything extra’ They will say, `Haven’t you whitened our faces Haven’t you entered us into Paradise and saved us from the Fire’ Then He will remove the veil and they will not be given anything more beloved to them than looking at their Lord, and that will be the extra (Ziyadah).) Then he recited this Ayah,

[لِّلَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُواْ الْحُسْنَى وَزِيَادَةٌ]

(For those who have done good is the best and extra (Ziyadah).) (10:26) Also among the Hadiths, which Muslim was alone in recording, is the Hadith of Jabir in which the Prophet said,

«إِنَّ اللهَ يَتَجَلَّى لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ يَضْحَك»

(Verily, Allah will appear before the believers while He is laughing.) This will take place on the open plains of the Resurrection place. In some of these Hadiths, it mentions that the believers will be looking at their Lord on the open plains and some mention that this will occur in the Gardens of Paradise. If it were not due to fear of taking up a lot of space, we would present all of these Hadiths with their routes of transmission and wordings from those that are in the Sahih collections, the collections of good narrations, the Musnad collections and the Sunan collections. However, we have mentioned this in separate places in this Tafsir, and Allah is the Giver of success. This issue is something that the Companions, the Successors and the Salaf of this nation have agreed upon, and all praise is due to Allah. It is something that is agreed upon between the Imams of Islam and the guides of all mankind.

Blackening of the Faces of the Disobedient People on the Day of Judgement

Allah says,

[وَوُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ بَاسِرَةٌ – تَظُنُّ أَن يُفْعَلَ بِهَا فَاقِرَةٌ ]

(And some faces that Day will be Basirah. Thinking that some calamity is about to fall on them.) These are the faces of the sinners that will be Basirah on the Day of Judgement. Qatadah said, “This means gloomy.” As-Suddi said, “Their (the faces) color will change.”

[تَظُنُّ]

(Thinking) meaning, they will be certain.

[أَن يُفْعَلَ بِهَا فَاقِرَةٌ]

(that some calamity is about to fall on them.) Mujahid said, “A disaster.” Qatadah said, “An evil.” As-Suddi said, “They will be certain that they are going to be destroyed.” Ibn Zayd said, “They will think that they are going to enter into the Hellfire.” This situation is similar to Allah’s statement,

[يَوْمَ تَبْيَضُّ وُجُوهٌ وَتَسْوَدُّ وُجُوهٌ]

(On the Day when some faces will become white and some faces will become black.) (3:106) Similarly Allah says,

[وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ مُّسْفِرَةٌ – ضَـحِكَةٌ مُّسْتَبْشِرَةٌ – وَوُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَلَيْهَا غَبَرَةٌ – تَرْهَقُهَا قَتَرَةٌ – أُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْكَفَرَةُ الْفَجَرَةُ ]

(Some faces that Day will be bright. Laughing, rejoicing at the good news. And other faces, that Day will be dust-stained; darkness will cover them, such will be the disbelieving, wicked.) (80:38-42) Allah also says,

[وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ خَـشِعَةٌ – عَامِلَةٌ نَّاصِبَةٌ – تَصْلَى نَاراً حَامِيَةً ]

(Some faces, that Day will be humiliated. Laboring, weary. They will enter in the hot blazing Fire.) (88:2-4) until Allah says,

[وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ نَّاعِمَةٌ – لِّسَعْيِهَا رَاضِيَةٌ فِى جَنَّةٍ عَالِيَةٍ ]

((Other) faces that Day will be joyful. Happy with their endeavor. In a lofty Paradise.) (88:8-10) And there are other similar Ayat and discussions (in the Qur’an).

[كَلاَّ إِذَا بَلَغَتِ التَّرَاقِىَ – وَقِيلَ مَنْ رَاقٍ – وَظَنَّ أَنَّهُ الْفِرَاقُ – وَالْتَفَّتِ السَّاقُ بِالسَّاقِ – إِلَى رَبِّكَ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْمَسَاقُ – فَلاَ صَدَّقَ وَلاَ صَلَّى – وَلَـكِن كَذَّبَ وَتَوَلَّى – ثُمَّ ذَهَبَ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ يَتَمَطَّى – أَوْلَى لَكَ فَأَوْلَى – ثُمَّ أَوْلَى لَكَ فَأَوْلَى – أَيَحْسَبُ الإِنسَـنُ أَن يُتْرَكَ سُدًى – أَلَمْ يَكُ نُطْفَةً مِّن مَّنِىٍّ يُمْنَى – ثُمَّ كَانَ عَلَقَةً فَخَلَقَ فَسَوَّى – فَجَعَلَ مِنْهُ الزَّوْجَيْنِ الذَّكَرَ وَالاٍّنثَى – أَلَيْسَ ذَلِكَ بِقَـدِرٍ عَلَى أَن يُحْيِىَ الْمَوْتَى ]

(26. Nay, when it reaches to the collarbones.) (27. And it will be said: “Who can cure him”) (28. And he will think that it was the parting;) (29. And one shank will be joined with another shank.) (30. The drive will be on that Day to your Lord!) (31. So, he neither believed nor prayed!) (32. But on the contrary, he denied and turned away!) (33. Then he walked in conceit to his family admiring himself!) (34. Woe to you! And then woe to you!) (35. Again, woe to you! And then woe to you!) (36. Does man think that he will be left neglected) (37. Was he not a Nutfah of semen emitted) (38. Then he became an `Alaqah; then shaped and fashioned in due proportion.) (39. And made of him two sexes, male and female.) (40. Is it not so then, that He would be able to give life to the dead)

Certainty will occur at the Time of Death Allah informs of the condition at the time of death and what terrors it contains.

May Allah make us firm at that time with the Firm Statement. Allah says,

[كَلاَّ إِذَا بَلَغَتِ التَّرَاقِىَ ]

(Nay, when it reaches to the collarbones.) If we make the word “Kalla” negative, then this Ayah means, `O son of Adam! You are not able to deny that which I informed you of at that time (death). This will become something witnessed by you with your own eyes.’ If we consider the word “Kalla” to be a word of affirmation, then this would be the most obvious meaning. In this case it would mean that it is certainly true when the soul reaches the collarbones – meaning, `your soul will be pulled out of your body and it will reach your collarbones.’ This is similar to Allah’s statement,

[فَلَوْلاَ إِذَا بَلَغَتِ الْحُلْقُومَ – وَأَنتُمْ حِينَئِذٍ تَنظُرُونَ – وَنَحْنُ أَقْرَبُ إِلَيْهِ مِنكُمْ وَلَـكِن لاَّ تُبْصِرُونَ – فَلَوْلاَ إِن كُنتُمْ غَيْرَ مَدِينِينَ – تَرْجِعُونَهَآ إِن كُنتُمْ صَـدِقِينَ ]

(Then why do you not (intervene) when (the soul of the dying person) reaches the throat And you at the moment are looking on, but We are nearer to him than you, but you see not, then why do you not if you are exempt from the reckoning and recompense, bring back the soul, if your are truthful) (56:83-87) Thus, Allah similarly says here,

[كَلاَّ إِذَا بَلَغَتِ التَّرَاقِىَ – وَقِيلَ مَنْ رَاقٍ ]

(Nay, when it reaches to the collarbones. And it will be said: “Who can cure him) `Ikrimah reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said, “Meaning, who is the person who recites divine prayers of healing so that he may come and cure him” Abu Qilabah made a similar statement when he said,

[وَقِيلَ مَنْ رَاقٍ ]

(And it will be said: “Who can cure him) “This means who is the doctor that can cure him” Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and Ibn Zayd all have similar statements. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said concerning the Ayah,

[وَالْتَفَّتِ السَّاقُ بِالسَّاقِ ]

(And one shank will be joined with another shank.) “This is the last day of the days of this world and the first day of the days of the Hereafter. So there will be hardships that will meet (more) hardships, except for he whom Allah has mercy upon.” `Ikrimah said,

[وَالْتَفَّتِ السَّاقُ بِالسَّاقِ ]

(And one shank will be joined with another shank.) “The great matter (will be joined) with the great matter.” Mujahid said, “A test (will be joined) with a test.” Al-Hasan Al-Basri said concerning Allah’s statement,

[وَالْتَفَّتِ السَّاقُ بِالسَّاقِ ]

(And one shank will be joined with another shank. ) “These are your two shins when they are bound together.” In another narration from him (Al-Hasan) he said, “His two legs have died and they will not carry him while he used to walk around on them.” Concerning Allah’s statement,

[إِلَى رَبِّكَ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْمَسَاقُ ]

(The drive will be on that Day to your Lord!) meaning, the place of return and the destination. This is that the soul ascends into the heavens and Allah says, “Return my servant to the earth, for verily, I have created them from it, I return them into it, and from it I will bring them out at another time.” This has been reported in the lengthy Hadith of Al-Bara’. Verily, Allah says,

[وَهُوَ الْقَاهِرُ فَوْقَ عِبَادِهِ وَيُرْسِلُ عَلَيْكُم حَفَظَةً حَتَّى إِذَا جَآءَ أَحَدَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ تَوَفَّتْهُ رُسُلُنَا وَهُمْ لاَ يُفَرِّطُونَ – ثُمَّ رُدُّواْ إِلَى اللَّهِ مَوْلَـهُمُ الْحَقِّ أَلاَ لَهُ الْحُكْمُ وَهُوَ أَسْرَعُ الْحَـسِبِينَ ]

(He is the Irresistible (Supreme), over His servants, and He sends guardians over you, until when death approaches one of you, Our messengers take his soul, and they never neglect their duty. Then they are returned to Allah, their True Master. Surely, for Him is the judgement and He is the swiftest in taking account.) (6:61,62)

Mentioning the Case of the Denier

Allah says,

[فَلاَ صَدَّقَ وَلاَ صَلَّى – وَلَـكِن كَذَّبَ وَتَوَلَّى ]

(So, he neither believed nor prayed! But on the contrary, he denied and turned away!) This is to inform about the disbeliever who used to deny the truth in his heart in the abode of this worldly life, and he used to turn away from acting according to its way. Thus, there is no good in him, internally or externally. Therefore, Allah says,

[فَلاَ صَدَّقَ وَلاَ صَلَّى – وَلَـكِن كَذَّبَ وَتَوَلَّى – ثُمَّ ذَهَبَ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ يَتَمَطَّى ]

(So he neither believed nor prayed! But on the contrary, he denied and turned away! Then he walked in conceit (full pride) to his family admiring himself!)(75:31-33) meaning, stubborn, cruel, obstinate, wanton, lazy, having no concern and doing no deeds. This is similar to Allah’s statement,

[وَإِذَا انقَلَبُواْ إِلَى أَهْلِهِمْ انقَلَبُواْ فَكِهِينَ ]

(And when they returned to their own people, they would return jesting.) (83:31) Allah also says,

[إِنَّهُ كَانَ فِى أَهْلِهِ مَسْرُوراً – إِنَّهُ ظَنَّ أَن لَّن يَحُورَ ]

(Verily, he was among his people in joy! Verily, he thought that he would never come back (to Us)!) (84:13,14) meaning, return.

[بَلَى إِنَّ رَبَّهُ كَانَ بِهِ بَصِيراً ]

(Yes! Verily, his Lord has been ever beholding him!) (84:15) Ad-Dahhak reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said,

[ثُمَّ ذَهَبَ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ يَتَمَطَّى ]

(Then he walked in conceit to his family admiring himself!) “This means arrogantly.” Qatadah and Zayd bin Aslam both said, “Strutting.” Allah then says,

[أَوْلَى لَكَ فَأَوْلَى – ثُمَّ أَوْلَى لَكَ فَأَوْلَى ]

(Woe to you! And then woe to you! Again, woe to you! And then woe to you!) This is a definite warning and threat from Allah to those who disbelieve in Him and strut about when walking. This means, `you deserve to strut like this while you have disbelieved in your Creator and Maker.’ This is what is commonly said in this type of situation in order to mock and intimidate (someone). This is as Allah says,

[ذُقْ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْكَرِيمُ ]

(Taste you (this)! Verily you were (pretending to be) the mighty, the generous!) (44:49) Similarly, Allah says,

[كُلُواْ وَتَمَتَّعُواْ قَلِيلاً إِنَّكُمْ مُّجْرِمُونَ ]

(Eat and enjoy yourselves for a little. Verily, you are criminals.) (77:46) Allah also says,

[فَاعْبُدُواْ مَا شِئْتُمْ مِّن دُونِهِ]

(So worship what you like besides Him.) (39:15) And like Allah’s statement,

[اعْمَلُواْ مَا شِئْتُمْ]

(Do what you will.) (41:40) There are other examples of this as well. Abu `Abdur-Rahman An-Nasa’i recorded from Sa`id bin Jubayr that he said, “I mentioned to Ibn `Abbas,

[أَوْلَى لَكَ فَأَوْلَى – ثُمَّ أَوْلَى لَكَ فَأَوْلَى ]

(Woe to you! And then woe to you! Again, woe to you! And then woe to you!) He (Ibn `Abbas) replied, `The Messenger of Allah said this to Abu Jahl, then Allah, the Mighty and Sublime, revealed this Ayah.”’ Ibn Abi Hatim recorded from Qatadah that he said concerning Allah’s statement,

[أَوْلَى لَكَ فَأَوْلَى – ثُمَّ أَوْلَى لَكَ فَأَوْلَى ]

(Woe to you! And then woe to you! Again, woe to you! And then woe to you!) “It is a threat followed by a threat, just as you hear it. They claim that the Prophet of Allah grabbed the clothes of the enemy of Allah, Abu Jahl. The Prophet then said to him, `Woe to you! And then (again) woe to you! Again woe to you! And then (again) woe to you!’ At this the enemy of Allah, Abu Jahl, said, `Are you threatening me, O Muhammad By Allah! Neither you nor your Lord are able to do anything, and verily, I am the mightiest person walking between its (Makkah’s) two mountains.”’

