Allaah bears witness that “Lā ilāha illā Huwa”. Likewise the Angels & the people of knowledge bear witness – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 27 Part A
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

So the proof for the shahaadah (testification) is:

شَهِدَ اللَّهُ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ وَأُولُو الْعِلْمِ قَائِمًا بِالْقِسْطِ ۚ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ

Allaah bears witness that none has the right to be worshipped but Him; and likewise the Angels and the people of knowledge bear witness. He Who maintains justice, none has the right to be worshipped but Him, the All-Mighty the All-Wise [3:18]33


[33]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

His saying, He the Most High, “He testified“: meaning He judged and He decreed and He informed and He made clear and He made it binding.

So bearing witness from Allaah revolves around these five meanings: judging and decreeing and and informing and clarifying and making binding. So the meaning of, “He testified”, is He the Perfect and Most High decreed it upon His servants and He calls them to know of it and He informed them and He made it binding upon them that none has the right to be worshipped except Him.

laa ilaaha”, (none had the right to be worshipped): this is a negating ‘laa’ which negates everything which is worshipped besides Allaah

illaahu”, (except for Him): this affirms worship for Allaah alone.

And the meaning of, “annahu laailaaha illaahu”, (none has the right to be worshipped but him): it means there is nothing that is worshipped rightfully except  Allaah the Perfect and Most High. As for those who are worshipped besides Allaah, then worship of it is false because of His saying He the Most High:

ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْحَقُّ وَأَنَّ مَا يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ هُوَ الْبَاطِلُ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْكَبِيرُ

That is because Allaah, He is the true God deserving all worship and those whom they call upon besides Him are futile and false and Allaah He is the Most High the Most Great [22:62]

He the Perfect and Most High testifies to His unity and the right to all worship and He is the most truthful One Who speaks and His bearing witness He the Perfect and Most High is the truest testification there can be because it comes from One Who is All-Wise, All-Aware, All-Knowing, he knows everything so therefore it is a testification which is true.

And the Angels“: they testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Him and they are a species of beings whom Allaah created to worship Him. They are honourable Angels, honoured servants, Allaah created them to worship Him. They declare His perfection night and day, and they never slacken. And also Allaah created them to carry out His commands in the creation, He entrusted them with implementing whatever He commanded, He the Perfect and Most High, from the affairs of the creation. So every Angel from them is entrusted with a duty. And their testification is a true testification, because they are people of knowledge, and of ‘ibaadah (worship) and of ma‘rifah (awareness) of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. And they are from the most excellent of the creation, along with the point of disagreement which is are the righteous humans more excellent than the Angels, or are the Angels more excellent than the righteous humans there being disagreement about that point.

And the people of knowledge”: they are of two categories: the Angels, and the second category are the Possessors of Knowledge from mankind. And the Possessors of Knowledge do not testify except with something that is true, contrary to the case with those who are ignorant people, for their testification is not counted. And every species from the creation of Allaah bears witness for Allaah of His Unity and that none has the right to be worshipped but Him. And this is a case of showing the honour and nobility of the people of knowledge since Allaah joined their testification along with His testification, He the Perfect and Most High, and with the testification of His Angels. He counted the testification of the people of knowledge from the creation, and this shows their excellence and their nobility and their status, and they are testifying to the greatest matter that can be testified to, and it is at-Tawheed.

And what is meant by the Possessors of Knowledge – are the people of knowledge of the Legislation (i.e. Islamic knowledge), not as is said by some people that people of knowledge means the people of industry and agriculture, so those people, it is not said about them that they are People of Knowledge unrestrictedly, because their knowledge is limited in scope and is restricted, rather it is to be said, “this person is knowledgeable about arithmetic, this person is knowledgeable about engineering, this person is knowledgeable about medicine”, but it is not said about them that they are the People of Knowledge unrestrictedly. Because this term is not used unrestrictedly except for the people who have Islamic knowledge. And also most of those people are people who have only worldly knowledge, and amongst them are atheists whose knowledge mostly only increases them in ignorance concerning Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, and in self delusion and in atheism as you can see today in the disbelieving nations, that they are advanced with regards to industries and with regards to agriculture, however they are disbelievers. So how could it be said that they are the People of Knowledge, those whom Allaah has mentioned in His saying, “and the Possessors of Knowledge”. This is not at all feasible.

And likewise His saying:

إِنَّمَا يَخْشَى اللَّهَ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ الْعُلَمَاءُ

It is only those who have Knowledge amongst His slaves that fear Allaah [35:28]

What is meant is the scholars of Islamic knowledge, those who truly know Allaah and who truly worship Him and who fear Him. As for those people, then most of them do not fear Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. Rather they disbelieve in Allaah and deny Him, and they claim that the world has no Lord and that rather nature brought it about and controls it, as is the case with the communists – they reject the Lord, the Perfect and Most High, even though they have worldly knowledge. So how then could we say – those people, they are the People of Knowledge? This is an error. So the term ‘Knowledge’ is not applied unrestrictedly except to its true people, and it is a noble title which cannot be applied to atheists and disbelievers, such that it is said, “they are the people of Knowledge”.

So the Angels and the possessors of Knowledge, they bear witness to Allaah’s Unity and sole right to worship. Therefore the saying of others besides them from the atheists and the people of shirk and the Sabeans, those who disbelieve in Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, is not counted. Those people, they are not counted, neither they nor their saying, because it is something contrary to the testification of Allaah and the testification of His Angels and the testification of those possessing knowledge from His Creation.

And His saying,Qaa’imam bil-Qist, (maintaining justice): this phrase is in the accusative case indicating a state along with, ‘He bore witness’ – meaning whilst establishing justice, He the Perfect and Most High. And the word, “al-Qist”, means al-‘adl (justice) – meaning Allaah the Perfect and Most High establishes justice in everything, and al-‘adl (justice) is the opposite of al-jawr (injustice), and He the Perfect and Most High is a just judge, nothing but justice comes from Him in everything.

Laa ilaaha illahu”, (none has the right to be worshipped but Him): this emphasizes the first sentence.

Al-‘Azeez-ul-Hakeem”, (the Almighty the All-Wise): these are two Names of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, comprising two Attributes from His Attributes, and they are al-‘Izzah (Might) and al-Hikmah (Wisdom).

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

The Meaning of Ad-Deen Al-Islam (The Religion of Islam), its Levels and Pillars – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 25 Part D & Lesson 26
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


The Second Fundamental Principle: Knowledge of the Religion of Islaam 

The Definition of the Religion (Ad-Deen)

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

الأصلُ الثَّاني: معرفةُ دينِ الإسلامِ بالأدلةِ

The second fundamental principle: knowledge of the religion of Islaam with its proofs.27


[27]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

The Shaikh, having finished explaining knowledge of the first fundamental principle, which was knowledge of Allaah the Perfect and Most High, with the evidences, he now moves on to explaining the second fundamental principle, and it is knowledge of the religion of Islaam with the proofs.

So therefore he said, “The second fundamental principle: knowledge and awareness of the religion of Islaam with the proofs.” Then he mentioned its definition and he explained its meaning and then he mentioned its levels.

And his saying rahimahullaah, “knowledge of the Deen of Islaam”. Ad-Deen – it means obedience, for it is said about a person, daana lahu, when he obeys him with regard to what he commanded, and he abandons what he forbade.

And the word Ad-Deen is used to mean al-Hisaab (bringing to account or reckoning), just as occurs in His saying:

مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ

The Sovereign Owner of the Day of Reckoning [1:4]

And it is said, “daanahu”, meaning he brought him to account, just as He the Most High said:

وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا يَوْمُ الدِّينِ

ثُمَّ مَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا يَوْمُ الدِّينِ

And what will cause you to understand what is the Day of the Reckoning? Then what will cause you to understand what is the Day of the Reckoning? [82:17-18]

Meaning: the Day of the Reckoning.

يَوْمَ لَا تَمْلِكُ نَفْسٌ لِّنَفْسٍ شَيْئًا ۖ وَالْأَمْرُ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِّلَّهِ

On the Day when no soul will possess any benefit for any other soul, and the whole affair on that Day will be for Allaah. [82:19]

His saying, “with the proofs”, meaning: knowledge of the religion of Islaam cannot be by way of blind following, or by way of conjecture from the person. The religion must be based upon proofs from the Book and the Sunnah. As for the person who does not know his religion, rather he just blindly follows the rest of the people and he is just a follower of whatever the rest of the people do, then this person does not know his religion as he should, and it is quite appropriate that when he is asked in the grave, that he should say:

هاه ، هاه ، لا أدري ، سمعت الناس يقولون شي ئا فقلته

“Haa, Haa, I do not know. I heard the people saying something, so I said it.”

[Reported by al-Bukhaaree (1338) and by Muslim (2870) in abridged form from a hadeeth of Anas radiy Allaah ‘anhu. The full version of the hadeeth is reported by Aboo Daawood (4753) from a hadeeth of al-Baraa’ ibn ‘Aazib radiy Allaah‘ anhu.]

So it is obligatory on a person that he should gain knowledge and awareness of his religion with the proofs from the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, and he will not know this except through learning.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

وهو الاستسلامُ له بالتوحيدِ، والانقيادِ له بالطاعةِ، والبراءةُُ مِنَ الشِّركِ وأهلِهِ

And it is to submit to Him with tawheed and to yield to Him with obedience and to free oneself from shirk and its people.28


[28]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

Al-Islaam is derived from, “aslama lish-shay”, meaning he submitted to it. As it is said in the language, “aslama nafsahu lilqatl”, (he submitted himself to being killed)”, meaning that he submitted to being killed. So a person did islaam of himself, means that he submitted to that thing.

So therefore Islaam is submitting one’s face and one’s purpose and resolve and one’s intention to Him, he the Mighty and Majestic.

وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ دِينًا مِّمَّنْ أَسْلَمَ وَجْهَهُ لِلَّهِ وَهُوَ مُحْسِنٌ وَاتَّبَعَ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا

And who is better in religion than one who submits his face to Allaah and he is the doer of the good which Allaah legislated and he follows the religious way of Ibraaheem, upright and upon his way, turning away from shirk [4:125]

بَلَىٰ مَنْ أَسْلَمَ وَجْهَهُ لِلَّهِ

Rather whoever submits his face to Allaah [2:112]

Meaning: he makes his deeds purely and sincerely for Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, and he yields to Allaah obediently and by choice and with desire and out of love.

Submitting to Allaah with tawheed”: and it is to single out Allaah the majestic and most high with worship, and this is the meaning of tawheed. So whoever worships Allaah alone without attributing a partner to Him, then he has indeed submitted to Him.

His saying, “And yielding to Him, He the Perfect with obedience“: regarding whatever He has commanded you with and whatever He has forbidden you from. So whatever He commanded you with then you do it and whatever He forbids you from then you avoid it, in obedience to Allaah the Perfect and Most High.

His saying, “and freeing oneself from shirk and its people“: freeing oneself means cutting off from and separating from and being far removed from shirk and from the people of shirk, such that you believe the falsity of shirk and keep away from it. And you believe in the obligation of having enmity towards the people of shirk because they are enemies to Allaah, the mighty and majestic, so therefore you do not take them as beloved friends and allies, rather you take them as enemies because they are enemies to Allaah and to his Messenger and to His religion so therefore you do not have love for them and you do not have love and alliance with them rather you cut off from them with regard to the religion and you distance yourself from them and you believe in the falseness of what they are upon so therefore you do not love then with your heart and you do not aid them with your sayings and your actions, because they are enemies to your Lord, and enemies to your religion so how can you have love and alliance with them when they are enemies of Islaam?

It is not sufficient that you submit to Allaah and yield to him with obedience but do not free yourself from shirk and nor from the people of shirk, this will not suffice, you will not be counted as being a Muslim until you have these characteristics:

  • Firstly: submitting to Allaah with tawheed.
  • Secondly: yielding to him with obedience
  • Thirdly: freeing oneself from that which opposes tawheed and that which opposes obedience and it is shirk.
  • Fourthly: freeing oneself from the people of shirk.

By actualizing these characteristics you will be a Muslim, as for if you miss out on a single characteristic from them then you will not be a Muslim. So in these three words the Shaikh summarized the definition of Islaam and how many a person does not know the meaning of Islaam because he has not learned this thing, and if it were said to him, “What is Islaam?“, he will not give you a correct response.


The Levels of the Religion 

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

وهو ثلاثُ مراتبَ: الإسلامُ، والإيمانُ، والإحسانُ 

And it is of three levels: Al-Islaam,29 Al-Eemaan and Al-Ihsaan 30


[29]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

The meaning of levels is ascending levels because we have said Islaam is of three levels, some of them being higher than others. The first level from the levels of the religion is Islaam, then after it comes eemaan, then after it comes ihsaan. So therefore Islaam is broader, and eemaan is something more restricted than Islaam, and ihsaan is more restricted than eemaan.

So the sphere of Islaam is wide, the hypocrites, they enter within it if they outwardly comply with Islaam and they outwardly display it and they outwardly adhere to it. If they pray along with the Muslims and they give the zakaat and they do the outward actions, then they are called Muslims and the rulings of the Muslims apply upon them in this world, so they have whatever the Muslims have and upon them will be whatever is upon the Muslims. However in the Hereafter they will be in the lowest depths of the fire because they do not have eemaan rather they just have outward apparent Islaam only.


[30]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

His saying, “Al-Eemaan“: this is the second level, and the people who have eemaan they vary in their levels so from them are Al-Muqarraboon (those who draw especially close through good deeds), and from them are Al-Abraar (the righteous ones). Al-Muqarraboon – they are the people of the highest of the levels, and Al-Abraar are lesser than them, and from them there are those who are the person who is one who wronged himself, and he is the one who commits major sins which are less than shirk. Then he is a sinful believer or he is a believer who is deficient in eemaan.

