Knowledge of the Current Affairs (Fiqh ul-Waaqi) – Imam al-Albaani

BismillaahKnowledge of Current Affairs (Fiqh al Waaqi) – by  Imam al-Albaani
Translated by Abu Talhah Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Author’s Introduction

All praise is for Allaah, Lord of the worlds and may His praises and peace be upon the noblest of Messengers and upon his family and all his Companions.

To proceed: I have included in this treatise the answer to a question asked about that which has been named Fiqh ul- Waaqi’ , its ruling, how great is the Muslims’ need for it and an explanation of its correct form in the Sharee’ah. The basis for this treatise was an unprepared answer in a sitting from the sittings of knowledge, in which there were, all praise is for Allaah, a number of Muslim youth keen to seek correct knowledge, drawn from the Book and the Sunnah, upon the manhaj of the Salaf us- Saalih (the Pious Predecessors), the best of this Ummah.

One of these brothers, may Allaah reward him with good, transcribed my words from cassette-tape and presented it to me. I corrected it, added to it and revised it for publication, such that its benefit would be more universal and of greater worth , if Allaah wills. I ask Allaah to make this brief treatise of benefit to it’s reader and to make it of use to those who seek it. Indeed He is the One. who hears and responds.

Muhammad Naasir ud-Deen al-Albaanee
Ammaan, 29th of Shawwaal 1412H.

The Knowledge of Current Affairs

All praise is for Allaah. We praise Him, seek His aid, seek His forgiveness and we seek Allaah’s refuge from the evil of ourselves and from our evil actions. Whosoever Allaah guides, then none can misguide him and whosoever Allaah misguides, then none can guide him. I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped but Allaah alone, having no partners and I bear witness that Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is His slave and Messenger.

To proceed:

The Messenger of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

“The nations are about to call each other and set upon you just as the diners sets upon food.” It was said, Will it be because of our small number that day. He said, “Rather, on that day you will be many, but you will be like foam, like the foam on the river and Allaah will remove the fear of you from the hearts of your enemies and will throw weakness (wahn) into your hearts.”  Someone said, O Messenger of Allaah, what is wahnHe said, “Love of the world and hatred for death.” [1]

[Saheeh – related by Abu Daawood (4297), ar-Rooyaanee in al-Musnad (2/ 134/25), Ibn Asaakir in Taareekh Dimashq (2/ 97/ 8) from Thawbaan – radiallaahu ’anhu. It was authenticated in as-Saheehah (958) of Shaikh al-Albaanee.]

The State of Affairs of the Muslims

This noble prophetic hadeeth has manifested, with the strongest expression and clearest image, the very great trial (fitnah) that has come upon the Muslims, which has destroyed their unity, weakened their resolve and split their ranks. Part of this trial has struck at the root of the hearts of a great number of du’aat and students of knowledge so that they have become divided , regretfully, between themselves. Some of them speaking ill of others and the others criticizing the remainder and refuting them.

Recognizing the Truth through Refutation

These rebuttals on their own, or these criticisms alone, will harm neither the one refuting, nor the one refuted. Since, with the people of Justice, the truth is recognized by its light and its proofs. This is not so with the people of blind-sectarianism and deviation. But what will harm them is speech without knowledge, talking without restraint and speaking untruthfully about the servants of Allaah!

The Matter of Fiqh ul-Waaqi’

During this trial, various questions have sprung-up concerning fiqh, manhaj and da’wah and we were able to answer them at that time with answers backed by knowledge and all praise is for Allaah, the Most Perfect.

Amongst the questions brought about by this trial, about which there had been much talk is that which some have decided to start calling Fiqh ul- Waaqi. I do not argue concerning the form of this knowledge for which they have newly invented this name which is Fiqh ul- Waaqi’ , since many of the scholars have previously written that those who should take on the responsibility of guiding the Ummah and providing answers to their problems (that they) should be aware of and know their state of affairs. Therefore, from amongst those sayings well-known is: Passing judgement about a matter comes after comprehending it. This does not come about except by knowing the situation surrounding the matter under discussion. This is a basic principle of giving religious verdicts (fataawaa) in particular and from the principles of knowledge in general.

S0 Fiqh ul- Waaqi’, is to find out those things which are of importance to the Muslims from their affairs, or the plans of their enemies, in order to warn them and uplift them practically. It is not speculative talk nor preoccupying oneself with news and reports about the unbelievers nor drowning oneself in analyzing them and their thoughts!

The Importance of Knowing the State of Affairs

So knowing the situation in order to arrive by it at the Sharee’ah ruling is an important obligation from the obligations which have to be carried out by a discerning section of the specialist Muslim students of knowledge. Just like any branch of Sharee’ah knowledge, or social, economic or military affairs or any knowledge which benefits the Ummah of lslaam and brings it closer to the roads leading to a return of its strength, splendour and supremacy; especially when these branches of knowledge develop with the change of time and place.

Some Categories of Fiqh which are Obligatory

It must be mentioned here, that the category of Fiqh [2] required from the Muslims as a whole is not just the Fiqh of the schools of thought, which they know and are instructed in, nor this Fiqh which some of the young du’aat have become aware of and started to call the attention of others towards. Since the categories of Fiqh which are obligatory upon the Muslims to master, even if they are only of the level of being obligatory upon some (Fard Kifaayah) are greater than all of this, and more widespread.

[2] Fiqh: Understanding. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said. as is related by al-Bukhaaree (1/25) and at-Tahaawee in Mushkil ul-Aathaar (2/278): “When Allaah intends excellence for someone, He gives them the understanding (Fiqh) of the Deen. Indeed I am the distributor and Allaah is the giver. (Publisher’s Note)

So from this, for example, is Fiqh ul-Kitaab (understanding the Book), Fiqh us-Sunnah (understanding the Sunnah), Fiqh ul-Lughah (understanding the Language), Fiqh us-Sunan ul-Kawniyyah (understanding the ways in which the creation Operates), Fiqh ul-Khilaaf (understanding the differences between the scholars) and their like.

These categories of Fiqh , in general, are of no lesser importance than the two types of Fiqh previously indicated, whether the Fiqh that is well- known or Fiqh ul- Waaqi ’ which we are at the moment trying to clarify here. Despite all of this, we do not find anyone who calls the attention of the people to these categories of Fiqh! Particularly Fiqh ul-Kitaab was-Sunnah, which is the head of these categories and is their foundation. This Fiqh, which if someone were to say that it is obligatory upon every individual (Fard ’Ayn), then he would not be far wrong, due to the dire need of the Muslims for it and how necessary it is for them. Yet, in spite of this, we do not hear those who speak constantly about it, laying down its methodology, nor occupying the youth with it, nor training and cultivating them upon it!

What We Need is the Manhaj, not Mere Talk

Indeed, there are many, all praise is for Allaah, who speak about the Book and the Sunnah today and point to them. However, the obligation that we require is not in merely writing a small work here and giving a lecture there, but rather What we need is that the Book and the Sunnah are made the general framework for every small or large matter and that their manhaj is made the undergarment and overgarment of Da’wah – its beginning and its end and that the thinking of those youths and others who are giving Da’wah should be lead in accordance with this great manhaj , upon which is the only means for the well-being of the Ummah. So there has to be scholars in every branch of Fiqh that has preceded, particularly Fiqh of the Book and the Sunnah, with clear criteria and principles.

Partitioning of the People through Fiqh ul-Waaqi’

We have heard and noticed that many Muslim youth have become trapped in a predicament about this branch of knowledge which they have called Fiqh ul- Waaqi’ and have regretfully partitioned into two groups at variance with each other. Some have gone beyond the bounds in this matter and others have fallen short of the mark! Since you will see and hear from those who over-inflate the importance of Fiqh ul- Waaqi’ and place it in a very high position, above its correct place amongst the branches of knowledge, that they want every scholar of the Sharee’ ah to be a scholar of what they call Fiqh ul- Waaqi’! Just as the reverse also occurs from them. Those who listen to them and are instructed by them are made to think that everyone who is aware of the state of affairs (waaqi’) of the Islaamic world is (also) a scholar of the Book and the Sunnah and is upon the manhaj of the Salaf us-Saalih. This does not automatically follow, as is clear.

Completeness is Something Very Rare

We do not expect to find a human being who is complete in every sense of the word, i.e., that we find one (person) who is a scholar of all these branches of knowledge that we have indicated and spoken about. Therefore, it is obligatory that all those who have spent their time and effort in coming to know the state of affairs of the Islaamic Ummah and the plots against it should work and co-operate with the scholars of the Book and the Sunnah, upon the manhaj of the Salaf of this Ummah. So they should put forward their Views and ideas and the scholars should explain Allaah’s ruling, Most perfect is He, based upon the authentic proof and clear evidence.

As for the one who speaks about Fiqh ul- Waaqi’ ; in the minds of those who hear him, he becomes one of the scholars and muftees, for no other reason than that he speaks about this Fiqh which we have indicated. This is something not in any way supported by truth. Then his words are taken as a stepping stone to reject the religious verdicts given by the scholars and to invalidate their ijtihaad and rulings which they have clarified.

The Mistake of a Scholar Does Not Mean that He is to be Renounced

It is important to mention here that a scholar may make a mistake in passing judgement about a particular matter from these questions relating to the state of affairs, this has happened and will happen. Does this mean that the scholar is to be renounced and that those who disagree with him should describe him with improper words which it is not permissible to use for him? For example and it has been said: He is a scholar of the Sharee’ah and he is not a scholar of the current affairs! This is a statement which conflicts both with the Sharee’ah and the true state of affairs!

According to this saying of theirs, it is as if they make it obligatory for the scholars of the Book and the Sunnah to also be fully aware of economics, social-affairs, politics, military affairs, use of modern weapons-systems and other matters also! I do not think that there is a sensible human who imagines all of these branches of knowledge and disciplines combined in the heart of a single man, however great a scholar or however complete!

The Mistake of Being Ignorant of the State of Affairs

We have also heard people saying: It is not important for us to know the state of affairs. This is also an error. Rather justice demands that it be said: There must be for every branch of knowledge those who know about it and specialize in it and that they all work together as required by Islaam as sincere brothers, not due to partisanship , nor sectarianism – in order to realize that which is of benefit to the Islaamic Ummah and to establish the Islaamic society that every Muslim aspires to, such that Allaah’s Sharee’ah is applied upon His earth. Each of these branches of knowledge are obligatory upon some of the scholars of the Muslims and it is not obligatory at all that a single person gathers all of them, not to mention the impossibility of that actually occurring!

For example: In some cases, it is not permissible for a surgeon to carry out a particular operation until he has obtained the View of a scholar of the Book of Allaah, the Most Perfect and the Sunnah of Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم), upon the manhaj of the Salafus-Saalih. Since it is difficult, if we do say impossible, to find a proficient surgeon who also has good knowledge of the Book and the Sunnah, their Fiqh and the rulings derived from them.

The Obligation of Co-operation

Therefore, there has to be co-operation, acting upon the saying of the Lord of the worlds in His noble Book:

وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَىٰ ۖ وَلَا تَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ

Help you one another in righteousness and piety and do not help one another in sin and transgression. [Sooratul-Maa‘idah (5):2]

Through this, the good that is hoped for, for the Islaamic Ummah may be attained. This matter is something obvious, since a Muslim cannot think of a scholar having great knowledge of the Book and the Sunnah and then further that he is a skilled surgeon. Then on top of that, he is fully aware of what they call today Fiqh ul- Waaqi’. Since, when he occupies himself with one branch of knowledge, that will reduce his time spent on other branches of knowledge. Thus, if he gives greater importance to a certain field then he will naturally be detracted from other fields and so on.

Completeness will not come about except by all of them working together, each of them in his special field. By this means and this means alone, what the Sharee’ah wishes, for all the Muslims, can be achieved and they can be saved from clear ruin. The Lord of the worlds says:

وَالْعَصْرِ – إِنَّ الْإِنسَانَ لَفِي خُسْرٍ – إِلَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالْحَقِّ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالصَّبْرِ

By Time! Verily man is in loss. Except those who believe and do righteous deeds and help one another to the truth and help one another to patience.‘

[Sooratul-‘Asr (103) :1-3]

Going Beyond Bounds Regarding that which is Essential

Yet what we have noticed and still notice, is that the wild and fervent emotions which know no bounds have a number of negative results.From them is going beyond bounds in that which is essential. Since that which is obligatory and essential is of two types:

Firstly: That which is obligatory upon every Muslim (Fard ’Ayn)
Secondly: That which, if carried out by some, then it is not required from the rest (Fard Kifaaee).

It is not permissible to treat the Fard Kifaaee like the Fard ’Ayn and to make them equal. Even if we were to say, for the sake of argument, that it were obligatory upon the up and coming students of knowledge to know Fiqh ul- Waaqi’. How could that be? Since we are not even able to apply this unrestricted statement to the major scholars of the Muslims, not to mention making it obligatory upon the students of knowledge to know the state of affairs, along with the necessary Fiqh demanded by this knowledge, so that each case can be given its fitting ruling.

Fiqh ul-Waaqi’ is not to be Rejected

Likewise, since this is the case, it is not permissible for any of the students of knowledge to reject the necessity of this Fiqh ul- Waaqi’. Since it is not possible to obtain that which was lost and is hoped for by all the Muslims, which is freeing ourselves from the colonialization of the Muslim lands by the unbelievers , or at the very least, some of them, except by knowing their mutual plots and agreements, in order to beware and warn, so that their colonialization and enslavement of the Islaamic world ceases to continue. A large part of this goal cannot be attained except by educating and cultivating the Muslim youth correctly in Aqeedah, knowledge and manhaj, built upon the purification (tasfiyah) of Islaam from all the accretions that have been added to it and upon the principle of cultivation and education (tarbiyah) upon this pure Islaam, just as Allaah sent it down upon the heart of His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم).

Between the Scholars and the Rulers

From those matters which need to be mentioned here is that the ones who have the ability to bring the Ummah to carry out that which is obligatory upon it, whether upon all or some of them, are not those passionate speakers, nor the academic scholars, rather they are the rulers (hukkaam) who have the power of giving orders and having them implemented and to enact and to dissolve, nor are they the enthusiastic youth, nor emotional du’aat who carry no weight, nor authority with them!!

So the speakers, the scholars and the callers must educate and train the Muslims to accept the law of Islaam and to submit to it and also to call the rulers with that which is best, to that which is right. To use the scholars properly with their various levels and types of knowledge: Fiqh of the Book and the Sunnah, Fiqh of the Language, Fiqh of the ways in which the creation operates, Fiqh of the state of affairs and likewise for all important matters. Putting into effect the great Islaamic principle of Shooraa (carrying out the affairs through consultation), then on that day will the affairs be straightened out and the Believers rejoice at the victory from Allaah:

فَإِنْ أَعْرَضُوا فَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ عَلَيْهِمْ حَفِيظًا

But if they turn away, then We have not sent you as a protector over them. [Sooratush-Shooraa (42):48]

The Reason Behind the Degradation of the Muslims

A very important matter must be explained here, about which many are unaware. The reason why the Muslims continue to be downtrodden and enslaved by the unbelievers, even by the Jews of some Islaamic lands, is not that many of the people of knowledge are ignorant about the state of affairs, not knowing the plots and the plans of the Unbelievers, as some think!

From the Mistake of Some Du’aat

Therefore, I hold that giving extra and undue importance to Fiqh ul- Waaqi , such that it becomes a total program for the du’aat and the youth, upon which they are educated and educate others, thinking that it is the way to salvation, is an evident error and a clear mistake! The matter about which no two scholars differ and about which no two goats would lock horns over is that the primary reason for the degradation which has settled upon the Muslims is:

Firstly: The ignorance of the Muslims of the Islaam which Allaah sent down upon the heart of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم).

Secondly: That many of the Muslims who know about the Islaamic rulings for some of their affairs do not put them into practice, but neglect them and allow them to fall into disuse.

Tasfiyah and Tarbiyah

Therefore, the key to a return of the glory of Islaam is: Implementation of beneficial knowledge (’Ilm un-Naafi’) and establishing righteous action (’Amal us-Saalih) and this is a very great affair which the Muslims cannot reach, except through the manhaj of tasfiyah and tarbiyah. These are two very great obligations.

By the first of these the following is intended:

Firstly: Purifying the Islaamic ’Aqeedah from that which is alien to it, such as Shirk (associating partners along with Allaah in those things that are specific to Him), ta’teel (denial of Allaah’s attributes), ta’weel (twisting the meanings of Allaah’s attributes) and refusing authentic ahaadeeth because they are connected to ’Aqeedah, and their like.

Secondly: Purifying the Islaamic Fiqh from the erroneous judgements made, which are contrary to the Book and the Sunnah, freeing the minds from the bonds of blind-following and the darkness of sectarianism.

Thirdly: Purifying the books of tafseer, fiqh, raqaaiq (matters concerning the heart) and other than that, from ahaadeeth that are weak (da’eef), fabricated (maudoo’) and unsupported narrations of the people of the Book (Israaeeleeyaat) and reprehensible matters (munkaraat).

As regards the second obligation: Then by it I mean cultivating the young generation upon this Islaam, purified from all that we have mentioned, giving them a correct Islaamic education from the beginning, without any influence of the infidel western education.

There is no doubt, that bringing these two obligations about requires huge efforts and sincere co-operation between all of the Muslims organisations and individuals, from all of those who are truly concerned with establishing the desired Islaamic society, each one working in his own field and speciality.

Correct Islaam

Therefore, the scholars who know the rulings from the correct Islaam must take pains to call the Muslims to this correct Islaam and bring them to understand it, then to cultivate them upon it, just as Allaah says:

وَلَٰكِن كُونُوا رَبَّانِيِّينَ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تُعَلِّمُونَ الْكِتَابَ وَبِمَا كُنتُمْ تَدْرُسُونَ

Rather, be you Rabbaani’yyeen,[01] because you teach the Book and you study it. 
[Soorah Aal-‘Imraan (3):79]

[01Rabbaanee (plural: Rabbaaniyyeen) is the scholar who acts upon his knowledge and has insight into the condition of the people, so that he raises them upon the primary matters of knowledge before that which is more detailed. In his Jaami’ us-Saheeh (1/192 – with Fath), al-Bukhaaree – rahimahullaah – says: Ibn ‘Abbaas said: “Be Rabbaaniyyeen. wise-ones and scholars.” It is said: The Rabbaanee is one who teaches people simple knowledge before the more difficult one. (Publisher’s note)

This is the only solution, which comes in the Book and the Sunnah, as is in His saying:

إِن تَنصُرُوا اللَّهَ يَنصُرْكُمْ وَيُثَبِّتْ أَقْدَامَكُمْ

If you help Allaah then Allaah will help you and establish your feet firmly.
[Soorah Muhammad (47) : 7]

How Will Allaah’s Help Come?

All praise is for Allaah. From those things about which there is total agreement between the Muslims is that:

إِن تَنصُرُوا اللَّهَ يَنصُرْكُمْ

If you help Allaah then Allaah will help you. 

This means if you carry out what He has ordered you to do, then Allaah will grant you victory over your enemies.

From the most important texts that support this meaning and which totally fits the state of affairs in which we are presently living, in that the disease and the cure are both mentioned together is his (صلى الله عليه وسلم) saying:

“When you indulge in eenah transactions and take hold of the tails of cows and become satisfied with cultivation and abandon Jihaad , then Allaah will cover you with humiliation, which He will not remove from you, until you return to your Deen.”

[Saheeh – related by Abu Daawood (3426), ad-Dawlaabee. in al-Kunaa (2/65), aI-Baihaqee in as-Sunan ul-Kubraa (5 / 3l 6) and others, from Ibn ’Umar – radiallaahu ’anhu. It was authenticated by al-Albaanee in as-Saheehah (11).]

The Reason for the Sickness of the Muslims

Therefore, the sickness of the Muslims today is not because of their ignorance of any particular branch of knowledge. Although, I agree that every branch of knowledge which is of benefit to the Muslims is obligatory in proportion to this. But the reason for the degradation which has come upon the Muslims is not their ignorance of this knowledge known today as Fiqh ul- Waaqi’ ’. Rather, the reason, as occurs in the authentic hadeeth, is their neglecting action in accordance with the rulings of the Deen, from the Book and the Sunnah.

His (صلى الله عليه وسلم) saying: “When you indulge in eenah transactions” is an indication of a type of usurious transaction, seeking a means around the Sharee’ah.

His (صلى الله عليه وسلم) saying: “and take hold of the tails of cows” is an indication of giving importance to worldly matters and pre-occupying oneself with them and not giving importance to the Sharee’ah and its rulings.

Likewise is his (صلى الله عليه وسلم) saying: “and become satisfied with cultivation” and his (صلى الله عليه وسلم) saying: “and abandon jihaad ” is a result of desiring this world.

He, the Most High, says:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَا لَكُمْ إِذَا قِيلَ لَكُمُ انفِرُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ اثَّاقَلْتُمْ إِلَى الْأَرْضِ ۚ أَرَضِيتُم بِالْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا مِنَ الْآخِرَةِ ۚ فَمَا مَتَاعُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا فِي الْآخِرَةِ إِلَّا قَلِيلٌ

O you who believe! What is the matter with you, that when you are asked to go forth in the path of Allaah you cling heavily to the earth? Do you prefer the life of this world to the Hereafter? But little is the comfort of this world in comparison to the Hereafter. [Sooratut-Tawbah (9):38]

His (صلى الله عليه وسلم) saying: “Allaah will cover you with humiliation, which He will not remove from you, until you return to your Deen” contains a clear indication that the Deen which it is obligatory to return to is that which Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, mentions in a number of verses, such as His saying:

إِنَّ الدِّينَ عِندَ اللَّهِ الْإِسْلَامُ

Indeed the Deen with Allaah is Islaam.
[Soorah Aal-‘Imraan (3):19]

الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا

This day have I perfected your Deen for you, completed My favours upon you and have chosen for you Islaam as Deen. [Sooratul-Maa‘idah (5):3]

lmaam Maalik’s famous comment about this aayah clearly explains what is meant, when he – rahimahullaah – said:

What was not on that day considered Deen, is not Deen today. So the latter part of this Ummah will not be set right except by that which set right its first part.”

Going Beyond Bounds in Fiqh ul-Waaqi’

As regards those du’aat today who concentrate heavily on Fiqh ul- Waaqi’ and over inflate it’s importance and give it a higher position than is due. They go into excesses in this understanding and giving others the understanding, perhaps unintentionally, that it is obligatory upon every scholar, indeed every student of knowledge to have knowledge of this Fiqh!

Whereas, many of those du’aat know fully that this Deen with which our Lord, the Mighty and Majestic, is pleased for us, has been greatly misunderstood within the Muslim Ummah for a long time, even with regards to Aqeedah, to the extent that we find many people indeed who say Laa ilaaha illallaah and carry out the pillars and even carry out optional worship, such as standing in prayer during the night, giving charity and their like, but they deviate from the sayings of Allaah, the Most High, (such as):

فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ

Know that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah. [SoorahMuhammad (47):19]

The State of the Du’aat with regards to Fiqh ul-Waaqi’

We know that many of these du’aat agree with us fundamentally in recognizing the reason for the evil situation in which the Muslims live. That is their being far from the correct understanding of Islaam that is obligatory upon every individual to have, not just obligatory upon some only. So what is obligatory is to correct the beliefs, correct the worship and correct the manners.

Where in this Ummah are those who are seeking to establish this obligation which is an obligation upon all (Fard ’Ayn) and not just upon some (Fard Kifaaee)? ? Since the Fard Kifaaee should come after the Fard Ayn, as has been established and not before! Therefore, being pre-occupied with and giving undue importance in calling the elite of the Muslim Ummah, to take care of a Fard Kifaaee, which is Fiqh ul- Waaqi and giving less importance to the Fiqh which is Fard ’Ayn upon every Muslim, which is Fiqh of the Book and Sunnah, as I have indicated, is an excess and a neglect of that which is obligatory upon every individual of the Muslim Ummah. It is going beyond bounds in raising the importance of something, which in reality, is no more than Fa’rd Kifaayah!