Man will not be left neglected

Allah says,

[أَيَحْسَبُ الإِنسَـنُ أَن يُتْرَكَ سُدًى ]

(Does man think that he will be left neglected) As-Suddi said, “Meaning not resurrected.” Mujahid, Ash-Shafi`i and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam, all said, “Meaning, he will not be commanded and prohibited.” Apparently the Ayah includes both meanings. This means that he will not be left neglected in this worldly life, without being commanded and prohibited. He also will not be left neglected in his grave unattended to without being resurrected. Rather he will be commanded and prohibited in this life, and gathered back to Allah in the abode of the Hereafter. The intent here is to affirm the existence of the abode of the final return and to refute whoever rejects it from the people of deviance, ignorance and stubbornness. Thus, Allah uses the beginning of creation as a proof for the repetition of the creation in His saying,

[أَلَمْ يَكُ نُطْفَةً مِّن مَّنِىٍّ يُمْنَى ]

(Was he not a Nutfah of semen emitted) meaning, was not man a weak drop of sperm from a despised fluid known as semen, that is emitted from the loins into the wombs

[ثُمَّ كَانَ عَلَقَةً فَخَلَقَ فَسَوَّى ]

(Then he became an `Alaqah; then shaped and fashioned in due proportion.) meaning, he became a clot, then a lump of flesh, then he was formed and the soul was blown into him. Then he became a perfect creation with healthy limbs, as either a male or a female by the permission and decree of Allah. Thus, Allah says,

[فَجَعَلَ مِنْهُ الزَّوْجَيْنِ الذَّكَرَ وَالاٍّنثَى ]

(And made of him two sexes, male and female.) Then Allah says,

[أَلَيْسَ ذَلِكَ بِقَـدِرٍ عَلَى أَن يُحْيِىَ الْمَوْتَى ]

(Is it not so then, that He would be able to give life to the dead) meaning, is not He Who made this perfect creation from this weak drop of sperm able to repeat that as He did originally And “the ability to repeat that” either refers to the origination only, or to both that and the process of perfecting it, according to two different views, as in Allah’s saying;

[وَهُوَ الَّذِى يَبْدَأُ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ وَهُوَ أَهْوَنُ عَلَيْهِ]

(And He it is Who originates the creation, then He will repeat it; this is easier for Him.) (30:27) The first view is more popular, and Allah knows best.

Supplication upon completing this Surah

Abu Dawud recorded from Musa bin Abi `A’ishah that he said, “A man used to pray on top of his house and whenever he recited,

[أَلَيْسَ ذَلِكَ بِقَـدِرٍ عَلَى أَن يُحْيِىَ الْمَوْتَى ]

(Is it not so then, that He would be able to give life to the dead) he would say, `Glory to You, of course.’ So the people asked him about that and he said, `I heard it from the Messenger of Allah .”’ Abu Dawud was alone in transmitting this Hadith and he did not mention who this Companion was, but there is no harm in that. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Qiyamah, all praise and thanks are due to Allah.

The Tafseer of Sooratun-Nabaa : Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

The Tafseer of Sooratun-Nabaa` (78)
Compiled by Dr. Saalih as-Saalih

All praise is due to Allaah, we praise Him, and seek His help and forgiveness. We seek refuge in Allaah, Most High, from the evils of our own selves and from our wicked deeds. Whoever Allaah guides, there is none who can musguide him, whoever Allaah allows to be misguided cannot be guided. I testify that there is no true God worthy of being worshipped except Allaah, alone, without partner or associate. I further testify that Muhammad is His true slave and Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم)(1).

May Allaah’s Salaah and Salaam be also granted to the Prophet’s pure family, and to all of his noble companions.

“O you believe! Fear Allaah [by doing all that He ordered and abstaining from all that He forbade] as He should feared [Obey Him, be thankful to Him, and remember Him always] and die not except in a state of Islaam (as Muslims with complete submission to Allaah).” [Surah Al-i’Imraan (3) Ayat 102]

“O mankind! Be dutiful to you Rabb (Allaah) (2), Who created you from a single person (Aadam) and from him (Aadam) He created his wife (Eve), and from them both He created many men and women and fear Allaah through Whom you demand your mutual (rights) and (do not cut the relations of) the wombs (kinship). Surely, Allaah is ever an All-Watcher over you.” [Surah an-Nisa’ (4) Ayat 1]

“O you who believe! Keep your duty to Allaah and fear Him, and speak (always) the truth. He will direct you to do righteous good deeds and will forgive you your sins. And whosoever obeys Allaah and His Messenger has indeed achieved a great success.” [Surah al-Ahzaab (33) Ayat 70-71]

It proceeds then: That the most truthful speech is that of Allaah’s Book (the Qur’aan) and that the best of guidance is that of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم). The worst of evils are innovation (foreign to the true teachings of Islaam). Every innovated matter (in religion) is a Bid’ah; every Bid’ah is a Dalaalah (misguidance), and every Dalaalah is in the Fire of Hell. The Qur’aan is the Word of Allaah. The Tafseer (Exegesis) of the meaning of the Noble Ayat (verses) of the Qur’aan is critical to the understanding of Islaam as a whole. The Qur’aan is explained by the Qur’aan itself (3) and by the Sunnah (4) of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم). The Salaf (5) not only transmitted the explanation of the Qur’aan, but laid down the foundations for Ijitihaad (6) and thus their way is the best and most reliable way of Tafseer. Philosophical and scholastic opinions dealing with the Word of Allaah produce confusion, alterations in the meaning of the texts and thus lead astray. The Muslim is called to follow the path of those who gained Allaah’s Pleasure. They are the Salaf, may Allaah make us follow their path in all matters of Islaam.

Considering the above, I have decided to bring closer the Salaf’s Tafseer in separate publications starting with the Tafseer of Part Thirty of the Noble Qur’aan. This is the second issue and it deals with the Tafseer of Surah an-Naazi’aat. I hope that this approach will be simple enough so that it will, Inshaa’ Allaah, benefit a board sector of the Muslim Ummah (Nation). I ask Allaah to accept this effort and make it beneficial for all those who read it and (or) distribute it.

 The Tafseer of Surah an-Naba’ (7)

 1 – “What are they asking (one another)?”

2 – “About the Great News.”

The disbelievers question the occurence of the Day of Reckoning. Allaah (SWT (8)) describes this Day as the one that brings Great News. Ibin Katheer (The eminent scholar of Tafseer) said that most likely this News refers to the Resurrection after death, based upon the fact that Allaah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) says about it in the next ayah (verse):

 3 – “About which they are in disagreement.”

Mankind are divided to believers and disbelievers regarding the occurence of this Day. Allaah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) warns those who deny it, saying:

 4 – “Nay, they will come to know!”

5 – “Nay, again, they will come to know!”

An emphasised and a confirmed warning for those who deny this Day that they will certainly come to know that the Day of Resurrection is true. Allaah shows His abilities to produce the Signs of this Day and He tells about its magnitude in the following verses so that the people contemplate and realise that Allaah, Who is able to bring about these Signs, is All-Able to bring life to the Dead as well as Resurrection. Allaah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) tells mankind about many aspects of His Ability and Power to create what He wishes. For those who under-estimate Allaah and His Greatness, there is a reminder, and for those who believe, there is an affirmation:

 6 – “Have We (9) not made the earth as a bed?”

7 – “And the mountains as pegs?”

To provide cohesiveness and stability to the earth. Modern scientific discoveries found that these pegs are driven into the ground like pegs used to anchor a tent.

 8 – “And We have created you in pairs.”

Males and females, tall and short, good and bad etc. Males and females lawfully enjoy each other (through marriage) and have children. This enjoyment is physical as well as emotional. it provides mercy and morally abiding friendship. Allaah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) says in other Ayah in the Qur’aan:

 “And among His signs is this, that He created for you wives from among yourselves that you may find repose in them and He has put between them affection and mercy. Verily, in that are indeed Signs for a people who reflect.” [Surah ar-Room (30) Ayat 21]

 9 – “And have made your sleep as a thing for rest.”

Sleep discontinues the motion at the end of the day. A resting time for human efforts seekins sustenance. This is just one other Mercy of Allaah,

 

10 – “And have made the night as a covering (through its darkness).”

The darkness covers you just as your garment covers your body. The “covering” night produces a quiet environment to reside in and to become still.

 11 – “And have made the day for livelihood.”

Allaah produced shining light in it (from the Sun) so that people can manage their affairs and function to produce their livelihood which He (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) has already ordained for each individual in appropiate measures. In another Ayah, Allaah says:

 “It is out of His Mercy that He has put for you night and day, that you may rest therein (i.e. during the night) and that you may seek of His Bounty (i.e. during the day), and in order that you may be grateful.” [Surah al-Qasas (28) Ayat 73]

 Who, other than the Creator of Day and Night can balance their respective course of time?

“Say (O Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)): Tell me! If Allaah made night continuous for you till the Day of Resurrection, who is a god besides Allaah who bring you light? Will you not then hear?” [Surah al-Qasas (28) Ayat 71]

 “Say (O Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)): Tell me! If Allaah made day continuous for you till the Day of Resurrection who is a god besides Allaah who could bring you night wherein you rest? Will you then not see?” [Surah al-Qasas (28) Ayat 72]

 12 – “And We have built above you seven strong (heavens).”

Seven, wide, high, firmly constructed, beautifully constructed, beautifully built without supporting columns. Beautified with stars, planets, the sun and the moon. The sun as a shining lamp:

 13 – “And have made (therein) a Shining Lamp.”

The “Lamp” illuminates the whole universe to provide light as well as heat allowing growth, energy, etc.

 14 – “And We have sent down from the rainy clouds abudant water.”

Allaah beautifully explains in another Ayah:

 “Allaah is He Who sends the winds, so they raise clouds and spread them along the sky as He wills, and then breaks them into fragments until you see rain drops come forth from their midst! Then when He has made them fall on whom of His slaves as He wills, lo! They rejoice!” [Surah ar-Room (30) Ayat 48]

The benefits of water are remarkable:

 15 – “That We may produce therewith corn and vegetations.”

Eaten by man and animals and used in various useful means.

 

16 – “And gardens of thick growth.”

With different fruits, fragrance, tastes, smells produced in one single piece of land! This is similar to another Ayah where Allaah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) says:

 “And in the earth are neighbouring tracts and gardens of vines, and fields sown with corn, and palm trees, growing out two or three from a single stem root, or otherwise (one stem root for every palm), watered with the same water, yet some of them We make more excellent than others to eat. Verily in these things are Ayat (signs, proofs, evidences, lessons) for the people who understand.” [Surah ar-Ra’d (13) Ayat 4]

All of the above Favours of Allaah are so vivid. How could the disbelievers make use of all of these bounties and yet deny the Resurrection? Then comes the realities: O! man don’t forget that there is an appointed term for everything:

 17 – “Verily the Day of Decision is a fixed time”

This time does not increase nor decrease nor it is to be postponed, and no one knows its specific occurrence except Allaah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala). He says about it:

 18 – “The Day when the Trumpet will be blown, and you shall come forth in crowds (groups).”

Each Ummah (nation) will come with its respective Imams, as Allaah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) says in another Ayah in the Qur’aan:

 “(And remember) the Day when We shall call together all human beings with their (respective) Imams (their prophets, or their Holy Books like the Qur’aan, the Torah, the Gospel, or their Records of good and bad deeds, etc.)” [Surah al-Isra’ (17) Ayat 71]

Imam Bukhari relates that Abu Hurayrah (RA) said that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said: “Between the two sounds of the trumpet there will be Forty.” Somebody asked Abu Hurayrah, “Forty days?” But he refused to reply. Then he asked, “Forty Months?” He refused to reply. Abu Hurayrah added “Then (after this period) Allaah will send water from the sky and then the dead bodies will grow like vegetation grows, there is nothing of the human body that does not decay except one bone; that is the little bone at the end of the coccyx of which the human body will be recreated on the Day of Resurrection.” (10)

 19 – “And the heaven shall be opened, and it will become as gates.”

Allowing the passage of descending angels.

 20 – “And the mountains shall be moved away from their places and they will be as if they were a mirage.”

This is similar to the saying of Allaah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) in another Ayah of the Qur’aan:

 “And you will see the mountains and think them solid, but they shall pass away as the passing away of the clouds. The Work of Allaah, Who Perfected all things, verily! He is All-Acquainted with what you do.” [Surah an-Naml (27) Ayat 88]

 

“And they ask you concerning the mountains, say: My Rabb will blast them and scatter them as particles of dust…” [Surah Ta-Ha (20) Ayat 105]

 “And the day We shall cause the mountains to pass away (like clouds of dust)! and you will see the earth as a leveled plain, and we shall gather them all together so as to leave not one of them behind.” [Surah al-Kahf (18) Ayat 47]

People think when they see the mountains that it mounts to something, yet it is nothing, and it will completely vanish without any remains.

 21 – “Truly Hell is a place of ambush,”

22 – “A dwelling place for at-Tagh’een:”

At-Tagheen: Those who transgress the boundary limits set by Allaah like the Kuffar (disbelievers), Mushriks (worshipping other than Allaah), hypocrites, sinners, criminals, etc.

 23 – “They will abide therein Ahqaba.”

Ahqaba (pl. Huqq’b) (i.e. for ages): One after the other forever as related by Qutadah, Al-Hassan al-Basri and other prominent scholars of the Salaf. Most of them mentioned that each Huqq’b is eighty (80) years.

 24 – “Nothing cool shall they taste therein, nor any drink.”

No cooling their hearts shall they find in Hell, nor a good drink to quit their thirst. That is why Allaah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) says:

 25 – “Except boiling water, and dirty wound discharges (i.e. pus, etc.)”

The dark fluid is a festering water from the sweat, tears and wounds of the people of Hell.

 26 – “An exact recompense (according to their evil crimes).”

Allaah is All-Just. His punishment is All-Just. They will be punished because:

 27 – “For verily, they used not to look for a reckoning.”

They did not believe that everything will return to Allaah and, therefore, they did not prepare for this Day.

 28 – “But they belied our Ayaat completely.”

The proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations together with the guidance shown to them by Allaah’s Messengers, were faced with rejection and denial.

 29 – “And all things We have recorded in a BOOK.”

Allaah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) had known all the deeds of His slaves and had written them all in a BOOK long before mankind was created. He decreed reward and punishment. There is no sin more grave than Shirk (setting up rivals with Allaah in worship). Those who commit Shirk have an ill opinion about Allaah. Justly, they shall receive an eternal punishment and that is Hell.

 

30 – “So taste you (the results of your evil actions): No increase shall We give you except in Torment.”

It will be said to the people of Hell: taste what you are suffering. We shall not grant you an increase except similar torment and so it shall progressively multiply. It is related that Abdullaah Ibin Umar, may Allaah be pleased with him, said: “Allaah did not bring down on the people of fire an Ayah more severe than this Ayah.” He said they will be forever in a state of progressive increase in torment, and Allaah is All-Just.

 What about those who fear Allaah and accept the Message of Tawheed?

Allaah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) describes in the following Ayat some of their conditions:

 31 – “Verily for the Mut’taqeen there will be success ( Paradise ).”

The Mut’taqeen are those pious and rigtheous persons who fear Allaah, worship none except Him (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) and do righteous deeds. They will end up in:

 32 – “Gardens and grapeyards.”

33 – “And young full-breasted (mature) maidens of equal age.”

There are young virgin women whose breasts are firm (steady on their chests) and not loose as the breasts of women of this life.

 34 – “And a full cup (of wine).”