He the Most High said:

ثُمَّ أَوْرَثْنَا الْكِتَابَ الَّذِينَ اصْطَفَيْنَا مِنْ عِبَادِنَا ۖ فَمِنْهُمْ ظَالِمٌ لِّنَفْسِهِ وَمِنْهُم مُّقْتَصِدٌ وَمِنْهُمْ سَابِقٌ بِالْخَيْرَاتِ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ هُوَ الْفَضْلُ الْكَبِيرُ

Then we gave the Scripture as inheritance to those whom we chose from our servants. So from them are those who wrong themselves and from them are those who take a middle course and from them are those who are foremost upon good deeds by the permission of Allaah, and that is the great bounty [35:32]

His saying, “Al-Ihsaan”: this is the third level and it is Al-Ihsaan, and it is that the servant does well with regards to what is between him and Allaah, he does well in the worship of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. And the Prophet sallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam mentioned Al-Ihsaan:

الإحسان أن تعبد الله كأنك تراه ، فإن لم تكن تراه فإنه يراك

“Al-Ihsaan is that you worship Allaah as if you are seeing him and even though you do not see him then he certainly sees you”

[A part of the long hadeeth reported by al-Bukhaaree (50) and by Muslim (9 and 10) from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiy Allaahu ‘anhu]

Meaning: you have certain knowledge that Allaah sees you wherever you may be.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

وكلُّ مرتبةٍ لها أركانٌ

And every level has pillars.31


[31]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

His saying, “and every level has pillars“: pillars is the plural of a pillar, and it is that which something stands upon.

So the pillars of something are its aspects which it stands upon, and it cannot stand without them, and they are within the thing itself, contrary to conditions, for they are outside the thing. For example the conditions of the prayer then they are outside the prayer and come before it. And as for the pillars of the prayer, then they are inside it such as the initial takbeer of the prayer and the recitation of al-Faatihah, so if anything from them is missing, then the prayer will not be correct, just as if there was something missing from the pillars which hold up a building then it will not stand and will not be supported.


The pillars of Islaam

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

فأركانُ الإسلامِ خمسةٌ: شهادةُ أنْ لا إله إلاّ اللهُ، وأنَّ محمدًا رسولُ اللهِ، وإقامُ الصلاةِ، وإيتاءُ الزكاةِ، وصومُ رمضانَ، وحجُّ بيتِ اللهِ الحرامِ

So the pillars of Islaam are five, the testification that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah, and establishing the prayer, and giving the zakaat and fasting Ramadaan and performing Hajj to Allaah’s sacred house 32


[32]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

Islaam will not stand except with these pillars, if they are missing than Islaam will not be upright and the rest of the acts of obedience are matters of completion for these pillars. All the actions of obedience and all good deeds are all actions of completion of these pillars and therefore when Jibreel ‘alaihissalaam asked Allaah’s Messenger sallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam in the presence of the Companions saying:

أخبرني عن الإسلام ، قال : الإسلام أن تشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأن محمدا رسول الله ، وتقيم الصلاة ، وتؤتي الزكاة ، وتصوم رمضان ، وتحج البيت إن استطعت إليه سبيلا

“Inform me about Islaam. He replied: Islaam is that you bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah, and that you establish the prayer and that you give the zakaat and that you fast Ramadaan and that you perform Hajj to the house if you are able to make your way to it”

So he explained Islaam to be these five pillars, however the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Umar makes it clear that these five are the foundations of Islaam so he sallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

بني الإسلام على خمس

“Islaam is built upon five” 

[Reported by al-Bukhaaree (8) and by Muslim (16) from a hadeeth of Ibn ‘Umar radiy Allaahu ‘anhu ]

Meaning: that these five are not the whole of Islaam rather they are its pillars and its foundations which it rests upon and the rest of the legislated matters are things which perfect and complete these pillars.

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

An-Nadhr (Vows) and their Evidence – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 25 Part C
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


An-Nadhr (Vows) and their Evidence

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

And the proof for vows:

يُوفُونَ بِالنَّذْرِ وَيَخَافُونَ يَوْمًا كَانَ شَرُّهُ مُسْتَطِيرًا

They fulfill their vows and they fear a Day whose evil will be widespread [76:7] 26


[26]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

An-Nadhr (making a vow): it is that a person makes something binding upon himself which was not originally binding upon him in the legislation, such as his making a vow that he will perform a fast, or his making a vow that he will give such and such in charity – then it becomes binding upon him to carry out his vow, because of the saying of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam:

من نذر أن يطيع الله فليطعه

Whoever makes a vow that he will obey Allaah, then let him obey Him

[Reported by al-Bukhaaree (6696 & 6700) from a hadeeth of Aa’ishah radiy Allaahu ‘anhaa.]

And making a vow is a type from the types of worship, it is not permissible to do it except for Allaah. So whoever makes a vow for a grave or for an idol or for other than that, then he has committed shirk with Allaah the Mighty and Majestic and it will be a vow of sin and shirk. And the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

ومن نذر أن يعصي الله فلا يعصه

And whoever makes a vow that he will commit an act of disobedience to Allaah, then let him not disobey Him”.

PS: Dawud Burbank (rahimahullah) covers some more benefits from the Explanation of Shaykh Uthaymeen rahimahullah at the end of this short clip ( this is not transcribed)

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Adh-Dhabh (Sacrificing or Slaughtering), its Types and its Proof – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 25 Part B
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Adh-Dhabh (Sacrificing or Slaughtering), its Types and its Proof

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

And the proof for sacrificing is His saying He the Most High:

قُلْ إِنَّ صَلَاتِي وَنُسُكِي وَمَحْيَايَ وَمَمَاتِي لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

Say: My prayer and my sacrificing and my living and my dying are all for Allaah alone, the Lord of the whole of creation [6:162]

And from the sunnah:

لَعَنَ اللهُ مَنْ ذَبَحَ لِغَيْرِ الله

“Allaah has cursed the one who sacrifices for other than Allaah.”[1]  25


[25]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

adh-Dhabh (sacrificing or slaughtering) is of four types:

Firstly: sacrificing which is done to seek closeness and to honour and venerate someone, and this is not permissible except for Allaah the Perfect and Most High, because it is an act of worship involving wealth. So therefore it is not permissible to sacrifice for the jinn nor for the devils nor for the kings nor for the leaders in order to show honour and veneration of them, because this is worship – it is not permissible except for Allaah the Mighty and Majestic.

So those people who sacrifice for the jinn in order to gain safety from their evil, or in order for a sick person to be cured, as is done by the soothsayers and by the astrologers, those who claim to be able to heal or cure, and who say to the people, “if you sacrifice such and such in order to cure your sick person and do not mention the Name of Allaah upon it” – this is major shirk which takes a person outside of the religion and this is what Allaah the Most High has said in warning against doing it for other than Allaah:

قُلْ إِنَّ صَلَاتِي وَنُسُكِي وَمَحْيَايَ وَمَمَاتِي لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

Say: My prayer and my sacrificing and my living and my dying are all for Allaah alone, the Lord of the whole of creation [6:162]

And He said:

فَصَلِّ لِرَبِّكَ وَانْحَرْ

So pray for your Lord and sacrifice to Him [108:2]

Meaning: make sacrifice for your Lord.

The second type of sacrifice is: slaughtering an animal in order to obtain meat to eat. This, there is no harm in it, because it is not something slaughtered to draw closer to anyone or to venerate anyone, it is just being sacrificed for a need, and eating is from that; so this, there is no harm in it, because it is not a type of worship, and it can be slaughtered in order to sell the meat.

The third type of sacrifice is: sacrificing which is done at times of joy and happiness, on the occasion of a marriage or on the occasion of settling in a new home or someone returning after an absence, or the like of that, by gathering one’s relatives and then performing a sacrifice in order to show one’s happiness and joy at what has occurred. This, there is no harm in it, because it does not contain veneration of anyone, and it is not seeking to draw closer to anyone, rather it is just a case of joy and happiness at something that has occurred.

Fourthly: sacrificing in order to give meat away in charity for the poor people and the needy and the destitute, this is counted as being a sunnah, and it enters into worship.

Footnotes:

[1] Reported by Muslim (1978) from a hadeeth of Alee ibn Abee Taalib radiy Allaahu ‘anhu. 

`Alee (radiyallaahu `anhu) said: Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) narrated to me four words, saying:

  1. “Allaah curses whoever slaughters to other than Allaah.
  2. Allaah curses whoever curses his parents.
  3. Allaah curses the one who shelters an innovator or wrongdoer.
  4. Allaah curses the one who alters the boundaries of a land.”

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
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Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 25 Part A
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Al-Istighaathah (Seeking Rescue and Deliverance) and its Proof

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

And the Proof for al-Istighaathah (seeking rescue and deliverance):

إِذْ تَسْتَغِيثُونَ رَبَّكُمْ فَاسْتَجَابَ لَكُمْ

Remember when you sought the aid and deliverance of your Lord, and He responded to you [8:9] 24


[24]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

Al-Istighaathah is a type of the types of worship, and it is seeking al-Ghauth (deliverance or rescue), and it does not occur except at times of adversity or great difficulty, when a person comes to be in a situation of adversity, then he seeks deliverance and rescue from Allaah and he seeks salvation from this adversity.

And al-Istighaathah (seeking rescue and deliverance) is of two types:

The first type is: al-Istighaathah (seeking rescue) from a created being, with regard to something that no-one is able to do except Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, and this is shirk. So whoever seeks rescue and deliverance from other than Allaah, whether it be from a jinn or a human or those people who are absent or from the dead, then this is shirk along with Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. So seeking rescue and deliverance through the dead and those who are absent from the devils and the jinn, this is shirk along with Allaah the Mighty and Majestic.

The second type is: seeking aid and rescue from a created being who is present and who is alive with regard to something he is able to do – this is permissible. He the Most High said in the story of Moosaa:

فَاسْتَغَاثَهُ الَّذِي مِن شِيعَتِهِ عَلَى الَّذِي مِنْ عَدُوِّهِ

So the man who was upon his religion (i.e. the religion of Moosaa) he called to him for assistance and rescue against the one who was an enemy [28:15]

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Al-Isti‘aadhah (Seeking Refuge) and its Proof

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

And the proof for Al-Isti‘aadhah (seeking refuge) is His saying, He the Most High:

قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ الْفَلَقِ

Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of the Dawn [113:1] 22


[22]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

Al-Isti‘aadhah: means seeking refuge with someone who can defend you against something disagreeable which you fear in order that he should repel from you this thing. This is al-Isti‘aadhah. 

And al-Isti‘aadhah is a type from the types of worship. It is not permissible for you to seek refuge in other than Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. So whoever seeks refuge with a grave or with an idol, or with anything besides Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, then he will be a mushrik, who has committed major shirk.

And He the Most High said:

وَأَنَّهُ كَانَ رِجَالٌ مِّنَ الْإِنسِ يَعُوذُونَ بِرِجَالٍ مِّنَ الْجِنِّ فَزَادُوهُمْ رَهَقًا

And there used to be men from mankind who would seek refuge in men from the jinn, and they only increased them in transgression. [72:6]

The Arabs in the days of ignorance, when they stopped off at a place on the earth, one of them used to say, “I seek refuge in the chief of this valley”: meaning the chief one from the jinn; he would seek refuge from the evil of the foolish ones of his people.

So the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said refuting that and making clear what is legislated in place of it:

“Whoever stops off at a place and he says, “I seek refuge in the perfect words of Allaah from the evil of whatever He has created”, then nothing will harm him until he travels on from that stopping place of his.”[1]

This is the correct replacement, seeking refuge in the perfect words of Allaah instead of seeking refuge in the jinn.

He the Most High said:

قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ الْفَلَقِ

Say, “I seek refuge in the Lord of the Dawn” [113:1]

Al-Falaq”, is the dawn, and the Lord of the dawn, He is Allaah the Perfect and Most High, just as He the Most High said:

فَالِقُ الْإِصْبَاحِ

Allaah is the One Who causes the dawns to break [6:96]

Meaning: the One Who brings out the light of the day into the darkness of the night. Who is able to do that except Allaah the Perfect and Most High?

أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ الْفَلَقِ

I seek refuge in the Lord of the Daybreak [113:1]

Meaning the Lord of dawn when it breaks, the Sovereign Owner, the One who controls it, the One having full ability over it.

مِن شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ

From the evil of that which He created [113:2]

This covers the evil of all of the created beings, he seeks refuge in Allaah from the evil of all of the created beings. This will suffice you for every seeking refuge and every seeking protection which the people do.

وَمِن شَرِّ غَاسِقٍ إِذَا وَقَبَ

And from the evil of the Ghaasiq (darkening night) as it comes with its darkness (or the moon as it sets or goes away) [113:3] 

Al-Ghaasiq”, is the darkness of the night; since in the darkness wild animals and wild beasts come out so then you are in danger, so you seek refuge in Allaah from the evil of this darkness and whatever is beneath it from these harmful things.

وَمِن شَرِّ النَّفَّاثَاتِ فِي الْعُقَدِ

And from the evil of those who blow upon knots [113:4]

And they are the sorcerers, you seek refuge in Allaah from sorcery / magic and its people, because sorcery / magic is tremendous evil.

وَمِن شَرِّ حَاسِدٍ إِذَا حَسَدَ

And from the evil of the envier when he envies [113:5]

Al-Haasid, the envier, he is the one who hopes and wishes for favours to pass away from other people; when he sees someone having a favour then he becomes furious, and he wishes for this blessing to pass away out of envy and out of transgression and Allaah’s refuge is sought. And it is one of the worst of blameworthy qualities, because it involves raising objections against Allaah, and it involves evil towards the creation.

And entering into it is the person who gives the evil eye, the one who causes harm with his look, because striking with the evil eye is a type of envy, so you should seek refuge in Allaah from these evils.