The True and Just Saying about Fiqh ul-Waaqi’

So the matter is as Allaah, the Most High, says:

وَكَذَٰلِكَ جَعَلْنَاكُمْ أُمَّةً وَسَطًا

Thus have We made you a justly-balanced Ummah.
[Sooratul-Baqarah (2):143]

So Fiqh ul- Waaqi’ with its correct Sharee’ah meaning is obligatory without doubt, but it is obligatory upon some, not all. If some of the scholars attain it, then it is not obligatory upon the rest of the scholars, not to mention the students of knowledge or the common Muslims!

Therefore, it is essential to keep matters in due proportion when calling the Muslims to awareness of Fiqh ul- Waaqi’ and not to drown them with political news and analysis of western thinkers. Rather, what is obligatory always, is to concentrate on the tasfiyah (purification) of Islaam from corruption, then the tarbi’yah (cultivation) of the Muslims, groups and individuals, upon this pure Islaam; connecting them to the pure and correct manhaj (methodology) of Da’wah: The Book and the Sunnah with the understanding of the Salaf of this Ummah.

The Obligation of Mutual Love and Ties of Relationship

From that which is also obligatory upon the scholars, with their various specialities, not to mention the rest of the Ummah , is that they should comply with the saying of their Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم):

The example of the Believers in their mutual love and mercy is like a single body.” [01]

[01] Saheeh – related by Muslim (8/20), Ahmad (4/70) and at-Tiyaalasee (790). from an- Numaan ibn Basheer radiallaalm ’anhu. The full text of the hadeeth being: “The example of the Believers in their mutual love and mercy is like a single body. When one part of it feels pain then the whole of the body suffers in sleeplessness and fever.”

This great prophetic simile, with its beautiful meaning, will not be realized except by the scholars working in co-operation with the individuals of the society, teaching and learning, calling and acting.

Therefore, those who know the Fiqh of the Sharee’ah with its evidences and rulings, should co-operate with those who know Fiqh ul-Waaqi’ in its correct and practical form, not merely as a discussion. S0 one supports the other with what they have of knowledge and understanding and one alerts the other to what is clear to them so that they can be aware and warn. From this sincere co-operation between the scholars and the Du’aat, with their different areas of expertise, it will be possible to fulfill the hope of every sincere Muslim.

The Danger of Accusing the Scholars

As regards accusing some of the scholars or students of knowledge and labelling them as being ignorant of Fiqh ul- Waaqi’ and accusing them with such things as one would feel shame to mention, then this is a mistake and an error. It is not permissible for this to continue, since it is from hatred and many ahaadeeth prohibit the Muslims having hatred for each other, rather the opposite has been ordered, that is, to have mutual love, to come together and to co-operate.

How Can We Cure the Mistakes

Any Muslim who sees a matter about which a scholar or caller has made a mistake, then it is obligatory upon him to remind and advise them. If the mistake was in a particular place, then it should be called to their attention there and then in the best way without broadcasting or publicizing it; in order to bring about what is more befitting.

If the mistake was made publicly and broadcasted, then there is no harm in calling the mistake to attention and explaining it openly, but as Allaah, the Most High, says:

ادْعُ إِلَىٰ سَبِيلِ رَبِّكَ بِالْحِكْمَةِ وَالْمَوْعِظَةِ الْحَسَنَةِ ۖ وَجَادِلْهُم بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ

Invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching and argue with them in ways that are best. [Sooratun-Nahl (16):125]

It is important to explain that the correction of an error meant here, is not the correction founded upon the emotions and feelings of the youth without any knowledge or proof. Rather, what is meant is correction based upon clear proof and sound evidence.This correction, in this mild and wise manner, will not be achieved except between sincere scholars and well-wishing and sincere students of knowledge, who are together in their knowledge and Da’wah built upon the Book and the Sunnah and upon the manhaj of the Salaf us-Saalih.

As regards the case if the one who is to be corrected is one who knowingly deviates from this methodology, then there is for him a particular treatment and method befitting the scale of his deviation and distance from the truth and correct way.

The Danger of Present-Day Politics

Finally, we must advise the Muslims of a very important matter in this regard. Our approval of Fiqh ul-Waaqi’ with its approved form in the Sharee’ah or our preoccupation with it, must not lead us to opening the doors of modern politics (siyaasah) of the transgressors. Those fooled by the words of the rulers, willing pupils of their methods and those drowned in their ways.

Rather, what is obligatory, is to pursue the politics of the Sharee’ah – which is to protect and take care of the affairs of the Ummah. This cannot be except in the light of the Book and the Sunnah upon the manhaj of the Salaf us-Saalih and in the hands of the active scholars and the just rulers. Since Allaah curbs with the rulers those whom He does not curb with the Qur‘aan.[1]

[1] See ad-Durrul-Manthoor (4/99) of as-Suyootee.

But as for the western politics, which open the doors and deceives its people; it has no Deen with it. It flows onwards with those caught in its tide, or drowned in its sea. Its harm comes upon him and he is afflicted by its fire, since he preoccupied himself with the subsidiary (furoo’) and left the fundamentals (usool)!

May Allaah have mercy upon the one who said: Whosoever seeks to hasten something before its time is ripe, is punished by being deprived of its achievement.

Our final call is that all praise is for Allaah, Lord of the worlds.

~~

Knowledge of Current Affairs (Fiqh al Waaki) – by  Imam al-Albaani
Translated by Abu Talhah Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah
Courtesy of the eBook: ittibaa.com
Transcribed from PDF (eBook) by AbdurRahman.Org with slight modifications 

Related Link:

O Messenger of Allah, make a ‘thāt al-anwāt’ for us like their ‘thāt al-anwāt’ – Kitāb at-Tawheed | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

[Souncloud Audio Link

Kitāb-ut-Tawheed : Chapter 9:
Whoever seeks Blessing through a tree,a Stone, or the like

عن أبي واقد الليثي، قال: خرجنا مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إلى حنين ونحن حدثاء عهد بكفر، وللمشركين سدرة يعكفون عندها وينوطون بها أسلحتهم، يقال لها: ذات أنواط، فمررنا بسدرة فقلنا: يا رسول الله أجعل لنا ذات أنواط كما لهم ذات أنواط فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: (الله أكبر! إنها السنن، قلتم ـ والذي نفسي بيده ـ كما قالت بنو إسرائيل لموسى: (اجعل لنا إلهاً كما لهم آلهة قال إنكم قوم تجهلون)  (لتركبن سنن من كان قبلكم

(رواه الترمذي وصححه )

Abū Wāqid al-Laythī said: “We went with Allah’s Messenger to Ḥunayn while we had just recently left disbelief. The mushrikīn had a lote tree which they used to frequent and hang their swords upon. They called it thāt al-anwāt (possessor of the medals of honor). Afterward, we passed by (another) lote tree, so we said:

‘O Messenger of Allah, make a thāt al-anwāt for us like their thāt al-anwāt.’

Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:

«Allahu Akbar! This way that you have mentioned, by the One in whose Hand my soul is, is just like what the children of Isrā’īl asked Mūsā:

«O Mūsā! Make for us an ilahān (a god) as they have āliha (gods). He said: ‘Verily, you are a people who are behaving ignorantly.’» [Sūrah al-A’rāf (7):138]

You will follow the way of those before you.»

[Hadith Reported by at-Tirmithī no. 2181 and he graded it ḥasan ṣaḥīḥ. It is also recorded by others. Shaykh Al-Albānī graded it ṣaḥīḥ in Ṣaḥīḥ al-Jāmī’ no. 3601.]

Extracted From: Kitāb-ut-Tawheed – Dawud Burbank [Audio Series|En]
Mainly based upon Imam  AbdurRahman Al-Sadi’s explanation, which can be used as study aid while listening to the series. In addition, Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah also explains some Points from Shaykh Uthaymeen and other Imaams as well.

Kitāb at-Tawheed Book Study – https://abdurrahman.org/islamic-book-study/kitab-at-tawheed

Related Links:

Excerpts from “Muqaddimah fee Usoolit-Tafseer” of Ibn Taymiyyah – Dawud Burbank

Introduction to Tafseer – Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullaah)
Taken from Tafseer Soorat-in-Naba’
Compiled and translated by Abu Talhah (rahimahullaah)

INTRODUCTION

All praise is for Allaah. We praise Him, we seek His aid, and we ask for His forgiveness. We seek Allaah’s refuge from the evils of our selves and from the evil consequences of our deeds. Whomever Allaah guides then none can misguide him, and whomever He misguides then none can guide him. I testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, alone, having no partner; and I testify that Muhammad is his Slave and His Messenger.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ حَقَّ تُقَاتِهِ وَلَا تَمُوتُنَّ إِلَّا وَأَنتُم مُّسْلِمُونَ

[Meaning: O you who believe in Allaah and His Messenger! Fear and be dutiful to Allaah, by obeying Him and avoiding disobedience to Him, as He deserves to be feared (Obey Him and do not disobey Him; give thanks to Him and do not show ingratitude; remember Him and do not forget Him); and do not die except as Muslims: obediently submitting to Him, and worshipping Him alone.] [Soorah Aali `Imraan (3): 102]

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَخَلَقَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا وَبَثَّ مِنْهُمَا رِجَالًا كَثِيرًا وَنِسَاءً ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ الَّذِي تَسَاءَلُونَ بِهِ وَالْأَرْحَامَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَيْكُمْ رَقِيبًا

[[Meaning: O Mankind! Fear and be dutiful to your Lord, Who alone created you from a single person (Aadam), and from him He created his mate, and from these two He produced many men and women; and fear and be dutiful to Allaah through Whom you ask each other for your rights, and beware of cutting ties of kinship. Allaah is ever a Watcher over you.]] [Sooratun-Nisaa· (4): 1]

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَقُولُوا قَوْلًا سَدِيدًا – يُصْلِحْ لَكُمْ أَعْمَالَكُمْ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ ۗ وَمَن يُطِعِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ فَازَ فَوْزًا عَظِيمًا

[[Meaning: O you who believe in Allaah and His Messenger! Fear and be dutiful to Allaah and speak with truth and justice, and He will rectify your deeds for you and forgive your sins; and whoever obeys Allaah and His Messenger has attained tremendous success.]] [Sooratul-Ahzaab (33): 70-71]

To proceed: Then the truest speech is the Book of Allaah -the Most High, and the best way is the way of Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم); and the worst of affairs are those things which are new introductions (into the Religion) and every new introduction is an innovation, and every innovation is misguidance, and all misguidance will be in the Fire.

“The Ummah (the Islamic nation) has a great and pressing need to understand the Qur·aan, which is the strong Rope of Allaah, and the wise Reminder; one who follows it will not be led astray by desires, and it will not become confused upon the tongues. It does not become dull through repetition, its wonders never cease, and the scholars can never have enough of it. Whoever speaks in accordance with it will speak the truth, whoever acts in accordance with it will be rewarded; whoever judges by it has judged justly, and whoever calls to it then he invites to the straight path. Whichever tyrant abandons it then Allaah will break him, and whoever seeks guidance in other than it then Allaah will misguide him.

He -the Most High- said:

فَإِمَّا يَأْتِيَنَّكُم مِّنِّي هُدًى فَمَنِ اتَّبَعَ هُدَايَ فَلَا يَضِلُّ وَلَا يَشْقَىٰ – وَمَنْ أَعْرَضَ عَن ذِكْرِي فَإِنَّ لَهُ مَعِيشَةً ضَنكًا وَنَحْشُرُهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ أَعْمَىٰ – قَالَ رَبِّ لِمَ حَشَرْتَنِي أَعْمَىٰ وَقَدْ كُنتُ بَصِيرًا – قَالَ كَذَٰلِكَ أَتَتْكَ آيَاتُنَا فَنَسِيتَهَا ۖ وَكَذَٰلِكَ الْيَوْمَ تُنسَىٰ

[[Meaning: Then if guidance comes to you from Me, then whoever follows My Guidance shall not go astray and he shall not be wretched; but whoever turns away from My Reminder then he shall have a bleak and constricted life, and on the Day of Resurrection We shall raise him up blind. He will say: ‘O my Lord! Why have you raised me up blind when I used to have sight in the world?’ He will say: ‘Thus it is: Our signs came to you and you turned away from and abandoned them, and so this Day you shall be abandoned.]] [Soorah TaaHaa (20): 123-126]

And He -the Most High- said:

 قَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولُنَا يُبَيِّنُ لَكُمْ كَثِيرًا مِّمَّا كُنتُمْ تُخْفُونَ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَيَعْفُو عَن كَثِيرٍ ۚ قَدْ جَاءَكُم مِّنَ اللَّهِ نُورٌ وَكِتَابٌ مُّبِينٌ –  يَهْدِي بِهِ اللَّهُ مَنِ اتَّبَعَ رِضْوَانَهُ سُبُلَ السَّلَامِ وَيُخْرِجُهُم مِّنَ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلَى النُّورِ بِإِذْنِهِ وَيَهْدِيهِمْ إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ

[[Meaning: There has come to you Our Messenger Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), explaining to you much of that which you used to hide from the Scripture, and overlooking much. There has come to you from Allaah a light and a clear Book. By it Allaah guides those who seek His Pleasure to the path which leads to safety and salvation; and He brings them out of darkness into the light, by His Permission, and He guides to the Straight Path.]] [Sooratul-Maa·idah (5): 15-16]

And He -the Most High- said:

الر ۚ كِتَابٌ أَنزَلْنَاهُ إِلَيْكَ لِتُخْرِجَ النَّاسَ مِنَ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلَى النُّورِ بِإِذْنِ رَبِّهِمْ إِلَىٰ صِرَاطِ الْعَزِيزِ الْحَمِيدِ – اللَّهِ الَّذِي لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ

[[Meaning: Alif Laam Raa. This is a book which We have sent down to you, in order that you might lead mankind out of darkness into light, by the permission of their Lord, to the path of the All-Mighty, the One worthy of all praise: Allaah, to Whom belongs everything that is in the heavens and in the earth.]] [Soorah Ibraaheem (14): 1-2]

And He -the Most High- said:

وَكَذَٰلِكَ أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ رُوحًا مِّنْ أَمْرِنَا ۚ مَا كُنتَ تَدْرِي مَا الْكِتَابُ وَلَا الْإِيمَانُ وَلَٰكِن جَعَلْنَاهُ نُورًا نَّهْدِي بِهِ مَن نَّشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِنَا ۚ وَإِنَّكَ لَتَهْدِي إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ – صِرَاطِ اللَّهِ الَّذِي لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۗ أَلَا إِلَى اللَّهِ تَصِيرُ الْأُمُورُ

[[Meaning: And likewise We have revealed this Qur·aan to you, as a mercy, by Our Command. You did not know what the Book is, nor what is Faith. But We have made it a light by which We guide whomever We wish from Our servants. And you certainly guide Our servants towards the Straight Path: the Path of Allaah, to Whom belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth. Certainly all affairs shall return to Allaah for judgement.]] [Sooratush-Shooraa (42): 52-53]

… It is binding that a person should know that the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) explained the meaning of the Qur·aan to his Companions, just as he made clear to them its Words.

So His Saying -He the Most High:

 وَأَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الذِّكْرَ لِتُبَيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ مَا نُزِّلَ إِلَيْهِمْ 

[Sooratun-Nahl (16): 44]

[[Meaning: And We sent down this Qur·aan to you, O Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), as a reminder to them, so that you should then explain clearly to the people what has been sent down to them][1] includes both this and that [i.e. the Words and the meaning.]]

And Aboo `Abdir-Rahmaan as-Sulamee said:

‘Those who taught us the recitation of the Qur·aan, such as `Uthmaan ibn `Affaan, `Abdullah ibn Mas`ood, and others, when they had learned ten Aayahs from the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), would not go beyond them until they had learned what they contained from knowledge and action. They said: So we learned the Qur·aan, and knowledge, and action, together.’[2]

Therefore they used to remain for a period of time learning a Soorah, and Anas said: “When a man had learned [Soorah] al-Baqarah and [Soorah] Aali `Imraan he attained stature in our eyes” [3], and Ibn `Umar took some years to learn al-Baqarah, it is said that it was eight years; Maalik mentioned it. [4]

And that was because Allaah -the Most High- has said:

كِتَابٌ أَنزَلْنَاهُ إِلَيْكَ مُبَارَكٌ لِّيَدَّبَّرُوا آيَاتِهِ 

[[Meaning: This Qur·aan is a Book which We have sent down to you, full of blessings, so that they may reflect upon its Aayahs.]] { [Soorah Saad (38): 29]

And He said:

أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَ ۚ

[[Meaning: Will they not carefully reflect upon the Qur·aan?]]
[Sooratun-Nisaa· (4): 82]

And He said:

أَفَلَمْ يَدَّبَّرُوا الْقَوْلَ

[[Meaning: Have they not reflected upon the Qur·aan?]]
[Sooratul-Mu·minoon (23): 68]

And carefully reflecting upon speech is not possible without understanding its meaning.

Likewise He -the Most High- said:

إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا لَّعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ

[Soorah Yoosuf (12): 2]

[[Meaning: We have sent it down as an Arabic Qur·aan, in order that you may comprehend its meaning]], and comprehending speech includes understanding it.

It is also known that what is intended from all speech is that its meaning be understood, not just its wording, so the Qur·aan has more right to that; and also the normal behaviour of the people prevents them from reading a book in any field of knowledge, be it medicine or mathematics, and then not seeking necessary explanation of it. So how about the Speech of Allaah, which is their essential safeguard, and through which they are to attain salvation and bliss, and by means of which their Religion and their worldly lives are correctly established?!

This is why disagreement amongst the Companions with regard to the tafseer of the Qur·aan was extremely rare; and even though it occurred more amongst the Taabi`een (the Successors of the Companions) than it did amongst the Companions, then still it was little in comparison to what occurred with those who came after them. So the more excellent a time was, then the greater the unity, the harmony, the knowledge, and the clarity of understanding was in it.

So from the Taabi`een there were those who learned the whole tafseer from the Companions, just as Mujaahid said: “I went through the whole mus-haf with Ibn `Abbaas, stopping him at every Aayah and asking him about it.” [5]

Therefore ath-Thawree said: “If tafseer comes to you from Mujaahid, then it will suffice you.” [6]

Therefore his tafseer was relied upon by ash-Shaafi`ee, al-Bukhaaree, and others from the people of knowledge; and likewise Imaam Ahmad, and others who wrote works of tafseer, would repeatedly quote chains of narration from Mujaahid, more so than from others besides him. So what is intended is that the Taabi`een took the tafseer from the Companions, just as they took knowledge of the Sunnah from them….

As for Tafseer, then the people who were most knowledgeable about it were the people of Makkah, since they were the students of Ibn `Abbaas, such as: Mujaahid, `Ataa· ibn Abee Rabaah, `Ikrimah-the freed slave of Ibn `Abbaas, and others from the students of Ibn `Abbaas, such as: Taawoos, AbushSha`thaa·, Sa`eed ibn Jubayr, and their like.

Likewise the people of al-Koofah, from the students of Ibn Mas`ood, and they had distinction in some of that over others; and the scholars of tafseer from the people of al-Madeenah, such as Zayd ibn Aslam – whom Maalik took tafseer from, and likewise his [i.e. Zayd’s] son `Abdur-Rahmaan took it from him (also), and `Abdullaah ibn Wahb took it from `AbdurRahmaan…

And in summary, whoever turns away from the positions of the Companions and the Taabi`een, and their tafseer, in favour of something contrary to that, then he is in error in doing that, indeed he is an innovator; unless if he is performing legitimate ijtihaad, in which case his error is forgiven…

So if someone were to say: ‘What is the best approach with regard to Tafseer?’ Then the answer is that the most correct approach is to explain the Qur·aan with the Qur·aan. So what has been left unspecified at one place will be explained at another place, and what is mentioned briefly at one point will be detailed elsewhere…

And if you become unable to do that, then take hold of the Sunnah, for the Sunnah explains and clarifies the Qur·aan…, and when we do not find the tafseer in the Qur·aan, nor in the Sunnah, then we refer back for that to the sayings of the Companions, for they knew best about it because of what they actually witnessed relating to the Qur·aan, and because of the circumstances particular to them, and because of their complete understanding, their correct knowledge, and their righteous deeds… And if you do not find the tafseer in the Qur·aan, nor in the Sunnah, nor do you find it from the Companions, then many of the imaams refer back in that case to the statements of the Taabi`een, such as Mujaahid ibn Jabr… and such as Sa`eed ibn Jubayr, `Ikrimah-the freed slave of Ibn `Abbaas, `Ataa· ibn Abee Rabaah, al-Hasan al-Basree, Masrooq ibn al-Ajda`, Sa`eed ibn alMusayyib, Abul-`Aaliyah, ar-Rabee` ibn Anas, Qataadah, ad-Dahhaak ibn Muzaahim, and others from the Taabi`een, and those who succeeded them, and those who came after them.

So their sayings are mentioned with regard to an Aayah, and the wordings which they used may differ, and so one who has no knowledge may think that they are disagreements, when this is not actually the case. So some of them may refer to something by mentioning that which it necessitates, or by mentioning that which corresponds to it, and some of them may state the actual thing itself; and all of these actually have the same meaning, and this occurs in many places, so let the discerning person be alert to this; and Allaah is the One Who guides.” [7]

Footnotes:

[1] as-Suyootee quoted in his ‘Miftaahul-Jannah fil-I`tisaam bis-Sunnah’ (p. 58): “Ibn Mas`ood said, as reported by Ibn Abee Haatim:

‘There is nothing except that it has been made clear to us in the Qur·aan, however our understanding falls short of reaching it, so therefore He -the Most High- said:

بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ وَالزُّبُرِ ۗ وَأَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الذِّكْرَ لِتُبَيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ مَا نُزِّلَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

[[Meaning: So that you, O Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), should then explain clearly to the people what has been sent down to them]].’ { [Sooratun-Nahl (16): 44]

[2] as-Suyootee quoted in his ‘Miftaahul-Jannah fil-I`tisaam bis-Sunnah’ (2/437): “at-Tabaree reported it in his ‘Tafseer’ (1/60), and as-Samarqandee in his ‘Tafseer’ (1/71) and Ibn Sa`d in ‘at-Tabaqaat’ (6/172), and Ibn Abee Shaybah in ‘al-Musannaf’:..6/117, and its chain of narration contains `Ataa· ibn as-Saa·ib:Sadooq (truthful), whose memory deteriorated; however the narrator from him is Hammaad ibn Zayd, as occurs in ‘as-Siyar’ (4/269), and his narrations from him are good…”

[3] Reported by Imaam Ahmad (3/120). Shu`ayb al-Arnawoot said in his checking of the ‘Musnad’ (no. 12236): “Its chain of narration is ‘saheeh’ to the standard of the two Shaikhs.”

[4] Imaam Maalik stated in his ‘Muwatta·’ (1/205) that it had reached him (balaaghan) that `Abdullaah ibn `Umar had remained for eight years learning Sooratul-Baqarah.

[5] Fawwaaz Ahmad Zumarlee said in his checking of as-Suyootee’s ‘al-Itqaan’ (2/473): “It was reported in ‘al-Hilyah’ (3/280)..; and it was reported by at-Tabaree in his ‘Tafseer’(1/65), and Aboo Nu`aym in ‘al-Hilyah’ (3/279-280); and its chain of narration contains Muhammad ibn Ishaaq who narrated it with both of them with `an`anah (without stating that he had heard it directly from the narrator before him); however it has another chain of narration which supports it, since it was also reported by al-Qaasim ibn Sallaam in ‘Fadaa·ilul-Qur·aan’ (p. 216), and by Ahmad in ‘al-Fadaa·il’ (no. 1866), and its chain of narration contains Ibn Abee Najeeh, who reported a great amount from Mujaahid; but he would narrate from him things that he had not heard directly from him. Refer to ‘Tabaqaatul-Mudalliseen’ (p. 9).”

[6] Reported by at-Tabaree in his ‘Tafseer’ (1/65).

Taken from ‘Muqaddimah fee Usoolit-Tafseer’ (pp. 43-47, 71-72, 91, 93-94, 96, 100-101) of Shaikhul-Islaam Ibn Taimiyyah; and it occurs in ‘Majmoo`ul-Fataawaa’ (13/329-375).

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Posted fromIntroduction to Tafseer – Ibn Taymiyyah – Taken from Tafseer Soorat-in-Naba’

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Biographies of The Authors of The Books of Tafseer – Dawud Burbank

BismillaahAPPENDIX ONE: BIOGRAPHIES OF THE AUTHORS OF THE BOOKS OF TAFSEER:

AT-TABAREE:

Muhammad ibn Jareer ibn Yazeed, Aboo Ja`far at-Tabaree: “The imaam, the outstanding scholar, the Mujtahid. The scholar of his time: Aboo Ja`far at-Tabaree, the author of excellent works.