Akrama (a great scholar of Tafseer) said that the wine of Paradise is clear. The resemblance to the wine is only in name. It does not cause any loss of conscious nor stomach pai and its taste and smell are good, unlike the wine of this life. In another ayah in the Qur’aan, Allaah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) says:

 “Round them will be passed a cup of pure wine; White, delicious to the drinkers, Neither they will have Ghoul (any kind of hurt, abdominal pain, headache, a sin, etc.) form that, nor will they suffer intoxication therefrom.” [Surah as-Saffaat (37) Ayat 45]

There are rivers of this kind of wine in Paradise :

 “Rivers of wine delicious to those who drink.” [Surah Muhammad (47) Ayat 15]

The wine of this world is prohibited because of its known evil effects on the individuals as well as the society. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said: “He who drinks wine in this world would be deprived of it in the Hereafter, unless he repents.” (11)

 35 – “No Falsehood shall they hear therein, nor lying.”

It is the place of peace, nothing in it is deficient. As Allaah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) says in the another Ayah:

 “No vain speaking will they hear therein, nor any sinful speech (like backbiting, etc.), but only the saying of Salaam! Salaam! (Greeting with peace).” [Surah al-Waaqi’ah (56) Ayat 25-26]

All of these Favours are from Allaah:

 

36 – “A Reward from your Rabb, a Sufficient Gift.”

37 – “(From) the Rabb of the Heavens and the Earth, and whatsoever is in between them, the Most Beneficient. None can dare to speak with Him (on the Day of Resurrection, except with His leave).”

Allaah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) tells us about His Greatness and Majesty and that He is the Rabb of the Heavens and the Earth and all that is between them. That He is the Most Beneficient whose Mercy encompasses everything. No one has the right or power to argue with Alaah about anything. He is above all creation. He may permit those who plead in truth and righteousness but only after His permission is granted as He (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) says:

 “Who is He that can intercede with Him except with His permission?” [Surah al-Baqarah (2) Ayat 255]

 38 -“The Day that the Ruh and the angels will stand forth in rows none shall speak except him whom the Beneficient (Allaah) allows and he will speak what is right.”

Ibin Katheer, May Allaah’s Mercy be upon him, mentioned sevens sayings about the meaning of the Ruh (Spirit): a) Jibreel, b) Speacial servants of Allaah other than the angels, c) The souls of the children of Aadam standing forth in ranks, d) Special creation of Allaah having the form of the children of Aadam yet they are not angels nor humans but they eat and drink, e) A special great angel, f) The Children of Aadam and g) The Qur’aan.

Ibin Katheer, supports the opinion that the Spririt may be the children of Aadam. Shaykh Muhammad Ameen ash-Shanqiti (may Allaah’s Mercy be upon him) in his famous book of Tafseer, known as Adwaa’ ul Bayaan (12) said that the evidence from the Qur’aan indicates that “the Spirit is the Special Angel Jibreel.” He cites as reference, the ayah about the descension of the angels in the Night of al-Qadar in the month of Ramadaan. Allaah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) says:

 “Therein descend the angels and the Ruh (Jibreel) by Allaah’s Permission with all decrees.” [Surah al-Qadr (97) Ayat 4]

The Ruh is Ma’toufah i.e. grammatically in conjuction with “the angels” in the above ayah, thus indicating that the Ruh is the Speacial Angel Jibreel, and Allaah knows best. May other Mufassir’roon (people of Tafseer) support the conclusion that the Ruh in the above ayah is Jibreel. Others limit the Ruh to a Great Special Angel (13). Ibin Jareer at-Tabari, in his Tafseer known as Tafseer at-Tabari (14) said that, “…the meanings mentioned (see above), yet Allaah knows best which one it is. There is no information that specifies that any particular one of these things (mentioned above) is the one which is meant in the ayah (#38, above), and that there is no supportive evidence (i.e. for any particular meaning). Ignorance about this matter is not, therefore, harmful.” Allaah knows best.

On the Day of Resurrection, only those whom Allaah permits to speak or intercede will do so. They will speak the truth which is the witnessing of the Tawheed of Allaah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala): There is no true God who deserves to be worshipped except Allaah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala).

 39 -“That is the True Day (they denied): so whoever wills, let him take a return to his Rabb.”

A straight return to Allaah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) by obeying Him in this worldly life.

 40 – “Verily! We have warned you of near Tormet, the Day when man will see that (the deeds) which his hands have sent forth and the disbeliever will say: ‘Woe to me! Would that I were dust!”

Allaah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) says in other ayah:

 

“And they will find all that they did, placed before them, and your Rabb treats no one with injustice.” [Surah al-Kahf (18) Ayat 49]

 “On that Day man will be informed what he sent forward (of his evil or good deeds), and what he left behind (of his good or evil traditions).” [Surah al-Qiyaamah (75) Ayat 13]

On that Day, the disbeliever wishes that he was mere dust in this worldly life and that he was not even created. This is when he sees the torment that Allaah had prepared for him and when he examines his deeds written and recorded by the angels. It is explained also that he wishes to be a mere dust when Allaah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) judges between the animal creation. There when Allaah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) will make judgement for the hornless sheep against the horned sheep. After which He (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) will order the animals to be dust and it changes to dust. When this happens, the disbeliever wishes he was dust (i.e. he was an animal)!

The meaning of this latter explanation was related in a Hadeeth by the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم): “The claimants would get their claims on the Day of Resurrection so much so that the hornless sheep would get its claim from the horned sheep.” (15)

 Summary

This Surah, the Great News, affirms the Day of Reckoning and provides a beautiful as well as a terrifying illustration for what happens on that Day. These are facts and ayah from Allaah for those who contemplate. May Allaah guide us to re-examine our stand in this life in relation to His decrees and aim to comply with command. Ameen.

Advice: Read the surah with family members, a friend, give a copy of it to someone around you and if you remember the person who compiled the Tafseer of this Surah…don’t forget to ask Allaah to forgive him.

The One in need of the Mercy of Allaah….Saleh As-Saleh

Footnotes:

1. Salla Allaahu Aleihi Wasallam: The Salaah and Salaam of Allaah be upon His Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم). The Salaah of Allaah upon Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم) is His praise of the Prophet to the angels who are close to (but below) Allaah, the Most High, who arose above His ‘Arsh (Throne) which is above the seven skies. The angels also praise him (صلى الله عليه و سلم). The Salaam is Allaah’s safeguarding of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) from defeciencies and any kind of evil. When the Muslims says Salla Allaahu Aleihi Wasallam, he invokes Allaah to grant Praise and Security to the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم). See Ibnul Qayyim’s Jallaa’ul Afhaam Fee Fadlis-Salaati-wa-Salaam ‘Alaa Muhammadin Kairil ‘Anaam, p.128. Published by Daar ibn Katheer, Damascus , and Maktabat Daar At-Turaath, Al-Madeenah, 1408HJ/1988.

2. Rabb: Allaah is ar-Rabb: He is the One Who gave all things the power to grow, to move and to change, to Whom belongs the Creation and the Commandment, The Master Who has no equal in His Sovereignty, Predominance, and Highness, The One Who Provides and Sustains all that exists.

3. Some Ayat in some Surahs (Chapters) are clearly understood in light of other ayat in other parts of the Qur’aan.

4. Sunnah: includes the sayings, explanations, rulings, recommendations, advice, approvals, actions and teachings by the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم) pertaining to all matters of Islaam. The Sunnah is an Inspiration from Allaah as stated in the Qur’aan:

“Nor does he (Muhammad) speak of (his own) desire. It is only an Inspiration that is inspired.” Surah an-Najm (53) Ayat 3-4

5. Comprises the companions of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) and those who follow their path in understanding Islaam up to the Day of Resurrection.

6. Ijitihaad: Deducing the meaning of certain texts (or rulings) where there is no clear proof from the Qur’aan and (or) the Sunnah. The essentials of this Islaamic science is still based, however, on relevant texts of the Qur’aan and (or) Sunnah.

7. Say it is the Qur’aan that Allaah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) sent down to Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم) which calls mankind to the believe in the Oneness of Allaah (Tawheed) and informs about Death and Resurrection. The disbelievers disputed about Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم) and the Message that was Revealed to Him. They questioned: What is he reciting? where did he bring this Qur’aan. Some said it is magic, others said it is poetry and some considered it stories from the past! They asked each other many questions, including questions about the Day of Reckoning! Allaah Revealed: “What are they asking (one another)!” – THE GREAT NEWS.

8. SWT: Subhanahu Wata’la, Most Glorified & Most High, He is.

9. One may notice that sometimes Allaah Who is One refers to Himself by We or Us. This is not an indication of different “personalities” or “forms” of Allaah as it is the case in the Trinity concept of the Catholic Church. Allaah (God) is One. The use of We and Us is always associated with verses referring to Allaah’s Greatness in His Lordship e.g. Creation, Power, Might, etc… This is very common in the Arabic Language. a king issues orders or statements by saying “We” or “Us”. The Power and might of any king is imperfect. Allaah Glorification of Himself is Perfect because He is Perfect. In His address to mankind by calling them to direct their worship to Him, Allaah always refers to Himself by I, Me and Myself. All of this is well understood in Arabic and also in other Semetic languages. Even in English, there is the “Royal We and Us” as we hear it from statements by members of the Royal Family in England and elsewhere. To Allaah, however, belongs the Best Examples, Names, Attributes, and Actions.

10. Saheeh al-Bukhari (English-Arabic) V.6, Hadeeth #457, P.429, Published by Dar al-Arabia, Beirut , Lebanon .

11. Collected by Imam Muslim in his book known as Saheeh Muslim (English Translation by A.H.Siddiqui), V.3, Hadeeth #4969. See also # 4967.

12. Adwaa’ ul Bayaan (Arabic Text), V.9, P.16 Published by Maktabat Ibin Taymeeyah – Cairo .

13. This has been related to the great Sahabi (companion of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم)) Ibin Ab’bass as in the Tafseer of al-Baghawi (Arabic), V.8, P.317, Published by Daar Tayybah-Riyadh, KSA.

14. Tafseer at-Tabari, 30/23.

15. Saheeh Muslim, V.4, Hadeeth # 6252, P.1366

How are we Obligated to Interpret the Qur’aan? Shaykh al-Albanee

Imaam Muhammad Naasir-ud-Deen Al-Albaanee
“Kayfa yajibu ‘alaynaa an Nufassir al-Qur’aan” (pg. 35-40)
Al-Ibaanah.com

[ Here is complete book]

[9] Question: How are we obligated to interpret the noble Qur’aan?

[9] Answer: Allaah, Blessed and Exalted, sent the Qur’aan down to the heart of His Messenger Muhammad in order to bring mankind from out of the darkness of disbelief and ignorance to the light of Islaam. Allaah says: “Alif-Laam-Raa. This is a Book which We have revealed unto you (O Muhammad) in order that you may lead mankind from out of the darkness (of disbelief) into the light (of Islaam), by the permission of their Lord, to the path of the All-Mighty, the Most Praiseworthy.” [Surah Ibraaheem: 1]

And He placed His Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) to clarify, interpret and explain what is in the Qur’aan. Allaah says: “And We revealed to you (O Muhammad), the Reminder (i.e. the Sunnah), in order for you to explain to mankind what was (already) revealed to them, and so that they may reflect.” [Surah An-Nahl: 44]

So the Sunnah came in order to explain and clarify what is found in the noble Qur’aan, and it is (also) a revelation sent by Allaah, as He says: “And he (i.e. Muhammad) does not speak from his own desire. Rather, it is just revelation that is revealed to him.” [Surah An-Najm: 3-4]

Furthermore, the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “I was indeed given the Qur’aan and something similar to it along with it. It is imminent that there will come a time where a man who has eaten to his full will recline on his couch and say: ‘Stick to the Qur’aan. Whatever you find in it that is Halaal (lawful), then declare it lawful. And whatever you find in it that is Haraam (unlawful), then declare it unlawful!’ Whereas, whatever Allaah’s Messenger made unlawful is just like what Allaah made unlawful.”

So the first source that must be used to interpret the noble Qur’aan is the Qur’an (itself) along with the Sunnah, which consists of the Prophet’s statements, actions and silent approvals. Then after that, it must be interpreted using the interpretations (tafseer) of the people of knowledge, at the head of whom are the Companions of the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam). And the foremost amongst the Companions with regard to this subject (tafseer) is ‘Abdullaah bin Mas’ood (radyAllaahu ‘anhu). This is due to several factors, one being that he was one of the first to accompany the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) (i.e. accept Islaam), and another being that he (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) would give strong emphasis to asking about, understanding, and interpreting the Qur’aan. Then after him comes ‘Abdullaah bin ‘Abbaas (radyAllaahu ‘anhu), about whom ‘Abdullaah bin Mas’ood (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) said: “He is the interpreter (turjumaan) of the Qur’aan.”

Then after them, any Companion whose interpretation (tafseer) of an ayah can be authentically confirmed – and there exists no difference of opinion amongst the Companions regarding it, we accept this interpretation (tafseer) from him with full contentment, submission and reliance. And if no such tafseer can be found (from the Companions) regarding a particular ayah, then we take its tafseer from the Taabi’een, particularly those who specialized in studying tafseer under the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), such as Sa’eed bin Jubair, Taawoos and others who are well known for their studying of tafseer under some of the Companions, particularly Ibn ‘Abbaas (radyAllaahu ‘anhu), as we mentioned previously.

Unfortunately, there are some ayaat that are interpreted according to a certain opinion or madh-hab (school of Jurisprudence), and for which no direct explanation from the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) can be found. So because of this, some latter-day individuals relied solely on applying such ayahs according to their madh-hab in order to interpret them. And this is an extremely dangerous matter – where ayaat are interpreted in order to support one’s madh-hab and (personal) views – whereas the scholars of tafseer have interpreted these verses in a different way than the adherents of these madhaahib have interpreted them.

Perhaps, we should mention an example of this, which is Allaah’s statement: “So recite what is easy from the Qur’aan.” [Surah Al-Muzammil: 20] Some of the adherents of certain madhaahib have interpreted this ayah to refer to just the recitation itself, meaning: What is obligatory to recite from the Qur’aan in all of the prayers is just one long ayah or three short ayaat. They said this in spite of there being reported the authentic hadeeth from the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam): “There is no prayer for the one who doesn’t recite the opening chapter (Faatihah) of the Book (Qur’aan).” And in another hadeeth, the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Whoever performs a prayer in which he doesn’t recite the opening chapter of the Book, then it is deficient, deficient, deficient, and not complete.”

The basis of proof indicated in these two hadeeths is rejected by the afore-mentioned interpretation of the above ayah, which is that the ayah refers to the recitation of the Qur’aan in general. And according to them, it is not permissible to interpret the Qur’aan except with the Sunnah that came in mutawaatir[1] form – meaning it is not permitted to interpret the mutawaatir except with the mutawaatir. So because of this, they rejected the two previously mentioned hadeeth due to their relying on their opinion or madh-hab for the interpretation of this ayah.