So this indicates that al-Isti‘aadhah (seeking refuge) is worship, it is not permissible to be directed to other than Allaah, so you do not seek refuge in a created being, and whoever seeks refuge in a created being then he has committed shirk with Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

And the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said to ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Abbaas radiy Allaahu ‘anhumaa:

“And if you seek aid then seek the aid of Allaah”[2]


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

And His saying, He the Most High:

قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ النَّاسِ

Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of Mankind. [114:1] 23


[23]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

And in His saying, He the Most High:

قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ النَّاسِ
مَلِكِ النَّاسِ
إِلَٰهِ النَّاسِ
مِن شَرِّ الْوَسْوَاسِ الْخَنَّاسِ
الَّذِي يُوَسْوِسُ فِي صُدُورِ النَّاسِ

Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of Mankind. The King of mankind. The One Who is rightfully worshipped by mankind. From the evil of the whisperer, who whispers and then withdraws. The one who whispers into the hearts of mankind. From jinn and from men. [114:1-6]

Allaah the Mighty and Majestic commands seeking refuge in the Lord of mankind, the King of mankind, the One Who is rightfully worshipped by mankind – these are all Names and Attributes of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, and it contains the three types of tawheed: Tawheed-ur-Ruboobiyyah (Tawheed of Lordship), Tawheed-ul-Uloohiyyah (Tawheed of worship) and Tawheed-ul-Asmaa wasSifaat (Tawheed of Allaah’s Names and Attributes).

Seek refuge in Allaah and in these Names and Attributes, seek refuge in Allaah from the evil of al-Waswaas (the whisperer) – and he is Satan. As for Wiswaas (a whispering) then that is a verbal noun from the verb waswasa yuwaswisu. As for al-Waswaas then it is a name from the names of Satan, because he whispers to mankind and gives him false ideas, and he pre-occupies him in order to cast terror into his heart and uncertainty and confusion in his affairs, particularly with regard to the affair of worship, because Satan whispers to man in acts of worship until he confuses him regarding his prayer or his act of worship, and then finally the person comes out from his prayer believing that it was null and void. Or he prays and then he believes that he was not upon wudhoo’, or that he did not stand up for such and such, or that he did not perform such and such, the person comes to suffer from whispers and he is not calm in his worship.

So Allaah the Majestic and Most High has given us the remedy for this dangerous matter, and that is that you seek refuge in Allaah from the evil of this whisperer who is al-Khannaas. 

al-Khannaas: meaning the one who departs and moves away, so he whispers when you are negligent of the remembrance of Allaah, and he withdraws – meaning he falls back when you remember Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. So he whispers when the person is inattentive, and he is one who withdraws and moves away when one remembers Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

مِن شَرِّ الْوَسْوَاسِ الْخَنَّاسِ
الَّذِي يُوَسْوِسُ فِي صُدُورِ النَّاسِ

The one who whispers into the hearts of mankind. From jinn and from mankind [114:5-6]

It is as if the meaning – and Allaah knows best – that there are those who whisper from the jinn and from mankind as well – those who whisper things to the people; they come to the people and they cause them to have doubts, so just as there are devils from the jinn who whisper evil, then likewise there are devils from mankind who whisper also, so you should seek refuge in Allaah from the evil of the two tribes.

And therefore the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

“No-one seeking refuge has sought refuge by means of the like of these two” [3]

Meaning: these two soorahs (Soorat-ul-Falaq and Soorat-un-Naas). So it is befitting for the Muslim that he should read these two after the prayers and that he should repeat them again and again, and that he should recite these two when he goes to sleep along with Aayat-ul-Kursee and Soorat-ul-Ikhlaas.

He should recite Aayat-ul-Kursee and Soorat-ul-Ikhlaas and the two soorahs for seeking refuge, he should recite them after every prayer, and repeat them three times after maghrib and after fajr, and likewise recite these two when you go to sleep in order that Satan should move away from him and not disturb his sleep for him and not trouble him with nightmares.

The witness from these two soorahs is that Allaah has commanded seeking refuge in Him alone, so this proves that seeking refuge in other than him, whether it be jinn or mankind or any created thing, that that is not permissible because it is a type from the types of worship.

[1] Reported by Muslim (2708) from a hadeeth of Khawlah bint Hakeem as-Sulamiyyah radiy Aallaahu ‘anhaa

[2] Reported by at-Tirmidhee (2516)

[3] Reported by Aboo Daawood, An-Nasaa’ee and Ahmad from a hadeeth of ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Aamir radiy Allaah ‘anhu [Saheeh – Sh Al-Albaanee]

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Al-Isti‘aanah (Appealing for Aid and Assistance) and its Proof – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

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Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 24 Part A
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Al-Isti‘aanah (Appealing for Aid and Assistance) and its Proof

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

And the proof for Al-Isti‘aanah (appealing for aid and assistance) is His saying, He the Most High:

إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

You alone do we worship and to You alone do we appeal for aid [1:5]

And there occurs in the hadeeth:

“If you seek aid, then seek the aid of Allaah”[1], 12


[12]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

Al-Isti‘aanah: means seeking aid and assistance, and it is of two types:

The first type (which is worship): is seeking assistance upon something which no-one but Allaah is able to do; then directing this to other than Allaah is shirk, whoever seeks aid and assistance of other than Allaah with regard to something which only Allaah can carry out, then he has committed shirk, because he has directed a type from the types of worship to other than Allaah the Mighty and Majestic.

The second type (which is not worship): seeking aid upon something which someone from the creation is able to carry our, so you may seek someone’s help to build a wall along with you or to carry some luggage along with you or to help you to do something which is permissible which you wish to do, just as He the Most High said:

 وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَىٰ ۖ وَلَا تَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ

And help one another upon righteousness and dutifulness towards Allaah, and do not help one another upon sin and transgression [5:2]

So al-Isti‘aanah (seeking aid and assistance) with regard to everyday matters which the people are able to do, there is no harm in this, because it is co-operation upon righteousness and dutifulness to Allaah. And He sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

“And Allaah continues to aid the servant for as long as the servant is aiding his brother”

[Reported by Muslim (2699) from a hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah radiy Allaahu ‘anhu]

As for seeking aid and assistance from someone from the creation with regard to something which no-one can carry out except Allaah, for example bringing about provision and repelling harm, then this cannot be except for Allaah; such as seeking the aid of the dead and seeking the aid of the jinn and the devils, and seeking the aid of people who are absent and they cannot hear your calling out their names – this is major shirk, because you are seeking aid from those who are not able to aid you.

So His saying, He the Most High:

إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

You Alone do we worship and Your aid Alone do we seek [1:5] 

Iyyaka na‘budu”, (You Alone do we worship): this is a case of putting the governed word before the operative word. The governed word, “You”, is in the accusative case and, “We worship” is the governing word which caused, “Iyyaka” to be in the accusative case. And putting the governed word before the operative word indicates restriction. So the meaning of, “Iyyaka Na‘budu”, is – we do not worship anyone else besides You. So worship is restricted (to only be) for Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

Wa Iyaaka nasta‘een”, (and Your aid Alone do we seek): this is a restriction of seeking aid (to only be) from Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, and that is with regard to those affairs which no-one is able to carry out except Allaah the Perfect and Most High.

And in His saying, “Iyaaka nasta‘een”, (Your aid Alone do we seek): it shows freeing onself from, “Hawl” and “Quwwah” – from any claim to having the ability to change things and from having power, and that a person has no power except with Allaah’s aid, and that no-one is able to do anything except with the aid of Allaah the Mighty and Majetic, and this is the utmost worship and servitude to Allaah, when a person frees himself from shirk, and he frees himself from, Hawl – from any claim to being able to bring about change, and from having Quwwah – from himself having power. So this is the utmost worship and servitude to Allaah the Mighty and Majestic.

[1] Reported by At-Tirmidhee as a hadeeth of Ibn ‘Abbaas radiy Allaahu ‘anhumaa (part of hadeeth 19 in An-Nawawee’s 40 hadeeth)

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Al-Inaabah (Turning Repentantly and Obediently) and its Proof

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

And the proof for al-Inaabah (turning repentantly and obediently) is His saying, He the Most High:

وَأَنِيبُوا إِلَىٰ رَبِّكُمْ وَأَسْلِمُوا لَهُ 

So turn in repentance and obedience to your Lord and submit to Him [39:54] 20


[20]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

Al-Inaabah: it means returning and it has the meaning of at-Tawbah (repenting), and repenting and al-Inaabah have one and the same meaning. However some of the scholars have said al-Inaabah is more specific than at-Tawbah (repenting), meaning it is more emphasized because it, Inaabah is Tawbah (repenting) but along with turning to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, meaning it is a specific repentance, and a person may repent and leave the sin and not return to it, and he may regret it, however his turning to Allaah may be a weak turning. Whereas al-Inaabah then indeed it means turning towards to Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. And therefore He said:

.. وَأَنِيبُوا إِلَىٰ رَبِّكُمْ وَأَسْلِمُوا لَهُ

So turn in repentance and obedience to your Lord and submit to Him …

Meaning turn back to Him and turn fully to Him, He the Perfect and Most High.

مِن قَبْلِ أَن يَأْتِيَكُمُ الْعَذَابُ ثُمَّ لَا تُنصَرُونَ ..

… before the punishment comes to you and then you will not be helped [39:54]

When the punishment which destroys and annihilates comes, then repentance will not be accepted from those who repent at that time.

فَلَوْلَا كَانَتْ قَرْيَةٌ آمَنَتْ فَنَفَعَهَا إِيمَانُهَا إِلَّا قَوْمَ يُونُسَ لَمَّا آمَنُوا كَشَفْنَا عَنْهُمْ عَذَابَ الْخِزْيِ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا

Except for the people of Yunus when they believed, then we took away from them the humiliating punishment [10:98]

This was an exception, otherwise when the punishment which destroys descends, then repentance is not accepted, and therefore He said:

مِن قَبْلِ أَن يَأْتِيَكُمُ الْعَذَابُ ثُمَّ لَا تُنصَرُونَ ..

.. before the punishment comes to you and then you will not be helped [39:54] 

So at-Tawbah (repenting) and al-Inaabah (turning repentantly and obediently), they have an appointed time and they have a limit, so repentance will not be accepted from the person who is experiencing the death rattle, or someone to whom death comes, and the repentance will not be accepted from one whom the punishment which destroys and annihilates descends upon. And repentance will not be accepted when the sun comes out from its place of setting before the establishment of the Hour. Repentance will not be accepted then. So therefore Allaah encourages the servant upon at-Tawbah (repenting) and al-Inaabah (turning repentantly and obediently) before the time limit comes to its end.

مِن قَبْلِ أَن يَأْتِيَكُمُ الْعَذَابُ ثُمَّ لَا تُنصَرُونَ

Before the punishment comes to you and then you will not be helped [39:54]

So the witness is His saying:

وَأَنِيبُوا إِلَىٰ رَبِّكُمْ وَأَسْلِمُوا لَهُ

Turn to your Lord repentantly and obediently [39:54]

This indicates that al-Inaabah (turning repentantly and obediently) is a type from the types of worship because He said, “to your Lord”. So this shows that it is a type from the types of worship.

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Al-Khashyah (Fear and Awe) and its Proof – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

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Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 23 Part C
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Al-Khashyah (Fear and Awe) and its Proof

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

The proof for al-Khashyah (awe) is His saying, He the Most High:

 فَلَا تَخْشَوْهُمْ 

So do not have Khashyah (awe) of them [2:150] 19


[19]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

Al-Khashyah (awe) is a type of Khawf (fear), and it is more specific than just fear. And it is said al-Khashyah (awe) is fear which is mixed with veneration. He the Most High said:

 فَلَا تَخْشَوْهُمْ 

So do not have Khashyah (awe) of them [2:150]

Allaah the Perfect and Most High commanded having Khashyah (awe) of Him alone.

He the Most High said in the aayah:

فَلَا تَخْشَوْهُمْ وَاخْشَوْنِي وَلِأُتِمَّ نِعْمَتِي عَلَيْكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ

So do not have Khashyah (awe) of them, but rather have Khashyah (awe) of Me, and so that I may complete My favour upon you and so that you may be guided. [2:150]

So He commanded having Khashyah (awe) of Him, He the Perfect and Most High, and He said in description of those who pray salaah:

وَالَّذِينَ هُم مِّنْ عَذَابِ رَبِّهِم مُّشْفِقُونَ

And those who have fear of the punishment of their Lord [70:27]

Meaning they have fear, they are the elite ones from the creation, they have fear of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. And He said about the Angels:

يَخَافُونَ رَبَّهُم مِّن فَوْقِهِمْ وَيَفْعَلُونَ مَا يُؤْمَرُونَ

They have fear of their Lord from above them, and they do whatever they are commanded [16:50]

The elite of the creation from the Angels and the Messengers and the beloved and the obedient servants and the righteous ones, they have the utmost Khashyah (awe) of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic and Khawf (fear) of Him, He the Perfect and Most High and Rahbah (dread) of Him.

So ar-Rahbah (dread) and al-Khawf (fear) and al-Khashyah (awe), all of them have a single meaning, even though some of them are more specific than others. However they all share in being Khawf (fear) of Allaah the Perfect and Most High. And these are from the characteristics of the Prophets and the righteous servants of Allaah, and they are tremendous types of worship and they are from the actions of the hearts which are not known except to Allaah the Perfect and Most High.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Ar-Raghbah, Ar-Rahbah and al-Khushoo – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 23 Part B
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Ar-Raghbah (fervent desire) and Ar-Rahbah (dread) and al-Khushoo‘ (reverence and humility), and the Proof for Each

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:    

And the proof for Ar-Raghbah (fervent desire) and Ar-Rahbah (dread) and al-Khushoo‘ (reverence and humility), is His saying, He the Most High: 

إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا يُسَارِعُونَ فِي الْخَيْرَاتِ وَيَدْعُونَنَا رَغَبًا وَرَهَبًا ۖ وَكَانُوا لَنَا خَاشِعِينَ

They used to hasten to perform acts of devotion to Allaah, and they used to worship Us raghaban (upon love and desire), and rahaban (upon fear), and they were were reverent and humble before Allaah [21:90] 18


[18]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

Ar-Raghbah (fervent desire): it means seeking something which is praiseworthy.

Ar-Rahbah (dread): is fear of something which is dreaded.

He the Most High said:

 وَإِيَّايَ فَارْهَبُونِ

And have dread of Me [2:40]

And it is a type of Khawf (fear);

ar-Rahbah (dread) and al-Khawf (fear) have one and the same meaning.

al-Khushoo‘ (reverence and humility): it is a type of humbling oneself to Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. And humbly submitting and humbling onself before Him, He the Perfect and Most High – it is from the greatest of levels of worship.