He was from the people of Aamul in Tabaristaan (a town 80 miles NE of Tehran in Persia). He was born in the year 224 H, and began seeking knowledge after the year 240 H. He travelled greatly and met the preeminent men. He was singular amongst the people of his time in knowledge, intellect and in the great number of his works. It is rare that anyone the like of him is seen…

Al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadee said of him: ‘He gathered such branches of knowledge as were not attained by anyone from the people of his time. He had memorised the Book of Allaah; he was knowledgeable of the different modes of recitation; he had insight of the meaning; he was a learned jurist with regard to the rulings contained in the Qur·aan; he was a scholar of the details of the Sunnah and of its chains of narration; the authentic and the unauthentic; he knew the abrogating texts and the abrogated texts; he was knowledgeable of the sayings of the Companions and the Taabi`een; he was well-acquainted with the past events and history of the peoples, and he compiled the famous book: ‘Narratives and history of the nations’; and he compiled his ‘Tafseer’: the like of which has not been written. He also wrote a book entitled ‘Tahdheeb-Aathaar’, and I have not seen a similar work the like of it, but he did not complete it. He also wrote many books about the principles and details of Fiqh, and his preferred sayings from the sayings of the jurists. He had certain verdicts specific to him which were preserved’.” [‘Siyar A`laamin-Nubalaa·’ of adh-Dhahabee: (14/267-)].

Concerning his Tafseer (printed in thirty volumes) Aboo Haamid alIsfaraayeenee said: “If a person were to travel to China to obtain the Tafseer of Muhammad ibn Jareer it would not be too much.”

Shaikhul-Islaam Ibn Taimiyyah said: “As for the Tafseers that the people have with them, then the most authentic of them is the Tafseer of Muhammad ibn Jareer at-Tabaree, because he mentions the sayings reported from the Salaf with established chains of narration, and it does not contain innovation, and he does not report from those accused of being liars such as Muqtaatil ibn Bukayr and al-Kalbee.” [‘Majmoo`ul-Fataawaa’:13/385]

Ibn Katheer said, concerning his ‘Tafseer’: “He authored a complete Tafseer which is such that it has no equal,” and concerning him: “He had high standing in worship, zuhd (abstaining from the unnecessary things of this world), piety, and establishing the truth: not being prevented from that by the blame of anyone. He had a fine voice in recitation, along with complete knowledge of the modes of recitation – upon the finest characteristics. He was one of the major righteous people, and one of the scholars of hadeeth who gathered in Egypt in the time of Ibn Tooloon; and they were: Muhammad ibn Ishaaq ibn Khuzaymah – the imaam of the imaams, Muhammad ibn Nasr al-Marwazee, Muhammad ibn Haaroon arRuwayaanee, and this one: Muhammad ibn Jareer at-Tabaree…” [‘al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah’ (11/156-)].

Al-Firghaanee said: “Muhammad ibn Jareer was of those who did not care about the blame of anyone for Allaah’s sake, along with the very great harm he suffered and the slanders he received from the ignorant, envious and apostates; but as for the people of knowledge and Religion, then they do not deny his knowledge, his abstinence with regard to this world and how he renounced it. He sufficed himself with a small inheritance left for him by his father in Tabaristaan.” And al-Firghaanee said: “I heard him say: “My father’s inheritance has been delayed, so I had to remove the sleeves of my robe and sell them.” [‘Tabaqaatush-Shaafi`iyyah’: (3/120), quoted in Dr. `Abdullaah at-Turkee’s introduction to ‘Jaami`ul-Bayaan’.]

It was mentioned about him that everyday for forty years he would fill forty pages with his writing; and that he originally proposed dictating his ‘history’ of a length of thirty thousand pages, and his Tafseer of similar length, but was dissuaded by his students and so reduced each of them to a tenth of the intended size, saying: “Indeed we belong to Allaah! Peoples’ eagerness has died!”

as-Suyootee said in ‘al-Itqaan’ (2/476): “So if you were to say: ‘Which of the tafseers do you direct us towards, and tell a person to rely upon?’ Then I say: The tafseer of Aboo Ja`far ibn Jareer at-Tabaree, about which the reputable scholars have agreed that its like has not been written in the field of tafseer. an-Nawawee said in his ‘Tahdheeb’: ‘No one has written the like of the book of Ibn Jareer in tafseer’.”

He passed away at the time of Maghrib on the night of the 28th of Shawwal in the year 310 H, at the age of 86 -rahimahullaah.


AS-SAM`AANEE:

“The imaam, the outstanding scholar, the Muftee of Khuraasaan, Shaikh of the Shaafi`ees; Abul-Muzaffar Mansoor ibn Muhammad ibn `Abdil-Jabbaar ibn Ahmad, at-Tameemee, as-Sam`aanee, al-Marwazee, previously alHanafee, then ash-Shaafi`ee. He was born in the year 426 H…

He went out on foot to perform Hajj at a time when riding parties were prevented from travelling, so he and a group of people were captured by brigands. So he bore this with patience until Allaah freed him from these bedouins, and he performed Hajj and accompanied az-Zanjaanee.

He used to relate: < They took us captive, so I used to tend their camels. So it happened that their chief wanted to marry off his daughter, so they said: we will have to travel to a town to find someone to perform the marriage for us. So one of their men said: ‘The man who tends our camels is the jurist of Khuraasaan.’ So they asked me about some matters, and I answered them, and I spoke to them in correct Arabic, so they became embarrassed and excused themselves. So I performed the marriage for them, and said the (marriage) address, so they were happy and asked me to accept some reward from that, but I refused. So they conveyed me to Makkah in the middle of the year. >

`Abdul-Ghaafir said in his ‘Taareekh’: “He was the singular scholar of his age in excellence and behaviour, and in zuhd and piety. He came from a household of knowledge and zuhd. He acquired knowledge of Fiqh from his father, and he became one of the foremost amongst the people of speculation. He then studied the books of hadeeth, performed Hajj and returned, and abandoned the way upon which he had debated for thirty years and became a Shaafi`ee. He manifested this in the year 468 H and the people of Marw were thrown into turmoil and the common folk became perplexed. So letters were sent concerning him by the Ameer of Balkh which spoke harshly against him. So he left Marw in the company of DhulMajdayn Abul-Qaasim al-Moosawee and a group of students, and he was attended to by a number of the jurists. So he went to Toos, and proceeded on to Naysaaboor. So he was met by the students with a great reception in the time of Nizaamul-Mulk, and `Ameedul-Hadrah Aboo Sa`d. So they honoured him and gave him a position of great respect, and a gathering for admonition was established for him in the Shaafi`ee school; and he was an ocean with regard to admonition and he was a great memorizer, so he was greatly accepted by the people. He attained firmness and prominence in the Shaafi`ee madhhab and then he returned to Marw and taught there in the Shaafi`ee school, and an-Nizaam gave him precedence over his peers, and his students became apparent. Then he went off to Asbahaan in a state of high standing.

He wrote the book ‘al-Istilaam,’ and the book ‘al-Burhaan,’ and ‘alAmaalee’ in Hadeeth, and he stood firmly with the people of the Hadeeth, the Sunnah and the Jamaa`ah; and he was a thorn in the eyes of the opponents, and a proof for the people of the Sunnah.

[His grandson] Aboo Sa`d said: ‘My grandfather wrote a work of Tafseer, and in Fiqh, Usool and Hadeeth. His Tafseer is of three volumes’ … The Imaam Aboo `Alee ibn as-Saffaar said: ‘When I debate with AbulMuzaffar then it is as if I am debating with an imaam from the Taabi`een, because of the signs of the righteous people which I see in him.’ He also said about himself: “I never forgot anything which I had memorized.”

… He died in the year 489 H, having lived for sixty-three years – rahimahullaah.” [‘Siyar A`laamin-Nubalaa·’ (19/114-119)] Ibn al-`Imaad said about him in ‘Shadharaatudh-Dhahab’ (3/393): “The imaam, the eminent scholar, Abul-Muzaffar as-Sam`aanee Mansoor ibn Muhammad, at-Tameemee, al-Marwazee, al-Hanafee, then ash-Shaafi`ee. He learned Fiqh from this father and from others, and he was the imaam of his age in the madhhab of Aboo Haneefah. But when he performed Hajj, that which necessitated his moving to the madhhab of ash-Shaafi`ee became clear to him in al-Hijaaz. So when he returned to Marw he suffered great harm because of his changing over. He wrote many books regarding the Shaafi`ee madhhab and he wrote in refutation of the opponents, and he wrote ‘at-Tabaqaat’ which he excelled in, and he wrote a good and fine Tafseer…” -rahimahullaah.


AL-BAGHAWEE:

“Shaikhul-Islaam, the outstanding exemplary scholar, the Haafiz: ShaikhulIslaam, the reviver of the Sunnah, Aboo Muhammad al-Husayn ibn Mas`ood ibn Muhammad ibn al-Farraa·, al-Baghawee, ash-Shaafi`ee: the scholar of Tafseer; the compiler of works such as ‘Sharhus-Sunnah,’ ‘Ma`aalimut-Tanzeel,’ ‘al-Masaabeeh’ and the book ‘at-Tahdheeb’ upon the madhhab, and ‘al-Jam`u baynas-Saheehayn,’ and ‘al-Arba`eena hadeethan’ and other works.

He acquired knowledge of Fiqh from the Shaikh of the Shaafi`ees al-Qaadee Husayn ibn Muhammad al-Marwaroodhee, the author of ‘at-Ta`leeqah,’ before the year 460 H….

Al-Baghawee was given the title ‘Muhiyyus-Sunnah’ (the reviver of the Sunnah), and the ‘the pillar of the Religion’, and he was a person of nobility and an Imaam. He was a person of knowledge and outstanding scholar. He abstained from the superfluous things of this world and was satisfied with a little. He used to eat dry bread on its own, but was criticised by people for that, so he began accompanying it with oil. His father used to make and sell fur garments (al-Farraa·). He was granted blessing in his writings, and granted complete acceptance with regard to them: this was on account of his fine resolve, and true and sincere intention. The scholars vied in acquiring his works, and he would not deliver a lesson except in a state of purification. He was moderate in his dress: he wore a crude robe, and a small turban – upon the way of the Salaf- which he wore and tied as they did. He was firmly established in Tafseer, and fully proficient in Fiqh -may Allaah have mercy upon him…” [‘Siyar A`laamin-Nubalaa·’ of adh-Dhahabee: (19/439-)]

He was born in the town of Bagh (30 miles NW of Herat in Afghanistan) in Khuraasaan, and travelled throughout Khuraasaan seeking knowledge, finally settling in Marw ar-Roodh (SE Turkmenistan) where he taught and compiled his works, and died in the year of 516 H at over eighty years of age.

Ibn Katheer said: “…He excelled in the branches of knowledge, and he was the foremost scholar of his time in them. He adhered to the Religion, was pious, a ‘zaahid,’ and a righteous worshipper.” -rahimahullaah. [‘al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah (12/206).’]


IBN KATHEER:

“He is Abul-Fidaa·, `Imaadud-Deen, Ismaa`eel ibn (ash-Shaikh Abee Hafs Shihaabud-Deen) `Umar – who was the ‘khateeb of his village – ibn Katheer ibn Daw· ibn Katheer ibn Zar’ al-Qurashee, al-Basrawee in origin, adDimashqee with regard to his upbringing, nurturing and education. He was born in the town of Mijdal, in the district of the town of Busraa, to the [north-] east of Damascus, in the year of 701 H, and his father was a khateeb. His father died when he was four years old, so he was brought up by his brother, the Shaikh `Abdul-Wahhaab, and he learned Fiqh from him at the beginning of his affair.

Then he moved to Damascus in the year 706 H, at the age of five. He then acquired knowledge of Fiqh from Shaikh Burhaanuddeen Ibraaheem ibn

`Abdur-Rahmaan al-Fazaaree, well known as Ibn al-Firkaah – who died in the year 729 H.

He also heard in Damascus from `Eesaa ibn al-Muta“im, and from Ahmad ibn Abee Taalib – who lived more than a hundred years and who was well known as Ibnush-Shihnah, and also known as al-Hajjaar -who died in year 730 H. Also from al-Qaasim ibn `Asaakir, and Ibnush-Sheeraazee, Ishaaq ibn al-Aamidee, and Muhammad ibn Zarraad. He closely accompanied the Shaikh Jamaaluddeen Yoosuf ibn az-Zakiyy al-Mizzee – the author of ‘Tahdheebul-Kamaal’ and ‘Atraaful-Kutubis-Sittah’ who died in the year 742 H; and he greatly benefited from him and became proficient in knowledge, and he married his daughter.

He also studied a great deal with Shaikhul-Islaam Taqiyyuddeen Ibn Taimiyyah, who died in the year 728 H. He closely accompanied him, loved him and benefited from his knowledge. He also studied with the Shaikh, the Haafiz, the historian Shamsuddeen adh-Dhahabee Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Qaaymaaz, who died in the year 748 H.

He was granted ‘ijaazah’ (permission to narrate) in Egypt by Aboo Moosaa al-Qaraafee, and al-Husaynee, and `Alee ibn `Umar al-Waanee, Yoosuf alHutanee and others. Al-Haafiz Shamsuddeen adh-Dhahabee said of him in ‘al-Mu`jamulMukhtass’: “The imaam, the muftee, the outstanding muhaddith, the precise jurist, the critical and precise scholar of tafseer. He has a number of beneficial works.”

Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajr said of him in ‘ad-Durarul-Kaaminah’: “He became occupied with hadeeth, carefully studying its texts and narrators. He could quote a great deal from memory and was delightful in speech. His works spread widely in his lifetime, and people benefited from them after his death. He was not upon the way of those muhadditheen who merely seek briefer chains of narration, and seek to distinguish shorter from longer chains of narration and other such disciplines of theirs; rather he was from the jurists of the muhadditheen.’…”

“His works included:

(1) ‘Tafseerul-Qur·aanil-Kareem,’ and it was one of the most beneficial books of tafseer based upon narrations. He would explain the Qur·aan with the Qur·aan, and then with the famous ahaadeeth from the dependable sources of the muhadditheen – along with their chains of narration. He discussed the chains of narration with the terms of rejection and acceptance, and made clear anything the narrations contained with regard to strangeness, being contrary to what is authentic, or confliction with the reliable reports. Then he would mention the reported sayings from the Companions and the Taabi`een.

As-Suyootee said: “The like of it, similar in form, has not been written.”

(2) His history entitled ‘al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah,’ in which he mentioned the stories of the Prophets and the previous nations, based upon what occurs in the Noble Qur·aan and the authentic narrations…then he carefully detailed the Prophetic Seerah, and the history of Islaam to his time. Then he went on to mention the tribulations, signs of the Last Hour, the forthcoming battles and the conditions in the Hereafter….

He died on Thursday, the 26th of Sha`baan in the year 774 H, at the age of 74; and al-Haafiz Ibn Hajr said: He lost his eyesight at the end of his life – rahimahullaah wa radiyallaahu `anhu.”

[Taken from the introduction to ‘al-Baa`ithul-Hatheeth’; the biography was compiled by Shaikh Muhammad `Abdur-Razzaaq Hamzah.]

Ibn al-`Imaad said in ‘Shadharaatudh-Dhahab’ (6/231/232): “…He had many students; from them was Ibn Hajjee who said about him: ‘He was the greatest memorizer of the texts of hadeeth that we have come across, and the one best acquainted with their defects, and their narrators, and the authentic and the unauthentic from them, and his peers and his Shaikhs acknowledged that for him. I do not think, despite the frequency with which I went to him, that I ever met him except I took benefit from him.’ Others, as Qaadee Shahbah mentioned in his ‘Tabaqaat’ stated that he was a particularly close student of Ibn Taimiyyah, and used to defend him and follow many of his views; and he used to give verdict with his view regarding divorce, and he was put to trial because of it and suffered harm. He died in Sha`baan, and was buried…next to his Shaikh, Ibn Taimiyyah.” -rahimahullaah.


ASH-SHAWKAANEE:

Muhammad ibn `Alee ibn Muhammad ibn `Abdullaah, ash-Shawkaanee, then as-San`aanee [the capital of Yemen]. He was born on Monday the 28th of Dhul-Qa`dah in 1173 H in the town of Hijrah Shawkaan.

He grew up in the manner of students of legislated knowledge, memorizing the Qur·aan and becoming proficient in it, and he memorized many of the texts before he began serious study by the age of ten. Then he sat with the major Shaikhs, and he greatly occupied himself with studying history in the sciences of the language. His father did not allow him to occupy himself with other than knowledge, nor to leave San`aa. He sat to deliver verdicts at the age of twenty, and he had thirteen lessons each day: some he delivered, and others he studied with his Shaikhs. [‘al-Badrut-Taali`’: (2/215, 218-219)]

He authored 278 works, including works of Tafseer, Fiqh, Usoolul-Fiqh, the `Aqeedah of the Salaf, and in refutation of blind-following (taqleed). al-`Allaamah Hasan ibn Ahmad al-Bahkalee said…: (start of quote): “In the year 1250 H, in the month of Jumaadal-Aakhirah, our Shaikh Muhammad ibn `Alee ash-Shawkaanee passed away. He was the judge of the whole community, Shaikhul-Islaam, the verifier, the `Allaamah, the imaam, sultaan of the scholars, imaam of the world….

So in summary, he did not see anyone the like of himself; nor did he see anyone who had seen the like of him in knowledge, piety and establishment of the truth with strength of spirit and eloquence of tongue…. He was born on Monday, the 28th of the sacred month of Dhul-Qa`dah in the year 1172 H….

He studied under his father, and studied continuously under the Qaadee, imaam of the details of Fiqh in his time Ahmad ibn Muhammad alHaraazee, and he derived benefit from him in Fiqh… He learned Arabic grammar and morphology from as-Sayyid al-`Allaamah Ismaa`eel ibn Hasan, and al-`Allaamah `Abdullaah ibn Ismaa`eel an-Nahmee, and al- `Allaamah al-Qaasim ibn Muhammad al-Khawlaanee… and in many of the branches of knowledge he studied constantly with the reviver of his time as Sayyid `Abdul-Qaadir ibn Ahmad al-Kawkabaanee; and in the science of hadeeth he took from al-Haafiz `Alee ibn Ibraaheem ibn `Aamir, and from other Shaikhs besides them….

He authored magnificent, delightful, beneficial, and useful works in most branches of knowledge; from them ‘Naylul-Awtaar’ – a commentary upon ‘Muntaqal-Akhbaar’ of [Majduddeen `Abdus-Salaam] Ibn Taimiyyah – rahimahullaah- in four volumes the like of which is not to be seen in these times with regard to its careful verification and precision. He gave each matter its due right, with justice and fairness; and did not adhere to blindfollowing. He quoted the positions of the later scholars and of the Predecessors. His noble Shaikhs and other prominent scholars related it from him, and it spread throughout the lands in his lifetime. It was read to him many times, and the scholars derived benefit from it; and it was the only one out of his works that he was personally satisfied with, because of its high level of accuracy, and its close adherence to proof in the best manner. He wrote it during the lifetime of his Shaikhs, and they were able to point out certain points, which he edited.

He also wrote the large Tafseer entitled ‘Fathul-Qadeer’ which combined the sciences of narration of hadeeth, and its understanding… … And I [i.e. his student Hasan ibn Ahmad al-Bahkalee] learned from him in many of the fields of knowledge, and I took from him most of his noble works, and with his death the shining lamp of Yemen was extinguished for them; and I do not think that in precision and verification they will see the like of him.” (end of quote.)

And the Lord of creation, the One free of all imperfections-blessed this Qaadee and Imaam from the vast ocean of His Generosity with three things which I do not know to have been combined in these later times for anyone besides him: Firstly: Vast and deep knowledge of all the different branches, types and forms of knowledge; secondly: the great number of students he had who were verifiers, people of nobility and precision: people of discerning intellect, and outstanding virtues…; thirdly: the great number of his skilled and precise works, and his intricate treatises and responses which in their number outstripped great scholars, and whose precision and exactness reached every possible limit…”-rahimahullaah.

[‘at-Taajul-Mukallal’ (pp.452-461) of `Allaamah Siddeeq Hasan Khaan alQanoojee; and the introduction to ‘Fathul-Qadeer.’]


AS-SA`DEE:

“Ash-Shaikh Aboo `Abdillaah `Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Naasir ibn `Abdillaah ibn Naasir Aal-Sa`dee, from the tribe of Tameem. He was born in the town of `Unayzah in the district of al-Qaseem [Saudi Arabia], on the 12th of Muharram 1307 H and his mother died when he was four years old. Then his father died when he was seven years old, so he grew up as an orphan. However he had a fine up bringing and it was noticed that from an early age he was distinguished by intelligence and a desire to learn. He read the whole Qur·aan after the death of his father and then memorized it completely, and he was fully proficient in it at the age of eleven. Then he occupied himself with acquiring knowledge from the scholars of his land, and from those who came to his land. So he strove and exerted himself until he acquired a good portion of every branch of knowledge. Upon reaching the age of twentythree he sat to teach. So he would learn and also teach, and spend all of his time in that. This continued until the year 1350 H, when he took charge of all teaching in his town, and all students referred back to him. He took knowledge from Shaikh Ibraaheem ibn Hamd ibn Jaasir, and he was the first teacher he studied with. He described his Shaikh as a memorizer of hadeeth, and he would speak about his piety and how he used to love and take care of the poor. Often a poor person would come to him in winter and he would take off one of his two garments and give it to the poor person, even though he himself needed it and possessed very little himself – rahimahullaah.

Also from his Shaikhs was Muhammad ibn `Abdul-Kareem ash-Shibl, with whom he learned Fiqh, sciences of Arabic language and other than that. He also studied with ash-Shaikh Saalih ibn `Uthmaan al-Qaadee, the judge of `Unayzah. He learnt from him Tawheed, Tafseer, Fiqh: its Usool and its details, and the sciences of the Arabic language. He was the one whom he studied with the most, and he kept his company constantly until he passed away -rahimahullaah.

He also studied with Shaikh `Abdullaah ibn `Aayid, and Shaikh Sa`b alQuwayjaree, and Shaikh `Alee as-Sinaanee, and Shaikh `Alee an-Naasir Aboo Waadee with whom he studied hadeeth, and took the six books and others from him with ‘ijaazah’ (permission to narrate).

He also studied with Shaikh Muhammad ibn ash-Shaikh `Abdul-`Azeez Aal Muhammad al-Maani` (the director of cultural/educational affairs in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia at present); he studied with him in `Unayzah. Also from his Shaikhs was Shaikh Muhammad ash-Shanqeetee (who settled in the Hijaaz…) when he came to teach in `Unayzah. He studied with him Tafseer, Hadeeth, the sciences of Hadeeth, and the sciences of the language – such as grammar, morphology and so on.

He was upon a high level of virtuous manners, showing humility with the young and the old, and the rich and the poor. He used to spend some of his time sitting in gatherings with whoever wished to attend, so the gathering would be a gathering of knowledge. He was keen that these gatherings should discuss matters of knowledge and social affairs, and the people of the gatherings would derive great benefit from the useful discussions they involved themselves in. So their recreational gatherings were turned into gatherings of worship and knowledge. He would speak to each person with whatever befitted him, and would discuss with him matters that would be beneficial to his worldly life and his Hereafter.

He would frequently resolve dispute in a just manner which satisfied both sides.

He had great concern for the poor, the needy, and strangers and he would personally assist them as far as he was able, and he would encourage the wealthy people – those whom he knew to love doing good – to be compassionate towards them.

He was upon a very high level of good manners, chastity, purity of spirit, and firmly resolved and serious in all his affairs.

He was also the best of people in his manner of teaching, and the best at causing his students to understand…

He occupied himself most of all and benefited most from the books of Shaikhul-Islaam Ibn Taimiyyah and his student Ibnul-Qayyim. This benefited him greatly with regard to knowledge of Usool, Tawheed, Tafseer, and Fiqh and other branches of beneficial knowledge…

He was especially proficient in Tafseer, having read a number of Tafseers and excelling in it. He authored a fine Tafseer, in a number of volumes…entitled ‘Tayseerul-Kareemir-Rahmaan fee Tafseer KalaamilMannaan’.… He passed away at the age of 69 in the year 1376 in the town of `Unayzah – rahimahullaah…”

[Abridged from the biography written by one of his students and included as a preface to his Tafseer].

Posted from :
Tafseer Soorat-in-Naba’- from the works of numerous mufassireen.
Compiled and translated by Abu Talhah Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq (radi Allahu anhu) – The Strongest of the Companions in Eemaan

BismillaahThe Strongest of the Companions in Eemaan
Taken from the book
‘The Life of the Greatest Man After the Prophets & Messengers: Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq’

Compiled By Muhammad Uthmaan al-Anjaaree
Translated by Abbas Abu Yahya

1- On the authority of Abu Huraira -Radi Allaahu anhu- who said the Messenger of Allaah – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- prayed the morning prayer, then he faced the people and said: ‘While a man was leading a cow, he began to ride it and beat it. So the cow said to him: ‘we were not created for this, rather we were created for ploughing.’

So the people said: ‘Subhana Allaah a cow spoke!’

The Messenger of Allaah -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- said: ‘Indeed I believe this, me and Abu Bakr and Umar.’ Even though they were not present.

The Messenger -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- continued: ‘While a man was with some sheep, suddenly a wolf attacked them and took away one sheep from amongst them. The shepherd called the sheep as if trying to rescue it from the wolf. The wolf said to him: ‘You want to rescue it from me, so who will protect it on the day when the predatory animal comes, the day when it has no shepherd other than me.’

So the people said: ‘Subhana Allaah, a wolf spoke.’

The Messenger of Allaah -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- said: ‘Indeed I believe this, me and Abu Bakr and Umar.’ Even though they were not present.[1]

* Hafidh Ibn Hajr said: ‘It is possible that the Prophet -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- said that due to what he knew of their overwhelming Eemaan and the strength of their certainty.[2]

2- On the authority of Abu Huraira -Radi Allaahu anhu- who said the Messenger of Allaah – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- said: There was a man walking wearing a garment whose appearance impressed his own self. Allaah made the ground swallow him up and he kept tumbling down into it until the Day of Judgement.’ Abu Bakr and Umar testified to it, while Abu Bakr and Umar were not present.[3]

3- On the authority of Ayyoob who said: that AbdurRahmaan bin Abu Bakr said to his father (Abu Bakr): I saw you on the day of Uhud but I avoided you. So Abu Bakr said: ‘if I had seen you I would not have avoided you.’[4]

4- On the authority of Umar: ‘If the Eemaan of Abu Bakr was weighed against the Eemaan of the people of the earth, the Eemaan of Abu Bakr would outweigh the others.’ [5]

5- On the authority of Aa’ishah who said: ‘I swear by Allaah that Abu Bakr left drinking alcohol in pre-Islaamic times and he did not doubt in Allaah after having accepted Islaam.’[6]

6- On the authority of Ibn Shihaab who said: ‘From the excellence of Abu Bakr is that he never ever doubted in Allaah – Azza wa Jal – even for an hour.’[7]

7- On the authority of Bakr bin Abdullaah who said: ‘Indeed the people did not prefer Abu Bakr because he would pray and fast more than them, rather they preferred him due to something his heart.’[8]

‘Aboo Bakr did not have excellence over the people ( lam yafdulin-naasa) on account of praying and fasting more than them, but rather he had excellence over them on account of something which was in his heart.’ -And I think the reference should be Narrated by Imam Ahmad in ‘Fadail as-Sahabah’ with this wording (1:141) no. 118 .

[Taken from the book: ‘The Life of the Greatest Man After the Prophets & Messengers: Abu Bakr asSiddeeq’ P.190-191]

References:

[1] Narrated by Bukhari no.3285 and Muslim (15/156 Nawawee).

[2] Fath al-Bari 7/18

[3] Narrated by Imam Ahmad in ‘Fadail as-Sahabah’ with this wording (1:112) no. 92. Its researcher WaseeAllaah bin Muhammad Abbas said: Its Isnaad is Saheeh. Narrated by Bukhari no.5453 & Muslim (14/63 Nawawee). By AbdurRazzaq (11:82) no. 19983 but they did not mention ‘Abu Bakr and Umar testified to it.’ This extra wording was mentioned by Musadad as in ‘al-Mutalib al-‘Aaleeyah’ (4:35)

[4] Narrated by Ibn Abee Shaybah (14:408) no. 18642 and Ibn Hajr said in ‘Talkhees al-Habeer’ (4:101): its narrators are
trustworthy along with Irsaal.

[5] Narrated by al-Bayhaqi in ‘al-Jamia’ lashu’ab al-Eemaan’ (1:18) and its narrators are trustworthy.

[6] Narrated by Abu Na’eem in ‘al-Ma’arifah’ 91;179) no. 108

[7] Narrated by Abdullaah in his Zawaid of al-Fadail (1:126) no. 96. Its researcher WaseeAllaah bin Muhammad Abbas said: Its Isnaad is Saheeh till az-Zuhri.

[8] Narrated by Imam Ahmad in ‘Fadail as-Sahabah’ with this wording (1:114) no. 118 Its researcher WaseeAllaah bin Muhammad Abbas said: Its Isnaad is Saheeh.

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/sahaba

Allaah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said: “Do not abuse my companions” – Dawud Burbank

Bismillaah

DO NOT ABUSE MY COMPANIONS

From Aboo Hurairah-radiyallaahu `anhu who said: Allaah‟s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

<<Do not abuse my Companions! Do not abuse my Companions! For by the One in Whose Hand is my soul! If one of you were to spend the like of Uhud in gold in charity, it would not reach the hands-full of one of them, nor even a half of it. >>

* al-Haafiz Abul-`Abbaas al-Qurtubee said in “al-Mufhim” (6/492):

“From that which is known, about which there is not doubt, is that Allaah-the Most High-chose the Companions of His Prophet for His Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), and to establish His Religion. So everything which we now have from knowledge, actions, virtues, conditions, possessions, property, honour, authority, Religion, Eemaan, and other favours-which no tongue can enumerate, and which no amount of time can provide a valuation for, then it all came about by means of them. So this being the case, then it becomes obligatory upon us to acknowledge their rights, and to be grateful to them for their tremendous efforts in order to establish what Allaah-the Most High-has obligated with regard to being thankful to one who has bestowed a favor upon you, and to avoid what He has forbidden to showing ingratitude towards him.

This goes along with what we have confirmed from the praise of Allaah-the Most High-upon them, and His Saying-He the Most High:

…لَّقَدْ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِذْ يُبَايِعُونَكَ تَحْتَ الشَّجَرَةِ

[[Meaning: Allaah was indeed pleased with the Believers when they gave the Pledge to you under the tree]]…

 Until His Saying:

…مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُولُ اللَّهِ

[[Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah…]];

[Sooratul-Fath (48): 18-29]

and His Saying:

…لِلْفُقَرَاءِ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ الَّذِينَ

[[Meaning: And there is also a share in the booty for the emigrants…]] [Sooratul Hashr (59): 8]

and other than this.

And such as his (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) saying:

<<Allaah chose my Companions over all the worlds except for the Prophets and Messengers>> [1]

Along with the rest of the ahaadeeth comprising praise upon them-may Allaah be pleased with them all.

So upon this whoever abuses them, and denies their tremendous rights, then he has relinquished Eemaan, and has responded to favours with denial.

So sufficient in this regard is what at-Tirmidhee reported from a hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn Mughaffal-radiyallaahu `anhu-who said Allaah‟s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

<<Be dutiful to Allaah! Be dutiful to Allaah! With regard to my Companions. Do not take them as a target for (verbal) attacks after me. So whoever loves them then it is because of their love for me that they love them; and whoever has hatred for them, then it is because of their hatred for me that they hate them. Whoever wrongs/troubles them has wronged me; and whoever wrongs me has wronged Allaah; and whoever wrongs Allaah, then He will soon seize him with punishment>> [2], and he said: “This is a “ghareeb” (singular/weak) hadeeth.”

So this hadeeth, even though its chain of narration is weak, then it is authentic with regard to its text, since it is supported by what we have already mentioned from the Book and the authentic Sunnah, and by what is known from the Religion of the Ummah; since there is no disagreement about the obligation of having respect for them, and the forbiddance of abusing them. And there is no disagreement about the fact that whoever says that they were upon Unbelief or misguidance is an Unbeliever (Kaafir), and should be killed. This is because he has denied something known necessarily from Legislation: so he has declared Allaah and His Messenger to have lied in that which they informed of concerning them.

The same ruling applies to one who declares one of the four rightly-guided Caliphs to be an Unbeliever or to have been astray.

Then is he judged to be an Apostate (murtadd)-such that repentance is sought from him, or is he judged to be an unbelieving heretic (zindeeq) –such that repentance is not sought from him, and he is thus to be killed whatever? This is something about which there is disagreement.

As for someone who abuses/reviles them with something other than this, then if it is something which would necessitate a prescribed punishment-such as accusing of fornication, then he is given that prescribed punishment. Following this he is given another severe punishment: life-imprisonment and he is humiliated; unless he is referring to `Aa.ishah-radiyallaahu `anhaa, since one who accuses her of it is to be killed. This is because he is denying what occurs in the Book and the Sunnah with regard to her innocence. This was stated by Maalik and others. Then they disagree with regard to the other wives of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم). So it is said: Anyone who accuses them of adultery is to be killed, since this is to cause harm to the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم); and it is said: he is to be given the prescribed punishment and further severe punishment-as we have said: there being two sayings.

As for the one who reviles them with something other than accusations of fornication, then he is lashed in a manner causing pain, and he is given severe punishment. Ibn Habeeb said: And he is imprisoned until he dies, and it is related from Maalik that he said: “Whoever abuses `Aa.ishah is to be killed, without restriction‟, and it is possible to understand this to mean accusation of fornication; and Allaah-the Most High knows best.”

***

Footnotes:

[1] al-Haythumee mentioned it in “Majma`uz-Zawaa.id” (10/16): “al-Bazzaar reported it, and its narrators are reliable, and there is disagreement about some of them”; and al-Haafiz Ibn Hajr said in “al-Isaabah” (1/12): “al-Bazzaar reported it in his “Musnad“, and its narrators are declared reliable by some.”

[2] Reported by at-Tirmidhee (no. 3862), and declared “da`eef” (weak) by Shaikh al-Albaanee.

[Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood ibn Ronald Burbank]

Posted from: www.alitisaambissunnah.wordpress.com

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/sahaba/

Abu Bakr turned around and he was crying [Inspirational Story]

Bismillaah

‘Silsilah al-Ahadeeth as-Saheehah’.
By The Muhaddith, Shaykh, Allamaa’ Muhammad Nasur uddeen al-Albaani. Translated by Abbas Abu Yahya


3258 – On the authority of Rabeeyah al-Asslamee who said : I used to serve the Messenger of Allaah sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam and he gave me some land, and he gave Abu Bakr some land, and when it came to dividing the land, we differed over a cluster of dates from a date palm tree. Abu Bakr said : this is on my side of the land! And I said : It is on my side! There used to be a problem between me and Abu Bakr, and Abu Bakr said a statement to me which I hated but he regretted saying it, so he said to me: ‘O Rabeeyah! Say something to me similar to what I said to you, so that it can be a requital.’

So I said : ‘I will not say it.’

Abu Bakr said : ‘You will say it or I will request the Messenger of Allaah sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam to order you to say it.

So I said : ‘I will not say it.’

Abu Bakr left that portion of the land for me and went off to the Prophet sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam and I followed him. The people from my tribe followed us and said to me: ‘May Allaah have mercy on Abu Bakr, why is he going to the Messenger of Allaah sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallamabout you, and he said what he said about you.’

So I said : ‘Do you know who this is?? This is Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq, he is one of the two who were in the cave, he is one who has grown old as a Muslim ( one of the elders of the Muslims), beware he does not turn around and see you assisting me against him and becomes angry and he meets the Messenger of Allaah sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam , and the Messenger of Allaah sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam will become angry due to him being angry, and then Allaah Azza wa Jal becomes angry due to them being angry and then Rabeeyah will be destroyed.’

They said : ‘What do you order us to do?’

I said : ‘Go back.’

Abu Bakr –RadhiAllaahu anhu- went off to the Messenger of Allaah sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam , so I followed him by myself, until he reached the Prophet sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam and he told him the story as it was. The Prophet sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam raised his head towards me and said: ‘O Rabeeyah what’s the matter between you and as-Siddeeq?’

I said : ‘O Messenger of Allaah sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam such and such happened, and he said a statement to me which I disliked, then he said to me, say something similar to what I said to you so that it can be requited, but I refused.’

Then the Messenger of Allaah sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam said: ‘Yes, do not say a word back to him, but say: May Allaah forgive you O Abu Bakr. May Allaah forgive you O Abu Bakr.’

Hasan said: ‘Abu Bakr turned around and he was crying.’


Posted from: A Selection of Ahaadeeth and their benefits taken from ‘Silsilah al-Ahadeeth as-Saheehah’
By The Muhaddith, Shaykh, Allamaa’ Muhammad Nasur uddeen al-Albaani
Translated by Abbas Abu Yahya

Check other Inspirational Stories:
https://abdurrahman.org/inspirational/

Al-Lāt, Al-‘Uzza and Manāt : The Idols of Pagan Arabs – Kitāb at-Tawheed | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

[Souncloud Audio Link

Kitāb-ut-Tawheed : Chapter 9:
Whoever seeks Blessing through a tree,a Stone, or the like

Allah the Most Exalted said:

أَفَرَأَيْتُمُ اللَّاتَ وَالْعُزَّىٰ – وَمَنَاةَ الثَّالِثَةَ الْأُخْرَىٰ – أَلَكُمُ الذَّكَرُ وَلَهُ الْأُنثَىٰ – تِلْكَ إِذًا قِسْمَةٌ ضِيزَىٰ  – إِنْ هِيَ إِلَّا أَسْمَاءٌ سَمَّيْتُمُوهَا أَنتُمْ وَآبَاؤُكُم مَّا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ بِهَا مِن سُلْطَانٍ ۚ إِن يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا الظَّنَّ وَمَا تَهْوَى الْأَنفُسُ ۖ وَلَقَدْ جَاءَهُم مِّن رَّبِّهِمُ الْهُدَىٰ

«Have you then considered al-Lāt, and al-‘Uzzā (two idols of the pagan Arabs)? And Manaat (another idol of the pagan Arabs), the other third? Is it for you the males and for Him the females? That indeed is a division most unfair! They are but names which you have named, you and your fathers, for which Allah has sent down no authority. They follow but a guess and that which they themselves desire, whereas there has surely come to them the Guidance from their Lord!» [Sūrah an-Najm (53):19-23]

Extracted From: Kitāb-ut-Tawheed – Dawud Burbank [Audio Series|En]
Mainly based upon Imam  AbdurRahman Al-Sadi’s explanation, which can be used as study aid while listening to the series. In addition, Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah also explains some Points from Shaykh Uthaymeen and other Imaams as well.

Kitāb at-Tawheed Book Study – https://abdurrahman.org/islamic-book-study/kitab-at-tawheed

Related Links:

Mūsa said: “O my Rabb, teach me something through which I can remember You & supplicate to You” – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

[Souncloud Audio Link

Kitāb-ut-Tawheed : Chapter 2:

وعن أبي سعيد الخدري رضي الله عنه عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: (قال موسى: يا رب، علمني شيئاً أذكرك وأدعوك به. قال: يا موسى: قل لا إله إلا الله. قال: يا رب كل عبادك يقولون هذا. قال: يا موسى، لو أن السموات السبع وعامرهن غيري، والأرضين السبع في كفة، ولا إله الله في كفة، مالت بهن لا إله الله) [رواه ابن حبان، والحاكم وصححه].

Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri (radi Allaahu anhu) narrated that Allah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said:

“Musa (Moses) (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) said: ‘O my Rabb, teach me something through which I can remember You and supplicate to You.’

Allah answered: ‘Say, O Musa, La ilaha ilIa-Allah‘.

Musa said: ‘O my Rabb, all your slaves say these words’.

Allah said: ‘O Musa, if the seven heavens and all they contain other than Me [01] (Ghairy) and the seven earths as well, were all put in one side of a scale and La ilaha ilIa-Allah put in the other the latter would overweigh them.'”  [02]

[This Hadith has been reported by Ibn Hibban, and Al-Hakim declared it Sahih].

[01] This phrase (Ghairy) is the exception from what is in the heavens. It should not be misunderstood that Allah is contained within the heavens or earth since He has described Himself in the Qur’an as the Transcendent, Most High, Above All, i.e. in 2:255, 20:5, 25:59 and many places elsewhere in His Book. Indeed the statement is another proof that Allah cannot be considered within the creation. 

[Translation and Footnotes [01] are taken from: Darusalam english publication]

[02] This ḥadīth was recorded by Ibn Ḥib-bān, al-Ḥākim, an-Nasā’ī in al-Yawm wal-Laylah, aṭ-Ṭabarānī in ad-Du’ā and al-Bayhaqī in al-Asmā’ waṣ-Ṣifāt. Al-Ḥākim graded it ṣaḥīḥ and ath-Thahabī was silent about it, usually indicating his approval. Similarly Ibn Ḥajar graded it ṣaḥīḥ in Fat.ḥ al-Bārī 11:208, it has a slightly different chain of narrators with aṭ-Ṭabarānī and Abū Ya’la about which al-Haythamī said (al-Majma’): “It is recorded by Abū Ya’la and its men are trustworthy, but among them there is some weakness.” Commenting on the chain of Ibn Ḥib-bān, ‘Alūsh (Tashnif al-Athān no. 927) says: “Its chain is weak, Darāj Abū Sumah is weak in his reports from Abū al-Haytham.” Ibn al-Munthir listed Darāj Abū Sumah among the narrators who the ḥadīth scholars differ over saying, “Abū Ḥātim declared him weak, as did ad-Dāraqutnī and others, Aḥmad said, “His ḥadīths are rejected,” an-Nasā’ī said, “Rejected.” Yet others considered him trustworthy like Yahyā b. Ma’īn (it seems that quotes from him are what al-Ḥākim depended upon according to al-Munthirī’s comments in at-Targhīb) and particularly at-Tirmithī in case he reports from Abū al-Haytham (as in this case)! Likewise he was quoted for support by Ibn Khuzaymah. Al-Albānī calls him the possessor and author of munākir (rejected ḥadīths) see al-Dā’īfah 1:294 and 254. Al-Albānī graded it weak in Da’īf al-Mawārid al-Zamān no. 295 , as did Muqbil b. Hādī in al-Mustadrak no. 1988.

There is however a more agreed upon authentic ḥadīth with different wording that gives much of the desired meaning for the context of this point. ‘Abdullāh b. ‘Amr b. al-‘Ās narrated that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said: «When death visited Allah’s Prophet Nūh (alaihissalam), he said to his son: “I shall narrate to you the will. I command you with two things and I forbid you from two things: I command with Lā ilāha illa Allāh. Surely if the seven heavens and the seven earths were placed on a pan of a scale, and Lā ilāha illa Allāh was placed on the other pan of the scale, they would give in to Lā ilāha illa Allāh» This ḥadīth was recorded by al-Bukhaaree in al-Adab al-Mufrad, Aḥmad, al-Bayhaqī in al-Asmā’, and also aṭ-Ṭabarānī according to al-Haythamī who said, “This isnād is ṣaḥīḥ.” Al-Albānī included it in aṣ-Ṣahīhah no. 134, and Shaykh Muqbil b. Hādī included Aḥmad’s ḥadīth in Ṣaḥīḥ al-Musnad minma Laysa fī aṣ-Ṣaḥīḥayn v. 1 p.544 and he said, “This ḥadīth is ṣaḥīḥ.”

[Footnote 02 is taken from English Publication of “Explanation of Kitab at-Tawheed” by Imam as-Sa’di]

Extracted From: Kitāb-ut-Tawheed – Dawud Burbank [Audio Series|En]
Mainly based upon Imam  AbdurRahman Al-Sadi’s explanation, which can be used as study aid while listening to the series. In addition, Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah also explains some Points from Shaykh Uthaymeen and other Imaams as well.

Kitāb at-Tawheed Book Study – https://abdurrahman.org/islamic-book-study/kitab-at-tawheed

Related Links:

Indeed Allah has forbidden for Hell the person who testifies Laa ilaaha illa Allaah – Kitab at-Tawheed | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

[Souncloud Audio Link

Kitāb-ut-Tawheed : Chapter 2:
The Excellence of Tawheed and the Sins it wipes away

ولهما في حديث عتبان:

فإن الله حرم على النار من قال: لا إله إلا الله يبتغي بذلك وجه الله

‘Itban (radi Allaahu anhu) narrated that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said:

“Indeed Allah has forbidden for Hell the person who testifies: ‘There is nothing worthy of worship in truth (no true God) but Allah’, seeking thereby nothing but Allah’s Face (pleasure).”

(Al-Bukhari, Muslim).

Extracted From: Kitāb-ut-Tawheed – Dawud Burbank [Audio Series|En]
Mainly based upon Imam  AbdurRahman Al-Sadi’s explanation, which can be used as study aid while listening to the series. In addition, Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah also explains some Points from Shaykh Uthaymeen and other Imaams as well.

Kitāb at-Tawheed Book Study – https://abdurrahman.org/islamic-book-study/kitab-at-tawheed

Related Links:

Allāh will admit him into Paradise, whatever his deeds might be – Kitāb at-Tawheed | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

[Souncloud Audio Link

Kitāb-ut-Tawheed : Chapter 2:
The Excellence of Tawheed and the Sins it wipes away

عن عبادة بن الصامت رضي الله عنه قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم:

من شهد أن لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له، وأن محمداً عبده ورسوله، وأن عيسى عبد الله ورسوله وكلمته ألقاها إلى مريم وروح منه، والجنة حق، والنار حق أدخله الله الجنة على ما كان من العمل

[أخرجاه ]

Narrated Ubadah bin As-Samit (radi Allaahu anhu), that Allah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said:

“Whoever testifies that there is nothing worthy of worship in truth (no God) except Allah Alone, Who is without (peer or) partner, and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger, and that ‘Iesa (Jesus) is the slave of Allah, His Messenger, and His Word which He bestowed in Maryam (Mary) and a spirit (created) by Him, and that Paradise & Hell-fire are realities, Allah will admit him into Paradise, whatever his deeds might be.”

(Sahih Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 3252)

Extracted From: Kitāb-ut-Tawheed – Dawud Burbank [Audio Series|En]
Mainly based upon Imam  AbdurRahman Al-Sadi’s explanation, which can be used as study aid while listening to the series. In addition, Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah also explains some Points from Shaykh Uthaymeen and other Imaams as well.

Related Links:

Kitāb at-Tawheed Book Study – https://abdurrahman.org/islamic-book-study/kitab-at-tawheed

Explaining an Incredible Hadīth of ‘Ubādah Ibn as-Sāmit رضي الله عنه – Shaykh Abdur-Raḥmān Ibn Ḥasan Āli-Shaykh [PDF

The People Of The Book Turned Away From Their Covenant With Allaah – Imam as-Sa’dee

BismillaahThe People Of The Book Turned Away From Their Covenant With Allaah [1]

وَإِذْ أَخَذَ اللَّهُ مِيثَاقَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ لَتُبَيِّنُنَّهُ لِلنَّاسِ وَلَا تَكْتُمُونَهُ فَنَبَذُوهُ وَرَاءَ ظُهُورِهِمْ وَاشْتَرَوْا بِهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا ۖ فَبِئْسَ مَا يَشْتَرُونَ

[[Meaning: And remember when Allaah took a covenant from those who were given the Scripture to make it clear to the people, and not hide it; but they cast it behind their backs, and they purchased thereby some paltry gain. So evil is that which they purchased.]] [Soorah Aali `Imraan (3): 187]


Shaikh `Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Naasir as-Sa’dee- rahimahullaah-said in his Tafseer of the Aayah:

“The Covenant (al-Meethaaq) is the weighty, emphatic covenant; and Allaah-the Most High-took this Covenant from everyone to whom He gave the Book, and whom He taught knowledge to; that they should clarify to the people whatever they are in need of from that which Allaah taught him, and that they should not hide that, nor be miserly with them regarding it – particularly if they ask him about it, or when something occurs which necessitates that. So in such a situation it is obligatory upon everyone who possesses knowledge that he clearly explains it to the people, and clarifies the truth from falsehood. So as for those guided to correctness by Allaah, then they carry this out in the most complete manner, and they teach the people that which Allaah has taught them, seeking the Pleasure of their Lord, and out of compassion for the creation, and from fear of the sin of hiding the truth.

As for those who were given the Scripture, from the Jews and the Christians and their like, then they cast this agreement and this covenant behind their backs. They took no notice of it. So they hid the truth and they put forth falsehood. They boldly violated the prohibitions laid down by Allaah; and they neglected the rights of Allaah and the rights of the creation. Through concealing the truth they purchased a paltry gain- which is what they acquire, if they acquire anything, from positions of authority and trivial wealth; from their lowly ones- from those who follow their desires, and who give precedence to their desires over the truth.

فَبِئْسَ مَا يَشْتَرُونَ

[[Meaning: So evil is that which they bought]]:

since it is the most wretched exchange. They turned away from clarifying the truth, which is something which brings about eternal bliss, and religious and worldly benefits – the most tremendous and exalted goals. So they only chose that which is lowly and despicable over that which is lofty and precious because of their wretchedness and degradation, and because they are not fitting for anything other than that which they were created for.”


[1] Taken from “Tayseerul-Kareemir-Rahmaan fee tafseer Kalaamil-Mannaan” of Shaikh AbdurRahmaan ibn Naasir as-Sa’dee.

[Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood ibn Ronald Burbank -rahimahullaah]

https://alitisaambissunnah.wordpress.com

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/knowledge

Fasting the month of Ramadan with Eeman and Ihtisaaban – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Explanation of Hadiths in Riyad-us-Saliheen | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

[Souncloud Audio Link

وعن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال‏:‏

من صام رمضان إيمانًا واحتسابًا، غفر له ما تقدم من ذنبه

‏‏(‏متفق عليه‏)‏‏‏

 Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said,

Whoever fasts Ramadhan based upon true faith and upon his hoping for reward, then he will be forgiven his previous sins

[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Explanation of the Pillars of Eemaan – Usool al-Thalaatha | Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lessons 33 (Part C), 34 , 35, 36 (PartA)
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

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The Pillars of Eemaan

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:   

قال : وأركانه ستة : أن تؤمن بالله ، وملائكته ، وكتبه ، ورسله ، واليوم الآخر ، وتؤمن بالقدر خيره وشره

Its pillars are six: to have eemaan in Allaah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Last Day, and to have eemaan in Pre-Decree, the good of it, and the bad of it.[43]


[43Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

[Note: Shaykh Fawzan covers Difference between Pillars and Branches of Eemaan  before explaining the Pillars]

His saying: «Its pillars are six» meaning: it supports which it is established upon, and if they are absent, then it will be absent, or if one of them is absent, then it will be absent.

They are six pillars, and they are:

The first one: «To have eemaan in Allaah.» So, the first pillar is having eemaan in Allaah, and it includes the three categories of Tawheed: Eemaan that Allaah the Perfect and Most High is One, Unique, Alone, the Perfect Lord and Master whom everything depends totally upon, Who has no Partner in His Lordship, nor in His Right to worship, nor in His Names and Attributes.

The second one: «Eemaan in the Angels»Malaa.ika‘ (angels) is the plural of malak (angel). Its origin in the language is mal.ak (ملأك), so it was then made easier to pronounce and was said as ‘malak.’ The angels are beings created by Allaah in the world of the ghayb (hidden and unseen). Allaah created them to worship Him, and to carry out His commands, He the Perfect and Most High, within His dominion. They are different types; every type has a duty which it is entrusted with and which it carries out. They do not disobey Allaah regarding that which He commands them, and they do whatever they are commanded. So, from them, there are those who are entrusted with the revelation, and he is Jibreel `alaihissalaam. He is the noblest one from the angels; he is ar-Roohul-Ameen (the Trustworthy Spirit) and he is described as Shadeedul-Quwaa (the Mighty in Strength). And from them, are those entrusted with bearing the Throne:

الَّذِينَ يَحْمِلُونَ الْعَرْشَ وَمَنْ حَوْلَهُ

«Those who bear the Throne and those who are around it.» [40:7]

The Most High said,

وَالْمَلَكُ عَلَىٰ أَرْجَائِهَا ۚ وَيَحْمِلُ عَرْشَ رَبِّكَ فَوْقَهُمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ ثَمَانِيَةٌ

«And the angels will be at its edges, and eight angels, will, on that Day, bear the Throne of your Lord.» [69:17]

The Throne is the most tremendous of the created things, and no one knows its greatness except for Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. It will be carried by the angels – and this is a proof of the tremendous size of the angels, their great strength and their nature. He, the Most High said:

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ فَاطِرِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ جَاعِلِ الْمَلَائِكَةِ رُسُلًا أُولِي أَجْنِحَةٍ مَّثْنَىٰ وَثُلَاثَ وَرُبَاعَ ۚ يَزِيدُ فِي الْخَلْقِ مَا يَشَاءُ

«All praise is for Allaah, the Creator and Originator of the heavens and the earth, the One who made His angel messengers with wings, – two, three, and four. He increases in creation whatever He wishes.» [35:1]

So, from them are those who have six hundred wings, such as Jibreel `alaihissalaatu wasalaam. No one knows their tremendous size except for Allaah, the Perfect and Most High:

بَلْ عِبَادٌ مُّكْرَمُونَ – لَا يَسْبِقُونَهُ بِالْقَوْلِ وَهُم بِأَمْرِهِ يَعْمَلُونَ

«Rather, they are honoured servants. They do not proceed Him in speaking, and they act upon His commands.» [21:26-27]

From them are those who are entrusted with the rain-drops and the plants, and he is Mikaeel. And from them are those who are entrusted with blowing the horn, and he is Israafeel. He will blow the horn and everything will perish. He, the Most High said:

وَنُفِخَ فِي الصُّورِ فَصَعِقَ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَن فِي الْأَرْضِ إِلَّا مَن شَاءَ اللَّهُ

«And the horn will be blown, and whoever is in the heavens and whoever is upon the earth, will swoon (drop down dead) except whomever Allaah wishes.» [39:68]

Then it will be blown for a second time, and the souls will return to their bodies:

ثُمَّ نُفِخَ فِيهِ أُخْرَىٰ فَإِذَا هُمْ قِيَامٌ يَنظُرُونَ

«Then it will be blown again and they will be standing, looking on» [39:68]

The souls will fly from the Qarn, which is the horn, back to their bodies, and they will enter into them and they will come to life by the Permission of Allaah, then they will proceed to the gathering place.

And from them are those who are entrusted with taking of the souls at the end of their lifespans, and he is Malak al-Mawt (the Angel of Death). He, the Most High, said:

قُلْ يَتَوَفَّاكُم مَّلَكُ الْمَوْتِ الَّذِي وُكِّلَ بِكُمْ ثُمَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكُمْ تُرْجَعُونَ

«Say: The angel of death, who has been entrusted with you, will take your souls, then you will be returned to your Lord.» [32:11]

And he has with him assistance from the angels:

تَوَفَّتْهُ رُسُلُنَا وَهُمْ لَا يُفَرِّطُونَ

«Our Messengers (from the angels) take his soul, and they do not neglect their duty.» [6:61]

Meaning: they are the helpers for the angel of death.

And from them are those who are entrusted with the foetuses in the wombs. The Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam said:

» إن أحدكم يجمع خلقه في بطن أمه أربعين يوما نطفة ، ثم يكون علقة مثل ذلك ، ثم يكون مضغة مثل ذلك ، ثم يرسل إليه الملك «

«The creation of each one of you is brought together in the abdomen of his mother for forty days as a sperm drop, then he will be a clinging clot of blood for the like of that, then he will be a piece of flesh for the like of that, then the angel is sent to him

[Hadith Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 3208 and Muslim no. 2643 from a hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn Mas`ood, radiy Allaahu `anhu.]

And from them are those who are entrusted with recording the deeds of the descendents of Aadam. He, the Most High said:

وَإِنَّ عَلَيْكُمْ لَحَافِظِينَ  – كِرَامًا كَاتِبِينَ

«And there are watchers over you and there are honourable scribes writing down your deeds.» [82:10-11]

They stay with you throughout the night and the day.

He sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

»يتعاقبون فيكم ملائكة بالليل ، وملائكة بالنهار «

«The angels of the night and the day come to you in succession

[Hadith Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 555 and Muslim no. 632 from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiyallaahu `anhu.]

And they gather together at the Fajr and `Asr prayer. They bear witness for those people who pray with Allaah, the Perfect and Most High. Therefore, He, the Most High said:

إِنَّ قُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ كَانَ مَشْهُودًا

«And the recitation of the Qur`aan in the Fajr prayer is witnessed.» [17:78]

Meaning: The angels attend it, the angels of the night and the angels of the day.

And from them are those who are entrusted with guarding the descendants of Aadam from disagreeable things; they guard them from calamities, from enemies, creatures; the wild animals, serpents or snakes, for as long as he lives, he has angels guarding him from dangerous things.

He may sleep between wild animals and snakes in open desert, (so) who repels the snakes, the wild animals and creatures from him? He has angels whom Allaah, He the Most High, has placed in their service. Allaah said with regard to them:

لَهُ مُعَقِّبَاتٌ مِّن بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِ يَحْفَظُونَهُ مِنْ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ

«There are angels guarding him in succession, from in front of him and from behind him by the Command of Allaah.» [13:11]

Meaning: by the Command of Allaah, they guard the children of Aadam from disagreeable things and from dangers, until his lifespan draws to a close. So, when his lifespan comes to an end, they leave him. And that which Allaah has decreed to occur will occur, be it death or being stopped by something which leads to death.

And from them are angels who are entrusted with carrying out the commands in different areas of the heavens and the earth. No one knows them except for Allaah, the Perfect and Most High.

From them are angels who seek out the gatherings of remembrance of Allaah and they attend them, just as Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam said:

»ما اجتمع قوم في بيت من بيوت الله ، يتلون كتاب الله ، ويتدارسونه بينهم ، إلا نزلت  عليهم السكينة ، وغشيتهم الرحمة ، وحفتهم الملائكة«

«No people gather in a house from the houses of Allaah, reciting the Book of Allaah and studying it amongst them, except that (as-sakeenah) tranquility descends upon them, and mercy covers them, and the angels encircle them with their wings

[Hadith Reported by Muslim no. 2699 from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiy Allaahu `anhu]

There are angels who travel about upon the earth, seeking out the circles of the remembrance of Allaah and attending them.

[Hadith Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 6408 from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiyallaahu `anh.]

No one knows all about the angels, their types and characteristics except for Allaah. However, as for what occurs in the texts of the Qur`aan and the authentic ahaadeeth of the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam, then we affirm it, and we believe it as our aqeedah (creed and belief) ; and whatever has not been mentioned to us, then we withhold from it, and we do not delve into it, because this is from `ilmul-ghayb (the knowledge of the hidden and the unseen) which we do not enter into, except with a proof.

So, having eemaan in the angels is a pillar from the pillars of Islaam.

Whoever denies the angels and says: “There are no angels (in existence) because we do not see them,” then this person will be a disbeliever, an apostate and heretic, and Allaah’s refuge is sought. This is because he does not have eemaan in the ghayb.

And likewise, the person who interprets the angels away and says: “The angels are just abstract things and not bodily beings; they are just thoughts or promptings which occur to a person. If they are good promptings, then they are angels, and if they are evil promptings, then they are devils,” this is a saying involving apostasy, and Allaah’s refuge is sought.

Unfortunately, this is found in Tafseerul-Manaar, it was quoted by Muhammad Rasheed Ridaa from his Shaykh Muhammad `Abdah. This is speech of the philosophers and it is baatil (false and futile). Whoever truly holds this as his creed and belief, he is a disbeliever. However, we hope that he was just quoting it, and he did not believe it, however, he quoted it without criticism, and that is dangerous. This is false and futile speech, and it is disbelief in the angels. We ask Allaah for safety and security.

So a person should not enter with his own intellect and thinking into this, nor should he quote anything from the philosophers and heretics with regard to anything from the affairs of the religion and the matters of `ilmul-ghayb. Rather, he should rely upon the Book and the Sunnah. This is what is obligatory. And he mentions in Tafseerul-Manaar that he was quoting from the book Ihyaa Uloom ad-Deen of al-Ghazaalee, and Allaah knows best. And the book Ihyaa Uloom ad-Deen of al-Ghazaalee contains terrible and calamitous things, and it contains some things from good and benefits, however, it contains a great deal of matters which can cause destruction, and it contains a great deal of poison. It is a book which is mixed up, its evil is more than its good. So therefore, it is not befitting that the beginner or the common person should look into it, unless he has the knowledge and ability to distinguish between the truth and falsehood.

And the angels are not abstract things as is said, rather, the angels have bodies and forms, they can take on different forms which Allaah gives them the ability to take on. Therefore, Jibreel `alaihis-salaam came to the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam in the form of a man. So, Allaah gives them the ability to take forms for the benefit of the descendants of Aadam, because the descendants of Aadam are not able to see the angels in the form upon which Allaah created them. So, he came to the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam in the form of a man out of kindness to the sons of Aadam. And they are not seen in their true forms and realities, except at the time of punishment. He, the Most High said:

يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَ الْمَلَائِكَةَ لَا بُشْرَىٰ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِّلْمُجْرِمِينَ

«On the Day when they will see the angels, there will be no glad tidings on that Day for the criminals.» [25:22]

At death, the person will see them, he will see the angels of death, however, in this world and once he is alive, he does not see them because he is not able to see them. Allaah created them from light and He created the devils from Fire, just as occurs in the Qur`aan, and He created Aadam from earth, so Allaah has full ability over everything.

And the disbelievers believed that the angels are the daughters of Allaah. He the Most High said:

وَجَعَلُوا الْمَلَائِكَةَ الَّذِينَ هُمْ عِبَادُ الرَّحْمَٰنِ إِنَاثًا ۚ أَشَهِدُوا خَلْقَهُمْ ۚ سَتُكْتَبُ شَهَادَتُهُمْ وَيُسْأَلُونَ

«And they made the angels, who are servants of the Most Merciful, females. Did they witness their creation? Their testimony will be written and they will be questioned about it.» [43:19]

The third one: «Eemaan in his books» They are the Books which Allaah sent down to the Messengers for the guidance of mankind. We have eemaan that they are the speech of Allaah in reality, and we have eemaan in whatever Allaah named from them and in whatever He has not named. Allaah named to us from them the Tauraat, the Injeel, the Tremendous Qur`aan, the Zaboor, and the Scripture given to Ibraaheem and Moosaa. We have eemaan in them and we have eemaan in those that Allaah did not name to us from them.

So, eemaan in the previous scriptures is eemaan in general terms, whereas eemaan in the Qur`aan is eemaan in the details of everything contained in it. This is because it is our Book and was sent down to our Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam. Whoever denies one aayah or one letter from its letters, then he is a kaafir and a murtad (apostate) who has left Islaam.

Likewise, whoever believes in a part of the Qur`aan and disbelieves in a part, then he is a kaafir, and one who believes in some of the scriptures and disbelieves in some, then he is a kaafir. Whoever says: “I believe in the Qur`aan, but I do not believe in the Tauraat and the Injeel,” then he is a kaafir.  Or says: “I believe in the Tauraat and the Injeel, but I do not believe in the Zaboor which was sent to Daawood `alaihissalaam,” then he is a kaafir. He, the Most High, said:

وَآتَيْنَا دَاوُودَ زَبُورًا

«And We gave the Zaboor to Daawood.» [4:163]

Or one who denies the scriptures of Ibraaheem, then he is a kaafir, because he has denied the truth of that which Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, said. He is denying His Messengers, so therefore, he is a kaafir, because he has denied a pillar from the pillars of eemaan. 

The fourth one: «Eemaan in his Messengers» Having eemaan in all of the Messengers, from the first of them to the last of them, those whom Allaah has named from them and those He did not name.  We have eemaan in all of them, and that they are Messengers of Allaah in truth. They came with the Message and they conveyed it to their nations. So, whoever disbelieves in a single Prophet, then he is a disbeliever in all of the Messengers, because of His saying, the Most High:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْفُرُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يُفَرِّقُوا بَيْنَ اللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَيَقُولُونَ نُؤْمِنُ بِبَعْضٍ وَنَكْفُرُ بِبَعْضٍ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَّخِذُوا بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ سَبِيلًا أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ حَقًّا ۚ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابًا مُّهِينًا  وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَلَمْ يُفَرِّقُوا بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُمْ أُولَٰئِكَ سَوْفَ يُؤْتِيهِمْ أُجُورَهُمْ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا

«Those who disbelieve in Allaah and His Messengers and wish to make a distinction between believing in Allaah and His Messengers. They say: “We believe in some of them and we disbelieve in some,” and they wish to take a path in between. They are the disbelievers in truth. And We have prepared a humiliating punishment for the disbelievers. And those who truly believe in Allaah and His Messengers and do not differentiate in believing in any of them, to them He will soon give their rewards. And Allaah has always been One who Forgives Extensively and Bestows Mercy.» [4:150-152]

Therefore disbelieving in a single Prophet or a single Messenger is to disbelieve in all of them. He said:

كَذَّبَتْ قَوْمُ نُوحٍ الْمُرْسَلِينَ

«The people of Nooh rejected the Messengers.» [26:105]

Even though they only rejected Nooh, their denial of Nooh became a denial of the rest of the Messengers. Likewise, whoever disbelieves in `Eesaa and Muhammad, such as the Jews, or whoever disbelieves in Muhammad, such as the Christians, then he is a disbeliever in all of them. There must be eemaan in all of the Messengers `alaihumusalaatu wasalaam, those whom Allaah has named from them and those He has not named.

Allaah has named some of them as occurs in Sooratul-An`aam:

وَتِلْكَ حُجَّتُنَا آتَيْنَاهَا إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ ۚ نَرْفَعُ دَرَجَاتٍ مَّن نَّشَاءُ ۗ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ حَكِيمٌ عَلِيمٌ وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُ إِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ ۚ كُلًّا هَدَيْنَا ۚ وَنُوحًا هَدَيْنَا مِن قَبْلُ ۖ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِهِ دَاوُودَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ وَأَيُّوبَ وَيُوسُفَ وَمُوسَىٰ وَهَارُونَ ۚ وَكَذَٰلِكَ نَجْزِي الْمُحْسِنِينَ وَزَكَرِيَّا وَيَحْيَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰ وَإِلْيَاسَ ۖ كُلٌّ مِّنَ الصَّالِحِينَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَالْيَسَعَ وَيُونُسَ وَلُوطًا ۚ وَكُلًّا فَضَّلْنَا عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ

«And that was Our Proof which We gave to Ibraaheem against his people. We raise in degrees whomever We wish. Indeed, your Lord is All-Wise, All-Knowing. And We bestowed upon him Is-haaq and Yaqoob, We guided them all, and Nooh, We guided before, and from his descendants were Daawood, Sulayman, Ayyoob, Yusuf, Moosaa, and Haaroon. Likewise shall We reward the doers of good. And Zakariyyah, and Yahyaa, and Ilyaas, all of them were from the righteous. And Ismaa`eel, and al-Yas`aa, and Yoonus and Loot, all of them We gave excellence over the people of the world.» [6:83-86]

He mentioned a number of them together in these aayahs and in other aayahs. So, we have eemaan in those whom Allaah has named from them and we have eemaan in those whom Allaah has not named from them.

The fifth one: «The Last Day» Eemaan in the Last Day is the fifth pillar. The Last Day – what is meant by it is Yawm al-Qiyaamah (the Day of Resurrection). It is called the Last Day because it comes after the Yawm al-Awal (the First Day), and that is the Day of this world. This world is the First Day, and the Resurrection is the Last Day. Having eemaan in the Last Day is to have eemaan in whatever will occur after death from the punishment of the grave and its bliss and the questioning of the two Angels in the grave. Everything that will occur after the grave is a part of eemaan in the Last Day, likewise, eemaan in al-Ba`th (dead being brought to life), an-Nushoor (Resurrection), al-Mahshara (the Gathering Place), al-Hisaab (Reckoning), Waznul-A`maal (Weighing of the Deeds), asSiraat (Bridge over the Hell-Fire), al-Mizaan (the Balance upon which the good and bad deeds will be weighed), and al-Jannah (Paradise) and an-Naar (Fire). So the details of what will occur on the Last Day, we have eemaan in it – in general and with the specifics – beginning with death right until the inhabitants of Paradise settle in Paradise and the inhabitants of the Fire are in the Fire. Everything which is authentic in that regard, we have eemaan in it. We do not have any doubt at all about anything from it. Whoever doubts about anything from it, then he is a kaafir and a murtad upon Islaam – everything to which the term the Last Day applies and what is contained in it. 

The sixth pillar: «And to have eemaan in pre-decree, the good of it, and the bad of it.» You have eemaan that whatever occurs from this creation, from good or evil, from disbelief or true faith, from blessings or punishments, from ease or hardship, from sickness or health, from life or death – everything occurs in this creation is pre-decreed. It does not just occur like that. It is not just a matter which happens on its own, meaning: it just initially comes about, not being pre-decreed. So, you have eemaan that it all comes about with the decree and ordainment of Allaah. And you have eemaan that whatever befalls you would not have missed you and whatever missed you was not going to come upon you, and that this was by the ordainment of Allaah and His pre-decree. He, the Most High, said:

مَا أَصَابَ مِن مُّصِيبَةٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مِّن قَبْلِ أَن نَّبْرَأَهَا ۚ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ

«No calamity befalls on the earth nor in yourselves except that it was already written in a Book, before We created it. That is easy for Allaah.» [57:22]

This is eemaan with the pre-decree. 

Eemaan in pre-decree includes four levels, whoever does not have eemaan in all of them is not a believer in pre-decree.

The first level: Knowledge that Allaah has known everything, always. He knows what occurs, whatever has occurred and whatever will occur without end. So, Allaah knew it always before it was and before it occurred. He, the Perfect and Most High, knew it with His Eternal Knowledge – which is His Attribute – has always been and will be forever. This is the level of knowledge, whoever denies it is a kaafir. 

The second level: The level of writing down in the Lawh al-Mahfoodh (the Preserved Tablet). And it is that Allaah wrote down everything in the Preserved Tablet. Nothing occurs except that it was written down in the Preserved Tablet. There is nothing that occurs and it is not written there, therefore He, the Most High, said:

مَا أَصَابَ مِن مُّصِيبَةٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ

«No calamity befalls on the earth nor in yourselves except that it was already written in a Book.» [57:22]

Meaning: the Preserved Tablet. Allaah wrote in it the decreed measures of everything. Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

» أول ما خلق الله القلم ، قال : اكتب ، قال : وما أكتب ؟ قال : اكتب ما هو كائن إلى يوم القيامة «

«The first thing that Allaah created was the pen.
He said: “Write.”
It said: “And what shall I write?”
He said: “Write whatever will occur until the Day of Resurrection.”»

[Hadith Reported by Aboo Daawood no. 3800, at-Tirmithee no. 2155 from a hadeeth of `Ubaadah ibn asSaamit, radiy Allaahu `anhu.] [Declared authentic by Shaykh al-Albaanee (rahimahullaah)].

So, whoever denies the writing and says: “Allaah knows everything, however He did not write anything down in the Preserved Tablet,” this person is a kaafir and an apostate who has left the religion of Islaam. 

The third level: Allaah’s Mashee.ah (Will) which is in effect. It is that Allaah, the Perfect, wishes a thing and wills it to occur. So, there is nothing that occurs except that Allaah wished and willed it to occur just as it is in the Preserved Tablet and just as He knew it, He the Perfect and Most High. He wills everything to occur at its time. He wills everything to occur at a certain time. Nothing occurs without the will of Allaah or without His wish. So, whoever says: “Things occur without Allaah wishing them to or without Allaah’s willing them to,” then he is a kaafir. 

The fourth level: The level of creating and bringing it into exist. Allaah created it everything. When He wishes and wills it, He, the Perfect and Most High, creates it and brings it about. So everything is something created by Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, and it is from the creation of Allaah. It is an action done by the servants and something earned by them [meaning deeds].

So these four levels, there must be eemaan in them, otherwise the person will not be a believer in pre-decree, the level of knowledge, writing, wish and will, and creation and the bringing into existence. It is essential to have eemaan in all of these. Whoever denies anything from them, then he is a kaafir and an apostate who has left the religion of Islaam, because he has denied a pillar from the pillars of eemaan, and it is eemaan in the pre-decree.


The Proof for the Pillars of Eemaan 

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:   

والدليل على هذه الأركان الستة قوله تعالى :

The proof for these six pillars is His saying He, the Most High:

لَّيْسَ الْبِرَّ أَن تُوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ قِبَلَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ وَلَٰكِنَّ الْبِرَّ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةِ وَالْكِتَابِ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ

«And righteousness is not that you turn your faces towards the East or the West; but rather, righteousness is the righteousness of those who have eemaan (truly believe) in Allaah, the Last Day, the Angels, the Books, and the Prophets.» [2:177]  [44]


[44] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

The Shaykh having explained these pillars mentions the proof from the Qur`aan and Sunnah, because any matter from the matters of the religion, of worship, `aqeedah and the matters of legislated rulings, require a daleel (proof). If it does not have a proof, it will not be saheeh (correct). So, the Shaykh having mentioned the six pillars of eemaan, he mentions their proof from the Qur`aan firstly and then from the Sunnah.

From the Qur`aan is His saying, He the Most High:

.. لَّيْسَ الْبِرَّ أَن تُوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ

« And righteousness is not that you turn your faces » [2:177]

Al-Birr (righteousness) is the doing of good which draws one closer to Allaah and leads to His Paradise. So, all actions of good are from al-birr. Al-Birr is a general word which covers all types of good and all types of acts of obedience. They all enter under the title of birr and under the title of taqwaa (dutifulness to Allaah).So, al-birr and taqwaa are comprehensive terms which gather all the characteristics of good.

His saying, He the Most High:

لَّيْسَ الْبِرَّ أَن تُوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ قِبَلَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ

« And righteousness is not that you turn your faces towards the East or the West. » [2:177]

This is a refutation of the Jews who criticized the changing of the Qiblah (direction of the prayer) from Jerusalem to the honored Ka`bah. They criticized this and denied it along with their knowledge that they knew that it was true. However, they denied it as a case of obstinate rejection, haughtiness and envy towards the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi was allam and towards this nation.

Allaah, the Most High, says: It is not righteousness that you turn your faces in a certain direction from the directions without a command from Allaah. But rather, righteousness is obedience to Allaah, the Perfect and Most High. If He commands you with a command, it is obligatory upon you to comply with it. This is righteousness. So, if He commands you to face Jerusalem, then righteousness at that time is to face the direction of Jerusalem, because it was obedience to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. Then, when He commands you to face the Ka`bah, righteousness is to face the Ka`bah. So, righteousness goes along with the command of Allaah, the Perfect and Most High.

You are slaves. It is obligatory upon you to comply. If Allaah commands you to face a certain direction, it is obligatory upon you to comply. But as for clinging in a bigoted manner to one certain direction, saying: “It is not correct except to face it,” then the meaning of this is the following of desires and tribalism. Whereas the true servant goes along with the commands of Allaah wherever they go. He does not raise any objection to the command of Allaah, since facing a direction after it has been abrogated will not be obedience to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. So, acting upon that which has been abrogated and leaving that which abrogates is not obedience to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, rather it is just obedience to desires and tribalism. So, righteousness is connected to obedience to Allaah; in whichever directions He turns you, you turn in that direction if you are true in your servitude to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

… لَّيْسَ الْبِرَّ أَن تُوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ قِبَلَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ وَلَٰكِنَّ الْبِرَّ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ 

«And righteousness is not that you turn your faces towards the East or the West; but rather, righteousness is the righteousness of those who have eemaan (truly believe) in Allaah …» [2:177]


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:   

ودليل القدر قوله تعالى:

And the proof for pre-decree is His Saying, He the Most High:

إِنَّا كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقْنَاهُ بِقَدَرٍ

«We have created all things in accordance with a predetermined measure.» [54:49] [45]


[45] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

The proof for the sixth pillar from the pillars of eemaan is His saying, He the Most High:

إِنَّا كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقْنَاهُ بِقَدَرٍ

«We have created all things in accordance with a predetermined measure.» [54:49]

Meaning: Everything which Allaah created is predetermined in His Knowledge, His Writing, His Wish and Will, He the Perfect and Most High. It is not something which spontaneously occurs or something accidental, rather it is something preceded with the Knowledge of Allaah, written in the Preserved Tablet, and something preceded in the Wish and Will of Allaah, the Perfect and Most High.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/belief/imaan-faith-pillars

The head of the affair is al-Islaam, its supporting pillar is the prayer, & its highest part is Jihaad – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lesson 50 (Part B) –  [Final Part of the Series]
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:   

The proof is His saying, He the Most High:

وهذا هو معنى لا إله إلا الله، وفي الحديثِ : « رأسُ الأمْرِ الإسلامُ وعمودُهُ الصَّلاةُ وذروةُ سنَامِهِ الجهادُ في سبيلِ اللهِ » 

And this is the meaning of ‘laa ilaaha ill Allaah’ (none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah).

And in the hadeeth:

“The head of the affair is al-Islaam, and its supporting pillar is the prayer, and its highest part is jihaad in Allaah’s cause.” [1]84


[84] : Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

The Shaykh said: “And this is the meaning of laa ilaaha ill Allaah – Meaning: rejection of at Taaghoot and eemaan (true faith) in Allaah.

And Al-Islaam is: To submit to Allaah with tawheed and to yield to Him with obedience and to free oneself from shirk and its people.

This is the head of the affair of the religion; the two testimonies are the head of Islaam and they are the foundation of Islaam. So a person will not enter into Islaam unless he comes with the two testimonies, uttering them and having knowledge of them and acting upon them and holding them as his creed and belief. He will not be a Muslim except with this.

The religion is likened to a body which has a head and a main support and a highest part. So if the head is cut off or if there is no head, then life cannot carry on. Likewise without tawheed, the Religion cannot remain because it is the head which, if it is cut or passes away, then life passes away and the body is destroyed.

And its main supporting pillar which it stands upon is the Prayer. So without its supporting pillar, Islaam will not stand – like a dwelling made of animal hair or a tent – if it has no pillar which it can rest upon, it will not stand. So a house cannot stand except with a support. Then if the support is lost, the house will not stand. Likewise the Prayer – if it is lost, then Islaam will not stand.

Therefore the scholars have said that whoever abandons the Prayer out of laziness, he becomes a disbeliever, in the correct saying – even if he acknowledges its obligation because there is no benefit in acknowledging its obligation if he does not implement it and he does not act upon it, there will be no benefit in that. And therefore the verifiers from the people of knowledge judge that the person who abandons the Prayer deliberately, even if he acknowledges its obligation, is a disbeliever. As for if he denies its obligation, then he is a disbeliever by consensus of the Muslims.

“…and its highest part is jihaad in Allaah’s cause.”

The highest part of the affair – which is the religion  – is jihaad in Allaah’s cause. So jihaad is a proof for the strength of Islaam; when jihaad in Allaah’s cause is found, then that is a proof that Islaam is in a condition of strength because jihaad cannot occur except as a result of strength in eemaan and physical strength.

So the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam mentioned three matters for the Religion: the head, the supporting pillar and the highest part. So without the head, the Religion will not exist at all. So the person who does not establish the head – which is tawheed – will have no religion.

And the person who does not pray, then the Religion will not be established for him even if he bears witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah because it requires a supporting pillar which the Religion can stand upon, and it cannot be found except through the Prayer.

And if jihaad is absent then the strength of Islaam will be absent and it will be an Islaam which is in a condition of weakness and the Muslims will be in a weak state. So there will be no strength for Islaam and the Muslims except through jihaad in Allaah’s cause, He the Mighty and Majestic. So it is a sign of strength and its absence is a sign of weakness.

This is the manner in which the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam likened these three affairs with regards to the Religion: a head, a main support and a highest part, just as a camel which has a hump, this shows that it is strong. And if it has no hump, then this shows that it is emaciated and weak.

Likewise the Muslims today are in a state of weakness upon the Earth, and therefore there occurs in the hadeeth:

إذا تبايعتم بالعينة ، وأخذتم أذناب البقر، وتركتم الجهاد ، سلط الله عليكم ذلا لا يترعه منكم حتى ترجعوا إلى دينكم 

“When you engage in the ‘eenah (usury/riba) transaction and you take hold of the tails of cows and you abandon jihaad, then Allaah will cause humiliation to overcome you; He will not remove it from you until you return to your religion.”

[Hadith Reported by Aboo Daawood (3462) from the hadeeth of ibn ‘Umar radiyallaahu ‘anhumaa and declared Saheeh by al Albaanee]

So abandonment of jihaad is humiliation and weakness for the Muslims and its presence is a proof of strength and formness, just like the hump of an animal.

And Allaah knows best and may Allaah extol our Prophet Muhammad.

And with this, the explanation of the blessed book, the Three Fundamental Principles, is ended.

Footnotes:

[1] Reported by at Tirmidhee (2616) and an Nasaa.ee from the hadeeth of Mu’aadh ibn Jabal radiy Allaahu ‘anhu and declared Saheeh by al Albaanee.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

No-one is to be compelled to enter the Religion, true guidance has been made clear – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lesson 50 (Part A)
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:   

The proof is His saying, He the Most High:

لَا إِكْرَاهَ فِي الدِّينِ ۖ قَد تَّبَيَّنَ الرُّشْدُ مِنَ الْغَيِّ ۚ فَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِالطَّاغُوتِ وَيُؤْمِن بِاللَّهِ فَقَدِ اسْتَمْسَكَ بِالْعُرْوَةِ الْوُثْقَىٰ لَا انفِصَامَ لَهَا ۗ وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

No-one is to be compelled to enter the Religion, true guidance has been made clear and distinct from falsehood.  So whoever rejects at Taaghoot and truly believes in Allaah, then he has grasped the firmest handhold that will never break. And Allaah is All Hearing, All Knowing. [2:256]83


[83]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

He, the Perfect and Most High, said:

لَا إِكْرَاهَ فِي الدِّينِ ۖ قَد تَّبَيَّنَ الرُّشْدُ مِنَ الْغَيِّ ۚ فَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِالطَّاغُوتِ وَيُؤْمِن بِاللَّهِ فَقَدِ اسْتَمْسَكَ بِالْعُرْوَةِ الْوُثْقَىٰ لَا انفِصَامَ لَهَا ۗ وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

No one is to be compelled to enter the Religion, true guidance has been made clear and distinct from falsehood.  So whoever rejects at Taaghoot and truly believes in Allaah, then he has grasped the firmest handhold that will never break. And Allaah is All Hearing, All Seeing.[2:256]

No one is to be compelled to enter the Religion… : Meaning – no one is to be forced to enter into Islaam against his will, because entering into Islaam must occur as a result of being convinced and from believing in the heart. And no one is to be forced into it against his will – this is not possible because no one can act with regards to the hearts except Allaah, the Perfect and Most High. No one may force anyone to enter Islaam because we do not possess and own the hearts. Rather it is just Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, He is the One who owns them and acts with regards to them. However we should call to Islaam and encourage people upon it.

We strive and fight in Allaah’s Cause against whoever disbelieves, for the spread of Islaam and to provide an opportunity to whoever wants to accept Islaam, and in order to subdue the enemies of Allaah. But as for guidance, then it is in the Hand of Allaah, the Perfect and Most High. No one is to be forced upon eemaan and Islaam. Rather this is something which relates back to the person himself.

Then, He, the Most High, said:

… قَد تَّبَيَّنَ الرُّشْدُ مِنَ الْغَيِّ …

…true guidance has been made clear and distinct from falsehood…

So Islaam, and all praise is for Allaah, does not contain anything which people have to be forced upon against their will. Rather all of it is beloved and desirable. Whereas kufr and shirk, all of it is evil and all of it is something detestable. So this has become clear from that. As rushd (guidance) – and it is the Truth – has become distinguished from al-ghayy – and it is falsehood. And a person has intellect and has the ability to think so that he can weigh and compare truth against falsehood. And his thinking, if it is sound and if it is free from desires and ulterior motives, then his sound thinking will guide him to acceptance of the truth without having to be forced. This is one saying with regards to the aayah.

And the second saying is that this aayah came down with regard to the People of the Book; and that the People of the Book are not to be compelled to enter into Islaam. Rather if they want to remain upon their religion then they are to be left to do so with the condition that they hand over the jizyah to the Muslims and they (the People of the Book) are in a state of being humbled. And as for other than them from the disbelievers, then nothing will be accepted from them except Islaam or being killed because they have no religion; and idol worship is a false and futile religion.

And the third saying is that this aayah was abrogated by the aayah commanding jihaad. So this was the case initially before jihaad was legislated, then jihaad was legislated and the aayah was abrogated.

However the first (of the three sayings) is what is correct – that the aayah is not abrogated and that the religion cannot be entered into the hearts by force. Rather it can only enter through choice. However whoever does not accept the Religion, he will be dealt with in a manner that befits him, whether it be being killed or having the jizyah tax taken from him if he be from those regarding whom Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, has legislated that it be taken from.

… فَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِالطَّاغُوتِ وَيُؤْمِن بِاللَّهِ

So whoever rejects at-Taaghoot and truly believes in Allaah… 

At-Taaghoot – what is meant is all of the Taaghoots in worship, in following or in obedience because the word “at-Taaghoot” here is left general.

Rejecting the Taaghoot was put before having eemaan in Allaah (in the aayah) because having eemaan in Allaah will not benefit except after rejection of the Taaghoot. So whoever believes in Allaah but does not reject the Taaghoot, then his eemaan will not benefit him. So the person who says that he is a believer and he prays and he fasts and gives the Zakaat and performs the Hajj and he performs the acts of obedience but he does not dissociate himself from shirk nor from the people of shirk and says, “They are not my business” – this person will not be counted as a Muslim because he has not rejected the Taaghoot. So there must be rejection of the Taaghoot and it is to reject the Taaghoot and to believe as creed in its (the Taaghoot’s) falsehood and to distance oneself from it and from its people – this is essential. So his eemaan will not be correct except after rejecting the Taaghoot.

And there occurs in the other aayah:

وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَّسُولًا أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ

And We sent a messenger to every nation commanding, “Worship Allaah alone and avoid the Taaghoot!” [16:36]

So the worship of Allaah will not be correct except through avoiding the Taaghoot. Two opposites cannot come together; eemaan and kufr cannot come together in the heart. Eemaan and major kufr cannot come together in the heart. As for the lesser kufr then it can come together (with eemaan).

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

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Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

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Hadeeth of Jibreel : Islaam, Eemaan, Ihsaan & the Signs of the Hour – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

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Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lessons 37 (Part B) , 38 & 39
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

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Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

والدليل من السنة حديث جبريل المشهور:

»عن عمر  رضى الله عنه قال : بينما نحن جلوس عند رسول الله  صلى الله عليه وسلم  إذ طلع علينا رجل ، شديد بياض الثياب ، شديد سواد الشعر«

And the proof from the Sunnah is the famous hadeeth of Jibreel:

From `Umar radiyallaahu`anhu who said: «Whilst we were sitting with Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam, a man came to us whose clothing was very white and whose hair was very black [48]


[48] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

Speech with regard to Islaam, eemaan and ihsaan has preceded and the pillars of each level. The Shaykh (rahimahullaah) has mentioned the evidences for each level from the Qur`aan. All of that has preceded and finished.

Then, the Shaykh (rahimahullaah) mentioned a proof for these levels from the Sunnah, the Sunnah of the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam; so he mentioned the hadeeth of Jibreel.

He [Jibreel] came to the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam whilst he was with his companions. He came to them in the form of a man and he sat with the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam, and asked him about Islaam, eemaan, and ihsaan. Then, he asked him about the Last Hour and its signs.

This is called the hadeeth of Jibreel or it is called the hadeeth of `Umar. It is a hadeeth which occurs through a number of chains of narration from a group of the companions, so it is an authentic hadeeth. The Shaykh (rahimahullaah) mentioned the narration of `Umar ibn al-Khattaab [1] of this hadeeth. There is variations in the wordings of the hadeeth in other narrations. However, the meaning is one and the same.

[1] Hadith Reported in Saheeh Muslim no. 8. Refer to Jaami` al-Uloom wal-Hikam of Ibn Rajab 1/93, second hadeeth.

«Whilst we were sitting with Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam» It was from their usual practice, may Allaah be pleased with them, that they would gather together in the presence of the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam in the mosque, and that they would take knowledge from him and listen to his (sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam) answers when he responded to questions. So, whilst they were like that in their normal condition, a man entered upon them through the door.

A man «whose clothing was very white and whose hair was very black.» Meaning: Jibreel `alaihissalaam. He came in the form of this man and he did not come to them in his angelic form, because they would not have been able to look upon him in his angelic form.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

»لا يرى عليه أثر السفر ، ولا يعرفه منا أحد ، حتى جلس إلى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم  فأسند ركبتيه إلى ركبتيه ، ووضع كفيه على فخذيه ، وقال : يا محمد أخبرني عن الإسلام «.

«No signs of having traveled could be seen upon him and none of us knew him until he sat with the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam. He placed his knees against his knees and placed his hands upon his thighs and said:

‘O Muhammad, inform me about al-Islaam.’»[49]


[49]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

«No signs of having traveled could be seen upon him and none of us knew him»: Meaning: from those who were present. This was something amazing: he had not arrived from a journey so that it could be said: “He is from other than the people of al-Madeenah.” Yet, they did not recognize him. He was not from the people of the city so that they could recognize him. So, they were confused about him. He was not someone who had come from a journey nor was he someone from the people of the town. If he had arrived from a journey, then the signs of having traveled would have appeared upon him, his clothing and his color, because the effects of traveling appear upon a traveler. No one from those present recognized him, so he was not from the people of the city. Yet he had not arrived from a journey. So what could this man be? This is what they found strange.

«He sat with the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam»: In front of him with the sitting of a student with his teacher.

«He placed his two knees against the two knees of the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam»: Meaning: He was very close to him.

«He placed his two hands upon his thighs»: Meaning: Upon the thighs of the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam.

So «he said: ‘O Muhammad’»: He addressed him by his name and he did not say: ‘O Messenger of Allaah.’ Perhaps he did that, `alaihissalaam, in order that the companions should think that he was from the people of the desert (i.e. Bedouin), because it was from the habit and custom of the people of the desert that when they used to address the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam, they would do so by his name. This is because the people of the desert have their own nature and customs. And it was also an addition in rendering it something strange and obscure so that they would not recognize him.

«He said: ‘O Muhammad, inform me about al-Islaam‘»: Meaning: explain to me the meaning of AlIslaam.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

قال» : أن تشهد أن لا إله إلا الله ، وأن محمدا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم  وتقيم الصلاة ، وتؤتي الزكاة ، وتصوم رمضان ، وتحج البيت إن استطعت إليه سبيلا ، «فقال : صدقت ، فعجبنا له يسأله ويصدقه .

He said: «It is that you testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu `alaihiwasallam, and you establish the prayer, give Zakaah, fast Ramadaan, and perform Hajj (pilgrimage) to the House if are able to make your way to it.» He said: ‘You have spoken the truth.’

So we were amazed at him, asking him the question and then stating that he had spoken the truth.[50]


[50] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

«Islaam is that you testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu `alaihiwasallam, and you establish the prayer, give Zakaah, fast Ramadaan, and perform pilgrimage to the House if are able to make your way to it» The Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam mentioned to him the pillars of Islaam which are essential and are such that if they are implemented, Islaam is brought about. And whatever is extra to them from the other matters, then they are matters of completion. The Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam limited himself to an explanation of the pillars of Islaam since the shorter an answer is, the easier it will be for the student and the listener. It will be easy for him to memorize and preserve it. Whereas, if the answer is prolonged, it becomes difficult and confusing for those who are present, and perhaps most of them will not comprehend it. Therefore, this is a proof that a person who is questioned – it is befitting that he should strive to make an abridgement as far as he is able to and he should limit himself to that which is necessary. Otherwise, the fact is that Islaam is more than that. These are its pillars and its supports which it stands upon.

«He said: You have spoken the truth» This was a second amazing thing.

He said: «We were amazed at him, asking him a question and then saying that he had spoken the truth» It showed that he was a person of knowledge. He was not asking in the manner of a person who is ignorant, rather he was asking and he had knowledge as is shown by the fact that he said: «You have spoken the truth.» That proves that he was a person of knowledge. Therefore, why he did ask the question?


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

قال : فأخبرني عن الإيمان ، قال» :أن تؤمن بالله ، وملائكته ، وكتبه ، ورسله ،  واليوم الآخر ، وتؤمن بالقدر خيره وشره «، قال : صدقت.

He said: ‘Inform me about eemaan.’

He said: «It is that you have eemaan (truly believe) in Allaah, in His Angels, in His Books, in His Messengers, in the Last Day, and you have eemaan in the pre-decree, the good of it and the bad of it

He said: ‘You have spoken the truth.’ [51]


[51Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

«He said: ‘Inform me about eemaan.’ He said: «It is that you have eemaan (truly believe) in Allaah, in His Angels, in His Books, in His Messengers, in the Last Day, and you have eemaan in the pre-decree, the good of it and the bad of it»

The Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam mentioned to him the six pillars of eemaan after he mentioned the pillars of Islaam. 

Islaam and eemaan, when they are mentioned together, Islaam means outward actions and eemaan means inward actions, the actions of the heart and what occurs in it with regard to tasdeeq (affirmation) and `ilm (knowledge). Both Islaam and eemaan are essential together, Islaam being the outward actions and eemaan being the inward actions, because of his saying sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam:

»الإسلام علانية ، والإيمان في القلب«

«Islaam is apparent and eemaan is in the heart[2]

If both are mentioned together, each one has a separate and specific meaning to it.

If one of them is mentioned on its own, the other one enters within it. If eemaan is mentioned on its own, Islaam enters within it. If Islaam is mentioned on its own, eemaan enters into it, because Islaam will not be correct without eemaan and eemaan will not be correct without Islaam. Both are essential.

They are inseparably linked, therefore they say: Islaam and eemaan are from those titles which when they come together, they separate, and when they occur singularly, they come together. Meaning: each of them enters into the other one, because they are inseparably linked and one cannot be separated from the other.

So, he asked him about the outward actions and about the inward actions. And he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam explained to him the pillars of both Islaam and eemaan.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

قال : أخبرني عن الإحسان ، قال» : أن تعبد الله كأنك تراه ، فإن لم تكن تراه فإنه  يراك ، «قال : فأخبرني عن الساعة ، قال» : ما المسئول عنها بأعلم من السائل.  «

He said: Inform me about ihsaan.

He said: «That you worship Allaah as if you were seeing Him, and even though you do not see Him, He, certainly, sees you

He said: ‘Inform me about the Last Hour.’

He said: «The one who is being asked about it does not know any better than the one who is asking[52]


[52] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

He said: Inform me about ihsaan. He said: «That you worship Allaah…» It has already preceded that the person of ihsaan is the person who worships Allaah as if He were actually seeing Him, and upon certainty as if he were seeing Allaah. Or that he worships Him upon the basis of his being observed and he knows that Allaah sees him, therefore he perfects the action, because Allaah is observing him. So, the person of ihsaan worships Allaah, either seeing Him with his heart – and that is more complete – or upon the basis that he is being watched. And he knows that Allaah is seeing him in whatever place and with whatever action he is doing. This is Al ihsaan.

He said: ‘You have spoken the truth. Inform me about the Last Hour.’ Meaning: about the establishment of the Hour. When will it be? This question – the answer of it is not known to anyone, except to Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, because the establishment of the Hour – its appointed time is not known except to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

We know that the Hour will be established. We have no doubt about that. Whoever doubts that, then he is a disbeliever. We know that the Hour will be established and it will certainly occur. However, the time at which Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, will establish the Hour, He has not informed us about it and He has not explained it to us. He has kept it secret within His Knowledge. He the Most High said:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ عِندَهُ عِلْمُ السَّاعَةِ

«Allaah! With Him is the knowledge of the Hour.» [31:34]

And He, the Most High, said:

يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ السَّاعَةِ أَيَّانَ مُرْسَاهَا ۖ قُلْ إِنَّمَا عِلْمُهَا عِندَ رَبِّي ۖ لَا يُجَلِّيهَا لِوَقْتِهَا إِلَّا هُوَ

«They ask you about the Hour: ‘When will it come about?’ Say: ‘Its knowledge is with my Lord alone. None can reveal its time but He.’» [7:187]

He is the One who knows it, He the Perfect.

He, the Most High, said:

وَعِندَهُ مَفَاتِحُ الْغَيْبِ لَا يَعْلَمُهَا إِلَّا هُوَ

«And with Him are the keys to the hidden and unseen, none knows them but He.» [6:59]

From it [the hidden and unseen] is the time and establishment of the Hour.

He sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said to Jibreel: «The one who is being asked about it does not know any better than the one who is asking» Meaning: I and you are the same. We do not know when the Hour will be established. Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, did not make anyone aware of that, neither the Angels, the Messengers, nor anyone. Rather, He kept it secret in His Knowledge, He the Perfect and most High.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

قال : فأخبرني عن أماراﺗﻬا ، قال» : أن تلد الأمة ربتها«

He said: ‘Then inform me about its signs.’

He said: «That the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress[53]


[53] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

He said: ‘Then inform me about its signs’: (الأمارات) is the plural of (أمارة). It means the sign. As for (الإمارة) with the kasrah, then it means al-wilaayah (leadership). 

‘Inform me about its signs’: Meaning: the signs which indicate the closeness of its Establishment. Yes. The Hour has signs, and Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, has made them clear. From them are the smaller signs, from them are major signs and from them are the intermediate signs. And from them are signs which are very close to the Hour that will occur at its establishment. They will be close to its establishment. As for the other signs, then they come before that.

The scholars say: The signs for the hour are of three types: Smaller signs which come [quite some time] before it, intermediate signs, and major signs. The lesser and intermediate signs have already occurred or most of them have occurred. As for the major signs: the appearance of the Dajjaal, the descent of `Eesaa (`alaihissalaam), the emergence of the beast, and the emergence of Ya’jooj and Ma’jooj. These will occur at the actual establishment of the Hour and will quickly follow on in succession. 

He said: ‘Inform me about its signs’: Since its signs are known, the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam answered him and said: «That the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress.» This is from the signs of the Hour. The slave girl [meaning] one who is owned and rabbataha means her female-owner (mistress).


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

»وأن ترى الحفاة العراة العالة رعاء الشاء يتطاولون في البنيان «.

«And that you will see barefoot, unclothed, destitute shepherds vying with each other in building tall buildings[54]


[54] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

«That the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress.» The explainer said: Its meaning, and Allaah knows best, is that towards the end of time, there will be many captives or slaves taken, meaning: there will be many occurrences of intercourse with slave-girls, meaning: the owned slave-girls. They will give birth to daughters and the slave-girl’s daughter will be a free woman and she will be a mistress to her mother and an owner of her.

It is also said: Its meaning is that disobedience to parents will be abundant such that the daughter will act as if she is a mistress to her mother.

«And that you will see barefoot»: This is a second sign.

«Barefoot»: Those who have no shoes because of poverty and destitution.

«Unclothed» Those who do not have clothing.

«Destitute» The poor and needy people.

«Shepherds» (رعاء) is the plural of (راع), those who shepherd the sheep. In origin, those people are found in the desert areas, in their own dwellings and they move about from one place to another. But at the end of time, they will take residence in the cities and they will build tall palaces and towering buildings. This is from the signs of the Hour, when the desert people change and become modern and they start to vie with each other in tall buildings. They compete with each other in adorning them. This was not from their custom in any way. They will change to be rich people, having wealth and people who manifest it [i.e. what they have]. This is from the signs of the Hour.

And as you know, the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam did not speak from his own desires, just as you know today, how the condition of the people is. The peoples conditions have changed. The poor have turned into rich people having vast riches. The desert people have become modernized and they have competed in building tall buildings. This is in confirmation of the truth of what Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

قال : فمضى ، فلبثنا مليا ، فقال» : يا عمر أتدري من السائل ؟ «قلت : الله ورسوله أعلم ، قال» : هذا جبريل أتاكم يعلمكم أمر دينكم «

He said: Then he went away and we remained for some time. So he said: «O’ `Umar! Do you know who the questioner was?» I said: ‘Allaah and His Messenger know best.’ He said: «This was Jibreel, he came to you to teach you the affair of your religion[55]


[55] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

He said: Then he went away and we remained for some time: Meaning: for a short time. 

So the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam then said: «O `Umar! Do you know who the questioner was?» Do you [people] know who the questioner was?

In one narration the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

»علي بالرجل«

«Bring the man to me[3]

So, they looked for him, but could not find him. 

He said: «This was Jibreel, he came to you to teach you the affair of your religion.» The one who entered and asked these questions was Jibreel `alaihissalaam. He came in the form of a man, just as was described, in order to teach those present the affairs of the religion in the manner of question and answer.


This hadeeth proves a number of tremendous matters: 

Firstly: The religion is divided into three levels: Islaam, eemaan, and ihsaan, each level being higher than the one before it. Each level has pillars: The pillar of Islaam, the pillars of eemaan, and ihsaan is a single pillar. 

Secondly: It shows teaching by way of questions and answers. This is a teaching method which succeeds, because it is better for arousing attention and conveying knowledge if the person is questioned. His mind is therefore made ready and he seeks the answer. So, he seeks the answer and then he gives the answer to him, and he is desiring it, so this will establish it firmly. 

Thirdly: In the hadeeth there is a proof that whoever is asked about some knowledge and he does not know, then it is upon him to say: Allaah and His Messenger know best. He should refer knowledge back to the one who knows it. He should not speak with an answer when he does not know it and he should not make a guess. This is not permissible. The Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam, when he was asked about the Hour, he said: «The one who is being asked about it does not know any better than the one who is asking.» And when he said to the Companions: «Do you know who the questioner was?» They did not know him, they said: Allaah and His Messenger know best.

This shows that with regard to matters relating to the Islaamic legislation and that of the religion, it is not permissible to speak about them based upon conjecture, because this will be a case of takalluf (unnecessary overburdening oneself). However, whoever has knowledge should respond and whoever does not have knowledge should say: ‘Allaah knows best.’ And whoever says: ‘I do not know,’ has given a response. 

Imaam Maalik (rahimahullaah) was asked forty questions and he gave an answer to six of them. With regard to the rest, he said: ‘I do not know.’ So questioner said to him: ‘I have come from such-and-such place. I have traveled and tired out my riding animal and you say: ‘I do not know?’ So he said: ‘Ride your animal and go back to the land which you came from and say: ‘I asked Maalik and he said: ‘I do not know.”

This is not a defect that when a person does not know an answer regarding matters of the Islaamic legislation that he should say: ‘I do not know.’ Even if he is a scholar. The Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said: «The one who is being asked about it does not know any better than the one who is asking

He sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam, when he was asked certain questions and he did not possess revelation from Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, he would wait until the revelation descended from Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. Do you not recite [a number of times]: ‘They ask you about such-and-such. They ask you about such-and-such. Then say: ‘Such-and-such.’

يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ ۖ قُلْ فِيهِمَا إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ

«They ask you about intoxicants and gambling. Say: “In them is a great sin.» [2:219]

يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْأَهِلَّةِ ۖ قُلْ هِيَ مَوَاقِيتُ لِلنَّاسِ وَالْحَجِّ

«They ask you about the crescent moons. Say: “They are signs to mark time periods for the people and for the Hajj.“» [2:189]

So, the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam, when he was asked a question and he did not have an answer, he would wait until revelation came down to him from Allaah. So that should be even more the case with anyone else besides him. He should wait until he asks someone else or until he researches the matter in the books of the people of knowledge to attain the answer. As for being hasty, then this is extremely dangerous and it contains showing bad manners towards Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, since the one who gives the answer is answering about Allaah’s legislation. He is saying: ‘Allaah has made such-and-such permissible,’ or ‘He has made such-and-such forbidden,’ or ‘He has legislated such-and-such.’ So the matter is extremely dangerous. 

The fourth matter: The hadeeth contains a proof for the manners of the student. Jibreel was the noblest one of the angels, he sat in front of the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and placed his knees against the knees of the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and placed his hands upon his thighs and asked with good manners. This was in order to teach the people good manners with which they should adopt towards the scholars.

This is a part of what the hadeeth indicates and it contains. 

The fifth matter: It is an explanation of some of the signs of the Hour. He mentioned two signs: that the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress and some of the scholars say: its meaning «the slave-girl will birth to her mistress» is that disobedience and bad treatment towards the parents will be frequent at the end of time. So the daughter becomes as if she is one in charge of her mother, commanding her and forbidding her and being stern with her.

Footnotes:

[2] Reported by Imaam Ahmad as a hadeeth of Anas, radiyallaahu `anhu. [Shaykh al-Albaanee mentioned in his Da`eeful-Jaami` that this particular hadeeth is da`eef (weak). And in his explanation of at-Tahawiyyah, he said: Its chain of narration is weak, it contains `Alee ibn Mas`adah, about whom al-Uqayri said: He is from the du`afaah. Al-Bukhaaree said: He is a person of suspect. `Abdul-Haqq al-`Azdi said in his book al-Ahkaam al-Kubraa about this hadeeth: This hadeeth is not correctly preserved. And Allaah knows best.]

[3] Reported by an-Nasaa`eee in Sunan al-Kubraa as a hadeeth of Ibn `Umar, radiyallaahu `anhumaa. It has also been reported by Ibn Hib-baan and ad-Daaraqutnee as a hadeeth of `Umar ibn al-Khattaab, radiyallaahu `anhu. [Shaykh al-Albaanee (rahimahullaah) said in his checking of Ibn Hib-baan: [This addition], it is saheeh (authentic).

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/belief/imaan-faith-pillars

The Taaghoots are many and the heads of them are five – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lesson 49
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


The Types of Taaghoot

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:   

والطواغيتُ كثيرونَ ورؤوسُهُمْ خمَسةٌ: إبليسُ لعنَهُ اللهُ، ومَنْ عُبِدَ وهو راض 

The taaghoots are many, and their heads are five:  Iblees – may Allaah’s curse be upon him. Whoever is worshipped and is pleased with that.79


[79]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

His saying: “And the taaghoots are many and the heads of them are five.” 

The taaghoots upon whom this definition applies are: everyone who is worshipped or followed or obeyed, and they are many but their heads are five – meaning their major ones are five.

Firstly, Iblees, may Allaah’s curse be upon him – meaning: may Allaah expel him and distance him away from His Mercy on account of the fact that he refused to prostrate to Aadam and he disobeyed Allaah, the Perfect and Most High and he was proud and haughty. And He said:

قَالَ أَنَا خَيْرٌ مِّنْهُ ۖ خَلَقْتَنِي مِن نَّارٍ وَخَلَقْتَهُ مِن طِينٍ

And he (Iblees) said: I am better than him (Aadam), You created me from fire and You created him from clay.[38:76]

So therefore he disobeyed the command of Allaah and was haughty; therefore Allaah cursed him and He repelled him and distanced him. And he is called Iblees, it is said, because he ablasa (despaired) of Mercy – meaning he despaired of Mercy. So the mublis is one who despairs of something.

So Iblees, may Allaah’s curse be upon him, is the head of the taaghoots because he is the one who commands with worship of other than Allaah and he is the one who commands with following other than the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam and he is the one who commands obedience to other than Allaah by declaring things to be permissible or forbidden.

So Iblees is the source of evil and he is the head of the taaghoots.

The second category (of taaghoots) is:

The one who is worshipped and he is pleased with that – meaning he is worshipped and he is pleased with the people’s worship of him. So he is a taaghoot.

As for one who is worshipped and he is not pleased with that then he does not enter into that.

For ‘Eesaa ‘alaihissalaatu wassalaam has been worshipped besides Allaah but he was not pleased with that. And his mother and ‘Uzayr and the awliyaa (beloved servants of Allaah) and the righteous people from the servants of Allaah, they are not pleased with that (worship of them). Rather they used to criticize this and fight against those who did it. So whoever is worshipped and he is not pleased with that, then he is not called a taaghoot.

And that is because when Allaah sent down His saying:

إِنَّكُمْ وَمَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ حَصَبُ جَهَنَّمَ أَنتُمْ لَهَا وَارِدُونَ

You (people of shirk) and whatever idols you worship will be fuel for the Hellfire. You will enter it. [21:98]

– the people of shirk became happy and they said, “We worship the Messiah (‘Eesaa) and we worship such and such and we worship such and such. Therefore they will be with us in the Fire.”

So Allaah, the Most High, sent down:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ سَبَقَتْ لَهُم مِّنَّا الْحُسْنَىٰ أُولَٰئِكَ عَنْهَا مُبْعَدُونَ – لَا يَسْمَعُونَ حَسِيسَهَا ۖ وَهُمْ فِي مَا اشْتَهَتْ أَنفُسُهُمْ خَالِدُونَ

Those for whom Allaah has written that they shall be people of bliss, they shall be kept far away from it. They shall not hear even the slightest sound from it (the Fire) but rather they shall be enjoying whatever their souls desire forever. [21:101-102]

And there occurs in the other aayah that they said:

And they say: are our gods better or is he? 

Meaning: ‘Eesaa ‘alaihissalaam

Then He said:

وَقَالُوا أَآلِهَتُنَا خَيْرٌ أَمْ هُوَ ۚ مَا ضَرَبُوهُ لَكَ إِلَّا جَدَلًا ۚ بَلْ هُمْ قَوْمٌ خَصِمُونَ – إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا عَبْدٌ أَنْعَمْنَا عَلَيْهِ وَجَعَلْنَاهُ مَثَلًا لِّبَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ

They do not quote him as an example to you except in order to argue. Indeed they are an argumentative people; he was no more than a slave upon whom We bestowed favor and We made him an example for the Banoo Israa.eel. [43:58-59]

So he is a slave of Allaah and he was not pleased that he should be worshipped besides Allaah. Indeed Allaah sent him to criticize that:

مَا قُلْتُ لَهُمْ إِلَّا مَا أَمَرْتَنِي بِهِ أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ رَبِّي وَرَبَّكُمْ

(‘Eesaa will say on the Day of Resurrection), “I did not say to them except what You commanded me to – that you should worship Allaah alone, my Lord and your Lord. [5:117]

Therefore one who is worshipped and he is not pleased with that – he does not enter under this threat and he is not a taaghoot because he rejects and criticises that. This is because at taaghoot is one who is pleased with worship besides Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:   

ومَنْ دعا الناسَ إلى عبادَةِ نفسِه

 Whoever calls the people to the worship of himself.80


[80]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

The third: “Whoever calls the people to the worship of himself”:

Such as the heads of the people of shirk, those who call the people to worship them, such as Fir’awn who said:

فَقَالَ أَنَا رَبُّكُمُ الْأَعْلَىٰ

So he (Fir’awn) said, “I am your highest Lord.” [79:24]

And such as Namrood and such as the extreme Soofees, those who call the people to worship them, to such an extent that they give instructions to the people to worship them after they have died, so that one of them says, “When matters become very difficult for you then come to my grave” – meaning: “when affairs become difficult  for you, then you should come to my grave  and a few handfuls of earth cannot prevent you from me.”

So they counsel the people to come to their (the leaders’) graves and they promise them that they (the leaders) will carry out their needs. So whoever calls the people to worship of himself, whether whilst he is alive or dead, then he is from the heads of the taaghoots.

And likewise whoever calls the people to worship someone else besides him from the taaghoots and they are the callers to shirk, they are taaghoots, those who falsely beautify shirk for the people and they call it with other than its name, and they say, “This is a case of tawassul (seeking legitimate means to Allaah) or a case of shafaa’ah (legitimate intercession).” And they are many.

Those are taaghoots because they call the people to shirk, so they call to the worship of other than Allaah and they call that (shirk) with other than its name and they falsely adorn it for the people with doubts and falsely adorned speech. They are taaghoots. The callers to shirk are taaghoots.

And everyone who is worshipped besides Allaah and is pleased with that or calls the people to the worship of himself or calls the people to worship of other than Allaah then he is from the taaghoots; indeed he is from the heads of the taaghoots – we ask Allaah for safety and salvation.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:   

ومَنِ ادَّعى شيئًا مِنْ عِلمِ الغيْبِ

Whoever claims to possess anything from the knowledge of the affairs of the hidden and unseen (al-Ghayb)81


[81]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

The fourth one is “whoever claims to possess anything from knowledge of the hidden and unseen”.

And entering into this are the sorcerers and the astrologers and the fortunetellers and the geomancers, and everyone who claims that he possesses knowledge of the ghayb and says to the people, “Such and such will occur for you. For you, you will receive bliss or you will receive some hardship or you will have a successful marriage or you will have an unsuccessful one. Those people claim knowledge of the hidden and the unseen. And the hidden and unseen is not known except by Allaah, the Perfect and Most High.

And knowledge of the ghayb is not known except by Allaah, the Perfect and Most High.

He, the Most High, said:

قُل لَّا يَعْلَمُ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ الْغَيْبَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ

Say: No one in the Heavens or the Earth knows the ghayb except Allaah. [27:65]

And He, the Most High, said:

عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ فَلَا يُظْهِرُ عَلَىٰ غَيْبِهِ أَحَدًا  – إِلَّا مَنِ ارْتَضَىٰ مِن رَّسُولٍ

He (Allaah) is the Knower of the ghayb. He does not reveal what He has kept hidden to anyone except to one whom He is pleased with whom He has sent as a Messenger. [72:26-27]

And He, the Most High, said:

وَعِندَهُ مَفَاتِحُ الْغَيْبِ لَا يَعْلَمُهَا إِلَّا هُوَ ۚ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ ۚ وَمَا تَسْقُطُ مِن وَرَقَةٍ إِلَّا يَعْلَمُهَا وَلَا حَبَّةٍ فِي ظُلُمَاتِ الْأَرْضِ وَلَا رَطْبٍ وَلَا يَابِسٍ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مُّبِينٍ

And with Allaah are the keys to the ghayb; no one knows it except Him. And He knows whatever is in the land and in the ocean; and no leaf falls except that He knows of it. Nor is there any grain in the darkness of the Earth nor any fresh thing nor any dry thing except that it is written in a Clear Book. [6:59]

no one knows it except Him…

This is a limitation. So no one knows the ghayb except for Allaah or one from His Messengers to whom Allaah has revealed something from the ghayb for the benefit of Mankind and as miracle for the messenger. However he will not know the ghayb from himself. Rather he only knows from Allaah’s teaching it to him. So no one knows the ghayb except for Allaah. So whoever claims to have knowledge of the ghayb then he would be a sharer with Allaah with regards to something particular to Him, He the Perfect. Therefore, that person is a mushrik (person of shirk), he is a taaghoot, and he is a kaafir (disbeliever). And this is one of the greatest forms of apostasy from Islaam.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:   

ومَنْ حكمَ بغيِر مَا أنزلَ الله

 And whoever judges by other than what Allaah sent down.82


[82]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

The fifth one is whoever judges by other than that which Allaah sent down.

And the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

يُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَحَاكَمُوا إِلَى الطَّاغُوتِ

They wish to refer for judgment to the taaghoot. [4:60]

So whoever judges by other than that which Allaah sent down holding that to be permissible to do, then he will be a taaghoot.

And the person who says, “It is permissible to refer for judgment to man-made laws or to the customs of the times of Jaahiliyyah or to the customs of the tribes of the Bedouins and to leave behind the Legislation,” – he says, “This is lawful to do,” or he says, “This is equal to that which Allaah sent down.” And if he says, “It is better than that which Allaah sent down or equal to that which Allaah sent down,” or he says, “It is just permissible to do,” and he doesn’t even say, “It is equal or better,” – he just says, “It is permissible and allowed to do this”, then this person is a taaghoot. And this is by the text of the Qur’aan.

He, the Most High, said:

يُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَحَاكَمُوا إِلَى الطَّاغُوتِ

They wish to refer for judgment to the taaghoot. [4:60]

He was called a taaghoot because he has gone beyond his limit.

As for a person who judges by other than that which Allaah has sent down whilst he affirms that that which Allaah sent down is what is obligatory to follow and is the Truth and that anything else is false and futile and that he is judging with something futile – then this person is counted as being a kaafir who has committed al-kufr-ul-asghar (lesser kufr) which does not take a person out of the religion. However he is upon great danger, he is upon a way which may lead to kufr which takes a person out of the religion if he becomes lax about this matter.

As for one who judges by other than that which Allaah sent down, without intending to do so, rather (he does so) from ijtihaad (personal striving and deduction) and he is a person who is rightful to be performing ijtihaad from the people of fiqh, and he performs ijtihaad but he does not actually attain the judgment of Allaah and he makes a mistake in his ijtihaad, then this is forgiven for him.

He sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

“When the judge judges and strives and he reaches the correct conclusion, then he will receive two rewards. And when he judges and strives and reaches the incorrect conclusion, then for him there is one reward.”

[Hadith Reported by al Bukhaaree (7352) and Muslim (1716 )from the hadeeth of ‘Amr ibn al ‘Aas radiy Allaahu ‘anhu]

Because he did not deliberately commit a mistake. He was intending the Truth; he was intending conformity with the judgment of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. However, he was not granted the success of attaining it. So this person is counted as being excused and one who will receive reward. But it is not permissible to follow him upon the error.

So from this are the matters of ijtihaad of the jurists who have made a mistake in those matters or the striving of the judges in the courts when they strive to arrive at a ruling and they exert effort to reach the Truth. However they are not granted it. So their error is forgiven.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/Tawheed

Rejecting at-Taaghoot, and Having Eemaan in Allaah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lesson 48
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Rejecting at-Taaghoot, and Having Eemaan in Allaah

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:  

وافترضَ اللهُ على جميعِ العبادِ الكفرَ بالطاغوتِ والإيمانَ بالله

Allaah has made it obligatory upon all of the servants to reject at-taaghoot, and to have eemaan in Allaah.77


[77]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

So the Shaykh rahimahullaah said, “And Allaah has made it obligatory upon all of the servants to reject at-taaghoot, and to have eemaan in Allaah…” Then he mentioned the definition of at-taaghoot.

The taaghoot has been mentioned by Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, in many aayaat. From them is His saying, He the Most High, in Soorat-ul-Baqarah:

فَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِالطَّاغُوتِ وَيُؤْمِن بِاللَّهِ فَقَدِ اسْتَمْسَكَ بِالْعُرْوَةِ الْوُثْقَىٰ لَا انفِصَامَ لَهَا ۗ وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

اللَّهُ وَلِيُّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا يُخْرِجُهُم مِّنَ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلَى النُّورِ ۖ وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَوْلِيَاؤُهُمُ الطَّاغُوتُ يُخْرِجُونَهُم مِّنَ النُّورِ إِلَى الظُّلُمَاتِ ۗ أُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

So whoever rejects at-taaghoot (everything which is worshipped besides Allaah) and believes truly in Allaah, then he has grasped the firmest handhold that will not break. And Allaah is All Hearing, All Knowing. 

Allaah is the Guardian Lord of those who truly believe; He brings them out from darkness into light. And those who disbelieve, then their supporters are at-taaghoot; they take them out from the light into darkness. They are the inhabitants of the Fire; they will remain in it forever. [2:256-257]

And there occurs in Soorat-un-Nisaa His saying, He the Most High:

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا نَصِيبًا مِّنَ الْكِتَابِ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْجِبْتِ وَالطَّاغُوتِ وَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا هَٰؤُلَاءِ أَهْدَىٰ مِنَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا سَبِيلًا

Will you not consider those who were given a portion of the Scripture? They believe in al jibt (the idols, soothsayers and sorcery) and in at-taaghoot. And they say to those who disbelieve that they are closer to the Truth than the believers. [4:51]

And this aayah is with regard to the Jews.

And He, the Perfect, said with regards to the hypocrites:

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ يَزْعُمُونَ أَنَّهُمْ آمَنُوا بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ يُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَحَاكَمُوا إِلَى الطَّاغُوتِ وَقَدْ أُمِرُوا أَن يَكْفُرُوا بِهِ

Will you not consider those who claim that they believe in that which came down to you and in that which came down before you, wishing to refer for judgment to at taaghoot? And they were commanded to reject it. [4:60]

And there occurs in Soorat-un-Nahl that He, the Majestic and Most High, said:

وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَّسُولًا أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ

And We sent a Messenger to every nation commanding, “Worship Allaah alone and keep away from at taaghoot.” [16:36]

At-taaghoot is derived from at tughyaan and it is to exceed the due limit. So it is said in the (‘Arabic) language, ‘the water has taghaa’ when the water raises above its level.

He, the Most High, said:

إِنَّا لَمَّا طَغَى الْمَاءُ حَمَلْنَاكُمْ فِي الْجَارِيَةِ

When the water taghaa (went beyond its limits) then We carried you in the Ark. [69:11]


قال ابنُ القيِّمِ رحمهُ اللهُ تعالى: معنى الطاغوت ما تجاوزَ بِهِ العبدُ حدَّهُ مِنْ معبودٍ، أو متبوعٍ، أو مطاع 

Ibn ul Qayyim, rahimahullaah ta’aala, said:

“The meaning of At-taaghoot is anyone regarding whom the servant goes beyond the due bounds, whether it is someone worshipped or followed or obeyed.” 78


[78]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

As for the meaning of at-taaghoot in the Legislation, then it is just as ibn ul Qayyim rahimahullaah mentioned, and the author quoted him here.

At-taaghoot – whoever the servant goes beyond the due limits regarding. The servant has a due limit because he is a servant; Allaah has given him bounds which it is obligatory that he should stop at. So if he goes beyond them, then he will be a taaghoot. So whoever goes beyond the limits set by Allaah for His servants and which He has commanded them not to exceed and not to come close to, then he is a taaghoot. So if he disobeys Allaah and goes beyond His limits and goes beyond the bounds, then he is called a taaghoot because he has gone beyond the limits and exceeded the limits laid down by Allaah.

So his saying:

(At-Taaghoot) is anyone regarding whom the servant goes beyond the due bounds, whether it is someone worshipped or followed or obeyed 

This is the comprehensive definition for the taaghoot because Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, commanded that He alone be worshipped and that no partner be set up with Him. And He commanded that His Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam should be followed and He commanded that He should be obeyed and that His Messenger should be obeyed with regard to that which He declared lawful and that which He declared forbidden. So whoever goes beyond this matter then he is a taaghoot.

Whoever exceeds the limit of worship which Allaah has made obligatory and which is particular to Him and which He has negated for anyone else besides Him, then (this person) worships anything else along with Allaah, then he is a taaghoot.

The mushrik (person of shirk) is a taaghoot because he has exceeded the limit with regards to worship, and has worshipped someone else along with Allaah. He has directed worship to other than the One who deserves it.

And likewise the one who is worshipped and is pleased with that (is a taaghoot). The person who is worshipped by the people and he is pleased with that and he establishes himself as a chief and as a leader upon that basis – such as Fir’awn (the Pharaoh) and an-Namrood and the shaykhs of the extreme Soofee paths, those who are worshipped by their followers and they are pleased with that, or who call the people to that, i.e. to worship them, as will follow – then this a taaghoot with regards to worship.

And his saying, “or followed”.

Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, commanded the whole of creation that they should follow Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam. So it is not permissible for anyone to follow anyone else besides him ‘alaihissalaatu wassalaam. So whoever follows other than the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam and claims that this is permissible, then he (this person) will be a taaghoot because he has followed someone other than the Messenger sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, the one whom he was commanded to follow.

So following is specific to the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam. As for other than him from the scholars and the callers then they are followed when they follow the way of the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam. So the one who is followed in truth is the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam.

As for those (other people) then they are just conveying the message, they are followed for the truth and upon whatever they conform to with regard to the following of the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam. And wherever they are contrary to what the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam was upon, then it is not permissible to follow him.

An example of that is the shaykhs of the Soofee paths; their followers and their worshippers follow them upon other than obedience to the Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam).

Indeed they say, “We have no need for the Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) because we take from where the Messenger (sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) took from and we take knowledge directly from Allaah. The Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) took from Allaah through an intermediary, via Jibreel whereas we take directly from Allaah.

And they say, “You people narrate your religion from those who have died whereas we narrate our religion from Allaah, the Perfect and Most High” because they claim that their shaykhs have a connection with Allaah and that they take knowledge from Allaah directly. They have reached this level of transgression – and Allaah’s refuge is sought – this is their way.

There is no doubt that those people are the heads of the taaghoots – and Allaah’s refuge is sought – because there is no way to Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, except through following His Messenger sallallaahu‘alaihiwasallam.

He, the Most High, said:

قُلْ إِن كُنتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللَّهَ فَاتَّبِعُونِي يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللَّهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ  – قُلْ أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَالرَّسُولَ ۖ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الْكَافِرِينَ

Say (O Muhammad), “If you truly love Allaah, then follow me, then Allaah will love you and will forgive you your sins. And Allaah forgives extensively and bestows mercy. Say, “Obey Allaah and the Messenger.” So if they turn away then Allaah does not love the disbelievers. [3:31-32]

So the person who follows other than the Messenger, this person is counted as a taaghoot. And likewise the person who calls people to follow him and says to the people, “I will bring you orders directly from Allaah” – this is the greatest one of the taaghoots in existence in the world. And Allaah’s refuge is sought.

His saying, “one who is obeyed… 

Obedience is to be for Allaah and for His Messenger regarding what he declares to be lawful and what he declares to be forbidden. He, the Most High, said:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنكُمْ ۖ فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلًا

O you who believe! Obey Allaah and obey the Messenger and those in authority from amongst you. And if you dispute about anything, then refer it back to Allaah and to the Messenger, if you truly believe in Allaah and in the Last Day. That is what is best for you and is what is best in its consequences. [4:59]

So what is lawful is that which Allaah has made lawful; and that which is forbidden is that which Allaah has made forbidden. And it is not for anyone to share with Allaah in making things lawful or forbidden. And therefore Allaah passed the ruling upon those who declare things lawful or declare things forbidden or obeys one who does that – that such a person is a mushrik.

He, the Perfect and Most High, said:

فَكُلُوا مِمَّا ذُكِرَ اسْمُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ إِن كُنتُم بِآيَاتِهِ مُؤْمِنِينَ

وَمَا لَكُمْ أَلَّا تَأْكُلُوا مِمَّا ذُكِرَ اسْمُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ وَقَدْ فَصَّلَ لَكُم مَّا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِلَّا مَا اضْطُرِرْتُمْ إِلَيْهِ ۗ وَإِنَّ كَثِيرًا لَّيُضِلُّونَ بِأَهْوَائِهِم بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ ۗ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُعْتَدِينَ

وَذَرُوا ظَاهِرَ الْإِثْمِ وَبَاطِنَهُ ۚ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْسِبُونَ الْإِثْمَ سَيُجْزَوْنَ بِمَا كَانُوا يَقْتَرِفُونَ

وَلَا تَأْكُلُوا مِمَّا لَمْ يُذْكَرِ اسْمُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ وَإِنَّهُ لَفِسْقٌ ۗ وَإِنَّ الشَّيَاطِينَ لَيُوحُونَ إِلَىٰ أَوْلِيَائِهِمْ لِيُجَادِلُوكُمْ ۖ وَإِنْ أَطَعْتُمُوهُمْ إِنَّكُمْ لَمُشْرِكُونَ

Eat from that which Allaah’s Name has been mentioned upon, if you truly believe in His Signs. And why would you not eat from that which Allaah’s Name been mentioned upon when He has made clear to you whatever has been made forbidden for you – except for that which you have a dire need of. And there are many who misguide with their desires without knowledge. Indeed your Lord knows best those who exceed the limits. And leave off outward and inward sins. Those who earn sin shall be recompensed for what they earned. And do not eat from that which Allaah’s Name is not mentioned upon, and it is sin.And the devils inspire their followers to dispute with you. And were you to obey them, then you would be people of shirk. [6:118-121]

This is because the people of Jaahiliyyah said, “Dead meat is lawful because Allaah, He is the One who slaughtered it. So it has more right to be lawful than that which you people sacrifice and slaughter.”

So Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, says (in these aayaat from Soorah al An’aam) (for us) do not eat except for that which has been slaughtered in the legislated manner and He made forbidden for you dead meat. Whereas those people say, “No, dead meat is permissible; it has more right to be lawful than that which has been slaughtered because it is you people who have slaughtered it whereas an animal which has died, then Allaah is the One who has slaughtered it.

And therefore He refuted the people of shirk and He said:

… وَلَا تَأْكُلُوا مِمَّا لَمْ يُذْكَرِ اسْمُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ وَإِنَّهُ لَفِسْقٌ

Do not eat from that which Allaah’s Name has not been mentioned upon. And it is sin… 

Meaning: it is to exit from obedience to Allaah, the Perfect, the Mighty and Majestic.

And He said after it:

… وَإِنَّ الشَّيَاطِينَ لَيُوحُونَ إِلَىٰ أَوْلِيَائِهِمْ

And the devils inspire their allies… 

They say, “Dead meat, it was slaughtered by Allaah whereas the animals that you people slaughter, you have slaughtered them. So how can you hold it as lawful that which you people sacrifice and you do not regard as lawful that which Allaah has sacrificed?!

This is a false and futile argument.

And then He, the Most High, said:

وَإِنْ أَطَعْتُمُوهُمْ إِنَّكُمْ لَمُشْرِكُونَ

And if you were to obey them, then you would be people of shirk. 

Because this is shirk with regards to obedience. Declaring something lawful and declaring something forbidden is the right of Allaah, the Majestic and Most High.

So it is not permissible for anyone to declare lawful or to declare forbidden from his own self, or to obey someone in declaring something lawful or something forbidden from his own self. And whoever does that then he is a taaghoot and he is obeying the taaghoots, those who declare things lawful and declare things forbidden besides Allaah.

This is the meaning of his saying: “Or one who is obeyed…” Meaning: obeyed in declaring things lawful and forbidden because declaring things lawful and declaring things forbidden is the right of Allaah, the Majestic and Most High; and the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam was one who conveyed from Allaah that which He made lawful and that which He made forbidden.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/Tawheed

Belief in the Messengers – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lesson 46 (Part C) & Lesson 47
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

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Belief in the Messengers

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:  

Allaah sent all of the messengers as bringers of good tidings and as warners, and the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

رُّسُلًا مُّبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ لِئَلَّا يَكُونَ لِلنَّاسِ عَلَى اللَّهِ حُجَّةٌ بَعْدَ الرُّسُلِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا

Messengers were sent as bringers of glad tidings and as warners so that the people should have no excuse with Allaah after the sending of the messengers. And Allaah is ever All Mighty, All Wise. [4:165] [74]


[74]:Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

Eemaan in the Messengers is one of the six pillars of eemaan; he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said: 

Eemaan is that you truly believe in Allaah and in His Angels and in His Books and in His Messengers…”

[Hadeeth reported by al Bukhaaree (50) and Muslim (8,9 & 10) from the hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radi Allaahu‘ anhu]

So having eemaan in the Messengers is one of the pillars of eemaan; so it is essential to have eemaan in all of the messengers, from the first of them to the last of them. So whoever denies a single messenger, then he is a kaafir (disbeliever) in all of them, just as He, the Most High, said: 

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْفُرُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يُفَرِّقُوا بَيْنَ اللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَيَقُولُونَ نُؤْمِنُ بِبَعْضٍ وَنَكْفُرُ بِبَعْضٍ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَّخِذُوا بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ سَبِيلًا – أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ حَقًّا ۚ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابًا مُّهِينًا

Those who disbelieve in Allaah and in His Messengers want to make a distinction between believing in Allaah and in His Messengers and they say, “We believe in some of them and we disbelieve in some.”And they wish to take a path in between that. They are the disbelievers in truth and We have prepared a humiliating punishment for the disbelievers. [4:150-151]

So there must be eemaan in all of the Messengers from the first of them to the last of them, those whom Allaah has named from them in His Book, and those He has not named. For the Messengers are many; and therefore there occurs in the hadeeth that they number:

“One hundred and twenty four thousand (prophets) and the messengers from them were three hundred and fifteen all together.”

[Hadeeth reported by Ahmad in his Musnad from the hadeeth of Aboo Umaamah al Baahilee radi Allaahu ‘anhu and declared to be saheeh by al Albaanee in as Saheehah (2668)]

So there were many messengers; from them were those whom Allaah named in His Book and from them were those He did not name. So it is obligatory upon us to have eemaan in all of them, from the first of them to the last of them.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

: وأولُهُمْ نوحٌ عليهِ السلامُ، وآخِرُهُم محمدٌ صلى الله عليه وسلم وهو خاتِمُ النَّبيينَ والدليلُ على أنَّ أوَّلُهُم نوح قوله تعالى

And the first of them was Nooh, ‘alaihissalaam, and the last of them was Muhammad sallAllaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam; and the proof that the first of them was Nooh, ‘alaihissalaam, is His saying, He the Most High:

إِنَّا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ كَمَا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ نُوحٍ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ مِن بَعْدِهِ

We have sent you (O Muhammad), with Revelation, just as We sent Revelation to Nooh and to the prophets who came after him [4:163] 75


 [75]:Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

The proof that the first of them was Nooh is His saying, He the Most High:

… إِنَّا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ

We sent revelation to you…

This was an address to the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam

 كَمَا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ نُوحٍ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ مِن بَعْدِهِ ۚ وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالْأَسْبَاطِ وَعِيسَىٰ وَأَيُّوبَ وَيُونُسَ وَهَارُونَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ ۚ وَآتَيْنَا دَاوُودَ زَبُورًا 

… just as We sent revelation to Nooh and the prophets who came after him; and We sent revelation to Ibraaheem and Isma’eel and Is-haaq and Ya’qoob and to the tribes (of Banu Israeel) and to ‘Eesaa and Ayyoob and Yoonus and Haaroon and Sulaymaan; and We gave the Zaboor to Daawud. [4:163]

Allaah mentioned a number of their names together in this aayah, just as He mentioned a number of their names together in the aayah from Soorah al An’aam:

 وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِهِ دَاوُودَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ وَأَيُّوبَ وَيُوسُفَ وَمُوسَىٰ وَهَارُونَ

And from his descendants were Daawood and Sulaymaan and Ayyoob and Yoosuf and Moosaa and Haaroon… [6:84]

to the end of the aayaat.

So the first of them was Nooh  – ‘alaihissalaatu wassalaam – as proven by His saying, He the Most High:

 .. وَالنَّبِيِّينَ مِن بَعْدِهِ

And the prophets who came after him… [4:163]

Allaah sent him (Nooh) to his people when they went beyond the limits (ghuloo) concerning the righteous people after the people had been upon the religion of Tawheed from the time of Aadam ‘alaihissalaam for ten generations and they were upon Tawheed.

So when the people of Nooh came, there were amongst (those people) righteous men. Then when those righteous men died, the people grieved severely for them. So Satan seized the opportunity and said to them, “Make images of those righteous people and set them up in the places where you sit in order that when you see these images, you will remember their condition and you will gain enthusiasm upon worship.” So therefore they made images of those dead people and they set them up in the sitting places but they (these images) were not worshipped to begin with because of the presence of scholars who used to explain Tawheed to the people and used to criticize shirk.

Then when the people of knowledge died and the first generation passed away, a later generation came – and the scholars had died – Satan came and said to them, “Your forefathers only erected these images in order to worship them and they used to seek rain near them (these images).” So he made worship of them seem to be good, so they worshipped them besides Allaah.

So in this way, shirk came about upon the Earth; so Allaah therefore sent His Prophet Nooh  – ‘alaihissalaatu wassalaam – calling them to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, and seeking to return them to Tawheed, which was the religion of their forefather Aadam – ‘alaihissalaam.  However they (Nooh’s people) were obstinate and haughty:

وَقَالُوا لَا تَذَرُنَّ آلِهَتَكُمْ وَلَا تَذَرُنَّ وَدًّا وَلَا سُوَاعًا وَلَا يَغُوثَ وَيَعُوقَ وَنَسْرًا

And they said, “Do not forsake those objects that you worship! Do not forsake Wadd nor Suwaa’ nor Yaghooth nor Ya’ooq nor Nasr. [71:23]

Ibn ‘Abbaas said:

« هذه أسماء رجال صالحين ، صوروا صورهم ونصبوها على مجالسهم فآل ﺑﻬم الأمر إلى أن عبدوها من دون الله »

“These were the names of righteous men; they made images of them and they set them up in their sitting places, and this eventually led them to worshipping them besides Allaah.”

[Hadith Reported by al Bukhaaree as narration 4920]

So when Nooh – ‘alaihissalaatu wassalaam – came to them and forbade them from worshipping them and he commanded them to worship Allaah, they said, “Do not abandon those objects that you worship; do not obey Nooh but rather continue upon your kufr and transgression and obstinacy!

This was the first shirk that occurred upon the Earth and its cause was the images. And therefore the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

« إن أشد الناس عذابا عند الله يوم القيامة المصورون »

“The people who will receive the severest punishment on the Day of Resurrection will be those who make images.”

[Hadith Reported by al Bukhaaree (5950) and Muslim (2109) from hadeeth of ‘Abdullaah ibn Mas’ood radi Allaahu ‘anhu]

And he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

« إن الذين يصنعون هذه الصور يعذبون يوم القيامة ، يقال لهم : أحيوا ما خلقتم »

Those people who make these images will be punished on the Day of Resurrection. It will be said to them, “Give life to that which you have created.”

[Hadith Reported by al Bukhaaree (5951) and Muslim  (2108) from hadeeth of ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Umar  radi Allaahu‘ anhumaa ]

They will be commanded to breathe the spirit of life into these images; and this will be a case of ta’jeez (giving them a command to show their inability) and as a punishment for them, and Allaah’s refuge is sought. This is because making images is a route from the routes which lead to shirk, just as happened with the people of Nooh.

So the first of the Messengers was Nooh. And as for the seal of the Messengers and the last of them, then he was Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam. He, the Most High, said:

مَّا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَا أَحَدٍ مِّن رِّجَالِكُمْ وَلَٰكِن رَّسُولَ اللَّهِ وَخَاتَمَ النَّبِيِّينَ

Muhammad is not the father of any of your men but rather he is the Messenger of Allaah and the final one of the prophets. [33:40]

And he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

« وأنا خاتم النبيين لا نبي بعدي »

I am the seal of the Prophets; there will be no prophet after me.[6]

[Hadith Reported by Aboo Daawud (4252) and at Tirmidhee from hadeeth of Thawbaan radi Allaahu ‘anhu and declared saheeh by al Albaanee]

So through him, the Heavenly Messages were concluded. So no prophet will be raised and sent after him until the Hour is established. However his Sharee’ah (Revealed Law) will remain until the Hour is established and his religion will remain until the Hour is established, as has preceded.  So whoever claims Prophethood after Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam then he is a disbeliever; and whoever believes (this false claimant to Prophethood) then he (too) is a disbeliever in Allaah, because there will be no prophet after him sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam.

And many people have claimed Prophethood after him; and Allaah has exposed them and has made their falsehood apparent. And from the last of them – in what we know – was al Qaadiyaanee, Ghulaam Ahmad al Qaadiyaanee, the Indian; the one who in the beginning claimed to be upon knowledge and worship, then he claimed that he was ‘Eesaa ibn Maryam, then he claimed Prophethood. And he now has followers who call themselves the Qaadiyaanees. And the Muslims have declared them to be disbelievers and they have shunned them and counted them as being a disbelieving sect  outside of Islaam. And they are a people who are shunned and banished – and all praise is for Allaah – from the lands of the Muslims. And they (the Qaadiyaanees) are active (in dawah). However their activities end in failure.

So, in summary, there will be no prophet after the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam. Whoever claims prophet hood after him, then he is a great liar, just as he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

« لا تقوم الساعة حتى يبعث دجالون كذابون ، قريبا من ثلاثين كلهم يزعم أنه رسول الله »

“The Hour will not be established until dajjaals (great tricksters), great liars are sent, close to thirty, each one of them claiming that he is a messenger of Allaah.”

[Hadith Reported by al Bukhaaree (3609) and Muslim after the narration 2923 in the Book of Trials and Tribulations from the hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radi Allaahu ‘anhu]

Those who claim falsely to be prophets are many but Allaah exposes their affair and uncovers them and shows how debased they are to the people. And whoever believes them, then he is a disbeliever because he is denying the Truth of what has been said by Allaah and His Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and the consensus of the Muslims upon the fact that Prophethood was concluded with Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

And Allaah sent a Messenger to every nation, from Nooh until Muhammad, commanding them to worship Allaah alone, and forbidding them from the worship of at-taaghoot and the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَّسُولًا أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ

We certainly sent a messenger to every nation ordering them that they should worship Allaah (alone) and they should shun the Taaghoot [16:36] 76


[76]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

And his saying: “Allaah sent a messenger to every nation…”, Meaning: Allaah sent a messenger to every nation of mankind in order to establish the proof upon them so that they would not be able to say, “No bringer of good tidings nor any warner came to us!

And because of His saying, He the Most High: 

مَا كُنَّا مُعَذِّبِينَ حَتَّىٰ نَبْعَثَ رَسُولًا

We do not punish until We have sent a messenger. [17:15]

So Allaah sent a messenger to every nation from the previous nations, just as He, the Most High, said:

وَإِن مِّنْ أُمَّةٍ إِلَّا خَلَا فِيهَا نَذِيرٌ

There was not a previous nation except that Allaah sent a warner to them. [35:24]

However it is obligatory that we are aware of what was the call of the Messengers? The call of all the messengers, from the first of them to the last of them, was the call to tawheed as per His saying, He the Most High:

وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَّسُولًا أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ

We certainly sent a messenger to every nation ordering them that they should worship Allaah (alone) and they should shun the taaghoot. [16:36]

So everything that is worshipped besides Allaah is Taaghoot, as will follow with regards to the types of the Taaghoots – that from their types is that which is worshipped besides Allaah whilst he is pleased with that, as will follow.

So the meaning of His saying, He the Most High:

 .. وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ

And shun the Taaghoot…

means to keep away from worshipping the false objects of worship and the idols and the graves and the tombs; these are taaghoots. So the noble aayah proves that the call of the Messengers, all of them, was concentrated upon Tawheed from the first of them to the last of them.

Just as He, the Perfect and Most High, said:

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا نُوحِي إِلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدُونِ

And We did not send any messenger before you except that We revealed to him that none has the right to be worshipped except Me so worship Me alone. [21:25]

And His saying:

يُنَزِّلُ الْمَلَائِكَةَ بِالرُّوحِ مِنْ أَمْرِهِ عَلَىٰ مَن يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ أَنْ أَنذِرُوا أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاتَّقُونِ

He (Allaah) sends down the angels with the Revelation from His Command to whomever He wishes from His servants ordering them, “Warn the people that none has the right to be worshipped except Me, so therefore fear and be dutiful to Me.” [16:2]

So the call of the Messengers, all of them, was to tawheed and to singling out Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, with worship and to forbidding shirk. This was the call of the Messengers.

Then after tawheed comes the Revealed Laws with regards to the halaal (permissible) and the haraam (forbidden). And the details of the Revealed Laws varied in accordance with the variation between the nations and the needs of the nations. And Allaah abrogated from them whatever He wished, and then all of them were abrogated through the Revealed Law of Islaam – the halaal and the haraam, the rulings and the acts of worship and the commands and the prohibitions.

As for the foundation (of the Revealed Laws) then it was tawheed; then this did not vary and it was not abrogated. This was a single religion; the religion of all the Messengers from the first of them to the last of them was one religion (in this respect) – just as He, the Most High, said:

لِكُلٍّ جَعَلْنَا مِنكُمْ شِرْعَةً وَمِنْهَاجًا

And for each people We laid down a prescribed law and a detailed way to follow. [5:48]

And the religion of tawheed is the worship of Allaah with that which He legislated at each time in accordance with its particular circumstances. So if a Revealed Law was abrogated then the people moved onto the new abrogating Law.

So whoever insists and remains upon that which has been abrogated, and avoids that which is abrogating, then he will be a disbeliever in Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic because the religion which has been abrogated will not be a religion after its being abrogated. Rather it will only be religion before it was abrogated. So when it has been abrogated, then it will not be religion. The religion will be that which comes later (abrogates). Therefore the Revealed Law of Islaam abrogated whatever came before it from the Revealed religious laws.

So whoever remains upon Judaism or Christianity after the sending of Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam then he is a kaafir (disbeliever) because he is acting upon a religion which has been abrogated, whose time has come to an end.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

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