In spite of this, all of the scholars of tafseer, past and present, have explained that the meaning of the noble ayah “So recite what is easy from the Qur’aan” is: “So pray what is easy for you from the Night Prayer (Tahajjud).” This is since Allaah mentioned this part of the ayah in connection to His saying (i.e. the complete ayah): “Verily, your Lord knows that you stand (to pray at night) a little less than two thirds of the night, or half the night, or a third of the night, and also a party of those with you. And Allaah measures the night and the day. He knows that you are unable to pray the entire night, so He has turned to you (in mercy). So recite what is easy from the Qur’aan.” [Surah Al-Muzammil: 20]

The last part means: “So pray what is easy for you from the Night Prayer (Tahajjud).” Therefore, the ayah is not in reference to what a person is obligated to recite specifically during the night prayer. Rather, (in this ayah), Allaah facilitates for the Muslims to pray what they are able to perform from the Night Prayer. This means that they are not obligated to pray what the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) used to pray, which was eleven rak’aat, as you are aware of.

So this is the meaning of the ayah. It is phrased in an Arabic style of “applying a portion, by which the whole is intended.” Thus, Allaah’s statement: “So recite” means “So pray.” The prayer is the whole, while the recitation (in prayer) is the portion. The purpose of this phrasing is to clarify the importance of this portion with respect to that whole. Another example of this is Allaah’s statement: “Perform the prayer from midday until the darkness of the night (Dhuhr, ‘Asr, Maghrib, ‘Ishaa), and (also) the (recitation of the) Qur’aan of Fajr (dawn).” [Surah Al-Israa: 78]

The meaning of “the Qur’aan of Fajr” is “the Fajr Prayer.” So in this situation also, the portion is applied but the whole is intended. This is a style in the Arabic Language that is well known.

So therefore, after showing the interpretation of this ayah from the scholars of tafseer, without there being any difference of opinion amongst the past and present from them, it is not permissible to reject the first and second hadeeths (mentioned previously), claiming that they are ahead, and that it is not permissible to interpret the Qur’aan with ahaad hadeeth! This is since the afore-mentioned ayah was interpreted by the statements of the scholars who are knowledgeable of the language of the Qur’aan. This is first, and secondly, it is because the hadeeth of the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam)(sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) does not contradict the Qur’aan, but rather, it explains and clarifies it, as we explained in the beginning of this discussion. How can this be when this ayah has no relation to the subject of what a Muslim is obligated to recite during prayer, regardless of whether it is an obligatory or recommended prayer.

But as for the two afore-mentioned hadeeths, then it is clear that they both are on the subject of a person’s prayer not being valid unless he recites Surah Al-Faatihah in it: “There is no prayer for the one who doesn’t recite the opening chapter (Faatihah) of the Book (Qur’aan)” and “Whoever performs a prayer in which he doesn’t recite the opening chapter of the Book, then it is deficient, deficient, deficient, and not complete.”

This means that the prayer is defective. So whoever finishes his prayer while it is deficient, then he in fact didn’t pray at all. And his prayer at this point becomes invalid, as is apparent in the first hadeeth.

So if this reality becomes clear to us, we must therefore feel secure with the ahaadeeth that come to us from the Prophet, which are reported in the books of Sunnah, firstly, and with their authentic chains of narration, secondly. And we must have no doubts or uncertainties about them due to some philosophical approach to the ahaadeeth, which we hear about in current times, such as:

“We only accept the ahaad ahaadeeth on issues regarding rulings, and not for issues regarding creed. This is since matters of creed cannot be established based on ahaad ahaadeeth.” [2]

This is what they claim! Yet we know for a fact that the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) sent Mu’aadh (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) to call the People of the Scripture to believe in Tawheed, and he was just one individual.

This brief discussion is sufficient with regard to this topic that I wanted to clarify, which is related to: How are we obligated to interpret the Noble Qur’aan?

May Allaah send His Peace and Blessings on our Prophet, Muhammad, his family, Companions and those who follow them in goodness until the Day of Recompense, and all praise is for Allaah, Lord of all that exists.

Footnotes:

[1] A Mutawaatir hadeeth is a narration that has been reported by a group of people that is so large that it is impossible to conceive that they conspired to lie regarding it.

[2] An Ahaad hadeeth is a narration reported by just one narrator. It is the opposite of Mutawaatir. A Mutawaatir hadeeth is a narration that has been reported by a group of people that is so large that it is impossible to conceive that they conspired to lie regarding it.

The Tafsir of the Last Two Ayat of Surat Al-Baqarah : Ibn Kathir

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

The Last two Ayah of Surat ul Baqarah

The Messenger (Muhammad ) believes in what has been sent down to him from his Lord, and (so do) the believers. Each one believes in Allâh, His Angels, His Books, and His Messengers. They say, “We make no distinction between one another of His Messengers” – and they say, “We hear, and we obey. (We seek) Your Forgiveness, our Lord, and to You is the return (of all).” (Al-Baqarah 2:285)

Allâh burdens not a person beyond his scope. He gets reward for that (good) which he has earned, and he is punished for that (evil) which he has earned. “Our Lord! Punish us not if we forget or fall into error, our Lord! Lay not on us a burden like that which You did lay on those before us (Jews and Christians); our Lord! Put not on us a burden greater than we have strength to bear. Pardon us and grant us Forgiveness. Have mercy on us. You are our Maulâ (Patron, Suppor-ter and Protector, etc.) and give us victory over the disbelieving people.” (Al-Baqarah 2:286)

The Virtue of These Ayah

From Ibn ‘Abbas ” who said:
“While Jibra’eel (Gibrael) ” `May Peace be upon him’ was sitting with the Prophet !, he heard the opening of a gate above him. So he raised his head and said: `This is a gate from the shies that has opened today, which has never opened before this day.’ So an angel descended from it (the gate). So he Jibra’eel ” said: “This is an angel that has descended to the earth, which has never descended except today. He gave Salam and said: ‘Receive glad tidings [Oh Muhammad ! with two lights which have been given to you, that have never been given to a Prophet before you: The Opening of the Book (i.e. Surat Al- Fatihah) and the end of Surat Al-Baqarah. Never do you read a letter from either of the two (Surahs) except that you are given it.( Which means that you are given its reward (i.e. the reward of recitation)) (Reported by Muslim) (Taken from Mukhtasar Sahih Muslim with Shaykh AI-Albani’s editing, p.553, Hadith no. 2094.)

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah said,

(Each one believes in Allah, His Angels, His Books, and His Messengers. (They say,) “We make no distinction between one another of His Messengers.”)

Therefore, each of the believers believes that Allah is the One and Only and the Sustainer, there is no deity worthy of worship except Him and there is no Lord except Him. The believers also believe in all Allah’s Prophets and Messengers, in the Books that were revealed from heaven to the Messengers and Prophets, who are indeed the servants of Allah. Further, the believers do not differentiate between any of the Prophets, such as, believing in some of them and rejecting others. Rather, all of Allah’s Prophets and Messengers are, to the believers, truthful, righteous, and they were each guided to the path of righteousness, even when some of them bring what abrogates the Law of some others by Allah’s leave. Later on, the Law of Muhammad, the Final Prophet and Messenger from Allah, abrogated all the laws of the Prophets before him. So the Last Hour will commence while Muhammad’s Law remains the only valid Law, and all the while a group of his Ummah will always be on the path of truth, apparent and dominant. Allah’s statement,

(And they say, “We hear, and we obey”) means, we heard Your statement, O our Lord, comprehended and implemented it, and adhered to its implications.

((We seek) Your forgiveness, our Lord) contains a plea and supplication for Allah’s forgiveness, mercy and kindness.

Allah’s statement,

(Allah burdens not a person beyond his scope) means, Allah does not ask a soul what is beyond its ability. This only demonstrates Allah’s kindness, compassion and generosity towards His creation. This Ayah is the Ayah that abrogated the Ayah that worried the Companions, that is, Allah’s statement,

(And whether you disclose what is in yourselves or conceal it, Allah will call you to account for it.)

This indicates that although Allah will question His servants and judge them, He will only punish for what one is able to protect himself from. As for what one cannot protect himself from, such as what one says to himself – or passing thoughts – they will not be punished for that. We should state here that to dislike the evil thoughts that cross one’s mind is a part of faith. Allah said next,

(He gets reward for that which he has earned) of good,

(And he is punished for that which he has earned) of evil, that is, concerning the acts that one is responsible for.

Allah then said, [mentioning what the believers said] while directing His servants to supplicate to Him, all the while promising them that He will answer their supplication:

(“Our Lord! Push us not if we forget or fall into error,”) meaning, “If we forgot an obligation or fell into a prohibition, or made an error while ignorant of its ruling.” We mentioned the Hadith by Abu Hurayrah, that Muslim collected, wherein Allah said, “I shall (accept your supplication).” There is also the Hadith by Ibn `Abbas that Allah said, “I did (accept your supplication).”

(Our Lord! Lay not on us a burden like that which You did lay on those before us (Jews and Christians),) means, “Even if we were able to perform them, do not require us to perform the difficult deeds as You required the previous nations before us, such as the burdens that were placed on them. You sent Your Prophet Muhammad , the Prophet of mercy, to abrogate these burdens through the Law that You revealed to him, the Hanifi (Islamic Monotheism), easy religion.” Muslim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said that Allah said, “I shall (accept your supplication).” Ibn `Abbas narrated that the Messenger of Allah said that Allah said, “I did (accept your supplication).” There is the Hadith recorded through various chains of narration that the Messenger of Allah said,

(I was sent with the easy Hanifiyyah way.)

(Our Lord! Put not on us a burden greater than we have strength to bear) of obligations, hardships and afflictions, do not make us bear what we cannot bear of this.

(Our Lord! Put not on us a burden greater than we have strength to bear.)

We mentioned that Allah said, “I shall (accept your supplication)” in one narration, and, “I did (accept your supplication),” in another narration.

(Pardon us) meaning, between us and You regarding what You know of our shortcomings and errors.

(And grant us forgiveness) concerning what is between us and Your servants. So do not expose our errors and evil deeds to them.

(Have mercy on us) in what will come thereafter. Therefore, do not allow us to fall into another error. They say that those who commit error need three things: Allah’s forgiveness for what is between Him and them, that He conceals these errors from His other servants, and thus does not expose them before the servants, and that He grants them immunity from further error.” We mentioned before that Allah answered these pleas, “I shall,” in one narration and, “I did,” in another narration.

(You are our Mawla) meaning, You are our supporter and helper, our trust is in You, You are sought for each and every type of help and our total reliance is on You. There is no power or strength except from You.

(And give us victory over the disbelieving people) those who rejected Your religion, denied Your Oneness, refused the Message of Your Prophet , worshipped other than You and associated others in Your worship. Give us victory and make us prevail above them in this and the Hereafter. Allah said, “I shall,” in one narration, and, “I did,” in the Hadith that Muslim collected from Ibn `Abbas.

Further, Ibn Jarir recorded that Abu Ishaq said that whenever Mu`adh would finish reciting this Surah,

(And give us victory over the disbelieving people), he would say “Amin.”

Some of the Benefits of Surah Al-Faatihah : Imaam Muhammad bin ‘Abdil-Wahhaab

Imaam Muhammad bin ‘Abdil-Wahhaab
His treatise “Ba’adu Fawaa’id Surat-il-Faatihah”
Al-Ibaanah.com

In the Name of Allaah, the Most Merciful, Bestower of Mercy.

[1] All praise is for Allaah, Lord of the worlds.

[2] The Most merciful, the Bestower of Mercy

[3] Owner of the Day of Recompense

These three verses contain three matters:

The First Verse: Consist of Love. This is since Allaah is the One who grants blessings, and the One who grants blessings is loved in accordance to His granting of blessings.

Love is divided into four types:

The First Love: The Polytheistic Type of Love: This applies to those about whom Allaah said: “And amongst mankind are those who take rivals apart from Allaah, loving them like the love that is due to Allaah…” up to where He said: “And they will not be able to get out from the Fire.”

The Second Love: Love for falsehood and its adherents while having hatred for the truth and its adherents. This is the characteristic of the hypocrites.

The Third Love: The Natural Type of Love: This applies to love for wealth and children. If such things do not preoccupy one from obeying Allaah or assist in disobeying Allaah, then they are allowable.

The Fourth Love: Love for the adherents of Tawheed (monotheism) and hatred for the adherents of Shirk (polytheism). This is the strongest handhold of Faith and the greatest thing a servant can worship his Lord by.

The Second Verse: Contains Hope

The Third Verse: Contains Fear.

“You alone do we worship…” meaning: “I worship You, O Lord, with what has preceded – i.e. the three things – with Love for You, Hope in You, and fear of You.”

These three things are the pillars of worship, and directing them to someone (or something) other than Allaah is Shirk (polytheism).

In these three things is a refutation against those who cling onto just one from amongst them, such as those who cling onto only Love, or cling onto only Hope or cling onto only Fear.

So whoever directs any of these three aspects to someone other than Allaah is a polytheist.

Amongst its benefits is:

A refutation against the three groups, each of which sticks to one aspect apart from the others, as is the case with those who worship Allaah with only Love. And as is the case with those who worship Allaah with just Hope, such as the Murji’ah, and those who worship Allaah with just Fear, such as the Khawaarij.

[4] You alone do we worship and in You alone do we seek assistance

This verse contains the Oneness of Allaah in the Worship due to Him and the Oneness of Allaah in His Lordship.

“You alone do we worship” contains the Oneness of Allaah in the Worship due to Him, i.e. Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah.

“And in You alone do we seek assistance” contains the Oneness of Allaah in His Lordship, i.e. Tawheed ar-Ruboobiyyah.

[5] Guide us to the Straight Path

This verse consists of a refutation against the innovators.

As for the last two verses,[1] then from among its benefits is that Allaah mentions the (various) conditions of the people. Allaah has divided them into three categories: (1) Those whom Allaah has bestowed His Blessing on; (2) Those whom have gained Allaah’s Anger; and (3) Those who are astray.

Those who have gained Allaah’s Anger are the people who have knowledge but no actions.

Those who are astray are the people who perform worship but no knowledge with it.

Even though the reason why this verse was revealed was with regard to the Jews and the Christians, it applies to everyone that characterizes himself with these attributes.

The third category consists of those who are characterized with knowledge and action. They are the ones whom Allaah has bestowed His Blessing on.

Another of the benefits derived from this surah is that an individual is freeing himself from any power or might since he is the one who is having the blessings bestowed on him. This surah also presents a complete awareness of Allaah and negates all defects from Him, Blessed and Exalted. The surah also contains a person’s aware ness of his Lord and awareness of himself.