His saying, He the Most High, “Innahum”, (they): this pronoun refers back to the Prophets, since in Soorat-ul-Anbiyaa Allaah has mentioned the stories of the Prophets, and then He said:

إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا يُسَارِعُونَ فِي الْخَيْرَاتِ وَيَدْعُونَنَا رَغَبًا وَرَهَبًا ۖ وَكَانُوا لَنَا خَاشِعِينَ

They used to hasten to perform acts of devotion to Allaah, and they used to worship Us raghaban (upon love and desire), and rahaban (upon fear), and they were were reverent and humble before Allaah [21:90]

So His saying, He the Most High:

إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا يُسَارِعُونَ فِي الْخَيْرَاتِ

They used to hasten upon doing acts of good [21:90]

Meaning: they would race to them, and they would hasten to them. This is the characteristic of the Prophets ‘alaihimussaalatu wassalaam, they would not be lazy and they would not behave as if they were powerless, rather they hastened to doing good deeds, and they raced towards them.

His saying, He the Most High:

وَيَدْعُونَنَا رَغَبًا

And they invoked and worshipped us with Raghbah [21:90]

Meaning: desiring what lies with Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, desiring attainment of what they wished for.

وَرَهَبًا

And His saying, He the Most High, wa rahaban”, (with dread): meaning with fear of Us, so they called upon Allaah to have mercy upon them, and they called upon Him not to punish them, and not to bring them to account and not to seize them with punishment. So they had hope for the mercy of Allaah, and they feared His punishment, just as He the Most High said:

أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ يَبْتَغُونَ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِمُ الْوَسِيلَةَ أَيُّهُمْ أَقْرَبُ وَيَرْجُونَ رَحْمَتَهُ وَيَخَافُونَ عَذَابَهُ ۚ إِنَّ عَذَابَ رَبِّكَ كَانَ مَحْذُورًا

Those whom they call upon, themselves seek a means of nearness to draw themselves closer to their Lord, to see which of them can draw closest to Him. They hope for His mercy and they fear His punishment [17:57]

So they call upon Allaah having fear of Him, and they worship and call upon Him desiring what lies with Him (from reward), they call upon Allaah so that He should ordain good for them and repel evil from them.

وَكَانُوا لَنَا خَاشِعِينَ

And they were reverent and humble towards Us [21:90]

Meaning: they were reverential, humbly submitting, humble before Allaah, the Mighty ad Majestic. So they gathered between three characteristics: Ar-Raghbah (fervent desire) and Ar-Rahbah (dread) and al-Khushoo‘ (reverence and humility). These are the characteristics of the Prophets sallallaahu ‘alaihim was allam and these three types are from the types of worship of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic.

And it contains a refutation of Soofees, those who say, “We do not worship Allaah out of desire for His reward, nor out of fear of His punishment, we only worship Him out of love of Him alone”. This is false and futile speech, because the Prophets called upon and worshipped Allaah, raghaban wa rahaban (with fear and with hope) and they were the most complete of the creation.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

The matter becomes difficult for me and I am not able to complete my recitation – Shaykh Salih al-Fawzan

Bismillaah

[2] Question: Noble Shaikh, I try to read the Noble Qur’aan and I love the Book of Allaah greatly. However, the matter becomes difficult for me and I am not able to complete my recitation. What is the solution to this problem?

[2] Answer by Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan: 

The solution can be found in that which Allaah has instructed when He said:

فَإِذَا قَرَأْتَ الْقُرْآنَ فَاسْتَعِذْ بِاللَّهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ

إِنَّهُ لَيْسَ لَهُ سُلْطَانٌ عَلَى الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ

إِنَّمَا سُلْطَانُهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ يَتَوَلَّوْنَهُ وَالَّذِينَ هُم بِهِ مُشْرِكُونَ

“So when you recite the Qur’aan, seek refuge in Allaah from the outcast Devil. Verily, he has no power over those who believe and put their trust in their Lord (Allaah). His power is only over those who obey and follow him and those who associate partners in worship with Him (i.e. Allaah).” [Surah An-Nahl: 16: 98-100]

Allaah has instructed us to seek refuge in Him from the outcast Devil before reciting the Qur’aan. This is so that Allaah can remove and distance this enemy from us.

And you must also always reflect on the Qur’aan, since reflecting on it is one of the things that will cause you to be conscious about it and incite you towards the noble Qur’aan. All of your longing should not be geared towards just completing a surah or finishing up a juz and so on. Rather, your objective in reciting the Qur’aan should be to reflect and ponder upon the meaning of what you recite from the verses of Allaah. The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would prolong his recitation during the Night Prayer, and he would not pass upon a verse related to Allaah’s Mercy except that he would stop and ask Allaah (for Mercy), nor would he pass upon a verse in which (Allaah’s) punishment was mentioned except that he would stop and seek refuge in Allaah (from that). All of this shows that he (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would recite the Qur’aan whilst reflecting on it and having a conscious and attentive heart.

SourceQuestions & Answers on the Qur’aan – Shaykh Saalih Al-Fawzaan
The end of his treatise “Tadabbur al-Qur’aan” | Al-Ibaanah.com

At-Tawakkul (Trust and Reliance) and its Proof – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 23 Part A
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


at-Tawakkul (Trust and Reliance) and its Proof

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:  

And the proof for at-Tawakkul (trust and reliance) is His saying, He the Most High:

وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَتَوَكَّلُوا إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

And place your reliance and trust in Allaah if you are true believers [5:23]

And His saying:

وَمَن يَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ فَهُوَ حَسْبُهُ

And whoever places his trust and reliance in Allaah, then He will suffice him [65:3] 17


[17]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

at-Tawakkul is to entrust your affairs and to place reliance in Allaah the Perfect and Most High, and to entrust affairs to Him, He the Perfect and Most High – this is at-Tawakkul (trust and reliance). And it is from the greatest of the types of worship, and therefore He said:

وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَتَوَكَّلُوا إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

And place your reliance and trust in Allaah if you are true believers [5:23]

The preposition and the word with it are put before the governing word, to indicate restriction.

.. وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَتَوَكَّلُوا

And upon Allaah place your reliance and trust … 

Meaning upon Him and not upon anyone else besides Him, then He said:

إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ ..

… if you are people of eemaan [5:23]

So He made it a condition of eemaan to have trust and reliance upon Allaah the Perfect and Most High. And this shows that whoever does not place his trust and reliance upon Allaah, then he is not a believer. So therefore at-Tawakkul (trust and reliance) is a tremendous act of worship. So therefore the believer always places his trust and reliance upon Allaah and depends upon Allaah the Mighty and Majestic.

And Allaah, from His Names is Al-Wakeel (the Trustworthy Disposer of Affairs) meaning: the One to Whom the affairs of His servants are entrusted, He the Perfect and Most High. So at-Tawakkul (placing trust and reliance) cannot be except upon Allaah, and it is not permissible to say, “I place my reliance in so-and-so”, because at-Tawakkul (trust and reliance) is worship, and worship cannot be except for Allaah.

As for when you delegate someone from the creation to carry something out for you, then this is not called tawakkul (trusting in them), it is called tawkeel (entrusting), and al-wikaalah (authorising or entrusting), this is something well-known, that you entrust and authorise someone to carry out some need for you. And the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, he delegated some people to deputise for him in carrying out certain duties. So at-tawkeel (entrusting or delegating) is something other than at-Tawakkul (having trust and reliance). So at-Tawakkul is worship, and it cannot be except for Allaah, and it is not permissible for you to say, “I placed my trust and reliance in so-and-so”. Rather you should say, “I have entrusted someone with something”. And along with this, you entrust and authorize someone, but you do not place your trust and reliance in him, rather you place your trust and reliance in Allaah, the Perfect and Most High. So notice the difference between the two matters and at-Tawakkul and at-tawkeel.

And from the characteristics of the believers is that which Allaah the Most High mentioned with His saying:

إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الَّذِينَ إِذَا ذُكِرَ اللَّهُ وَجِلَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَإِذَا تُلِيَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُهُ زَادَتْهُمْ إِيمَانًا وَعَلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ

That the believers are only those who when Allaah is mentioned, their hearts tremble and when His Signs are recited to them it increases them in eemaan, and they place their trust and reliance upon their Lord. [8:2]

These are from the attributes of the believers, so therefore trust and reliance is a tremendous act of worship, it cannot be except for Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, because He is al-Qaadir (the One Fully Able to do everything), and He is al-Maalik (the Owner) of everything, and He is fully able to bring about for you whatever you desire. As for the created being, then he might not be able to bring about something for you that you desire, so you may entrust him with carrying something out. However trust and reliance is to be upon Allaah with regard to attainment of that thing.

Then you should know that at-Tawakkul (trust and reliance) does not negate and contradict using the means to an end. So the Muslim gathers between having reliance and trust in Allaah and utilizing the means, and there is no contradiction between them. So you carry out the means which you have been commanded to do. However you do not place your trust and reliance upon the means, rather you place your trust and reliance upon Allaah. You, you plant the seeds for crops in the earth – this is a means. However, you do nor place reliance upon the planting and your own action, rather you have reliance upon Allaah with regard to the growth of this plant, and with regard to its producing fruit and with regard to its being kept safe, and with regard to its being good and suitable, and therefore He says:

أَفَرَأَيْتُم مَّا تَحْرُثُونَ

أَأَنتُمْ تَزْرَعُونَهُ أَمْ نَحْنُ الزَّارِعُونَ

Do you see the seed which you sow? Do you make it grow or are We the One Who causes it to grow? [56:63-64]

So the One Who causes it to grow in reality, He is Allaah, but as for you, then you have just carried out the means only. It may produce this plant and grow or it may not produce it. And if it grows, it may be good and fitting, and it may not be good. It may be struck by some calamity, and will pass away.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Ar-Rajaa’ (Hope) will not be correct except along with Righteous Action – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 22 Part B
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Ar-Rajaa’ (hope and longing) and its Proof

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

And the proof for ar-Rajaa’ (hope and longing) is His saying, He the Most High:

فَمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو لِقَاءَ رَبِّهِ فَلْيَعْمَلْ عَمَلًا صَالِحًا وَلَا يُشْرِكْ بِعِبَادَةِ رَبِّهِ أَحَدًا

So whoever has hope in the meeting with his Lord and in His reward then let him perform righteous actions and not associate anyone in worship with his Lord [18:110] 16


[16]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

His saying, He the Most High, “man kaana yarjoo”: meaning he has hope for the reward of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic and in seeing Him openly on the Day of Resurrection, whoever has hope in seeing Allaah openly with his eyes on the day of resurrection, then let him perform righteous deeds, he should carry out the means which will enable him to attain this goal, which is the reward of entry into Paradise and of being saved from the Fire and of looking upon the Face of Allaah – this necessarily follows on, because whoever enters Paradise, then he will see Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

فَمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو لِقَاءَ رَبِّهِ فَلْيَعْمَلْ عَمَلًا صَالِحًا وَلَا يُشْرِكْ بِعِبَادَةِ رَبِّهِ أَحَدًا

So whoever has hope in the meeting with his Lord and in His reward then let him perform righteous actions [18:110]

This shows that hope alone is not sufficient, rather there must be action, as for your just having hope in Allaah, but you do not act, then this is to abandon the use of the means. So praiseworthy hope is that which occurs along with righteous action. As for hoping which is not praiseworthy, then it hope which does not have righteous action along with it.

And righteous action is that which fulfills two conditions:

  1. The first: is that it is done purely and sincerely for Him, the Mighty and Majestic.
  2. The second: is that it is done following the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam.

So an action will not be righteous unless it fulfills these two conditions: that it is done purely and sincerely seeking the Face of Allaah, it does not contain any shirk, and that it should be a correct action, done upon the Sunnah of Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, not containing innovation. So if the two conditions are met then it will be a righteous action, and if any condition is missing, then it will be a corrupt action, it will not benefit the person who does it.

So action which contains shirk will be rejected for the person, and likewise action which contains innovation, it will be rejected for the person. He sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

Whoever does an action which is not in accordance with our affair, then it will be rejected” [1]

So this aayah contains ar-Rajaa’ (hope and longing), and that it is an act of worship to Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. And it shows that hope will not be correct except along with righteous action.

[1] Reported by al-Bukhaaree in disconnected form straight after hadeeth 7350, and reported by Muslim as hadeeth 1718/17 from a hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah radiy Allaahu ‘anhaa. And also reported by al-Bukhaaree in connected form as hadeeth 2697 and Muslim as hadeeth 1718/17 from ‘Aa’ishah radiy Allaahu ‘anhaa, that she said, Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu’ alaihi wa sallam said, “Whoever introduces into this affair of ours that which is not from it will have it rejected”.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Al-Khawf (fear), its Types and its Proof – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 22 Part A
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Al-Khawf (fear), its Types and its Proof

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

And the proof for Al-Khawf (fear) is His saying, He the Most High:

إِنَّمَا ذَٰلِكُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ يُخَوِّفُ أَوْلِيَاءَهُ فَلَا تَخَافُوهُمْ وَخَافُونِ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

That is just Satan, he incites you to fear his allies. So do not fear them, but rather fear Me if you are truly believers [3:175] 15


[15]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

Al-Khawf (fear) is a type from the types of worship, and it is an act of worship of the heart, just the same as is the case with al-Khawf (fear) and al-Khashyah (awe) and ar-Raghbah (fervent desire) and ar-Rahbah (dread) and ar-Rajaa’ (hope and longing) and at-Tawakkul (trust and reliance) – all of these are acts of worship of the heart.