This is since if there is a Lord, then there must also be one who is governed. If there is one who grants mercy, then there must also be one who is shown mercy. If there is an owner, then there must be that which is owned. If there is a worshipper, then there must also be one that is worshipped. If there is one that is guided then there must be one that guides. If there is one who bestows blessings, then there must also be one who receives the blessings. If there is one who obtains anger, then there must also be one who is angry. And if there is one who is astray, then there must also be one who leads astray.

So this surah consists of the Oneness of Allaah in His Worship and Lordship and a negation of deficiencies from Allaah. It also consists of the definition and pillars of worship. And Allaah knows best.

Footnotes:

[1] Translator’s Note: Meaning: “The Path of those upon whom You bestowed Your Blessing. Not of those who have gained Your Anger nor of those who are astray.”

Published: January 30, 2006

The Death of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) : Shaykh Safi ur-Rahmaan Mubarakfoori

From Ar-Raheeq al-Makhtoom

The Start of the Disease

On Monday the twenty-ninth of Safar in the eleventh year of al-Hijra, he participated in funeral rites in al-Baqee’. On the way back he had a headache, his temperature rose so high that the heat effect could be felt over his headband. He led the Muslims in prayer for eleven days though he was sick. The total number of his sick days were either thirteen of fourteen.

The Last Week

When his sickness grew severe he asked his wives: “Where shall I stay tomorrow?” “Where shall I stay?” They understood what he wanted. So they allowed him to stay wherever he wished. He moved to ‘Aishah’s room leaning – while he was walking – on al-Fadl bin al-‘Abbas and ‘Alî bin Abî Tâlib. Head banded as he was, he dragged his feet till he came into her abode. It was there that he spent the last week of his life.

During that period, ‘Aishah used to recite al-Mu’awwidhat (Chapters 113 and 114 of the Qur’ân) and other supplications which he has already taught her.

Five days before death

On Wednesday, five days before he died the Prophet’s temperature rose so high signalling the severness of his disease. He fainted and suffered from pain. “Pour out on me seven Qirab (water skin pots) of various water wells so that I may go out to meet people and talk to them.” So they seated him in a container (usually used for washing) and poured out water on him till he said: “That is enough. That is enough.”

Then he felt well enough to enter the Mosque. He entered it band-headed, sat on the pulpit and made a speech to the people who were gathering together around him. He said: “The curse of Allâh falls upon the Jews and Christians for they have made their Prophets’ tombs places of worship.” [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 1/62; Muatta’ Imâm Malik, p.360] Then he said: “Do not make my tomb a worshipped idol.” [Muatta’ Imâm Malik, p.65]

Then he offered himself and invited the people to repay any injuries he might have inflicted on them, saying:

“He whom I have ever lashed his back, I offer him my back so that he may avenge himself on me. He whom I have ever blasphemed his honour, here I am offering my honour so that he may avenge himself.”

Then he descended, and performed the noon prayer. Again he returned to the pulpit and sat on it. He resumed his first speech about enmity and some other things. A man then said: “You owe me three Dirhams.” The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “Fadl, pay him the money.” He went on saying:

“I admonish you to be good to Al-Ansar (the Helpers). They are my family and with them I found shelter. They have acquitted themselves credibly of the responsibility that fell upon them and now there remains what you have to do. You should fully acknowledge and appreciate the favour that they have shown, and should overlook their faults.”

In another version: “The number of believers would increase, but the number of Helpers would decrease to the extent that they would be among men as salt in the food. So he who from among you occupies a position of responsibility and is powerful enough to do harm or good to the people, he should frilly acknowledge and appreciate the favour that these benefactors have shown and overlook their faults.”

And said: “Allâh, the Great, has given a slave of His the opportunity to make a choice between whatever he desires of Allâh’s provisions in this world, and what He keeps for him in the world, but he has opted for the latter.”

Abû Sa’id Al-Khudri said: “Upon hearing that, Abû Bakr cried and said: ‘We sacrifice our fathers and mothers for your sake.’ We wondered why Abû Bakr said such a thing. People said: ‘Look at that old man! The Messenger of Allâh says about a slave of Allâh who was granted the right between the best fortunes of this world and the bounty of Allâh in the Hereafter, but he says: We sacrifice our fathers and mothers for your sake!’ It was later on that we realized what he had aimed at. The Messenger of Allâh was the slave informed to choose. We also acknowledged that Abû Bakr was the most learned among us.” [Mishkat Al-Masabih, 2/546]

Then the Messenger of Allâh said:

“The fellow I feel most secure in his company is Abû Bakr. If I were to make friendship with any other one than Allah, I would have Abû Bakr a bosom friend of mine. For him I feel affection and brotherhood of Islam. No gate shall be kept open in the Mosque except that of Abû Bakr’s.” [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 1/22,429,449, 2/638; Misbkat Al-Masabih, 2/548]

Four days before his death

On Thursday, four days before the death of the Messenger of Allâh he said to people — though he was suffering from a severe pain:

“Come here. I will cause you to write something so that you will never fall into error.” Upon this ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab said: “The Prophet of Allâh is suffering from acute pain and you have the Qur’an with you; the Book of Allâh is sufficient unto you.” Others however wanted the writing to be made. When Muhammad heard them debating over it, he ordered them to go away and leave him alone. [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 2/637]

That day he recommended three things:

1. Jews, Christians and polytheists should be expelled out of Arabia .
2. He recommended that delegations should be honoured and entertained, in a way similar to the one he used to do.
3. As for the third — the narrator said that he had forgotten it. It could have been adherence to the Holy Book and the Sunnah. It was likely to be the accomplishment and the mobilization of Osamah’s army, or it could have been performance of prayers and being attentive to slaves.

In spite of the strain of disease and suffering from pain, the Prophet used to lead all the prayers till that Thursday — four days before he died. On that day he led the sunset prayer and recited:

“By the winds (or angels or the Messengers of Allah) sent forth one after another.” [77:1] [Misbkat Al-Masabih, 1/102]

In the evening he grew so sick that he could not overcome the strain of disease or go out to enter the Mosque. ‘Aishah said: The Prophet asked: “Have the people performed the prayer?” “No. They haven’t. They are waiting for you.” “Put some water in the washing pot.” Said he. We did what he ordered. So he washed and wanted to stand up, but he fainted. When he came round he asked again “Have the people prayed?” Then the sequence of events took place again and again for the second and the third times from the time he washed to the time he fainted after his attempts to stand up. Therefore he sent to Abû Bakr to lead the prayer himself. Abû Bakr then led the prayer during those days [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 1/99]. They were seventeen prayers in the lifetime of Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

Three or four times ‘Aishah talked to the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to exempt Abû Bakr from leadership in prayer lest people should despair of him, but he refused and said: “You (women) are like the women who tried to entice Joseph (Yusuf) into immorality. Convey my request to Abû Bakr to lead the prayer.”

A Day or Two prior to Death

On Saturday or on Sunday, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam felt that he was well enough to perform the prayer; so he went out leaning on two men in order to perform the noon prayer. Abû Bakr, who was then about to lead the prayer withdrew when he saw him coming; but the Prophet made him a gesture to stay where he was and said: “Seat me next to him.” They seated him on the left hand side of Abû Bakr. The Prophet led the prayer, and Abû Bakr followed him and raised his voice at every ‘Allâhu Akbar’ (i.e. Allâh is the Greatest) the Prophet said, so that the people may hear clearly. [Sahîh al-Bukhârî 1/98,99]

A Day before his Death

On Sunday, a day before he died, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam set his slaves free, paid as a charity the seven Dinars he owned and gave his weapons as a present to the Muslims. So when night fell ‘Aishah had to borrow some oil from her neighbour to light her oil-lantern. Even his armour was mortgaged as a security with a Jew for thirty Sa’ (a cubic measure) of barley.

The Last Day Alive

In a narration by Anas bin Malik, he said: “While the Muslims were performing the dawn prayer on Monday — led by Abû Bakr, they were surprised to see the Messenger of Allâh raising the curtain of ‘Aishah’s room. He looked at them while they were praying aligned properly and smiled cheerfully. Seeing him, Abû Bakr withdrew to join the lines and give way to him to lead the prayer. For he thought that the Prophet wanted to go out and pray.” Anas said: “The Muslims, who were praying, were so delighted that they were almost too enraptured at their prayers. The Messenger of Allâh made them a gesture to continue their prayer, went into the room and drew down the curtain.” [ibid. 21640]

The Messenger of Allâh sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not live for the next prayer time.

When it was daytime, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam called Fatimah and told her something in a secret voice that made her cry. Then he whispered to her something else which made her laugh. ‘Aishah enquired from her after the Prophet’s death, as to this weeping and laughing to which Fatimah replied:

“The first time he disclosed to me that he would not recover from his illness and I wept. Then he told me that I would be the first of his family to join him, so I laughed.” [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 2/638]

He gave Fatimah glad tidings that she would become the lady of all women of the world [Rahmat-ul-lil’alameen, 1/282]. Fatimah witnessed the great pain that afflicted her father. So she said: “What great pain my father is in!”. To these words, the Prophet remarked:

“He will not suffer any more when today is over.” [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 2/641]

He asked that Al-Hasan and Al-Husain be brought to him. He kissed them and recommended that they be looked after. He asked to see his wives. They were brought to him. He preached them and told them to remember Allah. Pain grew so much severe that the trace of poison he had at Khaibar came to light. It was so sore that he said to ‘Aishah: “I still feel the painful effect of that food I tasted at Khaibar. I feel as if death is approaching.” [ibid, 2/637] He ordered the people to perform the prayers and be attentive to slaves. He repeated it several times. [ibid. 2/637]

The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam breathes his last

When the pangs of death started, ‘Aishah leant him against her. She used to say: One of Allah’s bounties upon me is that the Messenger of Allâh died in my house, while I am still alive. He died between my chest and neck while he was leaning against me. Allâh has mixed his saliva with mine at his death. For ‘Abdur Rahman – the son of Abû Bakr – came in with a Siwak (i.e. the root of a desert plant used for brushing teeth) in his hand, while I was leaning the Messenger of Allâh against me. I noticed that he was looking at the Siwak, so I asked him – for I knew that he wanted it — “Would you like me to take it for you?” He nodded in agreement. I took it and gave it to him. As it was too hard for him, I asked him “Shall I soften it for you?” He nodded in agreement. So I softened it with my saliva and he passed it (on his teeth).

In another version it is said: “So he brushed (Istanna) his teeth as nice as he could.” There was a water container (Rakwa) available at his hand with some water in. He put his hand in it and wiped his face with it and said:

“There is no god but Allah. Death is full of agonies.” [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 2/640]

As soon as he had finished his Siwak, brushing, he raised his hand or finger up, looked upwards to the ceiling and moved his lips. So ‘Aishah listened to him. She heard him say: “With those on whom You have bestowed Your Grace with the Prophets and the Truthful ones (As-Siddeeqeen), the martyrs and the good doers. O Allâh, forgive me and have mercy upon me and join me to the Companionship on high.” [ibid, 2/638-641] Then at intervals he uttered these words: “The most exalted Companionship on high. To Allâh we turn and to Him we turn back for help and last abode.” This event took place at high morning time on Monday, the twelfth of Rabi’ al-Awwal, in the eleventh year of Al-Hijrah. He was sixty-three years and four days old when he died.

The Companions’ concern over the Prophet’s Death

The great (loss) news was soon known by everybody in Madinah. Dark grief spread on all areas and hoirizons of Madinah. Anas said: “I have never witnessed a day better or brighter than that day on which the Messenger of Allâh sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam came to us; and I have never witnessed a more awful or darker day than that one on which the Messenger of Allâh died on.” [Mishkat-ul-Masabih, 2/547]

When he died, Fatimah said: “O Father, whom his Lord responded to his supplication! O Father, whose abode is Paradise . O Father, whom I announce his death to Gabriel.” [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 2/641]

‘Umar’s Attitude

‘Umar, who was so stunned that he almost lost consciousness and stood before people addressing them: “Some of the hypocrites claim that the Messenger of Allâh sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam died. The Messenger of Allâh did not die, but went to his Lord in the same way as Moses bin ‘Imran did. He stayed away for forty nights, but finally came back though they said he had been dead. By Allah, the Messenger of Allâh will come back and he will cut of the hands and legs of those who claim his death.” [Ibn Hisham, 2/655]

Abû Bakr’s Attitude

Abû Bakr left his house at As-Sunh and came forth to the Mosque on a mare-back. At the Mosque, he dismounted and entered. He talked to nobody but went on till he entered ‘Aishah’s abode, and went directly to where the Messenger of Allâh sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was. The Prophet was covered with a Yemeni mantle. He uncovered his face and tended down, kissed him and cried. Then he said: “I sacrifice my father and mother for your sake. Allah, verily, will not cause you to die twice. You have just experienced the death that Allâh had ordained.”

Then he went out and found ‘Umar talking to people. He said: “‘Umar, be seated.” ‘Umar refused to do so. People parted ‘Umar and came towards Abû Bakr, who started a speech saying:

“And now, he who worships Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Muhammad is dead now. But he who worships Allah, He is Ever Living and He never dies. Allâh says: ‘Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is no more than a Messenger, and indeed (many) Messengers have passed away before him. If he dies or is killed, will you then turn back on your heels (as disbelievers)? And he who turns back on his heels, not the least harm will he do to Allâh, and Allâh will give reward to those who are grateful.’ ” [3:144]

Ibn ‘Abbas said: “By Allâh it sounded as if people had never heard such a Qur’aanic verse till Abû Bakr recited it as a reminder. So people started reciting it till there was no man who did not recite it.”

Ibn Al-Musaiyab said that ‘Umar had said: “By Allâh as soon as I heard Abû Bakr say it, I fell down to the ground. I felt as if my legs had been unable to carry me so I collapsed when I heard him say it. Only then did I realize that Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had really died.” [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 2/640,641]

Burial and Farewell Preparations to his Honourable Body

Dispute about who would succeed him broke out even before having the Messenger of Allah’s body prepared for burial. Lots of arguments, discussions, dialogues took place between the Helpers and Emigrants in the roofed passage (portico) of Barn Sa’ida. Finally they acknowledged Abû Bakr (RA) as a caliph. They spent the whole Monday there till it was night. People were so busy with their arguments that it was late night — just about dawn of Tuesday — yet his blessed body was still lying on his bed covered with an inked-garment. He was locked in the room.

On Tuesday, his body was washed with his clothes on. He was washed by Al-’Abbas, ‘Alî, Al-Fadl and Qathm — the two sons of Al-’Abbas, as well as Shaqran — the Messenger’s freed slave, Osamah bin Zaid and Aws bin Khauli. Al-’Abbas, Al-Fadi and Qathm turned his body round, whereas Osamah and Shaqran poured out water. ‘Alî washed him and Aws leant him against his chest.

They shrouded him in three white Sahooli cotton cloth which had neither a headcloth [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 1/169, Sahîh Muslim, 1/306] nor a casing and inserted him in.