Al-Khawf (fear) is apprehension of something unpleasant, and it is of two types:

  1. Al-Khawf-ul-‘Ibaadah (fear which is worship)
  2. Al-Khawf-utTabee‘ee (natural fear).

The first type: Khawf-ul-‘Ibaadah (fear which is worship), directing this to other than Allaah is shirk, and that is that a person fears someone other than Allaah with regard to something which no-one besides Allaah is able to do, such as his fearing someone being able to cause him to become ill, or being able to take his soul, or to cause his child to die, as is done by many of the ignorant people. They fear regarding their wives’ pregnancies and for their children, from the jinn, they fear sorcerers, they fear the dead, and so therefore they do actions involving shirk to free themselves from this fear. So this is something which no-one is able to do but Allaah, illnesses and death and bringing provision and cutting off life-span, these matters, no-one is able to do them except Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, and likewise sending down blessings or other than that. These matters cannot come about except from Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, so if he fears anyone with regards to anything which only Allaah can carry out, then this is major shirk, because it is diverting a type of worship to other than Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. Like those who fear the graves and of the tombs and of the jinn and of the devils that they can strike them with evil or cause some harm to descend upon them, and so therefore they go and perform actions of nearness to these things to repel their harm, or out of fear of them – this is major shirk. He says, “I fear, if I don’t make a sacrifice for him, that he will afflict me with something, or afflict my children or my wealth, or the like of that, just as was said by the people of Hood:

إِن نَّقُولُ إِلَّا اعْتَرَاكَ بَعْضُ آلِهَتِنَا بِسُوءٍ

All that we say is that some of our gods have struck you with evil [11:54]

They threatened him with their gods and they tried to make him fear their objects of worship.

قَالَ إِنِّي أُشْهِدُ اللَّهَ وَاشْهَدُوا أَنِّي بَرِيءٌ مِّمَّا تُشْرِكُونَ

مِن دُونِهِ ۖ فَكِيدُونِي جَمِيعًا ثُمَّ لَا تُنظِرُونِ

إِنِّي تَوَكَّلْتُ عَلَى اللَّهِ رَبِّي وَرَبِّكُم

He said, “I call Allaah to witness, and you should bear witness, that I am free of whatever you associate in worship along with Him. So plot all of you against me and don’t give me any respite. I have placed my reliance upon Allaah, my Lord and your Lord.” [11:54-56]

This is tawheed, he challenges them, all of them, them and their idols.

So then all of you plot against me, and then don’t give me any respite [11:55]

Don’t give me some time, rather plot against me from this moment, and they were not able to do anything against him, rather Allaah aided him against them.

So the person who fears other than Allaah with regard to things that only Allaah can do, then he has committed major shirk, and this is called the fear which is worship, and the fear which is shirk. Many people have fear of the graves, or of the awliyaa’ (the beloved and obedient servants of Allaah), they fear Satan, they fear the jinn, and therefore they do acts of devotion, putting forward offerings to them, putting forward sacrifices for them, and making vows and giving foods, and other than that, such as throwing money upon their tombs in order to be saved from their evil, or to attain something of their good. Then this is khawf-ul-‘ibaadah (fear which is worship).

The second type: al-Khawf-utTabee‘ee (natural fear): and it is that you fear something which is clear and apparent which is able to do that which you fear from it, such as your fearing a snake or a scorpion or an enemy, these are matters which are clear and visible and are well-known matters, so fearing them is not called shirk, this is natural fear of something which is apparent and known, because you are fearing a means which is clear and apparent, and something which it is desirable for you to protect yourself from and take precaution against, so therefore you take up weapons, you take up a stick to kill a snake or a scorpion, and to kill a wild animal, because these are matters which are felt by the senses, and they contain well-known harm. So if you fear them, then this is not called shirk, rather it is called natural fear.

And therefore Allaah said with regard to Moosaa ‘alaihissalaam:

فَخَرَجَ مِنْهَا خَائِفًا يَتَرَقَّبُ

So he departed from it in a state of fear [28:21]

Meaning from the city

Fearful, looking about [28:21]

Having fear of his enemies, because he had killed one of them.

And he ‘alaihissalaatu wassalaam fled to Madyan, and he was on the lookout, and he was fearing that they would catch him, so this is natural fear. However, a person needs to learn to seek shelter and protection in Allaah the Mighty and Majestic and to take hold of the means through which he can repel harm, and he relies upon Allaah the Mighty and Majestic and has reliance upon Allaah. He the most High said:

فَلَا تَخَافُوهُمْ وَخَافُونِ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

So do not fear them (the allies of Satan) but rather fear Me if you are truly believers [3:175]

This aayah is in the soorah Aal-i-‘Imraan in the story of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam along with the people of shirk on the day of Uhud, when the people of shirk threatened them and said, “We will return to them and wipe then out.” So therefore Allaah the Majestic and Most High says:

إِنَّمَا ذَٰلِكُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ يُخَوِّفُ أَوْلِيَاءَهُ فَلَا تَخَافُوهُمْ وَخَافُونِ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

That is just Satan, he incites you to fear his allies. So do not fear them, but rather fear Me if you are truly believers [3:175]

This warning and this threat was just from Satan, meaning he tries to cause you to fear his allies, or to cause whoever will submit to him to fear, from the people and to fear him. Then he will gain ascendancy over them.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Du‘aa (Supplication) is the Core of worship – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 21
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Islaam and Eemaan and Ihsaan and the Proof for Each

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

وأنواعُ العبادةِ التي أَمَرَ اللهُ بها: مثلُ الإسلامِ، والإيمانِ، والإحسان

And all the types of worship which Allaah has commanded such as Al-Islaam, and Al-Eemaan and Al-Ihsaan 11


[11]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

And the Shaikh, rahimahullaah, he quoted some examples for worship, as a case of quoting examples, not as a case of restriction because they are more than what he mentioned. And it would not be possible to mention them all in a brief treatise. However he mentioned some examples.

And Shaikh-ul-Islaam (Ibn Taymiyyah) has a separate treatise which is called Al-‘Uboodiyyah (worship and servitude), which researches the matter of worship and the types of worship and an explanation of the deviations which occurred from the Soofees and others with regards to worship, and it is a valuable treatise which the student of knowledge needs to read.

His saying rahimahullaah, “such as Islaam, and Eemaan and Ihsaan”: these three types are the greatest of the types of worship, and an explanation of them will follow in the speech of the Shaikh rahimahullaah with regard to the second fundamental principle. And he mentioned them here because they are from the types of worship.

So Islaam with its five pillars, the two testifications of faith, and establishment of the prayer and giving the zakaat and fasting Ramadaan and making Hajj to the sacred House of Allaah – these are all acts of worship which are maaliyyah (relating to wealth) and badaniyyah (relating to the body).

And likewise Eemaan with its six pillars, it is from the actions of the heart, eemaan in Allaah and in His Angels and in His Books and in His Messengers and in the Last Day and eemaan in Al-Qadr (pre-decree), the good of it and the bad of it, this is worship of the heart.

And likewise al-Ihsaan which is a single pillar, and it is that you worship Allaah as if you are seeing Him, and even though you do not see him, then He certainly sees you. This is the highest of the types of worship, because al-Ihsaan is the highest of all the types of worship.

And these are called the levels of the religion, since together they are the religion, because Jibreel when he asked the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam in the presence of his Companions, and the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam responded to the question about Islaam and Eemaan and Ihsaan, he then said:

هذا جبريل أتاكم يعلمكم أمر دينكم

“This was Jibreel, he came to you to teach you the affair of your religion”

[Reported by al-Bukhaaree (4777) and reported by Muslim (8, 9 and 10) from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiy Allaahu ‘anhu.]

 So he called these three the religion.


Ad-Du ‘aa (Supplication) its Categories and its Proof. 

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

ومنهُ الدعاءُ، والخوفُ، والرجاءُ، والتوكلُ، والرغبةُ، والرهبةُ، والخشوعُ، والخَشيةُ، والإنابةُ، والاستعانةُ، والاستعاذةُ، والاستغاثةُ، والذَّبْحُ، والنذرُ، وغيرُ ذلك من أنواع العبادةِ التي أَمرَ اللهُ بها كلُّها لله تعالى

And from it is ad-Du‘aa (supplication) and al-Khawf (fear) and ar-Rajaa’ (hope and longing) and at-Tawakkul (trust and reliance) and ar-Raghbah (fervent desire) and ar-Rahbah (dread) and al-Khushoo‘ (reverence and humility) and al-Khashyah (awe) and al-Inaabah (turning repentantly) and al-Isti‘aanah (appealing for aid and assistance) and al-Isti‘aadhah (seeking refuge) and al-Istighaathah (seeking deliverence and rescue) and adh-Dhabh (sacrificing) and an-Nadhr (making vows), and other than that from the types of worship which Allaah has commanded, all of them are to be done exclusively for Allaah the Most High12


[12]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

His saying, “and from it is ad-Du‘aa (supplication)”: meaning and from the types of worship is ad-Du‘aa (supplication); he began with it because it is the greatest of the types of worship.

And ad-Du‘aa (supplication) is of two categories: Du‘aa of worship and Du‘aa of making request:

Du‘aa-ul-‘Ibaadah (Du‘aa of worship): is to praise and extol Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, just as occurs at the beginning of Al-Faatihah:

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ
الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ
إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

All Praise is for Allaah the Lord of the whole of creation, the Extremely Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy, the Sovereign Owner of the Day of Recompensing, You Alone do we worship, and Your Aid alone do we seek [1:2-5]

All of that is Du‘aa of worship.

اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ

Guide us upon the straight path [1:6]

to the end of the soorah, this is Du‘aa of request.

Du‘aa-ul-Mas’alah (Du‘aa of making request): it is to request something from Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, such as requesting guidance and requesting provision and requesting knowledge from Allaah, and requesting for at-Tawfeeq (the granting of success in attaining what is correct).


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

And the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

وَأَنَّ الْمَسَاجِدَ لِلَّهِ فَلَا تَدْعُوا مَعَ اللَّهِ أَحَدًا

And that the places of prayer are to be for Allaah alone, so do not invoke or call upon anyone along with Allaah [72:18] 13 


[13]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

Al-Masaajid”: this word is used to mean the places where prostration is made, and those places where the prayer is performed, and they are the most beloved place to Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, and there occurs an encouragement with regard to building them and preparing them, so he sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

من بنى مسجدا لله كمفحص قطاة أو أصغر بنى الله له بيتا في الجنة

“Whoever builds a mosque for Allaah like the nesting-place of a sand grouse or even smaller, then Allaah will build for him a house in Paradise” [1]

Allaah says:

إِنَّمَا يَعْمُرُ مَسَاجِدَ اللَّهِ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ

That the mosques of Allaah are to be maintained only by those people who truly believe in Allaah and in the Last Day [9:18] 

Maintaining means physical maintenance and spiritual maintenance, maintaining them by clay, and whatever it needs so that it can shelter those who pray, and can shade them from the heat, and can shelter them from the cold and maintaining them through worship, by the prayer and the recitation of the Qur’aan and the remembrance of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic.

And this word masaajid is also used to mean the seven parts of the body which prostrate, and they are: the forehead and the nose, and the two hands and the two knees and the tips of the two feet, because they perform prostration to Allaah. And the aayah covers both meanings. “And the Masaajid”: meaning the places where prayer is performed, and the parts of the body which perform prostration for Allaah the Mighty and Majestic.

فَلَا تَدْعُوا مَعَ اللَّهِ أَحَدًا

So do not invoke or call upon anyone along with Allaah [72:18]

Do not make these places of prayer, and these places, a place for shirk and for calling upon other than Allaah. Rather it is obligatory that the mosques be purified from any shirk, so there can be no graves in them, and there can be no calling upon other than Allaah in them, and there can be no innovations in them and no newly introduced affairs and no innovated soofee circles.

It is obligatory that the mosques are purified from innovations and from shirk and from sins because they are for Allaah the Mighty and Majestic alone, so there cannot be in them except that which is pleasing to Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, so do not call upon anyone besides Allaah in these mosques, or utilise the parts of your body in prostrating to other than Allaah the Mighty and Majestic – because this is major shirk just like the person who prostrates to an idol or to a grave or who prostrates to some false object of worship – this is prostrating to something other than Allaah the Mighty and Majestic.

So the witness is in His saying:

فَلَا تَدْعُوا مَعَ اللَّهِ أَحَدًا

So do not invoke or call upon anyone along with Allaah [72:18]

This is a command so make supplication purely for Him alone.

And His saying, “ahadan (anyone)”: this is general and it covers everything which is called upon besides Allaah, whether it be an Angel or a Prophet or a walee (beloved righteous servant) or a tree or a rock – it covers everything which is called upon besides Allaah the Mighty and Majestic – then this will be major shirk.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

So whoever directs anything from them to other than Allaah, then he is a mushrik (person of shirk), a kaafir (disbeliever), and the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

وَمَن يَدْعُ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَٰهًا آخَرَ لَا بُرْهَانَ لَهُ بِهِ فَإِنَّمَا حِسَابُهُ عِندَ رَبِّهِ ۚ إِنَّهُ لَا يُفْلِحُ الْكَافِرُونَ

And whoever worships any other object of worship along with Allaah, which he has no proof for, then his reckoning will be with his Lord, indeed the disbelievers will not prosper [23:117]

And in the hadeeth there occurs:

“Supplication is the core of worship” [2]

And the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

وَقَالَ رَبُّكُمُ ادْعُونِي أَسْتَجِبْ لَكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ عَنْ عِبَادَتِي سَيَدْخُلُونَ جَهَنَّمَ دَاخِرِينَ

And your Lord said, “Call upon Me, I will respond to you. Those who are too haughty and proud to worship Me will enter Hell-fire in disgrace.” [40:60] 14


[14]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

.. وَقَالَ رَبُّكُمُ

And your Lord has said … 

Meaning, your Lord has commanded you and said:

ادْعُونِي أَسْتَجِبْ لَكُمْ

Invoke and call upon Me, and I will respond to you [40:60]

He has commanded making du‘aa (supplication) to Him, He the Perfect, and He has promised to respond, and this is from His generosity, He the Perfect and Most High, because of He has no need at all of our supplication, rather we need to make supplication to Him, He the Perfect and Most High. So He is commanding us with something which we need and which will be to our welfare. And He the Perfect becomes angry if you abandon making request of Him, whereas with regards to the creation, the creation becomes angry if you make request of him – therefore the poet said:

Allaah becomes angry if you abandon asking Him
But the children of Aadam, when you ask, he becomes angry.