A sort of disagreement arose with regard to a burial place. Abû Bakr said: “I heard the Messenger of Allâh say: ‘A dead Prophet is buried where he dies.’” So Abû Talhah lifted the bed on which he died, dug underneath and cut the ground to make the tomb.

People entered the room ten by ten. They prayed for the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The first to pray for him were people of his clan. Then the Emigrants, then the Helpers. Women prayed for him after men. The young were the last to pray.

This process took Tuesday long and Wednesday night (i.e. the night which precedes Wednesday morning). ‘Aishah said: “We did not know that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was being buried till we heard the sound of tools digging the ground at the depth of Wednesday night.” [Mukhtasar Seerat Ar-Rasool, p.471; Ibn Hisham, 2/649-665; Talqeeh Fuhoom Ahl M-Athar, p. 38, 39; Rahmat-ul-lil’alameen 1/277-286]

The Story of the Prisoners of the Battle of Badr : Shaykh Safi ur-Rahmaan Mubarakfoori

From Ar-Raheeq al-Makhtoom

On their way back to Madinah, at a large sand hill, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam divided the spoils equally among the fighters after he had taken Al-Khums (one-fifth). When they reached As-Safra’, he ordered that two of the prisoners should be killed. They were An-Nadr bin Al-Harith and ‘Uqbah bin Abi Muait, because they had persecuted the Muslims in Makkah, and harboured deep hatred towards Allaah and His Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam . In a nutshell, they were criminals of war in modern terminology, and their execution was an awesome lesson to oppressors. ‘Uqbah forgot his pride and cried out, “Who will look after my children O Messenger of Allaah?” The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam answered, “The Fire (of Hell).” Did ‘Uqbah not remember the day when he had thrown the entrails of a sheep onto the head of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam while he was prostrating himself in prayer, and Fatimah had come and washed it off him? He had also strangled the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with his cloak if it had not been for Abu Bakr to intervene and release the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam . The heads of both criminals were struck off by Alee bin Abi TAleeb.

The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam exhorted the Muslims to treat the prisoners so well to such an extent that the captors used to give the captives their bread (the more valued part of the meal) and keep the dates for themselves.

Prisoners of war constituted a problem awaiting resolution because it was a new phenomenon in the history of Islaam. The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam consulted Abu Bakr and Umar bin Al-Khattab as to what he should do with the prisoners. Abu Bakr suggested that he should ransom them, explaining this by saying: “They are after all our relatives, and this money would give us strength against the disbelievers, moreover, Allaah could guide them to Islaam.” Umar advised killing them, saying, “They are the leaders of Kufr (disbelief).” The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam preferred Abu Bakr’s suggestion to that of Umar’s. The following day, Umar called on the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Abu Bakr to see them weeping. He showed extreme astonishment and inquired about the situation so that he might weep if it was worth weeping for, or else he would feign weeping.

“It is not for a Prophet that he should have prisoners of war (and free them with ransom) until he had made a great slaughter (among his enemies) in the land. You desire the good of this world (i.e. the money of ransom for freeing the captives), but Allaah desires (for you) the Hereafter. And Allaah is All-Mighty, All-Wise. Were it not a previous ordainment from Allaah, a severe torment would have touched you for what you took.” [Qur’aan 8:67-68]

The previous Divine ordainment went as follows,

“Thereafter (is the time) either for generosity (i.e. free them without ransom) or ransom.” [Qur’aan 47:4]

Which included an area providing permission to take ransom, that is why no penalty was imposed. They were rebuked only for taking prisoners before subduing all the land of disbelief. Apart from this, the polytheists taken to Madinah were not only prisoners of war but rather archcriminals of war whom modern war penal law brings to justice to receive their due sentence of death or prison for life.

The ransom for the prisoners ranged between 4000 and 1000 Dirhams in accordance with the captive’s financial situation. Another form of ransom assumed an educational dimension; most of the Makkans, unlike the Madinese, were literate and so each prisoner who could not afford the ransom was entrusted with ten children to teach them the art of writing and reading. Once the child had been proficient enough, the instructor would be set free. Another clan of prisoners were released unransomed on grounds of being hard up. Zainab, the daughter of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam , paid the ransom of her husband Abul-‘As with a necklace. The Muslims released her prisoner and returned the necklace in deference to the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam but on condition that Abul-‘As allow Zainab to migrate to Madinah, which he actually did.

In captivity, there was also an eloquent orator called Suhail bin ‘Amr. Umar suggested that they pull out his front teeth to disable him from speaking, but the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam turned down his suggestion for fear Quraish should retAleeate in the same manner on one hand, and on the other for fear of Allaah’s wrath on the Day of Resurrection.

Sa’d bin An-Nu’man, a lesser pilgrim detained in Makkah, was released in return for setting Abu Sufyan’s son, a captive, free.

The Story of the 600-700 Jews Beheaded by the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam at Bani Quraiza in 5 AH

The Bani Quraiza was a tribe of Jews in a district of Madinah that betrayed the Muslims and sided with the enemy during the Battle of Ahzaab (also known as the Battle of the Confederates and the Battle of the Trench). The Sealed Nectar describes what happened to them immediately after the Battle of Ahzaab:

Archangel Gabriel, on the very day the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam came back to Madinah after the previous battle, and while he was washing in Umm Salama’s house, visited him asking that he should unsheathe his sword and head for the habitation of the seditious Banu Quraiza and fight them. Gabriel noted that he with a procession of angels would go ahead to shake their forts and cast fear in their hearts.

The Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam , immediately summoned the prayer caller and ordered him to announce fresh hostilities against Banu Quraiza, institued Ibn Umm Maktum as a ruler of Madinah, and entrusted the banner of war to Alee bin Abi TAleeb who marched towards the appointed target and came close enough to hear the Jews abusing the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam , who on his part set out at the head of three thousand infantry men and thirty horsemen of Ansar (Helpers) and Muhajireen (Emigrants). On their way to encounter the enemy, the afternoon prayer was due. Some Muslims refused to observe it until they had defeated the enemy, while others offered it in its proper time, as usual. The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam objected to neither. When they reached the habitations of Banu Quraiza, they laid tight siege to their forts. Seeing this terrible situation they were in, the chief of the Jews Ka’b bin Asad offered them three alternatives: to embrace Islaam, and consequently their life, wealth, women and children would be in full security, and reminded them that such behaviour would not be incongruous with what they had read in their books about the veracity of Muhammad’s Prophethood; to kill their children and women and then challenge the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and his followers to the sword to either exterminate the Muslims or be exterminated, or as a third possibility to take Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and his people by surprise on Saturday – a day mutually understood to witness no fighting.

None of those alternatives appealed them, so their chief, angrily and indignantly, turned to them saying: “You have never been decisive in decision-making since you were born.” The gloomy future already visible, they made contacts with some Muslims, who had maintained good relation with them, in order to learn about their fate in the light of the current circumstances. They requested that Abu Lubaba be despatched to them for advice. On his arrival, the men began to implore, women and children to cry desperately. In answer to their demand for advice he pointed to his throat saying it was homicide awaiting them. He then immediately reAleezed that he had betrayed the Prophet’s trust, so he headed directly for the mosque in Madinah and tied himself to a wooden tall pole swearing that no one would untie him save the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam , and added that he would never enter the habitation of Banu Quraiza in recompense for the deadly mistake he made. When the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was informed of this incident, he said, ” I would have begged Allaah to forgive him if he had asked me, but since he had tied himself out of his own free will, then it was Allaah Who would turn to him in forgiveness.”

The Jews of Banu Quraiza could have endured the siege much longer because food and water were plentifully available and their strongholds were greatly fortified, whereas the Muslims were in the wild bare land suffering a lot from cold and hunger, let alone too much fatigue consequent on endless warfare operations that had started even before the battle of Confederates. Nevertheless, this was a battle of nerves, for Allaah had cast fear in the the Jews’ hearts, and their morale had almost collapsed especially when two Muslim heroes, Alee bin Abi TAleeb and Az-Zubair bin ‘Awwam proceeded with Alee swearing that he would never stop until he had either stormed their garrisons or been martyred like Hamza (a former Muslim martyr).

In the light of this reluctance, they had nothing except to comply with the Messenger’s judgement. The Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ordered that the men should be handcuffed, and this was done under the supervision of Muhammad bin Salamah Al-Ansari while the women and children were isolated in confinement. Thereupon Al-Aws tribe interceded begging the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to be lenient toward them. He suggested that Sa’d bin Mu’adh, a former ally, be deputed to give verdict about them, and they agreed.

Sa’d meanwhile stayed behind in Madinah due to a serious wound he sustained in the Confederates Battle. He was summoned and brought on a donkey. On his way to the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam , the Jews used to exhort him to be lenient in his judgement on account of former friendship. Sa’d remained silent but when they persisted he uttered: “It is time for Sa’d not to be afraid of the blame of the blamers.” On hearing this decisive attitude, some of them returned to Madinah waiting for a desperate doom.

On arrival, he Aleeghted with the help of some men. He was informed that the Jews had agreed to accept his verdict about them. He immediately wondered if his judgement would pass on all the people present, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam included, turning his face away in honour of him. The reply was positive.

He decided that all the able-bodied male persons belonging to the tribe should be killed, women and children taken prisoners and their wealth divided among the Muslim fighters. The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam accepted his judgement saying that Sa’d had adjudged by the Command of Allaah. In fact, the Jews deserved that severe punitive action for the ugly treachery they had harboured against Islaam, and the large arsenal they have amassed and which consisted of one thousand and five hundred swords, two thousand spears, three hundred armours and five hundred shields, all of which went into the hands of the Muslims. Trenches were dug in the bazaar of Madinah and a number of Jews between six and seven hundred were beheaded therein. Hot beds of intrigue and treachery were thus exterminated once and for all.

Huyai, a chief criminal of war, a devil of Bani Nadir and Safiyah’s father, had joined the ranks of Banu Quraiza when Quraish and Ghatfan defected, was admitted into the audience of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with his hands tied to his neck with a rope. In audacious defiance, he declared obstinate enmity to the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam but admitted that Allaah’s Will was to be fulfilled and added that he was resigned to his fate. He was ordered to sit down, and was beheaded on the spot.

Only one woman of the Jews was killed because she had killed a Muslim warrior by flinging a grinding stone upon him. A few elements of the enemy embraced Islaam and their lives, wealth and children were spared. As for the spoils of the war, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam divided them, after putting a fifth aside, in accordance with Allaah’s injunctions. Three shares went to the horseman and one to the infantry fighter. Women captives were sent to Najd to be bartered with horses and weaponry.

After the war with Banu Quraiza had been settled and they had been defeated, Sa’d bin Mu’adh’s wish was gratified and he gave his last breath. In response to his supplication ‘Aishah narrated, Sa’d’s wounds began to bleed from the front part of his neck while he was in his tent which the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had pitched for him in the mosque so that he would be in close proximity in order to inquire about and watch his well-being closely. The people were not scared except when the blood flowed towards them, and in the Mosque along with Sa’d’s tent, there was the tent of Banu Ghifar. They said: O people of the tent, what is it that is coming to us from you? Lo! it was Sa’d’s wound that was bleeding and he died thereon.

Jabir narrated that the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had said: “The Throne of the Compassionate shook for the death of Sa’d bin Mu’adh.” When his bier was carried, At-Tirmidhi said: The hypocrites alleged it was too light. The Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam retorted: “The angels are carrying him.”

In the process of the sieze laid to Banu Quraiza, one man of the Muslims, Khallad bin Suwaid was killed when a women of the Jews dropped the grinding stone on him, and another, Abu Sinan bin Mihsan, the brother of ‘Ukasha, died.

Abu Lubaba stayed tied for six nights. His wife used to untie him at prayer times and then he tied himself again to the pole. One early morning, Allaah the All-Forgiving revealed a verse to the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to the effect that Allaah had turned to Abu Lubaba with forgiveness. The Muslims rushed to release him but he insisted that the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam himself do it. And this was done shortly before the morning prayer.

This Military Expedition took place in the month of Dhul Qa’dah in the year five Hijri (5AH), and the siege of Banu Quraiza’s forts lasted for 25 days. The Chapter of Confederates (Qur’aan, Surah 33)was revealed containing Allaah’s Words concerning the basic issues relating to the believers and hypocrites during the battle of the Confederates, and the consequences of the treachery and breaching of covenants by the Jews.

The Explanation of the Meanings of the Names of the Prophet – Ibn al-Qayyim

The Explanation of the Meanings of the Names of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) – Taken from ‘Zaad al-Ma`aad’ (1/88-97) of ibn al-Qayyim, rahimahullaah

Bismillaahir-Rahmaanir-Raheem

Know that the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) has been called by many names and titles in the Qur`aan and Sunnah, each one of them describing a special quality of this exalted personality. And in understanding them and reflecting upon them, we can, by the permission of Allaah, increase in our love and following of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam). This discussion is taken from ‘Zaad al-Ma`aad’ (1/88-97) of ibn al-Qayyim, rahimahullaah, summarised.

The names of the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) are of two types:

  • Those names that are specific to him and none of the Messengers before him had these names, like Muhammad, Ahmad, al-Aaqib, al-Haashir, al-Muqaffee, Nabi al-Malhama.
  • Those names and qualities that are not specific to him, and were shared by the Messengers before him, but are found in him in the most complete and perfect forms. Like: Messenger of Allaah, His Prophet, His Servant, Prophet of Mercy etc.

What follows is an explanation of some of them.

Muhammad: is a passive participle, whosoever is praised, possessing many praiseworthy qualities then he is muhammad. And Muhammad (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) is praised more than any other person, and this is why – and Allaah knows best – he was called by this name in the Torah, due to the many praiseworthy qualities which he, his religion, and his nation possess such that even Moses wished that he would be from them.

Ahmad: Derived, as is Muhammad, from the noun hamd (praise). A group of scholars said that it is a passive participle, meaning: his praising of Allaah is more than any other person’s praise of him, and therefore he is the most deserving of being praised and the first. So in meaning Ahmad is similar to Muhammad except that the distinction is that he is Muhammad due to his possessing many praiseworthy qualities, and he is Ahmad due to his being praised in a more excellent way than the praise of any other. And this is the most complete meaning of this word, and the most extensive in commending him (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam).

Also these two names stem from his character, and the praiseworthy qualities specific to him, and it is because of these that he is called Muhammad (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and Ahmad. And he is the one who is praised by the People of the Heaven, the People of the earth, the People of the world and the People of the Hereafter.

Al-Mutawakkil: (The One who puts his trust in Allaah). In the Saheeh of Bukhaaree from the hadeeth of Abdullaah bin Umru who said, “I read the description of the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) in the Torah: Muhammad is Messenger of Allaah, My servant and Messenger, I have called him al-Mutawakkil. He is neither rude nor harsh and he does not shout in the markets, and he does not return an evil for an evil, rather he overlooks and forgives. And I will not make him to die until I make firm the nation through him, causing them to say: there is none worthy of worship except Allaah.” {1}

He (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) is the most deserving of this name, because the trust he put in Allaah to establish the religion was a trust unequalled by any other.