And another one said:

So if you were to ask the people only for some soil, they would almost
When it was said, “Give it”, become irritated and withhold it

So the people are of three categories:

  1. The first: are those who do not make du‘aa to Allaah at all, so he is too proud and haughty to worship Allaah.
  2. The second: is the one who makes du‘aa to Allaah, however, he makes supplication to other than Him also, so he is a mushrik (a person of shirk).
  3. The third: is one who makes du‘aa to Allaah, making du‘aa purely and sincerely for Him, so he is a muwahhid (a person of tawheed).

And there occurs in the hadeeth that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

الدعاء مخ العبادة

Du‘aa is the core of worship”

And in one narration:

الدعاء هو العبادة

Du‘aa is worship” 

So this shows the tremendousness of du‘aa and that it is the greatest of the types of worship because the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

… مخ العبادة

“… it is the core of worship”

And in one narration:

الدعاء هو العبادة

Du‘aa is worship”

And the second narration is more authentic than the narration: الدعاء مخ العبادة  “Du‘aa is the core of worship”

And the meaning is one and the same.

So the hadeeth with its two narrations clearly shows how tremendous du‘aa is, and that it is the greatest of the types of worship. Just as he sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

الحج عرفة

“The Hajj is ‘Arafah”[3]

Meaning that the standing in ‘Arafah in Hajj is the greatest pillar from the pillars of the Hajj. It doesn’t mean that the whole of the Hajj is just ‘Arafah, but rather that the standing in ‘Arafah is the greatest of the pillars of the Hajj and likewise, worship is not restricted to just being du‘aa, but rather supplication is the greatest of its types. Therefore he said:

الدعاء هو العبادة

Du‘aa is worship”

To show the greatness of supplication, and to clearly show its status.

And then the Shaikh rahimahullaah mentioned the proofs for the different types of worship which he mentioned, and they are al-Khawf (fear) and ar-Rajaa’ (hope and longing) and at-Tawakkul (trust and reliance) and ar-Raghbah (fervent desire) and ar-Rahbah (dread) and al-Khushoo‘ (reverence and humility) and al-Khashyah (awe) and al-Inaabah (turning repentantly) and al-Isti‘aanah (appealing for aid and assistance) and al-Isti‘aadhah (seeking refuge) and al-Istighaathah (seeking deliverence and rescue) and adh-Dhabh (sacrificing) and an-Nadhr (making vows), and other than that from the types of worship which Allaah has commanded, all of them are to be done exclusively for Allaah.

Footnotes:

[1] Reported by Ahmad from a hadeeth of Ibn ‘Abbaas radiy Allaahu ‘anhumaa and reported by Ibn Maajah and Ibn Khuzaimah from a hadeeth of Jaabir ibn ‘Abdillaah radiy Allaahu ‘anhumaa, and was declared saheeh by Shaikh Al-Albaanee

[2] Reported by at-Tirmidhee from a hadeeth of Anas ibn Maalik radiy Allaahu ‘anhu. Shaykh Al-Albaanee mentioned in his checking of Al-Mishkaat that the hadeeth with this wording, its chain of narration is weak, because it contains Ibn Lahee’ah who had a poor memory. What is correct is the hadeeth of An-Nu’maan ibn Basheer radiy Allaahu ‘anhumaa who said Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said, “Supplication, it is worship”, and then the Prophet sallallaahu‘ alaihi wa sallam recited the aayah, And your Lord said, “Call upon Me, I will respond to you[40:60]”, reported by Ahmad and the four Sunan, declared saheeh by Shaykh Al-Albaanee.

[3] Reported in the four Sunan (Aboo Daawood, At-Tirmidhee, An-Nasaa’ee and Ibn Maajah) from a hadeeth of ‘AbdurRahmaan ibn Ya‘mar ad-Daylee radiy Allaahu ‘anhu declared authentic by Shaykh Al-Albaanee.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Certainly Creation and Commandment are His alone – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 19
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

And His saying, He the Most High:

إِنَّ رَبَّكُمُ اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ يُغْشِي اللَّيْلَ النَّهَارَ يَطْلُبُهُ حَثِيثًا وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ وَالنُّجُومَ مُسَخَّرَاتٍ بِأَمْرِهِ ۗ أَلَا لَهُ الْخَلْقُ وَالْأَمْرُ ۗ تَبَارَكَ اللَّهُ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ

Indeed your Lord is Allaah, Who created the heavens and the earth in six days, then He ascended upon the Throne. He causes the night to cover the day, it follows it swiftly, and the sun and the moon and the stars are subservient to His command. Certainly creation and commandment are His alone. Exalted is Allaah, the Lord of the whole of the creation. [7:54] 8


[8]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

Inna”: this is a particle for emphasis and it brings about the accusative case, and it is an introduction for an oath. An oath is to be understood as coming before it, which is taken to be, “By Allaah!”. “Inna Rabbakum”, (indeed your Lord): so this is the complement of the understood oath. “Inna Rabbakum”: meaning, your Creator and the One Who nurtured you with favours.

… is Allaah”: not anyone else besides Him, He the Perfect and Most High.

And then He mentioned the proof for that saying:

الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ

The One Who created the heavens and the earth [7:54]

This is the clear proof for the Lordship of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, that He created the heavens and the earth. No-one else created anything from either of them, and no-one helped Him, He the Perfect and Most High upon that. Rather He is alone in creating.

خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ

He created the heavens and the earth [7:54]

Does anyone from the people of shirk or the atheists oppose this and say, “Allaah did not create the heavens and the earth, rather the one who created them was so-and-so”, or, “I created them”, or “Such-and-such idol created them”? Has anyone from the creation said this in previous times or lately, even though this aayah is recited night and day, and no-one can oppose it, and nor will anyone ever be able to oppose it.

فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ – In six days”: these awe-inspiring and tremendous created things were created by Allaah in six days, and He was able to create them in a single moment, however He created them in six days for a wise purpose which is known to Him, He the Perfect and Most High. And the six days, the first of them was Sunday and the last of them was the day of Friday. So on the day of Friday the creation was completed, and therefore this day became the greatest of the days of the week. And it is the noblest one of the days, and it is the ‘Eed of the week and it is the most excellent of the days.

Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallaam said:

خير يوم طلعت فيه الشمس يوم الجمعة

“The best day on which the sun has arisen, is the day of Friday”[1] 

[1] Reported by Muslim and Aboo Daawood and At-Tirmidhee and An-Nasaa’ee from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiy Allaahu ‘anhu

Because the creation of the creation was completed on it, and on it Aadam was created, and he was entered into paradise and he was sent down from it and on it the Last Hour will be established, all of that will be on the day of Friday, so it is the most excellent of the days, and it was the last of the days of the creation of the heavens and the earth and whatever they contain.

ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ

Then He ascended upon the Throne [7:54]

This (i.e. ثُمَّ  thumma”) is a particle which joins and which indicates sequence, meaning that His Ascending upon the Throne came after the creation of the heavens and the earth because it is from the Attributes which are actions which Allaah does whenever He wishes.

And the meaning of Istawaa’ (He ascended upon) is: He ascended and was High.

Al-‘Arsh: it is the ceiling of the created things. And it is in the language: as-Sareer (a throne), and it is a Throne which has supports and is carried by the Angels and it is the greatest and most tremendous of the created things, and the highest one of the created things.

Al-Istiwaa’ (ascending): is an Attribute from the Attributes of Allaah which are actions, as befits His Majesty, He the Perfect and Most High. It is not like the mounting of one created being upon another created object, and He has no need of the Throne since He is the One Who holds and maintains the Throne and other than it:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُمْسِكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ أَن تَزُولَا ۚ وَلَئِن زَالَتَا إِنْ أَمْسَكَهُمَا مِنْ أَحَدٍ مِّن بَعْدِهِ

Allaah holds the heavens and the earth lest they should move away from their places, and if they were to move away from their places, then no-one else besides Him could hold them. [35:41]

So the Throne is in need of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, since it is something created, and Allaah has no need of the Throne or anything else. However, He ascended upon it for a wise purpose which is known to Him, He the Perfect and Most High. And Al-Istiwaa’ (Ascending) is a type of Al-‘Uloow (being High and Exalted), however Al-‘Uloow is an Attribute of His Self. As for Al-Istiwaa’ then it is an Attribute which is an action which He does whenever He wishes He the Perfect and Most High.

يُغْشِي اللَّيْلَ النَّهَارَ

He causes the night to cover the day [7:54]

He causes the night to be covered over with the day, and He causes the day to be covered over with the night so you see the creation being in light and then the night covers it over and it becomes dark, and the night is covered over by the day so it becomes bright.

يَطْلُبُهُ حَثِيثًا

It pursues it swiftly [7:54]

This one comes after that one immediately and is not delayed. So when the night departs the day comes, and when they day departs the night comes right away, this one is not delayed after this one. And this is from the completeness of His Ability, He the Perfect and Most High, that this one does not lag behind that one. And the sun is the tremendous star which is well-known, and the moon is likewise a celestial body from the seven major celestial bodies which orbit around each one of them floats and orbits around the earth, and the earth is fixed and still, He made it settled – meaning settled and firm for the welfare of the servants, and the sun and the rest of the celestial bodies orbit around it, not as is said by the people of conjecture who now say, those who claim to have knowledge, they say that the sun is fixed and the earth orbits around it, this is the opposite of what occurs in the Qur’aan.

وَالشَّمْسُ تَجْرِي لِمُسْتَقَرٍّ لَّهَا

And the sun runs on its fixed course to its appointed term [36:38]

Whereas they say the sun is fixed, O how Perfect is Allaah!

And the stars”: they are the stars, “they are subservient to His command”: they are subservient in their moving around and their orbiting continually and not slackening, and this a refutation of those who worship the sun and the moon and the stars, because they are subservient to the command of Allaah, they are under command. Allaah is the One Who causes them to move, and it is Allaah who can cause them to stop if He wishes, He the Perfect and Most High. So they are subservient, under control, they have no control at all over the affairs.

So He the Perfect commands them, so they proceed, and they orbit and they give off light in accordance with His creational command, He the Perfect and Most High. This one rises and this one sets, and they follow each other in  succession.

Ash-Shams (the sun), and Al-Qamar (the moon) and An-Nujoom (the stars) are in the accusative case because of being conjoined, because As-Samaawaat (the heavens) was in the accusative case, because it was the object of the verb, and the sign that it is in the accusative case is that it has a kasrah upon it in place of the fat-hah, because it is a sound feminine plural. And Al-Ard (the earth) is in the accusative case as is shown by the fat-hah, then He said, “and the sun and the moon” – they are joined grammatically to something [2] which is in the accusative case and what is joined to something in the accusative case is itself in the accusative case.

[2]  i.e. they are ‘joined’ to the heavens grammatically.

Musakhkharaatin”, (they are subservient): is the accusative case because it is the accusative of state or condition, meaning their condition is that they are subservient. And the sign that it is in the accusative case is a kasrah in place of a fat-hah, because it is joined to a sound feminine plural.

He said:

أَلَا لَهُ الْخَلْقُ وَالْأَمْرُ

Certainly creation and commandment are His alone [7:54]

Alaa”: is a term to draw attention and to affirm something.

“For Him”: meaning He the Perfect and Most High, not for anyone else besides Him.

“Creation”: it is to bring something into existence, so He is the One Who is Fully Able to create whenever He wants to, He the Perfect and Most High, He creates whatever He wishes.

“And the command”: His command, He the Perfect and Most High, and it is His speech, He the Perfect and Most High, His creational command and His legislational command.

His Creational Command: that which He has commanded the created beings with and they obey Him in it and respond to Him, such as His saying:

فَقَالَ لَهَا وَلِلْأَرْضِ ائْتِيَا طَوْعًا أَوْ كَرْهًا

So He said to it (the heavens) and to the earth, come about both of you willingly or unwillingly [41:11] 

He commanded the two of them He the Perfect, and this was a creational command which He commanded the heavens and the earth with, so they came into being.

إِنَّمَا أَمْرُهُ إِذَا أَرَادَ شَيْئًا أَن يَقُولَ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ

His command is just that when He wants something He says to it “Be!”, and it is. [36:82]

This is Allaah’s Creational Command.

As for His Legislational Command: then it is His revelation which was sent down by which He commands His servants. He commands them to worship Him, He commands them with the prayer, He commands them with the Zakaat, He commands them with dutifulness to the parents, this is His Legislational Command. Entering into it are His commands and prohibitions which are in the honourable Qur’aan and in the Prophetic Sunnah. This is from the command of Allaah the Perfect and Most High.

And since creation and commandment are for Him, then what remains for other than Him, He the Perfect and Most High? And therefore Ibn ‘Umar said when he recited this aayah, “Whoever has  something then let him seek after it”. And the aayah proves the difference between creating and commanding, so it contains a refutation of those who say that the Qur’aan is created, because the Qur’aan is from the command, and Allaah’s command is not a created thing, since Allaah made a difference between creating and between commanding. So He made them two separate things, and the Qur’aan enters into His command, so it is not something created.

And this is what Imaam Ahmad used to overcome the Jahmiyyah in argument when they requested from him that he should say that the Qur’aan was something created. He said, “Is the Qur’aan from the creation or from the command?” They responded, “The Qur’aan is from His command.” He said, “The command is something different to the creation. Allaah made a difference between this and between the creation. So He made the creation one thing and His command something else.”

The command is His speech, and as for the creation then it is His bringing into existance and making something. There is a difference between them.

Tabaarak Allaah”: means: tremendously great is the One whose actions are these, He the Perfect and Most High. And whose Ability is such and these are the things which He has created, He the Exalted and Most High.

And, Tabaarak: is a verb which is used specifically for Him, He the Perfect, so it cannot be applied to anyone besides Him. And al-Barakah (blessing) it means abundance of good and its increase, and the blessings which come from Allaah the Majestic and Most High do not end. As for a created being, it cannot be said about him, “tabaarak”. Rather it can be said to him, “mubaarak” meaning, “May you receive blessing”, meaning may Allaah put blessing into him and make him blessed. And all blessing is from Allaah the Perfect and Most High.