Al-Maahee: (the destroyer/effacer). This has been explained in the hadeeth of Jubair bin Mut`am: “al-Maahee: the one through whom Allaah destroys and effaces unbelief.” {2}

Disbelief was not destroyed and removed by any single person as completely as was done by the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam). For indeed he was sent, and all of the inhabitants of the earth were in disbelief, except for some remnants of the People of the Book. Consisting of the worshippers of idols, the Jews who had the Anger of Allaah on them, the Christians who had been misguided, the atheist Saabi`een, the worshippers of the stars and the fire, and the philosophers who did not acknowledge the laws of the Prophets. And Allaah effaced them all through His Messenger until He established His religion and made it supreme over all others, and made it spread to the extent that the night and day spreads, and made his call as the rays of the sun in the various lands.

Al-Haashir: (the Gatherer). He is the one who gathered and united the people at his feet, and therefore it was as if he had been sent for this purpose.

Al-Aaqib: (The Last). He is the one who came at the end of the line of Prophets, and there is no prophet after him.

Al-Muqaffee: (). He is the one who was sent with the characteristics of the Messengers that had preceded him, and was their seal.

Nabi at-Tawba: (the Prophet of Repentance). It was by him that Allaah opened the door of repentance for the inhabitants of the earth [by them accepting his message], and Allaah forgave them with a forgiveness that was not given to the people before him. {3}

And the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) was the one who sought forgiveness from Allaah the most, to the extent that he would say, “My Lord forgive me and turn toward me, You are The Oft-Forgiving, The Oft-Returning” {4}, 100 times in a single sitting. And he used to say, “O people repent to Allaah, your Lord, for indeed I repent to Allaah 100 times in a day”. {5}

And likewise the repentance of his (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) nation is more complete than the repentance of all the other nations, the most quickest in being answered, and the easiest to be obtained. For the repentance of the previous nations was of the most difficult matters, to the extent that the repentance for the worshippers of the cow amongst the People of Israa`eel was to kill those worshippers. {6} But as for this nation, then from the Kindness of Allaah to it is that he has made repentance dependant upon sorrow and abstaining (from the sin in question).

Nabi al-Malhama: (The Prophet of Slaughter). He was the one who was sent with Jihaad to the enemies of Allaah, and no prophet before him did Jihaad to the extent that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and his nation fought Jihaad. And the like of the large wars that took place between him and the disbelievers were not seen before him. For his nation fought the disbelievers in lands to the ends of the earth.

Nabi ar-Rahma: (The Prophet of Mercy). He was the one whom Allaah sent as a Mercy for the universe. And Allaah was Merciful to all the people of the earth through him, both the believers and the disbelievers.

Al-Faatih: (the opener/conqueror). It was through him that Allaah opened the door of guidance after it had been closed, and opened closed eyes and deaf ears and sealed hearts. And through him Allaah conquered the lands of the disbelievers, and opened the doors of Paradise, and opened through him the ways of acquiring beneficial knowledge and righteous actions. And He opened through him both the doors of this world and the hereafter.

Al-Ameen: (the Trustworthy). He is the most deserving out of all creation for this name. For he is the trustee of Allaah of His revelation and religion. And he is the trusted one in the Heaven and in the earth. And this is why he was called al-Ameen before his Prophethood.

Al-Basheer: (the Bearer of glad tidings). He is the bearer of glad tidings for the one who obeys him of reward, and he is the Warner (an-Nadheer) of the one who disobeys him of punishment.

And Allaah called him his servant (Abd) in many places in His Book for example, ‘Blessed be He who revealed the Furqaan to His servant’. {7}

It is established that he (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “I am the Master (sayyid) of the children of Aadam [on the Day of Judgement] and I am not being arrogant.” {8}

And Allaah called him an Illuminating Lamp (Siraaj Muneer). And all praise is due to Allaah, and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger.

FOOTNOTES:

{1} Related by Bukhaaree in chapter dealing with the tafseer of Surah Fath.

{2}The full hadeeth is, “I am Muhammad, and I am Ahmad, and I am al-Maahee through whom Allaah effaces disbelief, and I am al-Haashir through who the people are gathered at my feet, and al-Aaqib after whom there is no Prophet.” Related by Bukhaaree in the chapter dealing with the tafseer of Surah Saff

{3} For example, a person who enters Islaam shall have all his sins forgiven provided he does not persist in them while he is a Muslim.

{4} Related by at-Tirmidhee in the chapter of du`aa (no.3430) and it is saheeh.

{5} Related by Muslim in the chapter of Dhikr and Du`aa.

{6} See Qur`aan (2:54)

{7} Qur`aan (25:1)

{8} Related by at-Tirmidhee in the chapter ‘Excellence of the Prophet’ (no.3618) and it is saheeh.

Some of the Miracles of the Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi Wa sallam)

Source : Sahih Bukhari

A number of miracles were bestowed upon and performed by Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) to establish the proof of his prophethood. The greatest miracle bestowed upon him was the revelation of the Qur’an. The Qur’an is miraculous in a number of aspects: Its linguistic perfection and inimitability, its validation by recent historical, archaeological, and scientific discoveries, its prophecies and so on. Unlike the miracles of other prophets before him, the miracle of the Qur’an is eternal. Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) also provided us with a number of true prophecies.

Below are accounts of the some of the other miracles of Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) . Before reading these, it helps to know something about the Science of Traditions (Arabic: Ahadith), an exacting and comprehensive system developed by early Muslim scholars to verify the chain of transmission of these accounts, as well as investigating the trustworthiness and capability of every narrator at every level of the chain. This thorough authentication process ensures that these accounts are real, validated narrations of the sayings, actions, and tacit approvals of the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him).

The Traditions mentioned below are all from Sahih al-Bukhari, the most authentic collection of ahadith.

  1. Splitting of the Moon
  2. Food Multiplication
  3. Water Multiplication
  4. Supplication for Rain
  5. Lights to guide Companions
  6. Crying of the stem of the Date-palm Tree
  7. Glorification of Allah by the Prophet’s meals
  8. The explusion of a liar’s corpse by the Earth
  9. The Speech of the Wolf
  10. The Prophet’s Night Journey to Jerusalem and Ascent to the Heavens

Splitting of the Moon

“The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has been cleft asunder” [Qur’an 54:1]

Volume 6, Book 60, Number 388:

Narrated Abdullah:

The moon was cleft asunder while we were in the company of the Prophet, and it became two parts. The Prophet said, Witness, witness (this miracle).”

Food Multiplication

Volume 4, Book 56, Number 780:

Narrated Jabir:

My father had died in debt. So I came to the Prophet and said, “My father (died) leaving unpaid debts, and I have nothing except the yield of his date palms; and their yield for many years will not cover his debts. So please come with me, so that the creditors may not misbehave with me.” The Prophet went round one of the heaps of dates and invoked (Allah), and then did the same with another heap and sat on it and said, “Measure (for them).” He paid them their rights and what remained was as much as had been paid to them.

Water Multiplication

Volume 4, Book 56, Number 779:

Narrated ‘Abdullah:

We used to consider miracles as Allah’s Blessings, but you people consider them to be a warning. Once we were with Allah’s Apostle on a journey, and we ran short of water. He said, “Bring the water remaining with you.” The people brought a utensil containing a little water. He placed his hand in it and said, “Come to the blessed water, and the Blessing is from Allah.” I saw the water flowing from among the fingers of Allah’s Apostle , and no doubt, we heard the meal glorifying Allah, when it was being eaten (by him).

Volume 4, Book 56, Number 777:

Narrated Al-Bara:

We were one-thousand-and-four-hundred persons on the day of Al-Hudaibiya (Treaty), and (at) Al-Hudaibiya (there) was a well. We drew out its water not leaving even a single drop. The Prophet sat at the edge of the well and asked for some water with which he rinsed his mouth and then he threw it out into the well. We stayed for a short while and then drew water from the well and quenched our thirst, and even our riding animals drank water to their satisfaction.

Volume 1, Book 7, Number 340:

Narrated ‘Imran:

Once we were traveling with the Prophet and we carried on traveling till the last part of the night and then we (halted at a place) and slept (deeply). There is nothing sweeter than sleep for a traveler in the last part of the night. So it was only the heat of the sun that made us to wake up and the first to wake up was so and so, then so and so and then so and so (the narrator ‘Auf said that Abu Raja’ had told him their names but he had forgotten them) and the fourth person to wake up was ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab. And whenever the Prophet used to sleep, nobody would wake him up till he himself used to get up as we did not know what was happening (being revealed) to him in his sleep. So, ‘Umar got up and saw the condition of the people, and he was a strict man, so he said, “Allahu Akbar” and raised his voice with Takbir, and kept on saying it loudly till the Prophet got up because of it. When he got up, the people informed him about what had happened to them. He said, “There is no harm (or it will not be harmful). Depart!” So they departed from that place, and after covering some distance the Prophet stopped and asked for some water to perform the ablution. So he performed the ablution and the call for the prayer was pronounced and he led the people in prayer. After he finished from the prayer, he saw a man sitting aloof who had not prayed with the people. He asked, “O so and so! What has prevented you from praying with us?” He replied, “I am junub and there is no water. ” The Prophet said, “Perform tayammum with (clean) earth and that is sufficient for you.”

Then the Prophet proceeded on and the people complained to him of thirst. Thereupon he got down and called a person (the narrator ‘Auf added that Abu Raja’ had named him but he had forgotten) and ‘Ali, and ordered them to go and bring water. So they went in search of water and met a woman who was sitting on her camel between two bags of water. They asked, “Where can we find water?” She replied, “I was there (at the place of water) this hour yesterday and my people are behind me.” They requested her to accompany them. She asked, “Where?” They said, “To Allah’s Apostle .” She said, “Do you mean the man who is called the Sabi’, (with a new religion)?” They replied, “Yes, the same person. So come along.” They brought her to the Prophet and narrated the whole story. He said, “Help her to dismount.” The Prophet asked for a pot, then he opened the mouths of the bags and poured some water into the pot. Then he closed the big openings of the bags and opened the small ones and the people were called upon to drink and water their animals. So they all watered their animals and they (too) all quenched their thirst and also gave water to others and last of all the Prophet gave a pot full of water to the person who was junub and told him to pour it over his body. The woman was standing and watching all that which they were doing with her water. By Allah, when her water bags were returned the looked like as if they were more full (of water) than they had been before (Miracle of Allah’s Apostle) Then the Prophet ordered us to collect something for her; so dates, flour and sawiq were collected which amounted to a good meal that was put in a piece of cloth. She was helped to ride on her camel and that cloth full of food-stuff was also placed in front of her and then the Prophet said to her, “We have not taken your water but Allah has given water to us.” She returned home late. Her relatives asked her: “O so and so what has delayed you?” She said, “A strange thing! Two men met me and took me to the man who is called the Sabi‘ and he did such and such a thing. By Allah, he is either the greatest magician between this and this (gesturing with her index and middle fingers raising them towards the sky indicating the heaven and the earth) or he is Allah’s true Apostle.”

Afterwards the Muslims used to attack the pagans around her abode but never touched her village. One day she said to her people, “I think that these people leave you purposely. Have you got any inclination to Islam?” They obeyed her and all of them embraced Islam.

Abu ‘Abdultah said: The word saba’a means “The one who has deserted his old religion and embraced a new religion.” Abul ‘Ailya said, “The Sabis are a sect of people of the Scripture who recite the Book of Psalms.”

Supplication for Rain

Volume 8, Book 73, Number 115:

Narrated Anas:

A man came to the Prophet on a Friday while he (the Prophet) was delivering a sermon at Medina, and said, “There is lack of rain, so please invoke your Lord to bless us with the rain.” The Prophet looked at the sky when no cloud could be detected. Then he invoked Allah for rain. Clouds started gathering together and it rained till the Medina valleys started flowing with water. It continued raining till the next Friday. Then that man (or some other man) stood up while the Prophet was delivering the Friday sermon, and said, “We are drowned; Please invoke your Lord to withhold it (rain) from us” The Prophet smiled and said twice or thrice, “O Allah! Please let it rain round about us and not upon us.” The clouds started dispersing over Medina to the right and to the left, and it rained round about Medina and not upon Medina. Allah showed them (the people) the miracle of His Prophet and His response to his invocation.

Lights to guide Companions

Volume 1, Book 8, Number 454:

Narrated Anas bin Malik:

Two of the companions of the Prophet departed from him on a dark night and were led by two lights like lamps (going in front of them from Allah as a miracle) lighting the way in front of them, and when they parted, each of them was accompanied by one of these lights till he reached their (respective) houses.

Crying of the stem of the Date-palm Tree

Volume 4, Book 56, Number 783:

Narrated Ibn Umar:

The Prophet used to deliver his sermons while standing beside a trunk of a datepalm. When he had the pulpit made, he used it instead. The trunk started crying and the Prophet went to it, rubbing his hand over it (to stop its crying).

Glorification of Allah by the Prophet’s meals

Volume 4, Book 56, Number 779:

Narrated ‘Abdullah:

We used to consider miracles as Allah’s Blessings, but you people consider them to be a warning. Once we were with Allah’s Apostle on a journey, and we ran short of water. He said, “Bring the water remaining with you.” The people brought a utensil containing a little water. He placed his hand in it and said, “Come to the blessed water, and the Blessing is from Allah.” I saw the water flowing from among the fingers of Allah’s Apostle, and no doubt, we heard the meal glorifying Allah, when it was being eaten (by him).

The expulsion of a liar’s corpse by the Earth

Volume 4, Book 56, Number 814:

Narrated Anas:

There was a Christian who embraced Islam and read Surat-al-Baqara and Al-Imran, and he used to write (the revelations) for the Prophet. Later on he returned to Christianity again and he used to say: “Muhammad knows nothing but what I have written for him.” Then Allah caused him to die, and the people buried him, but in the morning they saw that the earth had thrown his body out. They said, “This is the act of Muhammad and his companions. They dug the grave of our companion and took his body out of it because he had run away from them.” They again dug the grave deeply for him, but in the morning they again saw that the earth had thrown his body out. They said, “This is an act of Muhammad and his companions. They dug the grave of our companion and threw his body outside it, for he had run away from them.” They dug the grave for him as deep as they could, but in the morning they again saw that the earth had thrown his body out. So they believed that what had befallen him was not done by human beings and had to leave him thrown (on the ground).