The Lord of the whole of creation”: just as preceded.

So this aayah contains affirmation of at-Tawheed, tawheed of Allaah’s Lordship and tawheed of Allaah’s right to worship, as has preceded.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Do not Prostrate to the Sun nor to the Moon, but rather Prostrate to Allaah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 18 (7:48 –  33:25)
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


The Proof for His Lordship and His Divinity and Right to All Worship, He the Perfect and Most High

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

And the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ اللَّيْلُ وَالنَّهَارُ وَالشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ ۚ لَا تَسْجُدُوا لِلشَّمْسِ وَلَا لِلْقَمَرِ وَاسْجُدُوا لِلَّهِ الَّذِي خَلَقَهُنَّ إِن كُنتُمْ إِيَّاهُ تَعْبُدُونَ

And from His signs are the night and the day and the sun and the moon. Do not prostrate to the sun nor to the moon, but rather prostrate to Allaah, the One Who created them if you truly worship Him. [41:37] 7


[7]: Shaykh Fawzan’s Explanation:

This is a proof for His Ruboobiyyah (Lordship) and Ilaahiyyah (Divinity and Right to Worship), He the Perfect and Most High.

وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ اللَّيْلُ وَالنَّهَارُ وَالشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ

And from His signs are the night and the day and the sun and the moon [41:37]

The sun and the moon: the sun is the tremedous star which gives light to the creation, as a lamp burning and shining, just as Allaah the Most High said:

وَجَعَلْنَا سِرَاجًا وَهَّاجًا

And We have made it (the sun) a lamp, burning and shining. [78:13]

And the moon is a light which brightens the night-time and gives light to the pathway of the people. And from their benefits also is the well-being of the creation through its trees and its fruits and oceans. So if the sun were hidden away from the creation, then the creation would suffer harm, and many of the means of livelihood and their welfare would be corrupted and if the moon were hidden away, then likewise. The moon also brings about benefit for their fruits and their trees, along with what it contains also from awareness of reckoning (of time periods). He the Most High said:

هُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ الشَّمْسَ ضِيَاءً وَالْقَمَرَ نُورًا وَقَدَّرَهُ مَنَازِلَ لِتَعْلَمُوا عَدَدَ السِّنِينَ وَالْحِسَابَ

And We made the moon a light and appointed set phases for it so that you should know the number of years and the reckoning of the months days and hours. [10:5]

And He the Most High said:

يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْأَهِلَّةِ ۖ قُلْ هِيَ مَوَاقِيتُ لِلنَّاسِ وَالْحَجِّ

They ask you about the crescent moons, then say: They are signs to mark fixed periods of time for mankind and for the Hajj [2:189]

So the crescent moons bring benefit for awareness of time-periods and deadlines, deadlines for debts and deadlines for the waiting periods of the women, and the set times for acts of worship and fasting and Hajj, all of them are known by reckoning based upon these two lights, the sun and the moon. So the solar reckoning and the lunar reckoning contain many benefits for all of the creation.

And from those things which He has created are the seven heavens. He the Most High said:

اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ وَمِنَ الْأَرْضِ مِثْلَهُنَّ

Allaah is the One Who created seven heavens, and their like from the earth. [65:12]

الَّذِي خَلَقَ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ طِبَاقًا

Allaah the One Who created seven heavens in levels (one above the other) [67:3]

Each being above the other, the lowest heaven, then the one which follows it up until the seventh one. And above them all is the Throne of the Most Merciful, He the Perfect and Most High.

And the earths are seven just as He the Most High said:

الْأَرْضِ مِثْلَهُنَّ

And their like from the earth [65:12]

So they are seven levels or layers also, and every level from the levels of the seven heavens and the earths have inhabitants and occupants. And whatever planets and stars are in the heavens the sun and the moon and whatever is in the earth from created things from animals with their different types and from mountains and trees and rocks and minerals and oceans. These are from the signs of Allaah the Perfect and Most High, the creational signs, which are seen and witnessed.

He rahimahullaah said: and the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ اللَّيْلُ وَالنَّهَارُ وَالشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ ۚ لَا تَسْجُدُوا لِلشَّمْسِ وَلَا لِلْقَمَرِ وَاسْجُدُوا لِلَّهِ الَّذِي خَلَقَهُنَّ إِن كُنتُمْ إِيَّاهُ تَعْبُدُونَ

And from His signs are the night and the day and the sun and the moon. Do not prostrate to the sun nor to the moon, but rather prostrate to Allaah, the One Who created them if you truly worship Him. [41:37]

And from His signs is the night: meaning from His signs which prove Lordship and His Ability and His sole right to worship to the exclusion of all else besides Him, is the night which brings darkness, and the daytime which brings light to the whole of the creation. This is from the amazing signs of Allaah, the Perfect and Most High.

So who can make the whole of the creation dark, all at once, and then make the whole of the creation bright, all at once? He is Allaah the Perfect and Most High. If all of the creation were to gather together to make one part of the earth bright, they would not be able except to make a restricted area bright, if they brought all the electrical generators which are in the world, all of them, they could not make bright except a restricted portion of the earth. As for the sun and the moon then they bring light to the whole of the earth, the night and the day follow each other in succession, and the sun and the moon likewise.

He the Most High said:

لَا تَسْجُدُوا لِلشَّمْسِ وَلَا لِلْقَمَرِ وَاسْجُدُوا لِلَّهِ الَّذِي خَلَقَهُنَّ إِن كُنتُمْ إِيَّاهُ تَعْبُدُونَ

Do not prostrate to the sun nor to the moon, but rather prostrate to Allaah, the One Who created them, if it is He that you truly worship. [41:37]

This is a nullification of shirk: Do not prostrate to created things. Since from the greatest of the created things are the sun and the moon, and because the people of shirk, they used to worship the sun and prostrate to it, and from them were those who used to worship the moon and the stars, such as the people of Ibraaheem, they would build for them temples in the form of the stars and they would worship them. So His saying, He the Most High:

لَا تَسْجُدُوا لِلشَّمْسِ

Do not prostrate to the sun [41:37]

As-Sujood means placing the forehead upon the ground in humble submission to the one who is worshipped, and it is the greatest of the types of worship, and Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallaam said:

أقرب ما يكون العبد من ربه وهو ساجد

“The closest that the servant comes to his Lord is whilst he is in prostration” [1]

[1]  Reported by Muslim (482) from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiy Allaahu ‘anhu. [And the narration of Muslim has a completion at the end, “So therefore make plentiful supplication.”]

So the greatest of the types of worship is prostration upon the ground, since your face is the thing which you cherish the most, you have placed it for Allaah upon the ground, as an act of worship for Allaah and in submission before Him, He the Perfect and Most High. This is true prostration, and it is not befitting to perform it as worship except for Allaah.

As for prostrating to the sun and the moon, then it is prostration to a created thing, which does not have the right to be prostrated to. So it is not permissible to prostrate to created things, but rather prostration is only for the Creator of the created things. As for the created things, then they are just like you, something created, something managed and controlled. Would you prostrate to a created being who is incapable, just the same as you? This is not permissible. Where have the intellects gone?

Prostration is only deserved by the Creator, He the Perfect and Most High, who is not rendered incapable by anything. So prostration is the right of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, it is not the right of the creation, no matter how great and large the created being is, it is still a created being who is weak and managed and controlled.

لَا تَسْجُدُوا لِلشَّمْسِ وَلَا لِلْقَمَرِ وَاسْجُدُوا لِلَّهِ الَّذِي خَلَقَهُنَّ إِن كُنتُمْ إِيَّاهُ تَعْبُدُونَ

Do not prostrate to the sun nor to the moon, but rather prostrate to Allaah, the One Who created them, if it is He that you truly worship. [41:37]

So what is obligatory is that we do not worship except Allaah. So if you make prostration to Him and you also prostrate to other than Him, then you are not worshippers of Allaah with correct worship. Rather you are worshipping Him along with shirk, and shirk corrupts and destroys worship.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

If it is said to you, “How did you come to know of your Lord” – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 17 Part B
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

فإذَا قيلَ لكَ بما عرفْتَ ربَّك؟ فقُل بآياتِه ومخلوقاتِه

So if it is said to you, “How did you come to know of your Lord”, then say, “through His Signs and those things which He has created” 5


[5]: Shaykh Fawzan’s Explanation:

You have said, “My Lord is Allaah”, or, “My Lord is Allaah Who nurtured me with His favours”. So what is the proof that Allaah is your Lord who nurtured you with His favours? So the Shaikh brought proofs from the revelation and from the intellect as will follow. So if it is said to you, “How did you come to know of your Lord?”, because whoever claims something, then he must establish proof upon his claim:

And claims if the people do not establish proof

 For them, then their people are mere claimants 

Everyone who makes a claim must establish the proof for his claim, otherwise his claim will not be correct. You have said, “My Lord is Allaah who nurtured me and nurtured the whole of the creation through His favours”. What is the proof? Then say, “The proof is His Signs and those things which He has created”.

Al-Aayaat is the plural of aayah and the word aayah in the language is a sign showing something and indicating something, just as he sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

آية المنافق ثلاث

“The aayah (sign) of the hypocrite is in three”[1]

[1] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (33) and by Muslim (59) from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiy Allaahu ‘anhu

Meaning his sign.

His saying, “through His Signs”: meaning the Signs and the proofs which indicate Him, He the Perfect and Most High. So all of these created beings which you see, all of them were non-existent, and then Allaah produced them and created them by His Ability, He the Perfect and Most High. And from them are created beings which are constantly renewed such as plants and the newborn, and things which were not present and then they came about, and you look upon them – who is the one who created them? He is Allaah the Perfect and Most High. Do they create themselves?, did anyone from mankind create them? No-one can claim this, and no-one is able to claim it.

He the Most High said:

أَمْ خُلِقُوا مِنْ غَيْرِ شَيْءٍ أَمْ هُمُ الْخَالِقُونَ

أَمْ خَلَقُوا السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ ۚ بَل لَّا يُوقِنُونَ

Or were they created without any creator, or are they themselves the creators, or did they create the heavens and the earth? Rather they do not have certain faith [52:35-36]

These things did not produce themselves, nor were they produced by others from the created beings at all, and no-one can ever create a tree or a gnat or a fly:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ لَن يَخْلُقُوا ذُبَابًا وَلَوِ اجْتَمَعُوا لَهُ

Those whom you call upon besides Allaah, they can never create even a fly, even if they gathered together to do it [22:73]

So this creation proves the Creator, He the Perfect and Most High, and therefore, when it was said unexpectedly to the bedouin man, “How did you come to know about your Lord?”. He responded, “The piece of camel dung proves that there is a camel, and the footprint proves that there is a man who is travelling. Does not this creation prove, the One Who is Subtle and Kind, the One Who is All-Aware?”

So when you see a footprint upon the ground, does it not prove to you that someone has walked upon this ground, if you see a piece of camel dung does it not prove to you that there are camels upon this land or that a camel has passed by? A piece of camel dung proves that there has been a camel, and a footprint prove that somebody has passed by.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

ومِنْ آياتِه الليلُ والنهارُ والشمسُ والقمرُ، ومِنْ مخلوقاتِه السمواتُ السَّبْعُ والأَرْضُونَ السَّبع ومَا فيهنَّ وما بينهما

And from His Signs are the night and the day and the sun and the moon, and from that which He has created are the seven heavens and the seven earths and whatever is within them and whatever is between them.6


[6]: Shaykh Fawzan’s Explanation:

His saying, “And from His Signs are the night and the day and the sun and the moon”: so the aayaat (Signs) are of two categories:

The first category: Ayaatun Kawniyyah, His Signs within the creation which we can see, such as the heavens and the earth and the stars and the sun and the moon and the mountains and the trees and the oceans. They are called Signs because they contain signs proving their Creator, He the Perfect and Most High, and therefore poet Abul-Ataahiyah said:

So how strange, how can the One deserving worship be disobeyed

Or how can the one who denies deny Him?

 When everything contains a Sign for Him

 Proving that He is One 

And there is a witness for Allaah in every movement

 And every stillness of the creation 

How can anyone deny Allaah the Majestic and Most High and saying there is no Lord for this whole creation, and that these created beings came about without any creator. And if they did come about through a creator, then who is this creator besides Allaah the Majestic and Most High, explain to me. You will not find a creator besides Allaah the Perfect and Most High:

أَمْ جَعَلُوا لِلَّهِ شُرَكَاءَ خَلَقُوا كَخَلْقِهِ فَتَشَابَهَ الْخَلْقُ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ قُلِ اللَّهُ خَالِقُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُوَ الْوَاحِدُ الْقَهَّارُ

Or do they set up partners for Allaah who create with the like of His creation so that the creation is obscured for them. Say: Allaah is the Creator of everything and He is the One, the Overwhelming Subduer [13:16] 

The second category: al-Aayaat-ul-Qur’aaniyyah, aayahs of the Qur’aan which are recited from the revelation which has been sent down to the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, all of these prove the existence of the Lord, the Perfect and Most High, and His Perfection and His Attributes and His Names, and that He is the One deserving of worship, He alone with no partner, all of them prove that, the creational Signs and the aayahs of the Qur’aan.

The creational Signs prove their Creator, and the One Who brought them into existence and the One Who controls them. And the aayahs of the Qur’aan contain the command to worship Allaah and they contain affirmation of tawheed of Lordship and using it as a proof for tawheed of worship. And the command to worship Allaah the Perfect and Most High, all of the Qur’aan is concentrated upon this meaning and it was sent down for this meaning.