The Speech of the Wolf

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 517:

Narrated Abu Huraira:

The Prophet said, “While a man was riding a cow, it turned towards him and said, ‘I have not been created for this purpose (i.e. carrying), I have been created for sloughing.l” The Prophet added, “I, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar believe in the story.” The Prophet went on, “A wolf caught a sheep, and when the shepherd chased it, the wolf said, ‘Who will be its guard on the day of wild beasts, when there will be no shepherd for it except me?’ “After narrating it, the Prophet said, “I, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar too believe it.” Abu Salama (a sub-narrator) said, “Abu Bakr and ‘Umar were not present then.”

It has been written that a wolf also spoke to one of the companions of the Prophet near Medina as narrated in Fath-al-Bari:Narrated Unais bin ‘Amr: Ahban bin Aus said, “I was amongst my sheep. Suddenly a wolf caught a sheep and I shouted at it. The wolf sat on its tail and addressed me, saying, ‘Who will look after it (i.e. the sheep) when you will be busy and not able to look after it? Do you forbid me the provision which Allah has provided me?’ ” Ahban added, “I clapped my hands and said, ‘By Allah, I have never seen anything more curious and wonderful than this!’ On that the wolf said, ‘There is something (more curious) and wonderful than this; that is, Allah’s Apostle in those palm trees, inviting people to Allah (i.e. Islam).’ “Unais bin ‘Amr further said, “Then Ahban went to Allah’s Apostle and informed him what happened and embraced Islam.)” palm trees or other trees and share the fruits with me.”

The Prophet’s Night Journey to Jerusalem (Arabic: Israa) and Ascent to the Heavens (Arabic: Miraj)

Volume 5, Book 58, Number 228:

Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas:

Regarding the Statement of Allah”

“And We granted the vision (Ascension to the heavens) which We made you see (as an actual eye witness) was only made as a trial for the people.” (17.60)

Ibn Abbas added: The sights which Allah’s Apostle was shown on the Night Journey when he was taken to Bait-ul Maqdis (i.e. Jerusalem) were actual sights, (not dreams). And the Cursed Tree (mentioned) in the Quran is the tree of Zaqqum (itself) .

Volume 4, Book 54, Number 462:

Narrated Ibn Abbas:

The Prophet said, “On the night of my Ascent to the Heaven, I saw Moses who was a tall brown curly-haired man as if he was one of the men of Shan’awa tribe, and I saw Jesus, a man of medium height and moderate complexion inclined to the red and white colors and of lank hair. I also saw Malik, the gate-keeper of the (Hell) Fire and Ad-Dajjal amongst the signs which Allah showed me.” (The Prophet then recited the Holy Verse): “So be not you in doubt of meeting him’ when you met Moses during the night of Mi’raj over the heavens” (32.23)

Narrated Anas and Abu Bakra: “The Prophet said, “The angels will guard Medina from Ad-Dajjal (who will not be able to enter the city of Medina).”

Volume 5, Book 58, Number 227:

Narrated Abbas bin Malik:

Malik bin Sasaa said that Allah’s Apostle described to them his Night Journey saying, “While I was lying in Al-Hatim or Al-Hijr, suddenly someone came to me and cut my body open from here to here.” I asked Al-Jarud who was by my side, “What does he mean?” He said, “It means from his throat to his pubic area,” or said, “From the top of the chest.” The Prophet further said, “He then took out my heart. Then a gold tray of Belief was brought to me and my heart was washed and was filled (with Belief) and then returned to its original place. Then a white animal which was smaller than a mule and bigger than a donkey was brought to me.” (On this Al-Jarud asked, “Was it the Buraq, O Abu Hamza?” I (i.e. Anas) replied in the affirmative). The Prophet said, “The animal’s step (was so wide that it) reached the farthest point within the reach of the animal’s sight. I was carried on it, and Gabriel set out with me till we reached the nearest heaven.

When he asked for the gate to be opened, it was asked, ‘Who is it?’ Gabriel answered, ‘Gabriel.’ It was asked, ‘Who is accompanying you?’ Gabriel replied, ‘Muhammad.’ It was asked, ‘Has Muhammad been called?’ Gabriel replied in the affirmative. Then it was said, ‘He is welcomed. What an excellent visit his is!’ The gate was opened, and when I went over the first heaven, I saw Adam there. Gabriel said (to me). ‘This is your father, Adam; pay him your greetings.’ So I greeted him and he returned the greeting to me and said, ‘You are welcomed, O pious son and pious Prophet.’ Then Gabriel ascended with me till we reached the second heaven. Gabriel asked for the gate to be opened. It was asked, ‘Who is it?’ Gabriel answered, ‘Gabriel.’ It was asked, ‘Who is accompanying you?’ Gabriel replied, ‘Muhammad.’ It was asked, ‘Has he been called?’ Gabriel answered in the affirmative. Then it was said, ‘He is welcomed. What an excellent visit his is!’ The gate was opened.

When I went over the second heaven, there I saw Yahya (i.e. John) and ‘Isa (i.e. Jesus) who were cousins of each other. Gabriel said (to me), ‘These are John and Jesus; pay them your greetings.’ So I greeted them and both of them returned my greetings to me and said, ‘You are welcomed, O pious brother and pious Prophet.’ Then Gabriel ascended with me to the third heaven and asked for its gate to be opened. It was asked, ‘Who is it?’ Gabriel replied, ‘Gabriel.’ It was asked, ‘Who is accompanying you?’ Gabriel replied, ‘Muhammad.’ It was asked, ‘Has he been called?’ Gabriel replied in the affirmative. Then it was said, ‘He is welcomed, what an excellent visit his is!’ The gate was opened, and when I went over the third heaven there I saw Joseph. Gabriel said (to me), ‘This is Joseph; pay him your greetings.’ So I greeted him and he returned the greeting to me and said, ‘You are welcomed, O pious brother and pious Prophet.’ Then Gabriel ascended with me to the fourth heaven and asked for its gate to be opened. It was asked, ‘Who is it?’ Gabriel replied, ‘Gabriel’ It was asked, ‘Who is accompanying you?’ Gabriel replied, ‘Muhammad.’ It was asked, ‘Has he been called?’ Gabriel replied in the affirmative. Then it was said, ‘He is welcomed, what an excel lent visit his is!’

The gate was opened, and when I went over the fourth heaven, there I saw Idris. Gabriel said (to me), ‘This is Idris; pay him your greetings.’ So I greeted him and he returned the greeting to me and said, ‘You are welcomed, O pious brother and pious Prophet.’ Then Gabriel ascended with me to the fifth heaven and asked for its gate to be opened. It was asked, ‘Who is it?’ Gabriel replied, ‘Gabriel.’ It was asked. ‘Who is accompanying you?’ Gabriel replied, ‘Muhammad.’ It was asked, ‘Has he been called?’ Gabriel replied in the affirmative. Then it was said He is welcomed, what an excellent visit his is! So when I went over the fifth heaven, there I saw Harun (i.e. Aaron), Gabriel said, (to me). This is Aaron; pay him your greetings.’ I greeted him and he returned the greeting to me and said, ‘You are welcomed, O pious brother and pious Prophet.’ Then Gabriel ascended with me to the sixth heaven and asked for its gate to be opened. It was asked. ‘Who is it?’ Gabriel replied, ‘Gabriel.’ It was asked, ‘Who is accompanying you?’ Gabriel replied, ‘Muhammad.’ It was asked, ‘Has he been called?’ Gabriel replied in the affirmative. It was said, ‘He is welcomed. What an excellent visit his is!’

When I went (over the sixth heaven), there I saw Moses. Gabriel said (to me),’ This is Moses; pay him your greeting. So I greeted him and he returned the greetings to me and said, ‘You are welcomed, O pious brother and pious Prophet.’ When I left him (i.e. Moses) he wept. Someone asked him, ‘What makes you weep?’ Moses said, ‘I weep because after me there has been sent (as Prophet) a young man whose followers will enter Paradise in greater numbers than my followers.’ Then Gabriel ascended with me to the seventh heaven and asked for its gate to be opened. It was asked, ‘Who is it?’ Gabriel replied, ‘Gabriel.’ It was asked,’ Who is accompanying you?’ Gabriel replied, ‘Muhammad.’ It was asked, ‘Has he been called?’ Gabriel replied in the affirmative. Then it was said, ‘He is welcomed. What an excellent visit his is!’

So when I went (over the seventh heaven), there I saw Abraham. Gabriel said (to me), ‘This is your father; pay your greetings to him.’ So I greeted him and he returned the greetings to me and said, ‘You are welcomed, O pious son and pious Prophet.’ Then I was made to ascend to Sidrat-ul-Muntaha (i.e. the Lote Tree of the utmost boundary) Behold! Its fruits were like the jars of Hajr (i.e. a place near Medina) and its leaves were as big as the ears of elephants. Gabriel said, ‘This is the Lote Tree of the utmost boundary) . Behold ! There ran four rivers, two were hidden and two were visible, I asked, ‘What are these two kinds of rivers, O Gabriel?’ He replied,’ As for the hidden rivers, they are two rivers in Paradise and the visible rivers are the Nile and the Euphrates.’

Then Al-Bait-ul-Ma’mur (i.e. the Sacred House) was shown to me and a container full of wine and another full of milk and a third full of honey were brought to me. I took the milk. Gabriel remarked, ‘This is the Islamic religion which you and your followers are following.’ Then the prayers were enjoined on me: They were fifty prayers a day. When I returned, I passed by Moses who asked (me), ‘What have you been ordered to do?’ I replied, ‘I have been ordered to offer fifty prayers a day.’ Moses said, ‘Your followers cannot bear fifty prayers a day, and by Allah, I have tested people before you, and I have tried my level best with Bani Israel (in vain). Go back to your Lord and ask for reduction to lessen your followers’ burden.’ So I went back, and Allah reduced ten prayers for me. Then again I came to Moses, but he repeated the same as he had said before. Then again I went back to Allah and He reduced ten more prayers. When I came back to Moses he said the same, I went back to Allah and He ordered me to observe ten prayers a day. When I came back to Moses, he repeated the same advice, so I went back to Allah and was ordered to observe five prayers a day.

When I came back to Moses, he said, ‘What have you been ordered?’ I replied, ‘I have been ordered to observe five prayers a day.’ He said, ‘Your followers cannot bear five prayers a day, and no doubt, I have got an experience of the people before you, and I have tried my level best with Bani Israel, so go back to your Lord and ask for reduction to lessen your follower’s burden.’ I said, ‘I have requested so much of my Lord that I feel ashamed, but I am satisfied now and surrender to Allah’s Order.’ When I left, I heard a voice saying, ‘I have passed My Order and have lessened the burden of My Worshippers.”

The Prophet’s Battles, Armies and Expeditions : Imam ibn al-Qayyim

From “Zâd al-Ma’âd fî Hadyi Khayri-l ‘Ibâd”

All of the Prophet’s Ghazwat, Bu’uth and Saraya [1] occurred after the Hijrah, within a span of ten years. There were either twenty-seven Ghazwat, or twenty-five, or twenty-nine. The Prophet sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam had to fight in nine battles, Badr, ‘Uhud, al-Khandaqh, Quraidhah, al-Mustaliqh, Khaybar, al-Fath’ (Conquering of Makkah), ‘Hunayn and Tâ’if. It was said that the Prophet sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam also fought against Banî an-Nadhîr (a Jewish tribe) and at al-Ghabah and Wadi al-Qura, which was a suburb of Khaybar.

As for the Saraya of the Prophet sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the armies he sent, they numbered close to sixty. There were seven major battles: Badr, ‘Uhud, al-Khandaqh, Khaybar, al-Fath’, ‘Hunayn and Tabuk. [2] Several parts of the Qur’ân mentioned these major Ghazwat. For instance, Sûrah al-Anfâl (chapter 8) was revealed about Ghazwat Badr, while the last part of Sûrah ali-‘Imrân (chapter 3) was about Ghazwat ‘Uhud, from Allâh’s statement,

“And (remember) when you [Muhammad sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam] left your household in the morning to post the believers at their stations for the battle” [3:121],

until just before the end of the Sûrah. The beginning of Sûrah al-Ahzâb (chapter 33) was revealed about the battles of al-Khandaqh, Quraydhah and Khaybar. Sûrah al-‘Hashr (59) was revealed about Banî an-Nadhîr, al-Fath’ (48) about al-‘Hudaibiyyah and the battle of Khaybar. The conquering of Makkah was mentioned indirectly in Sûrah al-Fath’ and directly in Sûrah an-Nasr (110). He sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam was wounded during the battle of ‘Uhud. [3] The angels fought alongside the Prophet sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam during the battles of Badr [4] and ‘Hunayn. They also descended during the battle of al-Khandaqh [5], where they shook the Mushriks [surrounding Madînah] and defeated them. During that battle, the Prophet sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam threw a handful of sand at the faces of the Mushriks (Polytheists) and they fled [without a fight]. [6]

The Prophet sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam won decisively in two battles, Badr and ‘Hunain. He used al-Manjaniq (mongonel, or catapult) during on battle, at-Tâ’if, and took cover behind a trench during Ghazwat al-Khandaqh, also known as Ghazwat al-Ahzâb. Salmân al-Farsî radiallâhu ‘anhu suggested that the trench be dug in that battle.


Footnotes

[1] ‘Ghazwat‘, pl. for ‘Ghazwah‘, means battles. The battles that the Prophet sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam led himself were called, ‘Ghazwat‘, whereas the armies and expeditions he sent while remaining behind are called, ‘Bu’uth‘, pl. for, ‘Ba’th‘, and ‘Saraya‘, pl. for, ‘Sariyyah‘.

[2] All of which are mentioned in detail later on in, Zâd al-Ma’âd.

[3] Al-Bukhârî (3767) narrated that Sahl bin as-Sa’idi was asked about how the wound of the Prophet sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam was treated, and he replied, “‘Alî used to bring water in his shield and Fâtimah (the Prophet’s daughter and ‘Alî’s wife) used to wash the blood off his face. Then straw mat was burnt and the wound was filled with it.”

[4] Al-Bukhârî (3694) narrated that ‘Abdullâh ibn ‘Abbâs radiallâhu ‘anhu said that the Prophet sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam said on the day of Badr, “Here is Jibrîl, holding the head of his horse and wearing war armours.” Allâh sent the angels to strengthen their hearts of the believers and to aid them.

[5] Shaykh ‘Irfân said, “Allâh said in Sûrah al-Ahzâb (33:9), ‘O you who believe! Remember Allâh’s Favour to you, when there came against you hosts, and We sent against them a wind and forces that you saw not [angels during the battle of Al-Ahzâb (the Confederates, Ghazwat al-Khandaq (in 5 AH)]. And Allâh is Ever All-Seer of what you do.’

[6] Al-Bukhârî (2716) and Muslim (3277) narrated that Allâh’s Apostle sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam asked for Allâh’s wrath upon the Ahzâb, saying: “O, Allâh, Revealer of the Holy Book, and the One swift at reckoning! O, Allâh, Defeat the confederates. O, Allâh, Defeat them and shake them.”