And from His Signs are the night and the day and the sun and the moon, these are from the greatest Signs of Allaah the Perfect and Most High, the dark night which covers this creation, and the bright day which brings light to this creation, so that they can go about for their work. He the Most High said:

قُلْ أَرَأَيْتُمْ إِن جَعَلَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكُمُ اللَّيْلَ سَرْمَدًا إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ مَنْ إِلَٰهٌ غَيْرُ اللَّهِ يَأْتِيكُم بِضِيَاءٍ ۖ أَفَلَا تَسْمَعُونَ

قُلْ أَرَأَيْتُمْ إِن جَعَلَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكُمُ النَّهَارَ سَرْمَدًا إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ مَنْ إِلَٰهٌ غَيْرُ اللَّهِ يَأْتِيكُم بِلَيْلٍ تَسْكُنُونَ فِيهِ ۖ أَفَلَا تُبْصِرُونَ

وَمِن رَّحْمَتِهِ جَعَلَ لَكُمُ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ لِتَسْكُنُوا فِيهِ وَلِتَبْتَغُوا مِن فَضْلِهِ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ

Say: Do you see if Allaah made the night continuous upon you until the Day of Resurrection, what deity besides Allaah could bring you light? Will you not then listen?

Say: Do you see if Allaah made the day continuous upon you until the Day of Resurrection, what deity besides Allaah could bring you night-time in which you could rest? Will you not see?

And from His Mercy upon you is that He has made the night and the day so that you may rest therein and seek of His bounty and that you should be thankful. [28:71-73]

This is from the greatest of the Signs of Allaah, this night and this day. The whole time is not night and the whole of time is not day, because if that were the case then the welfare of the people would be lost and they would become fatigued.

Allaah made the night and the day to follow each other in succession for them and then the night and the day are ordered, neither of them clashes nor do they alter, upon a single ordered system which proves the wisdom of the All-Wise One, He the Perfect and Most High.

The actions of the servants and that which they make end in destruction, and they clash with each other whatever they may be and they stop working.

As for the things created by Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, then they do not become destroyed, except at the time when Allaah permits their destruction. So the night and the day continue, neither of them ceases working, whereas things made by the creation stop working and come to destruction and perish no matter how strong they are and how large they are.

So how many abandoned cars do you see and planes and ships even though they were strong and had been taken care of, yet they end in destruction and they stop working. Does the night-time stop working or does the day-time stop working? No, because its maker has full Ability and is All-Wise, He the Majestic and Most High:

صُنْعَ اللَّهِ الَّذِي أَتْقَنَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ

The creation of Allaah who has made everything firmly and precisely. [27:88]

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Everything besides Allaah is a created being, and I am one of those created beings – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 17 Part A
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link

Previous ClassIf it is said to you, “Who is your Lord?


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

وكلُّ ما سِوَى اللهِ عالََمٌ وأنا واحدٌ من ذلكَ العالَمِ

And everything besides Allaah is a created being, and I am one of those created beings.4


[4]: Shaykh Fawzan’s Explanation:

Then the Shaikh rahimahullah, explained the manner in which this aayah is used as an evidence.

So his saying, “And everything besides Allaah is a created being, and I am one of those created beings.”: so therefore Allaah is my Lord, because Allaah is the Lord of all of the created beings and I am one of the created beings. So no-one is able to say, “I have a lord besides the Lord of the creation”, neither an unbeliever nor a Muslim. This will not be possible ever and no person with intellect will say it. This is a proof for the Ruboobiyyah (Lordship) of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic and since He is the Lord of the whole of the creation, then therefore He is the One deserving worship, and this nullifies the worship of others besides Him, He the Perfect and Most High, and therefore after it He said:

إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

You alone do we worship and Your aid alone do we seek. [1:5]

This indicates restriction, because the fact that the governed word is brought forward, “Iyyaaka”, and the governing verb نَعْبُدُ is put back, indicates restriction. So, “You, we worship”, is different to, “we worship you”, because saying, “we worship”, this is merely affirmation. However, “You, we worship”, this includes negation and affirmation, meaning, “we do not worship anyone else besides you”. And worship will not be correct except with negation and affirmation, and it is the meaning of Laa ilaaha illallaah, for it contains negation and affirmation, a negation for the right to be worshipped from everything else besides Allaah, and affirmation of it for Allaah the Mighty and Majestic.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

If it is said to you, “Who is your Lord? – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 16
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link

Previous Class: These Three Fundamental Principles have Tremendous Importance


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

فإذا قيلَ لكَ: مَنْ رَبُّكَ؟ فقلْ ربي اللهُ الذي ربّاني ورَبَّى جميعَ العالمينَ بنعمِهِ

So if it is said to you, “Who is your Lord?”, then say, “My Lord is Allaah who nurtured me and all of the creation with His favours.” 2


[2]: Shaykh Fawzan’s Explanation:

The Shaikh rahimahullaah having explained the three fundamental principles in general terms, wanted to explain them in detail one by one, with their evidences from the Book and the Sunnah, and from Allaah’s signs within the creation, and from the intellectual evidences. And it is likewise obligatory to base creed and belief upon proofs from the Book and the Sunnah, and upon examination of the signs which Allaah has placed within the creation so that it should be firmly grounded and firmly established in the heart and so that all doubts are removed.

As for creed and beliefs based upon shubuhaat (incorrect suspicions) and upon doubts and upon sayings of the people and upon blind-following, then these will be beliefs which are short-lived and will not remain firmly established, and they will be open to being disproven and they will be open to being totally refuted.

So creed and belief and the rest of the rulings of the legislation are not established except with proofs of the Book and the Sunnah and with accepted intellectual proofs. And therefore the Shaikh rahimahullaah he quoted many proofs for these three fundamental principles, so no principle from them occurs except that he has support it with evidences and proofs about which there is certainty which repel doubts and false desires and which firmly implant the creed and belief in the heart.

His saying rahimahullaah, “So if it is said to you”: meaning if you are asked about your Lord, and this is a question which will occur, you will be indeed asked about it in this world and in the hereafter, so it is essential that you have knowledge of your Lord the Mighty and Majestic, and that you respond with the correct response based upon certainty and clear proof. So then say, “My Lord is Allaah”, this is the answer, “the One Who nurtured me and nurtured the whole of the creation with His favours.” This is using an intellectual proof.

So Ar-Rabb, the Lord the Majestic and Most High, He is the One who nurtures all of His servants with His favours and nourishes them with the provision which He gives. He creates them after they were previously nothing mentioned, they were in the wombs of their mothers, in one form of creation after another within three depths of darkness. And He causes provision to reach them, even in the wombs of their mothers, and therefore the body of the fetus develops in the womb of the mother and grows larger, because the provision from Allaah the Perfect and Most High reaches it and nourishment reaches it.

Then the soul is breathed into it so it moves and it comes to life, by the permission of Allaah. This is tarbiyyah (nurturing) in the womb. Then when it comes out, then Allaah the Perfect nurtures it with His favours giving it health and well-being and He causes the milk of its mother to flow for it, so it is nourished until it can eat food and can do without milk. Then little by little its intellect grows and its hearing and seeing develops, it develops little by little until it reaches puberty then it develops further until it reaches its full strength, until it reaches forty years old and it is at the limit of its strength.

So who is it that nourishes it from the day when He created it in the womb of its mother until it dies, who is it who nourishes it, then who is it who causes this food and this drink to be digested and absorbed in its body so that it reaches every cell and every muscle and every place in its body, who is it who makes food and drink appetizing for it, who is it who causes that to pass through and who removes what is harmful from it, who is it who does this and nurtures this human being, is it not Allaah the Perfect and Most High? This is the Lord the Perfect and Most High, the one who nurtures, He is the one who nurtured me and nurtured all of the created beings by His favours.

Everything upon the face of the earth from the realms of humans and animals and the realm of the land and the sea, from the greatest created thing to the smallest created thing upon the land and the sea, all of them are nourished by His favours and His provision. He the Most High said:

أَمَّنْ هَٰذَا الَّذِي يَرْزُقُكُمْ إِنْ أَمْسَكَ رِزْقَهُ

Or who is it that could give you provision if your Lord were to withold the provision which He gives to you? [67:21]

And He said:

وَمَا مِن دَابَّةٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ إِلَّا عَلَى اللَّهِ رِزْقُهَا وَيَعْلَمُ مُسْتَقَرَّهَا وَمُسْتَوْدَعَهَا

And there is no creature upon the earth except that its provision is dependent upon Allaah and He knows its dwelling place and its resting place. [11:6]

And He said:

وَكَأَيِّن مِّن دَابَّةٍ لَّا تَحْمِلُ رِزْقَهَا اللَّهُ يَرْزُقُهَا وَإِيَّاكُمْ ۚ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

And how many a creature there is which does not carry its own provision. Allaah provides for it and for you. He is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing. [29:60]

This is the Lord, the One free of all imperfections:

ذَٰلِكُمُ اللَّهُ رَبُّكُمْ فَاعْبُدُوهُ

That is Allaah your Lord so worship Him alone. [10:3]

As for other than Allaah the Majestic and Most High, then it does not possess and have ability over anything from that, neither the idols nor anything else, no-one else possesses and has ability over granting provision, rather it is one who is provided for, it is a created being like yourself.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

And He is the One Whom I worship and there is no other whom I worship besides Him, and the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

All praise is for Allaah the Lord of the whole of creation [1:2] 3


[3]: Shaykh Fawzan’s Explanation:

His saying, “And He is the One Whom I worship”: the Lord, the One who is like this He is the One who deserves worship from me and from other than me. Then the Shaikh also draws attention to the fact that it is not sufficient to affirm Ruboobiyyah (Allaah’s Lordship), it is not sufficient that you say, “My Lord is Allaah who nurtured me with His favours.”

This is not sufficient, you must acknowledge His right to all worship, and you must make all worship purely and sincerely for Him. And this is the difference between the person of tawheed and the person of shirk. So the person of tawheed affirms the Lordship of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic and he affirms His sole right to worship, He alone with no partner, whereas the person of shirk, he affirms the Lordship of Allaah, however he is one who associates others along with Him in his worship of Him. He associates along with Him those who do not create and do not provide provision and do not possess anything. This is the difference between the person of tawheed and the person of shirk. The person of tawheed says, “My Lord is Allaah and He is the One Whom I worship, and I have no other one whom I worship besides Him.”, whereas the person of shirk, he says, “My Lord is Allaah.” However worship with him is not solely for Allaah, so he worships along with Allaah, trees and rocks and beloved servants of Allaah and righteous people and graves. So he becomes a person of shirk, and the affirmation of Lordship does not benefit him, and it does not enter him into Islaam.

So his saying, “And He is the One Whom I worship”: meaning the Deity Whom I worship.

And his saying, “And I have no other whom I worship besides Him”: neither from the Angels nor from the Messengers nor from the righteous people nor from trees nor rocks nor anything else, I have nothing which I worship besides Him, He the Perfect and Most High. This is affirmation of tawheed with the proof, and this is an intellectual proof, and then he mentioned the textual proof the Qur’aan.

And the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

All Praise is for Allaah, the Lord and Nurturer of the whole of the creation. [1:2]

This aayah is the start of the Qur’aan in the Mus-haf (written copy of the Qur’aan), there is nothing before it except for, “In the Name of Allaah, the Extremely Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy.” And it is the conclusion of the speech of the people of Paradise, He the Most High said:

وَآخِرُ دَعْوَاهُمْ أَنِ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

And the conclusion of their call will be that all Praise is for Allaah, the Lord of the whole of creation [10:10]

And Allaah the Majestic and Most High began this creation with this phrase.

He the Most High said:

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَجَعَلَ الظُّلُمَاتِ وَالنُّورَ

All praise is for Allaah He Who created the heavens and the earth and made the darkness and the light. [6:1]

And He will conclude the creation with it. He the Most High said:

وَقُضِيَ بَيْنَهُم بِالْحَقِّ وَقِيلَ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

And judgement will be passed upon them all with justice, and judgement will be concluded by its being said that all praise is for Allaah the Lord of creation [39:75]

So He began the creation with it and He concluded with it, so it is a tremendous saying.

So His saying He the Most High, “Al-Hamd: it is praise of the One Who is being praised along with love of Him and veneration of Him. And the, “Al-”, in, “Al-Hamd”, is to make it totally comprehensive, meaning all praise is for Allaah, it belongs to Him and He is deserving of it, so He is the One Who deserves total and unrestricted praise. As for other than him, then he can be praised in accordance with the level of the fine and good things which he does. As for total and unrestricted and complete praise then it is for Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, because favours, all of them are from Him.

And even the created being if he does something good to you, then it is from Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, He is the One Who caused this created being to do something useful for you, and He is the One Who enabled him to do good for you, so indeed praise returns to Allaah the Perfect and Most High.

And his saying, “Lillaah”: the jaar and the majroor are connected to something left unmentioned which is the predicate for the subject. So the phrase means: praise exists or is confirmed for Allaah the Mighty and Majestic.

And, “Allaah”: means, the One possessing Divinity and the right to be worshipped over the whole of His creation. And this Name, no-one else besides Him, He the Perfect can be called it, no-one can be called Allaah. Even the Pharoah, he did not say, “I am Allaah”, rather he said, “I am your Lord”. So this Name is particular to Allaah, no-one can ever be called it, and no-one has the audacity to say, “I am Allaah.”

Rabbi”: this is a qualifying noun for Allaah’s Name, and it is in the genitive case and it is a governing noun.

Al-‘Aalameen”: is a governed noun in the genitive case, and the sign that it is in the genitive case is the, “yaa”. Because it it joined to the sound masculine plural.

So it is clear that praise, all of it, and extolling, all of it, is for Allaah the Lord of the whole of creation.

And the world of the Angels and the world of inanimate objects and of birds and the world of beasts of prey and the world of animals and the world of insects and of ants and the many worlds or realms of creation that there are upon the land and in the sea, they are not known except to Allaah, and no-one can enumerate them except Allaah. All of them, Allaah is their Lord.

Rabb-ul-‘Aalameen”, (the Lord of all of the creation): this cannot be applied except to Allaah the Perfect the Mighty and Majestic. It is not possible for anyone to be called, “Rabb-ul-‘Aalameen”.

So if it said, “Ar-Rabb”, (The Lord): then this cannot be used except for Allaah the Majestic and Most High, it cannot be used except for Him. As for a created being, then the term can be used restrictedly so that it is said, Rabb-ad-Daar “the master of the house”, or, “the owner of the animal”, meaning its owner and its master.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links: