Wiping over the leather socks is Sunnah – Sharhu Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 28 : Point 34
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

And wiping over the leather socks is Sunnah.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

“And wiping over the leather socks is Sunnah.” He stated this matter, even though it is from the matters of fiqh then it has a connection to `aqeedah. For whoever denies wiping upon the leather socks, then he will be outside the Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah, contradicting the correct creed and belief; because wiping over the leather socks is established from the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam in many ahaadeeth which reach the level of being mutawaatir (reported by a huge numbers of people at every single level of transmission, so many that it would be impossible to gather together upon a lie). [05] Wiping over the leather socks is a concession and acting upon a concession is a Sunnah, because of his saying sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, “Allaah loves that His concessions should be taken up, just as He hates that acts of disobedience to Him are committed.” [06]

So wiping over the leather socks, and wiping over whatever takes the places of the leather socks with regard to normal socks, is established in the Prophetic Sunnah. And no one disagrees about it except for the Raafidah (Shee`ah), whilst they affirm wiping upon the feet. So in the view of the Raafidah the feet are not to be washed, rather they are to be wiped over using as evidence the aayah (of wudoo):

وَامْسَحُوا بِرُءُوسِكُمْ وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ إِلَى الْكَعْبَيْنِ

And wipe your heads and wipe your feet up to the ankles (Sooratul-Maa·idah (5), aayah 6)

And in their view the ka`baan (two ankle bones) it doesn’t mean the two well known ankle bones at the bottom of the shins, rather in their view it refers to what comes under the strap of the shoe or sandal, and it is where the foot joins the heel – that which is called the throne of the foot (i.e. the arch or ridge on top of the foot). This is the ka`b (ankle bone) in the view of the Raafidah. It is other than ka`b which is with the people of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah.

And there is no proof for them even with the recitation with kasrah in the aayah (wa arjulikum), because the well-known recitation is with it being mansoob:

Wa arjulakum’ joining it to those things (which are to be washed), ‘faghsiloo wujoohakum…’ (i.e. wash your faces and your feet).

And with regards to the recitation where there is a kasrah, then it is on account of the word being next to His saying ‘wamsahoo bi ru·oosikum’ (i.e. wipe your heads and also your feet). And the proof is that the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam used to wash his feet, and he had not used to wipe except upon the leather socks. [07]

Footnotes:

[05] Translator’s side point: Imaam an-Nawawiyy stated that some of the reports contain from eighty Companions including the ten promised Paradise.

[06] Reported by Imaam Ahmad in his Musnad, by at-Tabaraaniyy in al-Mu`jamus-Sagheer, Ibn Khuzaymah in his Saheeh and Ibn Hibbaan in his Saheeh, from the hadeeth of `Abdullaah Ibn `Umar radiyAllaahu `anhumaa. And it is declared saheeh by al-Munthiriyy in at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb, and he declared the chain of narration of Ahmad to be authentic.

Translator’s side point: And Shaykh al-Albaaniyy in his checking of at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb declared this hadeeth to be hasan saheeh.

[07] Translator’s side point: Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmiyy rahimahullaah said:

“Wiping over the leather socks is from the Sunnahs. And wiping upon the leather socks has entered upon the matters of creed and belief, because some of the innovators deny it; and they are the Khawaarij and the Shee`ah, using as proof that it does not occur in the Qur’aan. But it is established from the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam through the narration of a group of the Companions. And denying it has become a distinguishing sign of the people of innovations. And the Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah affirm it, because of the proofs for it.”

Transcribed by Saima Zaher. Download PDF of Lesson 28

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhu Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Link: 
https://abdurrahman.org/tahara-purification/

Stoning (the adulterer or adulteress) is True – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 28 : Point 33
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

And stoning is true.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, has forbidden some things relating to matters affecting peoples’ honour or relating to dealings and other than that.; and these forbidden matters are divided into categories.

– Forbidden things which are major sins
– Forbidden matters which are lesser sins

And then with regard to the punishment upon the one who commits them, they are divided into three categories.

The first category: forbidden things for which Allaah has laid down prescribed punishments. They are called al-hudood prescribed punishments from the word al-hadd (limit); it means prevention. They are called that because they prevent from falling into these sins.

The second category: forbidden things which Allaah has not laid down prescribed punishments for, however there is ta`zeer (discretionary) punishments for them; and it is left to the discretion of the ruler in accordance with whatever he sees will be a deterrent from them. And this is called ta`zeer and it is a correctional punishment.

The third category: that which does not have a laid down prescribed punishment nor does it have a discretionary punishment from those forbidden things. However, there does occur with regard to it a threat and a mention of anger and curse and Fire and other than that from the types of threat; such as consuming usury and gambling and other than that. With regard to this there is a severe threat which will deter whoever has eemaan (true faith) in his heart. And whoever does not have eemaan in his heart or he is weak in faith, then in front of him there will be a reckoning and a punishment in the Hereafter. So Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, has made forbidden these forbidden matters.

The Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

Allaah made obligatory duties obligatory, so do not neglect them. And He made some things forbidden, so do not commit them. And He remained silent about some things as a mercy upon you, not out of forgetfulness, so do not ask about them. [01]

And from these prescribed punishments is the prescribed punishment for fornication. And fornication is to commit illicit sexual intercourse in the private part of one not lawful for him, except through correct legislated marriage contract.

He, the Most High, said:

And those who guard their private parts, except upon their wives or the slaves whom their right hands possess. For they are not blameworthy. And whoever seeks something beyond that, then they are the transgressors. (Sooratul- Ma`aarij (70), aayah 29 – 31)

Meaning those who go beyond what is lawful and enter into that which is forbidden. So whoever enters into fornication, then he will be one of two categories. Either if he is a virgin, meaning he has not had relations with a woman in a lawful marriage which kept him chaste, he is a virgin, then his punishment will be that he will be lashed one hundred times.

He, the Most High said:

And the female fornicator and the male fornicator, lash each one of them with a hundred lashes. And let not pity deter you from obedience to Allaah, if you truly believe in Allaah and in the Last Day. And let a group of the believers witness their punishment. (Sooratun-Noor (24), aayah 2)

And there occurs in the authentic Sunnah that he should be exiled, meaning banished from his land where he committed the illicit sexual relations and sent to another land for a the period of one year. He sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said: For a virgin committing it with a virgin, then the punishment is one hundred lashes and exile for one year. [02]

So exile is confirmed in the Sunnah. As for lashing then it is established in the Qur’aan. And the scholars are agreed in consensus upon lashing, and the majority of them also agree upon exile. This is with regard to the punishment for the virgin.

As for the previously married person, and he is the one who has had relations already with the wife in a correct marriage, and he recognizes the value of peoples honour and the sanctity of peoples honour. And this person, he is stoned with stones until he dies. And this is established in the Qur’aan whose wording was abrogated, but whose ruling remained.

Just as `Umar radiyAllaahu `anhu said upon the mimbar of the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam,

“The aayah of stoning came down and we comprehended it and we preserved it. And Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam stoned. And I fear that if a time becomes prolonged for the people, that they will start to say, ‘We do not find stoning in the Book of Allaah’. Indeed it is in the Book of Allaah. [03]

This was Qur’aan whose wording was abrogated, but whose ruling remained. And Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam stoned and he commanded stoning. And the Muslims are agreed in consensus upon that. And no one disagreed about it, except for the people of innovations, those whose disagreement is not taken account of such as the Khawaarij.

So stoning is established in the Book and in the Sunnah of the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam sayings (Sunnah qawliyyah) and his actions (Sunnah `amaliyyah) and by consensus. So whoever denies it is a disbeliever, because he is denying that which Allaah has said and His Messenger and the consensus of the Muslims. So stoning is established. There is no scope for speech about it. And therefore he stated it here and said “Stoning is true”. This is the creed and belief of the Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah in refutation of the innovators, those who deny stoning without knowledge and without clear insight, because of their ignorance and because of their childishness in regards to knowledge; and they are relying upon their intellects and their own thinking. And those people are not counted. No notice is taken of them and their sayings are not looked at.

So sometimes an ignorant person can come claiming awareness and to have researched and say, “There is disagreement about this.” So it is said to him, “Is it the case that every disagreement is taken account of?! There are matters of disagreement which are totally discarded and not counted. And from them is this disagreement.

And therefore the writer of the lines of poetry said:

Not every disagreement that comes about is taken account of, except that which has of correct examination.

So the matter is not just claims of disagreement. The matter is one of verification of what is correct and tying it to the proof. So whoever goes against the proof, then he is defeated in the argument and there is no weight given to his disagreeing, and he is not counted.

And Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, says:

So if you disagree about anything, then refer it back to Allaah and the Messenger, if you truly believe in Allaah and the last day, that is the better and finer in its outcome.(Sooratun-Nisaa· (4), aayah 59)

So we do not just remain upon there being disagreement, rather we refer back to the proof, because of His saying, He, the Most High:

Then refer it back to Allaah and the Messenger, if you truly believe in Allaah and in the last day, that is the better and finer regarding its outcome. (Sooratun-Nisaa· (4), aayah 59)

So therefore the author rahimahullaah he stated the issue of stoning even though this book is a book of creeds and beliefs, because it is obligatory to believe in the obligation of stoning; and whoever denies it has become a disbeliever. So therefore he stated it as a refutation of the innovators who deny stoning. [04]

Footnotes:

[01] This hadeeth occurs as no. 30 in an-Nawawiyy’s Forty Hadeeth. It is reported by at-Tabaraaniyy in alMu`jamul-Kabeer, Ibn Jareer in his Tafseer, ad-Daaraqutniyy in his Sunan, al-Haakim in his Mustadrak, al-Bayhaqiyy in as-Sunanul-Kubraa and others. It was declared hasan good by an-Nawawiyy in RiyaadusSaaliheen.

Translators side point: It occurs as a hadeeth of Aboo Tha`labah al-Khushaniyy radiyAllaahu `anhu and Shaykh al-Albaaniyy rahimahullaah said with regard to this narration in Ghaayatul-Maraam (no. 4), “This narration is actually da`eef (weak). Makhool did not meet Aboo Tha`labah.” However in the same book Shaykh al-Albaaniyy declares hasan (good) the narration which bears some resemblance with this one, which is the hadeeth of Abud-Dardaa· radiyAllaahu `anhu that the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said,

“Whatever Allaah made lawful in His book, then it is lawful. And whatever He made forbidden, then it is forbidden. And whatever He remained silent about, then it is pardoned. So accept from Allaah that which He has pardoned for Allaah would not forget anything.”

And he recited:

And your Lord never forgets. (Soorah Maryam (19), aayah 64)

Hadeeth reported by al-Haakim and declared hasan by Shaykh al-Albaaniyy.

[02] Reported by Muslim in his Saheeh (no. 1690) as a hadeeth of `Ubaadah ibnus-Saamit radiyAllaahu `anhu.

Translator’s side point: You also find that same narration from a different Companion reported by alBukhaariyy, also by Aboo Daawood, at-Timithiyy and Ibn Maajah. This wording actually occurring in the text is the wording of Ibn Maajah. Shaykh al-Albaaniyy declared it likewise saheeh.

[03] Reported by al-Bukhaariyy in his Saheeh (no. 6829). Also reported by Muslim in his Saheeh (no. 1691) from a narration of `Umar radiyAllaahu `anhu.

[04] Translator’s side point: Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmiyy rahimahullaah said in his explanation that from the established Sunnah of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam is that:

Indeed he stoned Maa`iz [reported by al-Bukhaariyy (no. 6824)] and the woman connected with the employee [al-Bukhaariyy (no. 6828)] and the woman of the Juhaniyy tribe, al-Juhaniyyah [Muslim (no. 1696)]. And he stoned two Jews who had committed fornication [al-Bukhaariyy (no. 6841)].

And the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam passed away and this ruling remained being acted upon. And the khulafaa· stoned after him.”

Transcribed by Saima Zaher. Download PDF of Lesson 28

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhu Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Link: 
https://abdurrahman.org/category/islam/zinaa-adultery-fornication/

Bearing witness of Paradise or of the Fire for a specific individual without a proof – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 27 : Point 32 (Part B)
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Listen to 32 (Part A) Here]

And know, that there is to be no obedience to any human in disobedience to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. And whoever is from the people of Islaam then do not bear witness (of Paradise or the Fire) for him on account of his having done a deed, whether good or bad, since you do not know what his deeds will be concluded with at the point of death. You hope for Allaah’s Mercy for him and you fear for him (because of his sins). You do not know what is destined for him at the point of death with regard to his repenting to Allaah and what Allaah may bring about for him at that time if he dies upon Islaam. You hope for (Allaah’s) Mercy for him and you fear for him because of his sins. And there is no sin except that the servant may repent from it.

[only highlighted portion of the above point is covered in this post]

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

His saying, “And witness (meaning regarding Paradise or the Fire) may not be given against anyone nor for him based upon his having done a good or bad deed.”

This matter of bearing witness of Paradise or of the Fire for a specific individual, this is that matter. So witness is not given for a specific individual that he will be in Paradise nor is witness given that he will be in the Fire, except with a proof from the Book and the Sunnah. As for one who there is no proof to state that he is from the people of Paradise, even if he is a righteous person, a believer, we do not do so because we do not know what his concluding action will be. And likewise, a sinful person or a disbeliever, we do not state for certain that the individual that he is from the people of the Fire because he might repent and we do not know. He sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said,

“One of you may perform the actions of the people of Paradise until there is not between him and it except a cubit (forearm); but then what was written overtakes him and he acts with the action of the people of the Fire and therefore he enters it. And one of you may act with the actions of the people of the Fire until there is not between him and it except a forearm (a cubit) and then what was written overtakes him and he acts with the action of the people of Paradise and therefore he enters it.” [05]

“Actions are in accordance with their conclusions.” [06 ]

And the concluding actions are not known except to Allaah, the Knower of all hidden things, He, the Perfect and Most High. But as for us, then we have fear for the people of sins and we have hope for the people of acts of obedience but we do not state with certainty. Rather, we have hope for those who are obedient but we do not state with certainty, and we have fear for the sinful ones but we do not state with certainty. This is with regard to specific individuals. As for in general, then we state with certainty that the people of eemaan (true belief) are the people of Paradise and we state with certainty that the disbelievers are the people of the Fire. Allaah, the Most High, said with regard to the Fire:

It has already been prepared for the disbelievers.
(Soorah-Aali `Imraan (3), aayah 131)

And He said with regard to Paradise:

It has already been prepared for those who have taqwaa (those who are fearful of Allaah and dutiful to Him). (Soorah Aali `Imraan (3), aayah 133)

This is with regard to in general. As for specific individuals and specific people, then this is entrusted to Allaah, the Perfect and Most High. However, we behave and deal with them on the basis of what is apparent. We deal with the people of obedience in accordance with what appears from them and we deal with the people of sins in accordance to what is apparent from them. We pass judgement in accordance with what is apparent only, not stating the final destination and the final outcome, for that lies in the Hand of Allaah, the Perfect and Most High. [07]

Footnotes:

[05] Reported by al-Bukhaariyy in his Saheeh (no. 6594) and Muslim in his Saheeh (no. 2643) from the hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn Mas`ood radiyAllaahu `anhu

Translator’s side point: the famous hadeeth of as-Saadiq al-Masdooq, the fourth hadeeth in an-Nawawiyy’s Forty Hadeeth.

[06] Translator’s side point: the wording of a hadeeth

[07] Translator’s side point: Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmiyy rahimahullaah dealt with a point, which wasn’t dealt with here directly: “And there is no sin except that the servant can repent from it.”

Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmiyy rahimahullaah said in his explanation, “At-Towbah (repentance) is acceptable from every sin with regard to the rulings relating to the Hereafter.

[Translator’s note: meaning, in the Hereafter that would be wiped away from him. When `Amr ibn al-`Aas came to accept Islaam and the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam told him to put out his hand to give his pledge – that’s when he withheld it for a moment. He said, “Because I want to make a condition.” So the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam asked him what condition he wanted to make. He said, “What I did before should be forgiven.” So therefore the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said the hadeeth the shaykh quotes here.]

“And the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said to `Amr ibn al-`Aas radiyAllaahu `anhu,

‘Do you not know that Islaam demolishes what came before it and that performing Hijrah demolishes what came before it and that the Hajj demolishes what came before it.’

(Reported by Muslim (121) in the Book of Eemaan)

“And his saying with regard to the man who killed ninety-nine men, ‘And who can come between him and between repentance?’

(The hadeeth reported by Muslim)

“And the ahaadeeth in this regard are very clear. And the disagreement is with regard to a person who spoke with words of abuse against the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam or against the Qur·aan – is his repentance accepted with regard to this world or is judgement passed that he is to be executed, even if he makes clear his repentance? Then this has been clarified by Shaykhul-Islaam ibn Taymiyyah in his book As-Saarimul-Maslool `alaa Shaatimir-Rasool sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam. And Allaah is the One who grants success.”

Transcribed by Saima Zaher. Download PDF of Lesson 27

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhu Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/rulers/

There is to be no obedience to any human in disobedience to Allaah -Sharhu Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 27 : Point 32 (Part A)
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

And know, that there is to be no obedience to any human in disobedience to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. And whoever is from the people of Islaam then do not bear witness (of Paradise or the Fire) for him on account of his having done a deed, whether good or bad, since you do not know what his deeds will be concluded with at the point of death. You hope for Allaah’s Mercy for him and you fear for him (because of his sins). You do not know what is destined for him at the point of death with regard to his repenting to Allaah and what Allaah may bring about for him at that time if he dies upon Islaam. You hope for (Allaah’s) Mercy for him and you fear for him because of his sins. And there is no sin except that the servant may repent from it.

[only highlighted portion of the above point is covered in this post]

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

His saying, “And know that there is to be no obedience to any human in disobedience to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.” This is an exception to what has preceded, referring to what he mentioned with regard to it being obligatory to obey the ruler, that it is not obligatory in everything. Rather, they are only to be obeyed in that which is not ma`siyah (a sin). As for if they command a sin, then they are not obeyed upon sin.

And there occurs in the hadeeth: that the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam appointed a leader over an army detachment of the Companions. So when they proceeded upon the way, he (this leader) said to them, “Gather some firewood.” So, when they had gathered it, he said, “Set it on fire.” So, when they had set is blazing, he said, “Enter into the fire. Did not the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam say, ‘Hear and obey’?” So some of them said, “We did not obey the Messenger except in order to flee away from the Fire so how can we then enter into it?!” So therefore they refused to enter into it. So when that (news) reached Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam he said, “If they had entered it then they would not have come out from it. Obedience is only in that which is good.” [03]

And he sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said,

“There is to be no obedience to a created being in disobedience to the Creator.” [04]

And He, the Most High, said with regard to the parents:

And be thankful to Me and to your parents; the return will be to Me. And if those two strive…

Meaning the parents,

… to make you associate along with Me that which you have no knowledge of then do not obey them; but live with them in this world in a good manner; and follow the way of those who turn to Me.

(Soorah-Luqmaan (31), aayahs 14 and 15)

However that does not mean that obedience to the ruler ceases if he commands something sinful, but rather it means that he is not obeyed in that sin, whereas obedience to him remains in that which is not a sin. This is the meaning of “There is no obedience to a created being in disobedience to the Creator.”

So it is not to be said that Allaah has commanded obedience to the ruler and He has commanded fine treatment and obedience to the parents in everything. We say, yes Allaah commanded obedience to those in authority (but), upon what is good; and He commanded obedience to the parents, however in what is good, not in disobedience to Allaah, the Perfect and Most High.

Footnotes:

[03](The hadeeth) has preceded. (Reported by al-Bukhaariyy (7145) and Muslim (1840) from a hadeeth of `Aliyy radiyAllaahu `anhu)

[04] It’s checking has preceded. (Reported by Imaam Ahmad and at-Tabaraaniyy and others from a hadeeth of `Imraan ibn Husayn radiyAllaahu `anhu)

Translator’s side point: Declared saheeh (authentic) by Shaykh al-Albaaniyy in As-Saheehah (no. 179)

Transcribed by Saima Zaher. Download PDF of Lesson 27

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhu Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/rulers/

It is permissible to fight the Khawaarij if they attack the property, persons or families of the Muslims – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 27 : Point 31
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

And it is permissible to fight the Khawaarij if they attack the property, persons or families of the Muslims; but if they desist and depart then it is not his right to chase them nor are their wounded to be killed nor may he seize their property as booty nor may he kill those of them taken captive nor may he chase those of them who flee.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

We have come to know that the Khawaarij are those who hold breaking away from obedience and they hold that there is no pledge of allegiance to the person in authority (the ruler) or that no bay`ah (pledge) remains if he commits sin; and they declare the Muslims to be disbelievers on account of major sins. So those people who accept this position but they do not have strength and they do not fight then they are left, along with their being advised and having the affair made clear to them so that perhaps they may return.

But as for if they come to have strength and they manifest their force, then it becomes obligatory upon the Muslims to fight against them to repel their evil. And they are not fought against upon the basis that they are disbelievers; rather they are fought against upon the basis that they are Muslims who have transgressed against the Muslims and attacked them. And for this reason when the Chief of the Believers (ameerulmu·mineen), `Aliyy radiyAllaahu `anhu was questioned about the Khawaarij, “Are they disbelievers?” So he said, “No, they fled away from disbelief; but rather they are a people who transgressed against us.” [01],[02]

So they (the Khawaarij) are not fought against upon the basis that they are disbelievers, and therefore their women and their children are not taken as slaves and their property is not seized and those of them who are injured are not killed because the fighting against them is just to repel their evil, not because of their being disbelievers.

His saying, “And it is permissible to fight against the Khawaarij if they attack the Muslims with regard to their property, their persons and their families,” because the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam commanded that they be fought against and because `Aliyy radiyAllaahu `anhu fought against them when they attacked `Abdullaah ibn Khabbaab ibn al-Aratt radiyAllaahu `anhu. And they killed him and they split open the abdomen of his slave girl who was pregnant. So then when they did that the Chief of the Believers (meaning `Aliyy radiyAllaahu `anhu) resolved to fight them because the first signs of their evil had now appeared from them.

His saying, “But it is not for him (the Muslim ruler), if they desist and leave them alone, to chase them.” If they desist from fighting then it is not for the ruler to chase them and to wage war against them as long as they do not commit transgression. So they are astray without any doubt and it is obligatory to give them advice so that perhaps they will return; however they are not to be fought.

His saying, “And he may not kill their injured,” because the wounded person, his evil has been curbed.

His saying, “and he may not take their property as booty,” meaning their property is not taken as ghaneemah (booty/spoils of war) because it is the property of the Muslims.

His saying, “and he may not kill those of them taken prisoner,” because they are Muslims and their evil has been prevented by their having been taken captive and by their being wounded.

His saying, “and those of them who flee away are not to be chased.” If they are defeated, then the ruler leaves them alone and he does not chase after them because their evil has been repelled.

Footnotes:

[01] Reported by `Abdur-Razzaaq in al-Musannaf and al-Bayhaqiyy in as-Sunanul-Kubraa.

Translator’s side point: You’ll find some narrations reported by Ibn Abee Shaybah also in his Musannaf, as indicated here also by al-Bayhaqiyy. And some of the reports contain the wording that `Aliyy radiyAllaahu `anh said something similar to this with regard to the People of the Camel, meaning the Companions who fought against him in the Battle of the Camel, and in some of the reports it mentions that he said something like this with regard to the Khawaarij at Nahrawaan. And as for this wording that Shaykh al-Fowzaan mentioned here, then it is indeed as Shaykh al-Fowzaan mentioned it, he said it was with regard to the Khawaarij and it is an important difference with regard to the wording.

[02] Shaykhul-Islaam ibn Taymiyyah rahimahullaah said in Risaalatu Fadli Ahlil-Bayt wa Huqooqihim (a treatise with regard to the virtue of the Ahlul-Bayt, the family of the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, and their rights) “It is established from ameerul-mu·mineen `Aliyy radiyAllaahu `anhu through different chains that when he fought against the People of the Camel, he did not take their children as slaves and he did not take their wealth as booty and he did not kill their wounded ones and he did not chase after those who fled and he did not kill any captive and he prayed (the funeral prayer) over those who had been killed from both sides, at both the Battle of the Camel and the Battle of Siffeen. And he said “Ikhwaanunaa baghow `alaynaa.”, “They are our brothers; they transgressed against us.” And he informed that they are not disbelievers nor are they hypocrites. And in what he said he was following the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, since he called them brothers and he declared them to be believers in the fighting and in the transgression just as is mentioned in His saying,

وَإِن طَائِفَتَانِ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ اقْتَتَلُوا فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَهُمَا ۖ فَإِن بَغَتْ إِحْدَاهُمَا عَلَى الْأُخْرَىٰ فَقَاتِلُوا الَّتِي تَبْغِي حَتَّىٰ تَفِيءَ إِلَىٰ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ ۚ فَإِن فَاءَتْ فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَهُمَا بِالْعَدْلِ وَأَقْسِطُوا ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ

And if two parties or groups among the believers fall to fighting, then make peace between them both, but if one of them rebels against the other, then fight you (all) against the one that which rebels till it complies with the Command of Allah; then if it complies, then make reconciliation between them justly, and be equitable. Verily! Allah loves those who are equitable.

(Sooratul-Hujuraat (49), aayah 9)

He also said (two pages later), “They are not equal those who were killed, who he prayed over and he called them ikhwaanunaa (our brothers), they are not equal along with those whom he did not pray over (the Khawaarij at the Battle of Nahrawaan). Rather, when it was said to him (quoting the aayah from Sooratul-Kahf (18), towards the end of the soorah), “Who are,

الَّذِينَ ضَلَّ سَعْيُهُمْ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَهُمْ يَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُمْ يُحْسِنُونَ صُنْعًا –

“Those whose efforts have been wasted in this life while they thought that they were acquiring good by their deeds! (18:104)

That he replied, “They are the people of Harooraa· (meaning the Khawaarij).”

Also, Shaykhul-Islaam ibn Taymiyyah rahimahullaah mentioned, “And likewise, the people of Siffeen, he prayed the funeral prayer over those who were killed from them and he said, ‘They are our brothers, they transgressed against us but the sword purified them.’ And if in his view they had been disbelievers, he would not have prayed funeral prayer over them and he would not have declared them to be brothers and he would not have stated that the sword purified anything from them.” (Minhaajus-Sunnah)

With regard to the Khawaarij the wording is as Shaykh al-Fowzaan put it here. What is authentic with regard to the Khawaarij that he said when they asked, “Are they disbelievers?”

He said, “No they fled from disbelief; they are a people who transgressed against us.” He didn’t call them his brothers.

And then he quoted the same quotes from Shaykhul-Islaam ibn Taymiyyah.

Transcribed by Saima Zaher. Download PDF of Lesson 27

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhu Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/rulers/

https://abdurrahman.org/category/islam/khawaarij/

It is not permissible to fight the ruler, nor to rebel against him even if he oppresses – Sharh as Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 26 : Point 30
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

And it is not permissible to fight the ruler, nor to rebel against him even if he oppresses. And that is because of the saying of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam to Aboo Tharr al-Ghifaariyy,

“Have patience, even if he is an Abyssinian slave.”

And his saying to the Ansaar,

“Have patience until you meet me at the Reservoir (the Howd).”

It is not from the Sunnah to fight against the ruler for it brings about corruption of the worldly life and of the Religion.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

It is not permissible for anyone to fight against the sultaan (ruler) by rebelling against him by using weaponry because this results in major evils.

His saying, “And it is not permissible to fight against the ruler, nor to rebel against him even if he is oppressive.” Meaning it is forbidden – haraam – to fight against the ruler, meaning to fight against the ruler as is done by the Khawaarij.

“Even if he commits oppression.” Meaning (even if) some tyranny or oppression occurs from him then the person should have sabr, patience, upon that. Because having patience upon that, even though it has harm within it, then this is lighter (less serious) than the harm which results from rebelling against him. So the harm which comes about along with having patience upon obedience to the oppressive ruler, this is less serious than the harm which comes about through rebelling against him. And there is no doubt that from the principles that are confirmed in Islaam is: ‘taking on board the lesser of two harms to repel the greater one’.

And the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said to the Ansaar,

“You will indeed see after me atharah (undue preference), so have patience until you meet me at the Howd (Great Reservoir).” [04]

He enjoined them with sabr (having patience) even though they were going to experience atharah (undue preference) against them – and it is preferring other people with wealth and excluding them. So he enjoined them with having patience because of what lies in this from repelling the greater of two evils.

His saying, “And that is because of the saying of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam to Aboo Tharr al-Ghifaariyy, “Have patience even if he be an Abyssinian slave.”

Meaning do not hold the ruler in contempt even if his appearance is not beautiful, even if he is black in colour, even if he does not have Arabian lineage, because what is counted is his position, which is the khilaafah (Caliphate) or al-imaarah (the major leadership) and what is counted is not his own person. So he is to be obeyed as long as he is a Muslim; and his bodily appearance is not to be looked to, which perhaps does not please the one who looks because of his deformity or ugliness or because of his shabby appearance or because of a defect in his body.

“Even if he is a slave with severed limbs.” [05]

All of this does not justify rebelling against him even if he is a sick person or he has weak health. As long as the pledge of obedience was established for him then he should have patience with him and he is to be heard and obeyed, even if he has these characteristics.

His saying, “Fighting against the sultaan (ruler) is not from the Sunnah.” It is not from the Sunnah established from the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam to fight against the ruler – not in a single hadeeth, neither a weak one, nor a hasan one, nor an authentic one. There is not in the Sunnah any hadeeth which proves fighting against the Muslim ruler, even if he is sinful, even if he is an oppressor, even if he is a tyrant, even if he shows undue preference with wealth, then it is still not permissible to rebel against him. Rather the ahaadeeth, all of them, prove having patience with that and the forbiddance of rebelling against him.

And this does not mean that the ruler shouldn’t receive naseehah, sincere advice. Rather he should be advised, in secret, privately between him and the one who is advising. So it is obligatory upon the person who has some sincere advice to take it to the ruler, just as he sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said,
“The religion is sincerity.”
So we said, “To whom?”
So he said,
“To Allaah and to His Book and to His Messenger and to the rulers of the Muslims and to their common folk.” [06]

So that does not mean that he is not to be advised and that he is to be left alone; rather things must be made clear to him and he should be advised. And this is his right upon the scholars and upon his subjects and upon those whom he consults and upon people of sound opinion – that they give him sincere advice. [07]

“And it is not from the Sunnah to fight against the sultaan (the ruler),” meaning, there is no proof for it; nothing saheeh (authentic) and nothing da`eef (weak) to show that it is legislated to fight against the Muslim ruler. Rather there is in it (the Sunnah) and in the Qur·aan also, the command to obey him.

O you who believe! Obey Allaah and obey the Messenger and those in authority from amongst you. (Sooratun-Nisaa· (4), aayah 59)

So look at his saying lÐm ‘minkum’ with the meaning, ‘from amongst you’, meaning as long as he is a Muslim, then it is obligatory to obey him.

His saying, “For indeed (in rebelling against the ruler) in it lies corruption of the worldly life and of the Religion.” Fighting against the ruler brings about corruption of the worldly life such that authority is lost, fowdaa (anarchy/chaos) becomes widespread and the enemies overcome and the Religion becomes lost; since there is noone to establish the prescribed punishments and no-one who can carry out the qisaas, (retaliatory punishments) and there is no-one who can enforce the legislated rulings and give back the rights to those who deserve them and who can enforce the judicial rulings; and thus the Religion is corrupted and there is chaos and corruption. And the hand of the thief cannot be chopped, so therefore people’s wealth is lost. And the highway robbers do not have their limbs amputated and therefore the roads become disused – because who can establish all of this? He is the person in authority. This is from the function of the one in authority and no-one will be able, even if all the people gather, no one will be able to establish these affairs. Rather, chaos and anarchy will result. [08]

Footnotes:

[04] Reported by al-Bukhaariyy in his Saheeh (no. 3792) and reported by Muslim in his Saheeh (no. 1845), hadeeth of Usayd Ibnul-Hudayr radiyAllaahu `anhu.

[05] Part of the same hadeeth brought by the author in the main text, hadeeth of Aboo Tharr radiyAllaahu `anhu, reported by al-Bukhaariyy (no. 3792) and Muslim (no. 1845) and this being one particular wording of that, the wording reported by Muslim (no. 648)

[06] Reported by Muslim (no. 55) from hadeeth of Tameem ad-Daariyy radiyAllaahu `anhu

[07] Translator’s side point: Shaykh Saalih as-Suhaymiyy hafizahullaah in his explanation said with regard to the word sultaan (the sultan, the one in authority), “His saying, ‘sultaan’. He used this word here to make it general, whether the person is a khaleefah (Caliph) or a malik (king), or a sultaan or a ra·ees (head or president), whatever he is, as long as he establishes the legislation of Allaah, the Perfect and Most High. Whatever his title is, whether he is called a king or a sultaan (sultan) or an ameer (chief/head) or an imaam, whatever, then the witness here is that it is forbidden to rebel against him.

[08] Translators side point: Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmiyy rahimahullaah said, “I say the `aqeedah (creed and belief) of the Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah is that fighting against the ruler is not permissible, and likewise rebelling against him. It is not permissible because of the prohibition of the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam and his warning against rebelling against him and the prohibition of challenging him (the ruler) which occurs in the hadeeth of `Ubaadah ibnus-Saamit (with the wording):

‘And that we will not challenge those in authority with regard to the affair.’”

(Footnote: Hadeeth already preceded. Translator’s note: Meaning it was part of the pledge which the Companions gave to the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam that they would not challenge those in authority of the affair.)

Shaykh Ahmad continued,

“So challenging those in authority of the affair is not permissible, and that comes about by provoking and rabble rousing the common masses to rebel against them, all of this is not permissible. And from that is criticising the rulers from the minbars, for this will only enrage the hearts of those in authority and cause estrangement between those in authority and the common masses and cause them to have no trust in each other.

“And the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said,

‘The best of your rulers are those whom you love and who love you and who you supplicate for them and they supplicate for you. And the worst of your rulers are those who you hate and who hate you and you abuse them and they abuse you.’

So they said, “We said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, shall we not challenge/go against them with regard to that?’

So he said,

‘No, not as long as they establish the Prayer amongst you. No not as long as they establish the Prayer. Indeed, whoever has someone in authority over him and he sees him committing something from disobedience to Allaah then let him hate that which he commits from disobedience to Allaah, but let him not remove his hand from obedience.’”

(Translator’s side point: Reported by Muslim as a hadeeth of `Owf ibn Maalik radiyAllaahu `anhu)

And the proofs concerning this topic and the writings, and the statements of the Salaf which cover this are plentiful. And Allaah is the One Who grants success.

Transcribed by Saima Zaher. Download PDF of Lesson 26

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhu Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Linkshttps://abdurrahman.org/rulers/

Whoever rebels against one of the Muslim rulers, then he is one of the Khawaarij – Sharh as Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 26 : Point 29
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

And whoever rebels against one of the Muslim rulers, then he is one of the Khawaarij. He has caused dissent within the Muslims and he has contradicted the narrations and he dies a death like that of the Days of Ignorance.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

His saying, “And whoever revolts against a ruler from the Muslim rulers, then he is a Khaarijiyy (one of the Khawaarij).” Whoever departs from obedience to the one in authority and rebels against his authority, using the excuse that the person in authority has sins and has acts contrary to the legislation, as is done by the Khawaarij; then he has the ruling of the Khawaarij. And the Khawaarij are a deviant group which first sprouted in the time of the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam when Thul-Khuwaysirah came and said to the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, when he saw him dividing the booty, he said to him,

“Do justice O Muhammad, for you have not been just!”

So he sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said,
“Woe to you! Then who will do justice if I do not do justice?”

So when that man departed he sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said,

“There will emerge from the progeny of this one…” Meaning from his type “…a people; you will belittle your Prayers in comparison to their Prayers, and your worship in comparison to their worship. They will recite the Qur·aan but it will not pass beyond their throats. They will shoot out from the Religion just as an arrow shoots straight through the game. So wherever you find them then fight them, for in fighting them there is reward for those who fight them.” [01]

So it is obligatory to fight against them and that is in order to stop their evil from the Muslims.

This is the case if they come out with weapons and they bear arms, but as for their merely manifesting the view of the Khawaarij and speaking with it but not fighting and not bearing arms, then in that case we rebuke them and we make clear to them their misguidance but we do not fight against them. However, if they gain strength and they start to fight against the Muslims then it is not permissible then for the Muslims to leave them. Rather it is obligatory upon the person in authority to fight against them, and it is obligatory upon the Muslims that they should be along with the person in authority against them, just as occurred in the khilaafah (Caliphate) of `Aliyy radiyAllaahu `anhu when he fought against the Khawaarij at Nahrawaan. And the Companions joined him and they fought against the Khawaarij along with him until they killed them in the worst manner; and through that he attained the reward which Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam promised in his saying:

“Indeed there is reward in fighting against them for those who fight against them.” [02]

And this is from the virtues of `Aliyy radiyAllaahu `anhu, and his virtues are many. And from them is that he fought against the Khawaarij and he implemented the statement of the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam regarding them.

His saying, “And he has caused dissent within the Muslims and he has contradicted the narrations and his death will be the death like that of the Days of Ignorance.”

So the Khawaarij, they are the people who broke the unity of obedience and they revolted against the person in authority. And likewise they are the ones who declare the Muslims to be disbelievers on account of major sins, kabaa·ir, which are less than shirk. So therefore they have two signs:

The first sign is their khurooj (rebelling) against the person in authority over the Muslims and their attempting to remove the one in authority.

The second sign is that they declare the Muslims to be disbelievers on account of kabaa·ir (major sins), which are less than shirk.

And what led them to this is ghuluww (extremism), and Allaah’s refuge is sought. And therefore, the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam warned against ghuluww (extremism) saying,

“Beware of ghuluww (extremism) for those who came before you were only destroyed on account of ghuluww (extremism/going beyond the limits.)” [03]

And it is adding to the Religion and adding to that which is legislated with regard to criticising an evil. This is ghuluww (extremism) which led the Khawaarij to what occurred from them. They had ghuluww, went overboard, in criticising an evil to such an extent that they split apart from unity of obedience and they went beyond the limit, to extremes in worship to the extent that they declared those people who commit major sins from the Muslims to be disbelievers.

His saying, “…he has contradicted the narrations…” Meaning the ahaadeeth which occur from the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam with regard to adhering to obedience to the one in authority over the Muslims.

His saying, “…and his death will be a death like that of the Days of Ignorance.”

Meaning because he has a characteristic from the characteristic of the Times of Ignorance (times of jaahiliyyah) because the Arabs in the times of jaahiliyyah (the Times of Ignorance) used to be dispersed within different tribes; they had no single ruler who would unite them, rather, each tribe would be independent on its own and they would make surprise attacks upon other tribes. And they did not unite except after Allaah sent Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam. He called them to Islaam so they accepted Islaam and they came to be beneath a single banner. And therefore He, the Most High, said:

And remember the favour of Allaah upon you that you were previously enemies, so He joined between your hearts and through His favour you became brothers. (Soorah Aali `Imraan (3), aayah 103)

And He, the Most High, said:

And remember when you were few and you were weak upon the earth, fearing that the people would snatch you away, and Allaah gave you shelter and He strengthened you with His aid and He provided provision for you from the good and pure things so that you may give thanks. (Sooratul-Anfaal (8), aayah 26)

From the fruits of obedience to the one in authority over the Muslims, all these good things come about through that: establishment of security, the ability to seek provisions and the people being able to travel far and wide to seek provisions on account of the roads being safe. But when there is a state of fear, then in that case the people do not travel, they do not buy and sell out of fear for themselves. So these are from the virtues of the Jamaa`ah (the United Body) and of obedience to the one in authority. As for revolting against the one in authority and splitting away from obedience then that brings about the following:

Firstly: It causes the splitting of the United Body of the Muslims

Secondly: The shedding of blood without right

Thirdly: The enemy overcoming; because the enemy are happy at this. And therefore you will find the disbelievers being joyful at the splitting of the Muslims, and they bring about splits between the Muslims and they aid the deviant groups. They provide them with weapons and they aid them with planning so that they rebel against the United Body of the Muslims, and splitting occurs among the Muslims, so that they can seize them as plunder, as happens. So all of this is a result of disunity and of disobeying the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam and of rebelling against the ones in authority over the affairs of the Muslims.

In summary, one who has no ruler, then he is like a person who lives in jaahiliyyah (Times of Ignorance) and if he dies then his death is like that of the Times of Ignorance.

It does not mean that he becomes a disbeliever, but rather it means that he has a characteristic from the characteristics of the Days of Ignorance in that he does not enter under obedience to a ruler; instead he lives in chaos, fowdaa.

Footnotes:

[01] Reported by al-Bukhaariyy (no. 3344) and Muslim (no. 1064) from a hadeeth of Aboo Sa`eed alKhudriyy radiyAllaahu `anhu

[02] Part of the previous hadeeth of Aboo Sa`eed al-Khudree radiyAllaahu `anhu

[03] Reported by Imaam Ahmad, an-Nasaa∙ee in his Sunan, Ibn Maajah, at-Tabaraaniyy, Ibn Khuzaymah, Ibn Hibbaan, al-Haakim and he declared it authentic to the standard of the two shaykhs, and ath-Thahabiyy agreed

Translator’s side point: Likewise, authenticated by Shaykh al-Albaaniyy rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher. Download PDF of Lesson 26

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhu Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/rulers/

https://abdurrahman.org/category/islam/khawaarij/

Al-Khilaafah (the Caliphate) remains within the Quraysh – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 25 : Point 28
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Al-khilaafah (the Caliphate) remains within the Quraysh until `Eesaa ibn Maryam `alayhis-salaatu was-salaam (may Allaah extol him and grant him peace and security) descends.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

If more than person contends about who is going to take over the rulership and each one of them is fitting for rulership then precedence is given to the Qurashiyy (the person who is from the tribe of Quraysh) because of his special quality over others; because of his sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam saying,

“The rulers are from the Quraysh.” [04]

And his saying,

“Give precedence to the Quraysh and do not give precedence to yourselves over them.” [05]

So if the man of Quraysh is righteous and contention occurs with regard to who will take charge, then the man of Quraysh is given precedence because of the fact that the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam gave that instruction and because the Companions when Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam passed away and when the Ansaar (the Muslims of Madeenah) said, “There should be a leader from us and a leader from you.”

Then Aboo Bakr radiyAllaahu `anhu responded “The Arabs (in general) they will not submit regarding this affair except to this group of Quraysh.” [06] So therefore they gave the bay`ah (pledge of allegiance) to Aboo Bakr as-Siddeeq radiyAllaahu `anhu and then after him to `Umar and after him to `Uthmaan and after him to `Aliyy and after him to Mu`aawiyah and after him to Banoo Umayyah and after them to Banoo `Abbaas and all of them were from Quraysh. However, if the matter is completed and concluded, then obedience becomes binding even if he is not a man of Quraysh. Or if the man of Quraysh is not suitable for rulership, for the mere fact that he is from Quraysh does not automatically give him the right to rulership unless along with being from the Quraysh, he is a righteous man and there is not already an established ruler.

His saying, “…until `Eesaa ibn Maryam ‘alayhis-salaatu was-salaam descends.” This is an indication of the fact that `Eesaa `alayhis-salaam when he descends, he will descend and the ruler of the Muslims will be Muhammad ibn `Abdillaah al-Mahdee, who will be from the family of al-Hasan ibn `Aliyy ibn Abee Taalib. So this shows that the last of the rulers will indeed be from Quraysh and the first of them was from Quraysh, and he was Aboo Bakr radiyAllaahu `anhu and this is what is implemented as far as possible as we have mentioned. And if no-one is found from Quraysh, this does not mean that leadership passes away. Or if someone who is not from the Quraysh establishes the affair and he becomes the leader, and the person is suitable, it doesn’t mean that we remove him and we say you are not suitable for it. So it is obligatory to have awareness of these matters. [07]

Footnotes:

[04] This hadeeth is reported by at-Tayaalisiyy in his Musnad and Imaam Ahmad in his Musnad and anNasaa·ee in as-Sunanul-Kubraa and by Ibn Abee `Aasim in (his book) as-Sunnah and Aboo Ya`laa in his Musnad and al-Bayhaqiyy in as-Sunanul-Kubraa. It was declared authentic by ad-Diyaa· in his book alMukhtaarah (which included just those hadeeth that according to him were authentic).

Translator’s side point: Shaykh al-Albaaniyy mentioned this hadeeth is a hadeeth of Anas ibn Maalik radiyAllaahu `anhu and the narration of Ibn Abee `Aasim mentions from Anas ibn Maalik, he said,

“Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam came to us whilst we were in the house of a man from the Ansaar so he took hold of the two doorposts and he said, “The rulers are from Quraysh.”

Shaykh al-Albaaniyy said with regard to this narration, “It is a hadeeth that is saheeh (authentic). “

[05] This is also reported by Ibn Abee `Aasim in his book as-Sunnah and at-Tabaraaniyy in al-Mu`jamulKabeer as occurs in the book Majma` uz-Zawaa·id.

Translator’s side point: Majma` uz-Zawaa·id: a book that includes the extra narrations outside the six books, extra narrations of the books of at-Tabaraaniyy, Aboo Ya`laa and Musnad of Imaam Ahmad and other books, hadeeth that are additional to the hadeeth in these six books; al-Haythamee’s Majma` uzZawaa·id. So this hadeeth is included there.

And this hadeeth is a hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn as-Saa·ib radiyAllaahu`anhumaa and declared saheeh (authentic) by Shaykh al-Albaaniyy in Saheehul-Jaami`.

[06] Translator’s side point: This occurs in the Saheeh of al-Bukhaariyy as part of a long hadeeth of Ibn `Abbaas radiyAllaahu `anhumaa, (no. 6830) with the wording, “They won’t accept and recognise this affair except for these people of Quraysh.”

[07] Translator’s side point: Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmiyy rahimahullaah said on this point, “Al-khilaafah is within the Quraysh until `Eesaa ibn Maryam `alayhis-salaam descends. And there occurs in that regard the hadeeth reported by Ahmad, “The khilaafah is to be in the Quraysh.”

“However, this is to be taken to refer to khilaafah where there is a choice. But as for where there is a man who fights the people with those who are along with him and he gains authority and the people submit to him after he has overcome them, then it is obligatory to obey him whether he is from Quraysh or whether he is other than from the Quraysh, whether he is righteous or whether he is sinful.”

“This is the `aqeedah (creed and belief) of the Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah who hold the obligation of that, and that it is not permissible for anyone to rebel against him after the affair is settled for him and it is settled and secured for him, even if he is sinful or wicked (then it is still obligatory to obey him).”

“And the proofs for that have already preceded. From them is the hadeeth of Aboo Sa`eed al-Khudriyy and from them the hadeeth of `Urfuja (with the wording),

“Whoever comes to you when your affair is united intending to split your unity and to separate your united body then kill him whoever it may be.”

“So it is obligatory to hold this as creed and belief and to act upon it and Allaah is the one who grants success.”

Transcribed by Saima Zaher. Download PDF of Lesson 25

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhu Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

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Related Linkshttps://abdurrahman.org/rulers/

The Story of Bal’am bin Ba’ura to whom Allaah gave His Ayat, but he threw them away – Tafseer Ibn Katheer

And recite to them the story of him to whom We gave Our Ayat, but he threw them away; so Shaytan followed him up, and he became of those who went astray.And had We willed, We would surely have elevated him therewith, but he clung to the earth and followed his own vain desires. So his parable is the parable of a dog: if you drive him away, he pants, or if you leave him alone, he (still) pants. Such is the parable of the people who reject Our Ayat. So relate the stories, perhaps they may reflect.Evil is the parable of the people who rejected Our Ayat, and used to wrong themselves. (Qur’an Al-A’raf 07, Verses 175-177)

`Abdur-Razzaq recorded that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said that Allah’s statement,(And recite to them the story of him to whom We gave Our Ayat, but he threw them away) “Is about Bal`am bin Ba`ura’ a man from the Children of Israel.”

Shu`bah and several other narrators narrated this statement from Mansur who got it from Ibn Mas`ud. Sa`id bin Abi `Arubah narrated that Qatadah said that Ibn `Abbas said, “He is Sayfi, son of Ar-Rahib.”

Qatadah commented that Ka`b said, “He was a man from Al-Balqla’ (a province of Jordan) who knew Allah’s Greatest Name. He used to live in Bayt Al-Maqdis with the tyrants.”

Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “He is Bal`am bin Ba`ura’, a man from Yemen whom Allah had given the knowledge of His Ayat, but he abandoned them.”

Malik bin Dinar said, “He was one of the scholars of the Children of Israel whose supplication was acceptable. They used to seek his lead in suplication in times of difficulty. Allah’s Prophet Musa sent him to the King of Madyan to call him to Allah. That king appeased him and gave him land and gifts, and he reverted from the religion of Musa and followed the king’s religion.”

`Imran bin `Uyaynah narrated that `Husayn said that `Imran bin Al-Harith said that Ibn `Abbas said, “He is Bal`am son of Ba`ura’.” Similar was said by Mujahid and `Ikrimah. Therefore, it is well-known that this honorable Ayah was revealed about a man from the Children of Israel in ancient times, according to Ibn Mas`ud and several others among the Salaf.

`Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “He is a man from the city of the tyrants (Jerusalem) whose name was Bal`am and who knew Allah’s Greatest Name.” `Ali bin Abi Talhah also reported that Ibn `Abbas that he said, “When Musa and those with him went to the city of the tyrants (Jerusalem), the cousins of Bal`am and his people came to him and said, `Musa is a strong man, and he has many soldiers. If he gains the upper hand over us, we will be destroyed. Therefore, supplicate to Allah that He prevents Musa and those with him from prevailing over us.’ Bal`am said, `If I supplicate to Allah that He turns back Musa and those with him, I will lose in this life and the Hereafter.’ They kept luring him until he supplicated against Musa and his people, and Allah took away what he bestowed on him (of knowledge). Hence Allah’s statement,

(but he threw them away; so Shaytan followed him up).”‘ Allah said next,

(And had We willed, We would surely have elevated him therewith but he clung to the earth and followed his own vain desires.) Allah said,

(And had We willed, We would surely have elevated him therewith) from the filth of this earthly life through the Ayat that We gave him knowledge of,

(but he clung to the earth), he became interested in the adornment of this life and its delights. He indulged in the lusts of life and its joys and was deceived by it, just as life deceived others like him, without sound comprehension or a good mind. Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar narrated from Salim, from Abu An-Nadr that when Musa entered the land of Bani Canaan in the area of Ash-Sham (Greater Syria), the people of Bal`am came to him, saying, “This is Musa, son of `Imran with the Children of Israel. He wants to drive us out from our land, kill us and replace us with the Children of Israel. We are your people and have no other dwelling area. You are a person whose supplication is acceptable (to Allah), so go out and supplicate to Allah against them.” He said, “Woe to you! Here is Allah’s Prophet (Musa) with whom the angels and believers are! How can I supplicate against them when I know from Allah what I know” They said, “We have no other dwelling area.” So they kept luring and begging him until he was tempted by the trial and went on his donkey towards Mount Husban, which was behind the Israelite military barracks. When he proceeded on the Mount for a while, the donkey sat down and refused to proceed. He got off the donkey and struck it until it stood up again and he rode it. The donkey did the same after a little while, and he struck it again until it stood up… So he proceeded and tried to supplicate against Musa and his people. However, Allah made his tongue mention his people with evil and the Children of Israel with good instead of his people, who protested, “O Bal`am! What are you doing You are supplicating for them and against us!” He said, “It is against my will. This is a matter that Allah has decided.” He then said to them, as his tongue was made to loll out of his mouth, “Now I have lost this life and the Hereafter.” This Ayah was revealed about the story of Bal`am son of Ba`ura’

(And recite to them the story of him to whom We gave Our Ayat, but he threw them away.), until,

(perhaps they may reflect.) Allah said next,

(So his parable is the parable of a dog: if you drive him away, he pants, or if you leave him alone, he (still) pants.) Scholars of Tafsir have conflicting opinions regarding the meaning of this Ayah. Some scholars said that it refers to the end of Bal`am’s tongue which flickered out of his mouth, as in the story narrated from Ibn Ishaq, from Salim, from Abu An-Nadr. Therefore, his example is the example of the dog, its tongue pants regardless of whether it is driven away or not. It was also said that the meaning here is a parable of this man — and his like — concerning their misguidance, persisting the wrong path and not being able to benefit from faith or comprehend what they are being called to. So his example is that of a dog which pants whether it was driven away or left alone. The person described here does not benefit from the advice or the call to faith, just as if the advice and call never occurred. Allah said in another Ayah,

(It is the same to them (disbelievers) whether you warn them or do not warn them, they will not believe.)(2:6) and,

(Whether you ask forgiveness for them (hypocrites) or ask not forgiveness for them — (and even) if you ask seventy times for their forgiveness — Allah will not forgive them.) (9:80) and similar Ayat. It was also said that the meaning here, is that the heart of the disbeliever, the hypocrite and the wicked is weak and devoid of guidance. Therefore, it keeps faltering. Similar was narrated from Al-Hasan Al-Basri.

(So relate the stories, perhaps they may reflect) Allah said next to His Prophet Muhammad ﷺ ,

(So relate the stories, perhaps they may) the Children of Israel, who have knowledge ot the story of Bal`am and what happened to him when Allah allowed him to stray and expelled him from His mercy. Allah favored him by teaching him His Greatest Name, by which, if He is asked, He will grant, and if He is called upon, He answers. But Bal`am used it in disobedience to Allah and invoked Him against His own party of the people of faith, followers of His servant and Messenger during that time, Musa, the son of `Imran, peace be upon him, whom Allah spoke to directly,

(perhaps they may reflect.) and avoid Bal`am’s behavior, for Allah has given the Jews knowledge and made them superior to the bedouins surrounding them. He gave them the description of Muhammad ﷺ which would allow them to recognize him, as they recognize their own children. They, among people, have the most right to follow, aid and support Muhammad ﷺ , in obedience to their Prophets who informed them of him and commanded them to follow him. Therefore, whoever among them defies the knowledge in their Books or hides it from the servants, Allah will place disgrace on him in this life, followed by humiliation in the Hereafter. Allah said,

(Evil is the parable of the people who rejected Our Ayat.) Allah says, evil is the example of the people who deny Our Ayat in that they are equated with dogs that have no interest but to collect food and satisfy lusts.’ Therefore, whoever goes out of the area of knowledge and guidance, and seeks satisfaction for his lusts and vain desires, is just like a dog; what an evil example. The Sahih recorded that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said,

(The evil example is not suitable for us: he who goes back on his gift is just like the dog that eats its vomit.) Allah’s statement,

(and they used to wrong themselves.) means, Allah did not wrong them, but they wronged themselves by rejecting guidance, not obeying the Lord, being content with this life that will soon end, all the while seeking to fulfill desires and obey lusts.

(178. Whomsoever Allah guides, he is the guided one, and whomsoever He sends astray, — then those! They are the losers.)

Allah says, whomever He leads aright, then none can lead him to misguidance, and whomever He leads astray, will have acquired failure, loss and sure misguidance. Verily, whatever Allah wills occurs; and whatever He does not will, does not occur. A Hadith narrated from `Abdullah bin Mas`ud reads,

(All praise is due to Allah, Whom we praise and seek help, guidance and forgiveness from. We seek refuge with Allah from the evils within ourselves and from the burden of our evil deeds. He whom Allah guides, will never be misled; and he whom He misguides, will never have one who will guide him. I bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah without partners and that Muhammad ﷺ is His servant and Messenger.)

The complete Hadith was collected by Imam Ahmad and the collectors of Sunan and others.

Source: Tafseer Ibn Katheer , Darussalam English Publication

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/inspirational/

The Hajj and fighting Jihaad along with the ruler continue. Jumu’ah Prayer behind faasiq Ruler is allowed – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 25 : Point 27
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

And the Hajj and fighting jihaad along with the ruler continue. And the Jumu`ah Prayer behind them is allowed; and after it six rak`ahs are prayed, separating each pair of rak`ahs. This was the saying of Ahmad ibn Hanbal.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

The functions carried out by the ruler are many, and the place to find them enumerated and to find them mentioned together, and where you can acquaint yourself with them is the books on the rulings relating to rulership (al-ahkaamus-sultaaniyyah) such as alAhkaamus-Sultaaniyyah of al-Maawardiyy and al-Ahkaamus-Sultaaniyyah of Aboo Ya`laa al-Hanbaliyy and books which have been written on this topic which explain the functions of the ruler. And it is mentioned in the books of fiqh and in the books of `aqaa∙id (creed and belief) also as occurs here.

Firstly (from these functions), is that he (the ruler) is in charge of carrying out the Jumu`ah Prayer and the two `Eed Prayers and the Muslims pray behind him unless he chooses to appoint someone from the Scholars or from the Students of Knowledge to lead the people in Prayer. However, the basic principle is that he (the ruler) has more right to leading the Prayer with regard to the Jumu`ah Prayer (Friday Prayer) and the two `Eed Prayers. So if he appoints someone to do this then he may do so, and this is what action is upon at present.

Secondly, is that he is the one who establishes the Hajj and he leads the people performing Hajj. And he is in charge of them and he looks into any problems they may have.

Thirdly, is establishment of jihaad in Allaah’s cause; this is from the functions carried out by the ruler. He is the one who gives command for it and he is the one who organises the flags and he is the one who chooses the armies and those who are going to fight. And he appoints the commanders and he appoints the squadrons (army units) and he appoints the armies and he provides the fighters with weaponry. And he gives them directions with regard to fighting the enemy and he specifies the direction in which they are to attack.

So jihaad is from the roles of the ruler; and jihaad is not fowdaa (chaos or anarchy) such that everyone who wants to take up arms and go and fight and attack does so and says, “I am fighting jihaad in Allaah’s cause!” This is not jihaad in Allaah’s cause. Jihaad in Allaah’s cause is properly arranged and it is regulated by legislated regulations (of the Sharee`ah, the Islaamic Law). But as for when it is opened up to chaos then it becomes mere destruction, and its harm becomes more than its benefit, if there is actually any benefit in it at all. So the harm resulting from it is greater. So affairs have regulating principles and jihaad is a tremendous affair. It requires that it is correctly regulated and it needs to be restricted by the rulings which are mentioned for jihaad in the Book and the Sunnah and in the speech of the People of Knowledge. The matter is not of fowdaa (chaos or anarchy) such that a person comes from the callers to fitnah (discord) and sets himself up as the leader for those people who are extremists or radicals or ignorant people, those who do not know, he becomes their leader and he says, “We will fight jihaad in Allaah’s cause.” This is counted as being one of the things that cause harm to Islaam and to the Muslims; and this is not jihaad because it is not restricted by the regulating principles which govern jihaad. And if it is not restricted by the regulating principles of jihaad then it just becomes fasaad (corruption) and it is not jihaad. And everything which exceeds its due limits then it turns over and it becomes its opposite. So they now say to those who criticise them, “You are preventing jihaad in Allaah’s cause.”

So we say, “We are not preventing jihaad in Allaah’s cause. However, we say that it is essential that jihaad is regulated by its legislated regulating principles, whereas what you people are doing is fowdaa (chaos) and it is not jihaad and Allaah did not command with it.”

So establishment of the Hajj and fighting jihaad and the Jumu`ah and the `Eed Prayer, these are from the functions of the waleeul-amr (the person in authority).

His saying, “And praying the Jumu`ah Prayer behind them is permissible,” meaning, even if they have fisq (they commit open sins), even if they have acts of disobedience, still the person prays behind them because Prayer behind them retains unity and also a faasiq (an open sinner), if he does something that is good then you do good along with him. And for this reason when they said to `Uthmaan radiyAllaahu `anhu whilst he was being besieged, “So and so leads the people in Prayer and he is not the imaam (the ruler), rather he is just an imaam of fitnah (he is just the leader of discord/tribulation).”

So `Uthmaan radiyAllaahu `anhu said, “O son of my brother, if the people do what is good then do that which is good along with them and if they do something evil then avoid their evil.” [01]

So if he prays then we pray along with him if he is the one in authority, even if he has open sins or acts of disobedience, because of the welfare which lies in doing that. Because the Prayer is worship and the sinful person, faasiq, if he prays then he should be encouraged upon that, supplication made for him. And the Companions they prayed behind rulers who had points against them such as al-Hajjaaj and others. The Companions of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam prayed behind them in compliance with command of the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam and in order to retain unity.

His saying, “And he should pray after it six rak`ahs.” This is a matter of fiqh; it comes here in accordance with the mention of the Jumu`ah Prayer. So the Jumu`ah Prayer has no raatibah (regular Sunnah Prayer) before it. So whoever comes to the mosque then he should pray whatever is easy for him and then sit and wait (for the imaam to come out). And if he continues praying until the imaam attends then that is more excellent upon the basis that this is unrestricted optional Prayer; it has no connection to the Jumu`ah Prayer itself. As for the raatibah (regular Sunnah Prayer) of the Jumu`ah then it comes after it. Its least amount is two rak`ahs and its greatest amount, in what is famous, is four rak`ahs with two salutations (two salaams). And there comes in one saying (within the Hanbaliyy math.hab) that it is six rak`ahs with three salutations. Therefore, its least amount will be two rak`ahs and its greatest amount is six rak`ahs, or four rak`ahs as is what is famous.

His saying “He separates between each pair of two rak`ahs. This was the saying of Ahmad ibn Hanbal.”[02] Meaning, that does not mean that he prays six rak`ahs altogether with one salaam (salutation at the end of it). Rather six rak`ahs; every two rak`ahs with one salaam (after it); or four rak`ahs with each pair of rak`ahs before the salaam, and this is better. And it’s being ascribed to Imaam Ahmad is because the author (Imaam alBarbahaaree) was a Hanbaliyy (meaning from the students of the students of Imaam Ahmad ibn Hanbal) and he was well acquainted with the position of Imaam Ahmad. This was a report from Ahmad that it is six rak`ahs. What is famous is that it is four rak`ahs. [03]

Footnotes:

[01] Reported by al-Bukhaariyy in his Saheeh (no. 695) from `Ubaydillaah ibn `Adiyy ibn Khiyaar with it (this narration)

[02] There occurs in the Masaa·il of `Abdullaah, son of Imaam Ahmad, that `Abdullaah said, “I asked my father, ‘How many rak`ahs should a man pray after Jumu`ah?’ I said, ‘What is more beloved to you (that he should pray)?’

So he said, ‘If he wishes, he can pray four after the Jumu`ah and if he wishes he can pray six; except that he should give the salutation after each two rak`ahs. That is the saying with regard to all of the (optional) Prayers of the day; all of them are in pairs.’”

Translator’s side point: There are a number of books of the students of Imaam Ahmad that report matters of fiqh from him and there are a number of separate books in that regard. There is the Masaa·il of his son `Abdullaah and Masaa·il of his student Aboo Daawood and Masaa·il of a number of other of his students. Each one is called the Masaa·il of Imaam Ahmad by such and such from his students. This one referred to here is the Masaa·il (The Questions of Fiqh) put to Imaam Ahmad, collected by his son `Abdullaah.

[03] Translator’s side point: In Riyaadus-Saaliheen we had the hadeeth of Ibn `Umar reported by alBukhaariyy and Muslim that the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam after the Jumu`ah entered his house and prayed two rak`ahs. Likewise in Saheeh Muslim there’s a hadeeth that Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said, “When one of you has prayed the Jumu`ah let him pray four after it.”

Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmiyy rahimahullaah mentioned this issue in his explanation and mentioned there are evidences for two and there are evidences of four.

Then he said, “And the six (praying six) is one report from Imaam Ahmad and it was the saying, from the Companions, of `Aliyy ibn Abee Taalib and Aboo Moosaa radiyAllaahu `anhumaa; and from the taabi`een (it was the saying of) `Ataa and Mujaahid (the two great imaams of Makkah from the taabi`een; `Ataa bin Abee Rabaah and Mujaahid ibn Jabr) and of Humayd ibn `Abdir-Rahmaan and it was the saying of Sufyaan ath-Thowree, great imaam.

Shaykh Ahmad preferred the saying, as is the view of Shaykhul-Islaam ibn Taymiyyah, that what is preferred in his view is: if a person prays it in his house he prays two rak`ahs and if he prays it in the mosque he prays four. (He said,) “That is more established with regard to the evidence behind it.”

Transcribed by Saima Zaher. Download PDF of Lesson 25

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhu Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Links:
https://abdurrahman.org/rulers/
https://abdurrahman.org/jihad/
https://abdurrahman.org/salah/friday-jumuah/

O Messenger of Allah! Give me permission to commit Zina (unlawful sex)

“Come not near to unlawful sex. Verily, it is Fahishah (immoral sin) and an evil way.” –  Surah No.17 Al-Isra , Aaayat 32

Allah says, forbidding His servants to commit Zina or to approach it or to do anything that may lead to it:

(And come not near to unlawful sex. Verily, it is a Fahishah (immoral sin)) meaning a major sin,

(and an evil way.) meaning, a terrible way to behave.

Imam Ahmad recorded Abu Umamah saying that a young man came to the Prophet ﷺ and said, “O Messenger of Allah! Give me permission to commit Zina (unlawful sex).” The people surrounded him and rebuked him, saying, “Stop! Stop!” But the Prophet ﷺ said,

(Come close) The young man came to him, and he ﷺ said,

(Sit down) so he sat down. The Prophet ﷺ said,

(Would you like it (unlawful sex) for your mother) He said, “No, by Allah, may I be ransomed for you.” The Prophet ﷺ said,

(Neither do the people like it for their mothers.) The Prophet ﷺ said,

(Would you like it for your daughter) He said, “No, by Allah, may I be ransomed for you.” The Prophet ﷺ said,

(Neither do the people like it for their daughters. ) The Prophet ﷺ said,

(Would you like it for your sister) He said, “No, by Allah, may I be ransomed for you.” The Prophet ﷺ said,

(Neither do the people like it for their sisters.) The Prophet ﷺ said,

(Would you like it for your paternal aunt) He said, “No, by Allah, O Allah’s Messenger! may I be ransomed for you.” The Prophet ﷺ said,

(Neither do the people like it for their paternal aunts.) The Prophet ﷺ said,

(Would you like it for your maternal aunt) He said, “No, by Allah, O Allah’s Messenger! may I be ransomed for you.” The Prophet ﷺ said,

(Neither do the people like it for their maternal aunts.) Then the Prophet ﷺ put his hand on him and said,

(O Allah, forgive his sin, purify his heart and guard his chastity.) After that the young man never paid attention to anything of that nature.

Source: Tafseer Ibn Katheer (Surah No.17 Al-Isra , Aaayat 32), Darussalam English Publication

Related Link : https://abdurrahman.org/category/islam/zinaa-adultery-fornication/

Hearing and obeying the Rulers in that which Allaah loves & is pleased with – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 24 : Point 26
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

And hearing and obeying the rulers in that which Allaah loves and is pleased with. So whoever becomes the khaleefah through the consensus of the people for him and their being pleased with him, then he is the ameerul-mu’mineen (Chief of the Believers). It is not permissible for anyone to spend a night thinking that he has no ruler over him whether he (the ruler) be righteous or sinful.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

From the usool (fundamental principles) of the Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah that are established in the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam is hearing and obeying those in authority of the affairs of the Muslims.

He, the Most High, said:

O you who Believe! Obey Allaah and obey the Messenger and those in authority amongst you. (Sooratun-Nisaa· (4), aayah 59)

From amongst you – Meaning from the Muslims. And the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said,

“I council you with taqwaa (dutifulness to Allaah), and with hearing and obeying; even if a slave takes charge of you.” [01]

And in a narration,
“Even if an Abyssinian slave takes charge of you.” [02]

And in a narration,
“Even if it be a slave whose limbs are cut off.” [03]

Meaning with his feet and hands cut off. As long as he is waleeul-amr (the one in authority) it is obligatory to obey him upon good. So this is from the usool (fundamentals) of `aqeedah. And the one who revolts against the Muslim rulers, he is from the daalleen, those people who are astray. Either he will be a khaarijiyy (one of the Khawaarij) or he will be a mu`taziliyy (one of the Mu`tazilah) or a person of some false and futile sectarian way contrary to the Sunnah of the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam.

His saying, “And hearing and obeying the rulers with regard to that which Allaah loves and is pleased with.” With this restriction: with regard to that which Allaah loves and is pleased with. As for ma`siyah (sin) then they are not obeyed in that. He sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said,

“There is to be no obedience to the creation in disobedience to the Creator.” [04]

And he `alayhis-salaatu was-salaam said,

“Obedience is only in what is good.” [05]

And this does not mean that if the one in authority orders a sin to be committed that he is to be stripped of his rulership; rather, just that he is not obeyed upon this sin, but he is still to be obeyed in whatever is not a sin and his rulership remains, and he is obeyed in that which is not a sin.

His saying, “And whoever becomes their khaleefah by consensus of the people upon him and their being pleased with him then he is ameerul-mu·mineen (Chief of the Believers.).” This is an explanation of how rulership comes about because imaamah (rulership) it comes about in one of a number of ways:

The first matter: is that which the author mentioned, and it is one whom the Muslims choose. And what is meant by those who choose the ruler is ahlul-halli wal `aqd, the people of authority and influence, with regard to the Scholars (the `ulamaa·) and the `umaraa· (the governors) and the people in charge of political affairs of the state and the army chiefs. And it does not mean that choosing the ruler is for everyone with regard to the children and the women and the town dwellers and the bedouins, because the people follow on from the people of authority and influence. So if the people of authority and influence choose a ruler, it becomes obligatory upon the rest of the people to obey him. And this is just as occurred with the khilaafah of Aboo Bakr as-Siddeeq; because the Companions, after the passing away of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, they were agreed upon giving the pledge (bay`ah) to as-Siddeeq. So the rest of the nation, they followed on from those who chose as-Siddeeq, and the affair was not opened up to everyone to have a share in choosing, because this is from the role specific to the people of authority and influence. So the Muslims chose Aboo Bakr radiyAllaahu `anhu, who was the best of them, and this choice they made has evidences in the Sunnah of the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam:

Firstly, that Aboo Bakr was the most excellent one of the Companions unrestrictedly; no-one disagreed about this.

And secondly, that the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam gave indications that he would succeed him. From them is that when he fell sick with his final illness he put him forward for the Prayer to lead the Muslims in the place of Prayer of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam; [06] and he stood in the standing place of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam. This is an indication that he would be their imaam in the khilaafah also, just as he was their imaam in the Prayer. So therefore, they chose Aboo Bakr radiyAllaahu `anhu; and they said, “Should it be the case that Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam was pleased with you for our Religion and that we are not pleased with you for our worldly affairs?” And the pledge to him, the bay`ah, was carried out and the Companions were agreed upon that, those who were involved in directly choosing; and those who were not directly involved then he is a follower. And the Muslims are a single united body and a single hand.

The second matter: is that when Aboo Bakr was at the point of death he chose `Umar ibnul-Khattaab and specified him to take his place; so the Muslims heard him and obeyed him. And this is the second way from the ways of establishing rulership, and it is that the person in authority chooses the one who will take charge after his death, just as Aboo Bakr did when he chose `Umar radiyAllaahu `anhu.

The third matter: If one of the Muslims overcomes and gains authority and causes the people to submit to his rulership then he will be their chief and ruler as occurred regarding `Abdul-Malik ibn Marwaan. Because when there was disagreement after the death of Yazeed ibn Mu`aawiyah, then `Abdul Malik ibn Marwaan ibn al-Hakam took control of the affair [07]. And he was a man bold/astute, determined, strong and Allaah brought about benefit through him. And the pledge to him (the bay`ah) was established and the Muslims heard him and obeyed so in that lay good for the Muslims.

So these are the ways in which rulership of the ruler can be established; either by the people of authority and influence choosing, or by the previous ruler specifying the one who will take charge after him or by someone from the Muslims taking control such that he becomes their ruler and the people submit to him and obey and comply with him, then in that case it is not permissible for anyone to split and break the unity.

And his saying, “by consensus of the Muslims,” it should not be understood from this that it is essential for all of the Muslims to make the choice. However, that will be attained by the consensus of the people of authority and influence as happened in the time of Aboo Bakr radiyAllaahu `anhu and as happened with regard to the khilaafah of `Uthmaan radiyAllaahu `anhu; for the ones who chose him were the ahlush-shooraa (People of the Council) and they were the remainder of the ten promised Paradise. They chose him, so his rulership was established and no-one raised any objection to that. Rather, they all agreed in consensus to the rulership of `Uthmaan radiyAllaahu `anhu.

His saying, “It is not permissible for anyone to spend a night thinking that there is no ruler over him whether he be a righteous person or a wicked/sinful person.” This is a very important matter, and it is that it is not permissible for a person to rebel against the United Body of the Muslims and to separate away from obedience. For if he does that “and he spends a single night and he has no ruler” whose rulership he believes (meaning, not believing he has rulership over him), then this person “has thrown off the rope of Islaam from his neck.” [08]

Meaning that he was along with the Muslims and connected to the Muslims but when he rebelled/went out of obedience to the ruler, then he cut his link with the Muslims; just like the small lambs which used to have a long rope which would have loops coming off it, and the heads of the lambs would be put in these loops to safeguard them from being lost; and they were called ar-ribq (nooses). So the Muslims being united upon a ruler is likened to that. So whoever departs from obedience to the ruler, then he has thrown off this noose from his neck and exposed himself to becoming lost and to the wolves and to the winds. It does not mean that he becomes a disbeliever, its meaning is that he has split away from the united body (the Jamaa`ah) and he has exited from obedience, so he has become like an animal that has left his connecting rope and has exposed itself to wild animals and to being snatched away or stolen.

And it should not be said, “I haven’t given any pledge of allegiance and I have no ruler,” for you are just one of the Muslims, so when the people of influence and authority give the pledge then you follow on from them.

Footnotes:

[01] This is part of the hadeeth of al-`Irbaad ibn Saariyah radiyAllaahu `anhu and its checking has already preceded.

Translator’s side point: This hadeeth is a hadeeth reported by Aboo Daawood and at-Tirmithiyy and Ibn Maajah and others and declared saheeh (authentic) by Shaykh al-Albaaniyy.

[02] Reported by al-Bukhaariyy (no. 693) from Anas radiyAllaahu `anhu and reported by Muslim in his Saheeh (no. 1837) from a hadeeth of Ummul-Husayn radiyAllaahu `anhaa (it says Umm Mihsan and it should say Ummul-Husayn radiyAllaahu `anhaa).

One of the wordings of the hadeeth reported by Muslim,

“Even if it be an Abyssinian slave with his limbs cut off.”

[03] Reported by Muslim (no. 1837) from a hadeeth of Ummul-Husayn radiyAllaahu `anhaa and also reported by Muslim (no. 648) from Aboo Tharr radiyAllaahu `anhu.

[04] This hadeeth is reported by Imaam Ahmad in the Musnad and at-Tabaraaniyy in al-Mu`jamul-Kabeer and al-Qudaa`ee in the Musnad of Shihaab and others. And the wording here is that of at-Tabaraaniyy and of al-Qudaa`ee. And the wording of Ahmad is,

“There is to be no obedience to a created being in disobedience to Allaah.”

[Translator’s side point: And this is from the hadeeth of `Imraan Ibn Husayn radiyAllaahu `anhu. It was declared saheeh, authentic, by Shaykh al-Albaaniyy in As-Saheehah (no. 179)]

The basis of this occurs in the two Saheehs as a hadeeth of `Aliyy radiyAllaahu `anhu and it will follow.

[05] Reported by al-Bukhaariyy in his Saheeh (no. 7145) and Muslim in his Saheeh (no. 1840) as a hadeeth of `Aliyy radiyAllaahu `anhu and the wording of Muslim is, “There is no obedience in disobedience to Allaah. Obedience is only in what is good.”

[06] Reported by al-Bukhaariyy and Muslim (no.418) from a hadeeth of `Aa·ishah radiyAllaahu `anhaa.

[07] Translator’s side point: He took charge in the year 65 and his khilaafah lasted until year 86 or 87; Allaahu A`lam.

[08] Muslim reports in his Saheeh from a hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn `Umar with the wording, “And whoever dies and he does not have pledge to the ruler upon his neck, he will die a death of the days of ignorance.”

And in a narration from Ibn `Umar reported by al-Haakim in (his book) al-Mustadrak upon the Two Saheehs (that Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said),

“Whoever departs from the United Body of the Muslims (the Jamaa`ah) by a hand span then he has thrown off the rope of Islaam from his neck until he returns.”

And he said,

“And whoever dies and does not have a ruler of the Jamaa’ah (the United Body of Muslims) upon him then his death will be a death of the days of ignorance.”

Translator’s side point: This hadeeth was mentioned by Shaykh al-Albaaniyy in As-Saheehah affirming it under hadeeth no. 984 and it was declared by Shaykh Muqbil rahimahullaah in his checking of al-Mustadrak that he said this hadeeth is to the standard of Muslim.

Transcribed by Saima Zaher. Download PDF of Lesson 24

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

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Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

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Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/rulers/

The most important part of the call of the Messengers – Tawheedul-Uloohiyyah (Singling out Allaah with all Worship) – Shaykh Rabee

The Importance of Tawheedul-Uloohiyyah
(Singling out Allaah with all Worship)

I will discuss tawheed of Allaah with regard to worship (Tawheedul-Uloohiyyah) and its importance because of two reasons:

Firstly, that it is the most important part of the call of the Messengers presented to us in the Qur’aan, and because it was the reason for the continual struggle between them and their enemies, the proud and haughty, and the obstinate, in every nation. It has continued as the reason for conflict until this day, and perhaps it will continue as such until the Day of Resurrection, as a trial and test for the inheritors of the Messengers, and in order to raise their station.

Secondly, the most severe and dangerous deviation afflicting the Muslims in the east and the west is with regard to it, and this affects the majority of the ignorant amongst the Muslims and many of those who are educated and those who associate themselves with knowledge. So we will begin by presenting the calls of the Prophets in general, and then present the call of some of them in particular.

Allaah, the Most High, says,

“We sent a Messenger to every nation ordering them that they should worship Allaah alone, obey Him and make their worship purely for Him, and that they should avoid everything worshipped besides Allaah. So from them there were those whom Allaah guided to His religion, and there were those who were unbelievers for whom misguidance was ordained. So travel through the land and see the destruction that befell those who denied the Messengers and disbelieved.”[1]

Allaah, the Most High, says,

“We did not send any Messenger before you, O Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )  , except that We revealed to him that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, so make all of your worship purely for Him.”[2]

He, the Most High, says after mentioning a number of stories of the Prophets, alayhimus-salaatu was-salaam: 

“This religion of yours is a single religion, and I am your Lord, so worship Me alone.”[3] 

Allaah, the Most High, says:

“O Messengers, eat from the food which Allaah has made lawful, and do correct and righteous deeds. Indeed, I am fully aware of whatever you do. Indeed this religion of yours is a single religion, and I am your Lord so keep yourselves safe from My punishment by obeying Me.”[4]

Al-Haafidh Ibn Katheer said, “Mujaahid, Sa’eed ibn Jubayr, Qataadah and Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Zayd ibn Aslam said about the saying of Allaah, the Most High,  which means, ‘Your religion is one.’[5] Then the meaning of these two Aayaat occurs in the Sunnah in his (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )   saying, “I am the closest of the people to ‘Eesaa ibn Maryam in this world and the Hereafter. The Prophets are brothers, their mothers are different, but their religion is one.”[6]

Also Allaah, the Most High, says about the Messengers who were firmest in determination (oolul-‘adham), alayhimus-salaatu was -salaam:

“Your Lord prescribed for you O people, the same religion which He prescribed for Nooh, and that which We revealed to you O Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ), and which He prescribed for Ibraaheem, and Moosaa, and ’Eesaa, that you should establish the religion, acting upon what is prescribed, and not split into sects with regard to it. It is intolerable to the polytheists that you call them to sincerely worship Allaah alone and reject worship of all else besides Him. But Allaah chooses for His religion whomever He pleases and He guides those who turn to Him in repentance and obedience, to act in obedience to Him, and to follow the guidance with which He sent His Messenger.”[7]

This was the call of all the Prophets, and at the head of them the Messengers who were firmest in determination. So the Prophets who numbered one hundred and twenty four thousand [8] followed a single methodology in their call, and began from a single starting point which is tawheed, the greatest issue and most important principle which they conveyed to all mankind, throughout the ages and despite their varying societies, lands and times.

This is a proof that this is the single way which must be followed in calling the people to Allaah, and it is something laid down by Allaah to be followed by all of His Prophets and their true and sincere followers. It is not permissible to change or replace it, nor to turn away from it.

Examples From the Calls of Some of the Messengers

Allaah, the Most High, has informed us about some of the individuals from the greater Prophets, and how they faced their people. We see that all of them proceeded upon the universal way laid down for them by Allaah and they followed the methodology established for all of them by Allaah. Not a single one of them is at variance with it. Allaah, the Most High, says,

“And We sent Nooh to his people saying, ‘I am a clear warner sent to you, that you should worship none besides Allaah. Indeed, if you do not make all your worship purely for Him I fear for you the torment of a painful Day.’ The chiefs of the disbelievers amongst his people said, ‘We see that you are but a man like ourselves and we do not see you followed except by the lowest of the people, in what is apparent to us. Nor do we see that you have any excellence over us, rather we think that you are a liar.’”[9]

Allaah, the Most High, says,

“And to ’Aad We sent Hood, saying, ‘O my people worship Allaah, making all of your worship purely for Him, since there is none besides Him having the right to be worshipped by you. Will you not fear your Lord?’ The leaders of those who disbelieved amongst his people said, ‘We see you upon error (due to your abandonment of our religion and worship of our gods) and we think that you are a liar (in claiming to be a Messenger from the Lord of the Worlds).’ He said, ‘O my People, I am not upon error, I am indeed a Messenger sent by the Lord of the Worlds. I convey to you the Message of my Lord and am sincere in my advice and faithful to my trust. Do you wonder that Allaah should send admonition for you through a man from amongst you, warning you of Allaah’s punishment and to fear Him? And remember the blessings of Allaah upon you in that He made you successors to the people of Nooh (after drowning them for their unbelief and denial of their Messenger), and He increased you in height and size. So remember the favours bestowed upon you by Allaah, so that you may be successful.’ They said, ‘Do you come to us warning us of punishment from Allaah for that which we practise as religion, so that we should instead worship Allaah alone and forsake what our fathers used to worship? We will not do that, so bring us the punishment which you threaten us with if you are truthful.’ He said, ‘Allaah’s punishment and wrath have become unavoidable for you. Do you dispute with me about mere idols which you and your fathers have given names to, things which can neither bring harm nor benefit, and Allaah has given no proof or excuse for their worship? Then wait for Allaah’s judgement between us, I too shall wait.’ So We saved Hood and those with him through Our Mercy (due to their eemaan and their worship of Allaah alone), and we annihilated those who rejected Our signs and were not Believers.”[10]

This was the call of the Messengers, all of them followed this methodology in their da’wah to Allaah: they called first to the tawheed of Allaah, and that He alone must be singled out with all worship. Then their people opposed them because of this, except those whom Allaah guided, facing them with mockery, charging them with being liars and seeking to ridicule them. As Allaah, the Most High, says:

“Many Prophets were sent to the earlier peoples, and no Prophet came to them except that the people met him with mockery.”[11]

There is nothing more severe and hurtful to lofty believing souls than accusations of falsehood, ridicule and mockery. These things are more hurtful to them than being struck with swords and imprisonment and punishment. This fact is mentioned by the Arab poet who said, “Being harmed by close relatives is more painful to the soul than being struck with a sharpened sword.”

’Aa’ishah, radiyallaahu ’anhaa, asked the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )  , “Has there been a day more severe upon you than the Day of Uhud?” So he said, “Your tribe has troubled me greatly, and the most troublesome thing which I experienced from them was on the day of ’Aqabah when I presented myself to ’Abd Yaaleel ibn ’Abd Kulaal and he didn’t respond as I had hoped. So I returned overwhelmed with sorrow and did not recover until I reached Qarnuth-Tha’aalib.[12] I raised my head and saw a cloud shading me, then I looked and saw Jibreel in it, and he called me saying, ‘Allaah has heard what your people said to you and their reply, and Allaah has sent the Angel of the mountains to you, for you to order him to do whatever you wish.’ So the Angel of the mountains called me and greeted me with salaam and then said, ‘O Muhammad, Allaah has heard what your people said to you, and I am the Angel of the mountains, and my Lord has sent me to you for you to order me as you wish. So what do you wish?’ So Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )   said, “No, rather I hope that from their offspring will come those who will worship Allaah alone and not worship anything else besides Him.”[13]

This hadeeth clearly shows the da’wah of Allaah’s Messenger (ﷺ) and his perseverance in that, and his mildness with his people. See how he was patient with them and asked for them to be spared from destruction which would have wiped them out. He instead hoped for good from Allaah, and hoped that from their offspring would come those who worshipped Allaah alone, not worshipping anything besides Him. Indeed what a noble and lofty goal, which is not realized except by those who taste the blessing of tawheed and know its station.

The books of Seerah[14] detail some of the answers given by those who mocked him and their scornful stance when he invited them to Islaam. They mention that he went to a number of the nobles and leaders of the tribe of Thaqeef, and they were three brothers, ’Abd Yaleel, Mas’ood and Habeeb… and he sat with them and called them to Allaah and asked them to support Islaam and stand with him against those of his people who opposed him. So one of them said, “If it is actually true that Allaah has sent you, then He is tearing down the covering of the Ka’bah.” The second said, “Could Allaah not find anyone to send but you?” The third said, “By Allaah, I will never speak with you. If you are truly a Messenger from Allaah as you claim, then you are more serious than to have me reply to your words, and if you are lying against Allaah then it is not proper that I should ever speak to you.” So Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )   left having despaired of good from Thaqeef.[15]

What we see from the hadeeth and the stroy is that mockery and scorn and harm caused by the foolish idolaters was more severe to the Prophets than any other trouble, even more so than the fierce battles in which lives are spent and the blood of their pure companions is shed. Indeed on the Day of Uhud more than seventy Companions of Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )   were martyred.[16] Amongst them: Mus’ab ibn ’Umayr,[17] and Hamzah ibn ’Abdil- Muttalib[18] the paternal uncle of Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )  , and Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )   was injured in the face and his incisor was broken.[19] He also suffered along with his Companions at the hands of the hypocrites, and suffered great harm and hardship before that in Makkah, and at Badr and other battles. Yet despite all of this, the severest trouble which he faced was on the Day of Taa’if because of the mockery and contempt which he faced to such a degree that it is unbearable for pure souls. Furthermore Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )   said, Those who suffered the severest trials are the Prophets, then those who are most like them, then those who are most like them after that.[20]

So those who are most like them, and then those who are next closest are those who proceed upon their methodology in calling to Allaah, and called to what they called to, i.e. to the tawheed of Allaah and that He is to be singled out with all worship, and to rejection of all shirk (attribution of any form or part of worship to anyone besides Allaah). Such people will suffer similar harm and trials as suffered by the Prophets who are their example. It is because of this fact that you see many of the callers departing away from this difficult methodology, and this rugged path, since the caller who follows it will have to face opposition from his mother, his father, his brother, his friends and those whom he loves. He will be opposed by the society which will treat him as an enemy and seek to mock and harm him. So many callers divert their attention to other aspects of Islaam which do have their place, and are not denied by anyone who truly believes in Allaah, except that those aspects do not involve that difficulty and hardship and do not bring about mockery and harm particularly in Islamic societies. This is because the majority of the people of the ummah of Islaam are willing to gather around these type of callers, and they throw praise and honour upon them instead of mockery and harm, unless they pose a threat to the rulers and are a danger to their positions, in which case they suppress them brutally. For example political parties which oppose the rulers and threaten to dethrone them. In such a case the rulers will show no love to relatives or friends, Muslims or disbelievers.

Then in any case we say to those callers: no matter how much noise they make, and no matter how high they raise their voices in the name of Islaam, restrain yourselves because you have left the way prescribed by Allaah and His Straight Path, upon which the Prophets and their followers proceeded in calling to tawheed of Allaah and to making the religion purely for Him. So no matter how much you speak and raise your voices in the name of Islaam, you are still deviating from the methodology of the Prophets which was laid down by Allaah. No matter how much effort you expend, and how much you manage to extend your da’wah and your own methodology, you are still preoccupying yourselves with the means to the exclusion of the goal. Then what use are the means[21] if they merely harm the goal, and they themselves grow at its expense.

Indeed woe to those callers who obstinately persist upon the methodologies which they themselves have innovated, those who fight against the methodology of the Prophets in calling to the tawheed of Allaah, beneath dazzling banners and slogans which captivate the simple minded and those ignorant of the methodology and way of the Prophets.

Footnotes

[1] Soorah an-Nahl (16):36.

[2] Soorah al-Ambiyaa (21):25.

[3] Soorah al-Ambiyaa (21):92.

[4] Soorah al-Muminoon (23):51-52.

[5] Tafseer Ibn Katheer (5/365).

[6] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. trans. 4/434 no.652) and Muslim (Eng. trans. 4/1260 no.5834).

[7] Soorah ash-Shooraa (42):13.

[8] As shown by the hadeeth of Aboo Dharr, reported by al-Bukhaaree in, at-Taareekhul-Kabeer (5/447), and Ahmad in al-Musnad (5/178 and 179) by way of al-Mas’oodee, from Aboo ’Umar ad-Dimashqee, from ’Ubayd ibn al-Hashaas, from Aboo Dharr. It is also reported by Ibn Hibbaan as occurs in al-Mawaarid (no.94), and Aboo Nu’aym in al-Hilyah (1/166-168) and he indicated other chains of narration from Aboo Dharr. It is also reported by Ahmad (5/265), Ibn Abee Haatim in his Tafseer (quoted by Ibn Katheer (2/324), and at-Tabaraanee (8/258)). It also has a further chain of narration from Aboo Umaamah quoting the number of the Messengers (Rusul) which is three hundred and thirteen, and that is reported by at-Tabaraanee (8/139) and Ibn Hibbaan, as occurs in al-Mawaarid (no.2085). Ibn Katheer said, “It is reported by at-Tabaraanee and its narrators are those of the Saheeh except Ahmad ibn Khaleed al-Halabee, and he is reliable.”

[9] Soorah Hood (11):25-27.

[10] Soorah al-A’raaf (7):65-72.

[11] Soorah az-Zukhruf (43):6-7.

[12] A place between Makkah and at-Taa’if also called Qarnul-Manaazil.

[13] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. trans. 4/300 no.454) and Muslim (Eng. trans. 3/987 no.4425).

[14] Books about the life of the Prophet (ﷺ).

[15] Al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah,’(3/135) and ad-Durar Fikhtisaaril-Maghaazee was-Siyaar (p.35) of Ibn ’Abdul-Barr.

[16] Al-Bukhaaree, rahimahullaah, said, (Eng. trans. 5/279 ch. 25), “Chapter: The Muslims who were killed on the Day of Uhud… ’Amr ibn ’Alee narrated to us: Mu’aadh ibn Hishaam narrated to us, saying: My father narrated to me from: Qataadah, who said, ‘We do not know of any tribe amongst the Arabs who lost more martyrs, and will have superiority on the Day of Resurrection, than the Ansaar.’ And Qataadah said: Anas ibn Maalik narrated to us: that seventy of the Ansaar were martyred on the day of Uhud, and seventy on the day of Bir Ma’oonah, and seventy on the day of al-Yamaamah.

[17] From Khabbaab, radiyallaahu ’anhu, who said, “We emigrated along with the Prophet (ﷺ) seeking thereby only the Face of Allaah, so our reward became assured with Allaah. Then there were some of us who died not having taken anything from his reward. From them was Mus’ab ibn ’Umayr who was killed on the day of Uhud and did not leave anything behind except a small striped sheet. When we covered his head with it his feet were uncovered, and when we covered his feet with it his head was uncovered. So the Prophet said, ‘Cover his head with it, and place idhkhir (a sweet smelling rush) upon his feet.’” (Reported by al- Bukhaaree (Eng. trans.5/281/no. 408), Muslim (Eng. trans. 2/446/no. 2050 ), Ahmad and an- Nasaa’ee.

[18] The story of his martyrdom is to be found in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (Eng. trans. 5/74-277/no. 399 ) and the Musnad of Imaam Ahmad (3/500-501).

[19] From Anas, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, who said: “On the day of Uhud the Prophet (ﷺ) was injured in the face and said, ‘How can a people who injure the face of the Prophet (ﷺ) be successful?’ And so the Aayah, “Not for you is the decision…’ (Soorah Aal-’Imraan (3):128) was sent down.” Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. trans. 5/272 ch.20 and Muslim (Eng. trans. 2/985 no.4417), and Muslim also reports (Eng. trans. 2/984/4414) the hadeeth of Sahl ibn Sa’d with the wording, “Allaah’s Messenger (ﷺ) was wounded in his face and his incisor was broken and his helmet was crushed upon his head.”

[20] Reported by Tirmidhee (4/602 no.2398), Ibn Maajah (2/1334 no. 4023), ad-Daarimee (2/228, no. 2786) and Ahmad (1/172, 174, 180, 185), all of them by way of ’Aasim ibn Abin-Nujood, who is generally acceptable (sudooq), but makes mistakes; from Mus’ab ibn Sa’d, Tirmidhee declared it to be hasan saheeh. But Tirmidhee’s declaration of its direct authenticity is debatable, and it as if he took into account other witnesses for it, since there are other supporting narrations for it:

(1) From Aboo Sa’eed al-Khudree, reported by Ibn Maajah (no. 4024), and its chain of narration is declared saheeh in az-Zawaa’id.

(2) The hadeeth of Faatimah bint al-Yamaan reported by Ahmad (6/329).

(3) The hadeeth of Aboo Hurairah indicated by Tirmidhee after reporting the original hadeeth.

[21] Rule is a means to calling to Allaah as Allaah, the Most High, says:

“Those who, when We establish them in the land, they establish the Prayer, pay the Zakaat, call the people to make all of their worship purely for Allaah, and to His obedience and to what is known by the People of eemaan to be good: And they warn against attribution of partners in worship to Allaah, and disobedience to Him.” [Soorah al-Hajj (22):41].

[Excerpted from the book : “The Methodology of the Prophets in Calling to Allaah – that is the way of wisdom and intelligence” – by Shaykh Rabee hafidhahullaah, translated by Dawud Burbank rahimahullah]

Download the full PDF Book:
https://abdurrahman.org/dawah/methodology-of-the-prophets-in-calling-to-allaah/

Refraining from Abusing the Companions – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 23 : Point 25 (Part C)
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

(Imaam al-Barbahaaree continued)

Then the best of the people after them are those who accompanied Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam for a day, a month or a year or for less than that or more than that. We supplicate for mercy upon them and we mention their virtues and we withhold from speaking about any slips they made. We do not mention a single one of them except favourably because of the saying of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam,

“When my Companions are mentioned then withhold.”

Sufyaan ibn `Uyaynah said, “Whoever speaks against the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam with a single word then he is a person following desires.”

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

As-suhbah (Companionship) varies; so from it there was long Companionship and being constantly with the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam for a long time. Or whoever accompanied him for a short time; however such a person still has the virtue of Companionship even if his Companionship was short in length.

His saying, “We supplicate for mercy for them and we mention their virtues and we withhold from speaking about any slips they made.” Their haqq (right) upon us is that we supplicate for Allaah’s Pleasure upon them, and that we supplicate for Allaah’s Mercy upon them, and that we take them as examples to follow, and that we praise them. And we withhold our tongues from attacking them or a single one of them, or from delving into whatever occurred between them with regard to tribulations and wars; because each one of them was a mujtahid (striving to the best of his ability to attain the Truth). So some of them were a mujtahid (one who strove) and attained what was correct, then he will receive two rewards. And others from them were a mujtahid (one who strove to attain the Truth) but made a mistake, and for him there will be a single reward and the mistake is forgiven. Then also they have tremendous deeds which wipe away whatever occurred from some of them with regard to mistakes.

His saying, “We do not mention anyone of them except favourably…” because they intended the Truth and they strove to attain it; each one of them acted upon his own ijtihaad (striving). So some of them attained what was correct and some of them made a mistake, for which he will be forgiven, and all of them were Companions of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam and we do not enter into what occurred between them.

Carefully reflect upon this aayah,

And those who come after them. (Sooratul-Hashr (59), aayah 10)

Meaning after the Muhaajiroon and the Ansaar.

They say, “O our Lord! Forgive us and our brothers who preceded us upon eemaan and do not place in our hearts any ill-feeling towards those who believed.” (Sooratul-Hashr (59) aayah 10)

And therefore Shaykhul-Islaam ibn Taymiyyah rahimahullaah said in that regard, “From the usool (fundamental principles) of the Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah is the sincerity, secureness, the soundness of their hearts and their tongues towards the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam.” [01]

‘The soundness of their hearts’; so they do not hate a single one of them. And ‘the sincerity and soundness of their tongues’ means that they do not speak against a single one of them and they do not belittle him. And the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said in the authentic hadeeth, “Do not abuse my Companions for, by the One in whose Hand is my soul, if one of you were to spend the like of Mount Uhud in gold in charity, it would not reach the hands full of one of them, nor even a half of it.” [02]

“Do not abuse my Companions,” but then there comes one who is defective in intellect, whose eemaan is shaky, who is following his desires and he speaks against the Companions of the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam. So this person if he is from the deviant sects then we would not speak at length about him. However, the problem is when he ascribes himself to the Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah and yet says, “This is from historical verification.” And do you have the duty put upon you of historical verification such that you have to enter into something which you do not know about and which results in dangerous consequences, and such that you cause the people to have doubts about the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam and you provoke the hearts of the people against the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam? So what is obligatory is to withhold about whatever disputes occurred between them.

His saying “because of the saying of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, “When my Companions are mentioned then withhold.” [03]

And even more explicit than it is his sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam’s saying, “Do not abuse my Companions.”

This is a prohibition of abusing any one of the Companions. So what is obligatory is that we supplicate for mercy for them and that we supplicate for forgiveness for them, acting upon His saying, He the Most High:

And those who come after them, they say, “O our Lord! Forgive us and our brothers who preceded us upon eemaan.” (Sooratul-Hashr (59) aayah10)

And that we withhold our tongues and our pens from speaking against the Companions of the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam; and that we defend them and we refute whoever belittles a single one of the Companions, and we nullify his saying because it is contrary to the correct `aqeedah (creed and belief), the `aqeedah of Ahlus-Sunnah walJamaa`ah.

And Shaykhul-Islaam says in al-Waasitiyyah, “What is related from them is either not authentic, so that is just lies and reports added with an evil intent; and what is authentic from it, then that person is a mujtahid; one striving to attain the truth. And a mujtahid, if he attains what is correct, then he receives two rewards, and if he makes a mistake then he will still get the one reward. And also they have such virtues that will drown out and cover over whatever occurred from some of them with regard to mistakes. [04]

The Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said regarding Haatib ibn Abee Balta`ah radiyAllaahu `anhu when he applied his own ijtihaad and he wrote a letter to the people of Makkah, and `Umar radiyAllaahu `anhu said, “Let me strike off the neck of this hypocrite!” So he sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam responded, “You do not know O `Umar, perhaps Allaah looked upon the people of Badr and said ‘Do whatever you wish for I have forgiven you.’” [05] This Companion was one of those who was present at Badr.

His saying, “Sufyaan ibn `Uyaynah said, ‘Whoever speaks against the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam with a single word then he is a person following desires.’’’ Because no-one speaks against them except a person of desires and one who is trying to render the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam open to attack.

What is obligatory towards the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam is to have love and respect and honour for them, and to recognise their value, and to take them as a role model to follow because they are the best of generations, and because they saw the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam and they believed in him, and they accompanied him and they aided him and they fought jihaad along with him, and they carried the knowledge from him. So they are the most excellent ones of this nation. Indeed, they are the most excellent ones of the whole of the creation after the Prophets because Allaah specifically chose them for Companionship of His Prophet Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, the last of the Prophets and the most excellent one of the Messengers. So no-one attacks them except one who has in his heart ghill (ill-feeling) and hiqd (hidden hatred) towards Islaam. So he does not attack them because of their persons; rather, he will only attack them because of what they did with regard to aiding this Religion and conveying it faithfully to mankind.

So the one who attacks them is only attacking on that account, because he has hidden hatred towards Islaam and feelings of vengeance towards Islaam, so he seeks to use this means to vent his anger, in order to sever the link of this nation with its Prophet Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam; because they (Companions) are the intermediary between us and between the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam. So, this is the intent of those who attack them And therefore when He mentioned the Muhaajireen and the Ansaar in Sooratul-Hashr, He said;

And those who come after them, they say, “O our Lord! Forgive us and our brothers who preceded us upon eemaan and do not place any ill-feeling in our hearts towards those who believed. (Sooratul-Hashr (59) aayah 10)

So this shows that those who attack them, or a single one of them, then it is just on account of ghill (ill-feeling), which he finds in his heart against them. And therefore Sufyaan ibn `Uyaynah, the great imaam, said, “Whoever speaks against the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam with a single word, then he is a person following desires.”

Al-Hawaa (Desires) is what leads him to do this, and the desire is their hatred and their malice towards them. So therefore you’ll find the worst of the people are those who make attacks upon the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, and they have been exposed by their lies and by being made hated amongst the people. So no-one will see one of them except that he will have strong dislike for him because Allaah has placed hatred for them upon the earth. So no-one will see one of those who has hatred towards the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam except that he will find himself having hatred towards them and loathing of them.

This will not harm the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam and it will not harm Islaam. So the Companions, their worth and their reward is fully intact for them; and Islaam will persist and will be victorious, and all praise is for Allaah, and those people they only harm themselves. However, fear is for those people who read their books from those who do not have knowledge, so that something falls into his self against the Companions of Allah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam and he is affected by that. So how many of the sons of the Muslims have fallen prey to this on account of reading the books of those people? Because if he reads them, then he will be affected by them and he will find himself having some hatred towards the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, or at the very least their value with him will be diminished and they will decrease in his estimation.

So this is what is to be feared for the youth of the Muslims and for those who are not firmly established with knowledge, that they will be influenced by these books which attack the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, especially since they are propagated now and they are embellished and they are brought out in the finest form with regard to printing and binding and they are promoted at book fairs. So they find that as an opportunity for them to spread and circulate attacks upon the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam).

And there is no doubt that an attack upon the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) is an attack upon the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam; for how could his Companions have been from those people when they describe them with the evil characteristics that they give to them? So this is indeed is an attack upon the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam.

And also it is a denial of the Book of Allaah, for Allaah praised the Companions in the tremendous Qur·aan in a number of aayahs, from them His Saying, He, the Most High:

And the first and foremost ones from the Muhaajiroon and the Ansaar and those who followed them upon good, Allaah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him; and He has prepared for them gardens beneath which rivers flow; they will dwell therein forever. That is a tremendous success. (Sooratut-Towbah (9) aayah 100)

He, the Most High, said:

Allaah was pleased with those believers when they gave the pledge beneath the tree. So He knew what was in their hearts and therefore He sent down tranquility upon them and He rewarded them with a victory close at hand and with plentiful booty for them to take. (Sooratul-Fat.h (48) aayahs 18-19)

And He, the Most High, said:

Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah. And those who are with him are stern against the disbelievers, merciful amongst themselves. You will see them bowing and prostrating, seeking Bounty from Allaah and His Pleasure. Their sign is upon their faces from the effect of prostration. That was their example in the Towraat. (Sooratul-Fat.h (48) aayah 29)

Meaning: That was their description in the Towraat. So they are mentioned in the Towraat, just as their Prophet Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam was mentioned.

And their description in the Injeel
(Sooratul-Fat.h (48) aayah 29)

that which came down to `Eesaa,

(Their description in the Injeel) is that of a plant which puts forth a side shoot so that it strengthens it and it grows strong and stands straight upon its stalk. It delights the sowers; so that Allaah, through them, enrages the disbelievers. (Sooratul-Fat.h (48) aayah 29)

So this shows that no one feels rage towards the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger and no-one hates them except for a disbeliever, because of His Saying, He, the Most High:

So that Allaah causes the disbelievers to be enraged at them. (Sooratul-Fat.h (48) aayah 29)

So this is a sign of kufr (disbelief). So having hatred towards the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam is disbelief and nifaaq (hypocrisy), and Allaah’s refuge is sought.

His saying, “(Whoever speaks against the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) with a single word then he is a follower of desires.” Meaning if he speaks in belittlement of the Companions with a single word then he is a person of desires.

So if this is the case on account of a single word then how about a person who writes whole books in abuse of them and in maligning/speaking ill of them, and seeks out places where they could have erred and seeks to inflate their seriousness? How about this; if that is the case when a person who speaks a single word against the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam), that he is a person who is a follower of desires, meaning he follows his desires? Because he does not speak except for some desire which he has in his soul and because of his having hatred towards the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam).

Footnotes:

[01] Al-`Aqeedatul-Waasitiyyah p.40

[02] Reported by al-Bukhaariyy (no. 3673) and reported by Muslim (no. 2541) from a hadeeth of Aboo Sa`eed al-Khudriyy radiyAllaahu `anhu.

[03] Reported by at-Tabaraaniyy in al-Mu`jamul-Kabeer and Aboo Nu`aym in Hilyatul-Owliyaa· as a hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn Mas`ood radiyAllaahu `anhu and al-Haafiz al-`Iraaqiyy said in his Takhreejul-Ihyaa·, “Reported by at-Tabaraaniyy as a hadeeth of Ibn Mas`ood with a hasan (good) chain of narration.”

Translator’s side point: Shaykh al-Albaaniyy declared it saheeh (authentic) due to its supports in AsSaheehah (no. 34).

[04] Al-`Aqeedatul-Waasitiyyah p.40

[05] Reported by al-Bukhaariyy (no. 3007) and reported by Muslim as (no. 2494) as a hadeeth of `Aliyy radiyAllaahu `anhu.

Transcribed by Saima Zaher. Download PDF of Lesson 23

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhu Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/sahaba/

The Best of the Companions after the Khulafaa – Sharhu Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 22 : Point 25 (Part B)
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

(Imaam al-Barbahaaree continued)

Then the most excellent of the people after them were: `Aliyy and Talhah and AzZubayr and Sa`d ibn Abee Waqqaas and Sa`eed ibn Zayd and `Abdur-Rahmaan ibn `Owf and Aboo `Ubaydah `Aamir ibnul-Jarraah. And all of them were suitable to be the khaleefah.

Then the most excellent of the people after them were the rest of the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, the first generation amongst whom he was sent, the first Muhaajiroon and the Ansaar; and they are those who prayed towards the two qiblahs (directions of Prayer).

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

Meaning the most excellent of the Companions after the three khulafaa are the rest of those ten who were given the glad tidings of Paradise, and they are those whom the author mentioned.

His saying, “All of them were suitable to be the khaleefah” – meaning the people of the shoorah (council) whom `Umar radiyAllaahu `anhu entrusted with choosing the next khaleefah after him. Because `Umar, when he was dying, appointed a council to choose the caliph so that the matter would rest with those who remained. Because each one of them was fitting to be a khaleefah, so he referred the affair to them, and they chose `Uthmaan radiyAllaahu `anhu.

His saying, “The first generation,” from the most excellent generations, and they were the generation in which the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam was sent and they believed in him.

And the word al-as.haab (Companions) is the plural of sahaabiyyun; and a sahaabiyy (a Companion) is whoever met the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam as a believer in him and he died upon that.

• So a person who believed in the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam but he did not meet him, then he is not a Companion such as an-Najjaashiyy [07] (the King of Abyssinia). He is counted as being from the taabi`een, the Successors.

• As for one who met him but did not believe in him then he is not a Companion because the mushrikeen (people of shirk) and the disbelievers met the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam but they did not believe in him.

• And a person who met him and believed in him but then left Islaam then his Companionship is annulled/rendered null and void if he dies upon apostasy. As for if he repented, then Allaah accepted his repentance and his Companionship is restored.

And therefore al-Haafiz ibn Hajar rahimahullaah, in his book an-Nukhbah [08], said, in definition of a Companion, “(He is) whoever met the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam whilst believing in him and he died upon that, even if apostasy occurred in between (his meeting the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam and his dying), in the correct saying.” [09] Meaning in the most correct of the two sayings of the scholars. The second saying is that it abolishes his Companionship even if he repents because apostasy renders deeds which are before it null and void.

His saying “The first generation, those amongst whom he was sent amongst the first Muhaajiroon and the Ansaar and they are those who prayed towards the two qiblahs.” The Muhaajiroon (those who emigrated from Makkah) have precedence in mention over the Ansaar, so this shows that the Muhaajiroon have greater excellence through the excellence of performing hijrah (migration) in the cause of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, because they left their homelands and their wealth. And Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, mentions the Muhaajiroon before the Ansaar in many aayahs just as He, the Most High, said:

And the first and foremost ones from the Muhaajiroon and the Ansaar. (Sooratut-Towbah (9), aayah100)

For the poor and needy ones from the Muhaajireen, those who were forced out from their homes and their wealth; they left seeking the bounty from Allaah and His pleasure and they aid the Religion of Allaah and His Messenger. They are the true ones. (Sooratul-Hashr (59), aayah 8)

Up until His saying:

And also those who resided before them in al-Madeenah and believed. (Sooratul-Hashr (59), aayah 9)

Meaning the Ansaar. So He gives precedence to a mention of the Muhaajireen over the Ansaar.

Allaah certainly guided the Prophet and the Muhaajiroon and the Ansaar to turn to Him. (Sooratut-Towbah (9), aayah117)

This shows that the Muhaajiroon have greater excellence than the Ansaar. And Ansaar is the plural of Ansaariyy, and they are believers from (the tribes of) Ows and Khazraj, the people of Madeenah, those who gave the pledge to the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam at al-`Aqabah. He (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) migrated to them and they aided him and supported him and sheltered him and sheltered the Companions radiyAllaahu `anhum along with him. He, the Most High, said with regard to them, the Ansaar:

And those who resided in al-Madeenah before them and believed, they love those who emigrate to them and they do not find in their chests any resentment on account of what they had been given and they give precedence to them over themselves even though they themselves were in need. And whoever is saved from the avarice of his self then they are the successful ones. (Sooratul-Hashr (59), aayah 9)

To begin with they were called al-Ows wal-Khazraj (the tribes of Ows and Khazraj). Then when they gave the pledge to the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam to aid him (nusrah), he called them al-Ansaar (the aiders or the helpers), meaning the aiders of the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam.

Footnotes:

[07] Translator’s side point: He lived in the time of the Prophet but he was in a separate land. He heard about the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam and he believed in him but he was not able to get to him and meet him.

[08] Translator’s side point: a book regarding sciences of hadeeth

[09] Nukhbatul-Fikr with the explanation Mullaa `Aliyy al-Qaaree

Transcribed by Saima Zaher. Download PDF of Lesson 22

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhu Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/sahaba/

The Best of this Ummah and all Umam after the Prophets is Aboo Bakr then `Umar then `Uthmaan – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 22 : Point 25 (Part A)
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

And the most excellent one of this nation and of all nations after the Prophets [01] salawaatullaahi `alayhim ajma`een is Aboo Bakr then `Umar then `Uthmaan. This is what is reported to us from Ibn `Umar that he said, “We used to say whilst Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam was amongst us that the best of the people after Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam is Aboo Bakr and `Umar and `Uthmaan and the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam would hear that and he would not criticise it.” [02]

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

The most excellent generation is the generation in which Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam was raised, then those who followed them, then those who followed them. And they are al-quroon al-mufaddalah (the most excellent generations).

And the most excellent ones from the most excellent generations were: the sahaabah (Companions) radiyAllaahu `anhum. Then the Companions themselves, they vary in degree of excellence. And the most excellent of them was Aboo Bakr as-Siddeeq, the one who believed in him when he first came (as a Messenger). He supported him and defended him and he spent from his money to help him, and he would accompany him until his death. Then he became the khaleefah (caliph) after him and he fulfilled this role in the best way, and Allaah established the Religion through him after the feet of the people had been shaken by the death of the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam. So Allaah made him as firm as the mountains so that the nation became firm on account of him, and He rebutted the apostates through him and the disbelievers, and he consolidated Islaam after the passing away of the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam. Then he passed away and he was buried along with the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam. So he was his Companion in life and in death and he was his companion in the cave.

He the Most High said:

When the two of them were in the cave, when he said to his companion, do not grieve, Allaah is with us. (Sooratut-Towbah (9), aayah 40)

So he is the most excellent one of the nation. Then he is followed by `Umar ibn alKhattaab radiyAllaahu `anhu, the second of the khulafaa·; then he is followed by `Uthmaan radiyAllaahu `anhu; then he is followed by `Aliyy radiyAllaahu `anhu. They are the four Rightly Guided Khulafaa·, may Allaah be pleased with them and cause them to be pleased.

Then the rest of the ten most excellent ones about whom it was testified that they will be in Paradise. And they are the four Rightly Guided Khulafaa· and Sa`d ibn Abee Waqqaas, Sa`eed ibn Zayd ibn `Amr ibn Nufayl and Talhah ibn `Ubaydillaah and AzZubayr ibn `Awwaam and Aboo `Ubaydah `Aamir ibnul-Jarraah and `Abdur-Rahmaan ibn `Owf. So they are the ten who are promised Paradise. The Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam bore witness for them of Paradise, so they are the most excellent ones from the Companions.

The Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said,

“Aboo Bakr will be in Paradise and `Umar will be in Paradise and `Aliyy will be in Paradise and `Uthmaan will be in Paradise and Talhah will be in Paradise and AzZubayr will be in Paradise and `Abdur-Rahmaan ibn `Owf will be in Paradise and Sa`d ibn Abee Waqqaas will be in Paradise and Sa`eed ibn Zayd ibn `Amr ibn Nufayl will be in Paradise and Aboo `Ubaydah ibnul-Jarraah will be in Paradise.’’ [03]

Then after them: those who were the people of the Battle of Badr, then those who were present at the Bay`atur-Ridwaan (the ‘pledge of those who earned Allaah’s pleasure’) from the Muhaajireen and the Ansaar [04], then those who accepted Islaam and performed the hijrah before the Conquest, they are more excellent than those who accepted Islaam and migrated after the Conquest. So they vary in degree of excellence radiyAllaahu `anhum in accordance with their precedence in accepting Islaam and with their position in Islaam. And they (all of the Companions) have the general virtue which cannot be reached by anyone else, and it is as-suhbah (Companionship) to Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam and al-hijrah (to perform the emigration). And the Muhaajiroon (those who were in Makkah and then they emigrated to al-Madeenah) they are more excellent than the Ansaar (the Muslims of al-Madeenah). This is a virtue which is general to all of them (Companionship); no-one who came after them can reach it. So they are the most excellent of the generations and the best of the generations, may Allaah be pleased with them and may He cause them to be pleased.

So whoever attacks them or hates them then he is a disbeliever in Allaah, because Allaah has extolled them, Allaah has praised them and chose them for Companionship of His Prophet Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam. So the person who makes an attack upon the Companions or declares them to be disbelievers or belittles them is a disbeliever in Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, denying the truth of Allaah and His Messenger; because Allaah, the Most High, said:

And the first and foremost [in believing in Allaah and His Messenger] from the Muhaajiroon (emigrants) and Ansaar (helpers) and those who followed them exactly [in faith and in emigrating, seeking His Pleasure], Allaah is pleased with all of them, and they are pleased with Him. (Sooratut-Towbah (9), aayah 100)

Indeed, Allaah was pleased with the believers when they gave their bay’ah (pledge) to you (O Muhammad) under the tree. (Sooratul-Fat.h (48), aayah 18)

His saying, “This is what is reported to us from Ibn `Umar that he said, ‘We used to say whilst Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam was amongst us that the best of the people after Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam is Aboo Bakr and `Umar and then `Uthmaan.’” [05]

As for Aboo Bakr and `Umar then this is ijmaa` (consensus) about that. As for the level of excellence between `Uthmaan and `Aliyy then that is a point of disagreement. Some of them preferred `Uthmaan and some of them preferred `Aliyy radiyAllaahu ta`aalaa `anhumaa wa ardaahumaa (may Allaah be pleased with both of them and cause them to be pleased). But as for Aboo Bakr and `Umar then these two are the most excellent of this nation by consensus, ijmaa` of the Muslims; this is with regard to virtue. As for with regard to the khilaafah (Caliphate) then there has to be this (correct) order: Aboo Bakr and then `Umar and then `Uthmaan and then `Aliyy. So whoever accuses the khilaafah (Caliphate) of one of them then he is astray (daal).

Shaykhul-Islaam (Ibn Taymiyyah) said in al-Waasitiyyah: “Whoever attacks the khilaafah of one of those then he is more astray than a domesticated donkey,” because he has gone against the ijmaa’ (consensus) of the Muslims. Because the Muslims agreed in consensus upon giving precedence to Aboo Bakr for the khilaafah, then upon giving precedence to `Umar after him, then to `Uthmaan and then to `Aliyy. So a person who gives precedence to `Aliyy and says he had more right to the khilaafah even than Aboo Bakr, and who says that khilaafah after the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam should have gone to `Aliyy because he was the appointed successor of the Messenger and he was the real khaleefah but Aboo Bakr and the Companions, they wronged him and seized the khilaafah from him, this is to declare the whole nation astray – and Allaah’s refuge is sought – and it is contrary to the texts which occur with regard to the order of those khulafaa·.

So the order with regard to the khilaafah is a point of ijmaa` (consensus), but as for the order with regard to superiority between `Aliyy and `Uthmaan, that is a point of disagreement. And what is correct is that `Uthmaan was more excellent because the Companions, and amongst them was `Aliyy radiyAllaahu `anhu, they chose him as a khaleefah; they chose `Uthmaan as a khaleefah to succeed Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam. And `Aliyy was present and the Companions chose `Uthmaan. The fact that the Companions chose `Uthmaan is a proof that he was more excellent. `Abdur-Rahmaan ibn `Owf said “I saw that the people do not take anyone else as being the equal of ‘Uthmaan (after passing away of Umar radiyAllaahu `anhu) .” [06] So this shows he was more excellent.

Footnotes:

[01] Translator’s side point: There is a slightly different wording in some of the editions. Some versions have: “The best of this nation after the passing away of its Prophet.”

[02] Translator’s side point: This statement is reported by al-Bukhaariyy (no. 3,655 and 3,698) reported from Ibn `Umar radiyAllaahu `anhumaa.

[03] This is reported by Imaam Ahmad in his Musnad and At-Tirmithiyy in his Sunan and Ibn Hibbaan in his Saheeh and by others.

Translator’s side point: This hadeeth was declared Saheeh (authentic) by Shaykh al-Albaaniyy in his checking of al-Mishkaat (no. 6109 and 6110).

[04] Translator’s side point: The Bay`atur-Ridwaan happened in the 11th month Thul-Qa`dah of the 6th year

[05] Reported by al-Bukhaariyy (no. 3698) as a narration of Ibn `Umar radiyAllaahu `anhumaa.

[06] Reported by al-Bukhaariyy in his Saheeh (no. 7207) from al-Miswar ibn Makhrama radiyAllaahu `anhu

Transcribed by Saima Zaher. Download PDF of Lesson 22

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhu Sunnah
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Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/sahaba/

Eeman is belief of the heart, expression upon the tongue & action upon the limbs. It increases & decreases – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 21 : Point 24
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

And to have faith that eemaan is speech and action and intention and acting correctly. It increases and decreases. It increases as Allaah wishes and it can decrease until nothing remains of it.

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Transcribed Audio:

Al-eemaan in the language means at-tasdeequl- jaazim (definite affirmation) which is accompanied by faith and not affected by doubt. So it is said aamana lahu – meaning, ‘he believed him’.

You will not believe us
(Soorah Yoosuf (12), aayah 17)

Meaning: you will not believe us.

And Loot believed in him
(Sooratul-`Ankaboot (29), aayah 26)

He believed his paternal uncle Ibraaheem `alayhis-salaatu was-salaam.

As for eemaan (true faith) in the legislation then it is: belief of the heart and expression upon the tongue and action upon the limbs. It increases with obedience and it decreases with disobedience. It will not be eemaan except with these things combined.

So whoever believes with his heart, but does not believe with his tongue, then he will not be a believer. Because Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, said with regard to the disbelievers:

We know that what they say grieves you, however they do not hold you to be a liar, but rather the wrongdoers just outwardly reject Allaah’s signs. (Sooratul-An`aam (6), aayah 33)

And He said with regard to Fir`own:

And you know that no one sent down these signs except for the Lord of the heavens and the earth. (Sooratul-Israa· (17), aayah 102)

And He, the Majestic and Most High, said about the disbelievers who denied His signs:

And they denied them outwardly but they were certain of them in themselves, doing so as a result of their wrongdoing and haughtiness. (Sooratun-Naml (27), aayah 14)

So believing in the heart will not suffice, as is said by the Murji·ah; and it is not eemaan. And likewise eemaan upon the tongue also will not suffice, because this is the eemaan of the hypocrites, the munaafiqeen.

They (the hypocrites) say upon their tongues that which is not in their hearts (Sooratul-Fat.h (48), aayah 11)

And having belief in the heart and speech upon the tongue, these two will not suffice also, as is said by some of the Murji·ah. This is not sufficient. There must be action upon the limbs. So the person who believes in his heart and upon his tongue, however he does not pray ever, and nor does he fast, nor does he perform the obligatory Hajj, nor does he do any action from the actions at all, this is a disbeliever. Even if he believes upon his tongue and speaks (upon his tongue) and has belief in his heart and bears witness to that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah. But however his leaving off action without any excuse, this will not make him a believer. Unless it is the case that he has left off action due to an excuse, such as a person who has been forced, or a person who forgets, or a person who is ignorant; and likewise the person who enters into Islaam and is not able to act, such that he accepts Islaam and then he dies in that condition. Then this person, his lack of action is not counted against him, because he was not able to act. And likewise the mentally handicapped; this person is not able to act. But as for the person who is able to act but he abandons it altogether, then he is not a Mu·min (not a believer).

Some of them add to the definition of eemaan, just as the author mentioned, a fourth matter: ‘following the Sunnah’. And they say eemaan is speech and belief and action and Sunnah, meaning, following the Sunnah, excluding by that the innovators, those who do not act upon the Sunnah, rather they only act upon newly introduced affairs. And this was mentioned by the author here in his saying, “and intention and acting correctly,” meaning acting upon the Sunnah. As for the person who does actions wrongly, acting upon innovations and false superstitions and newly introduced affairs, then he will not be a believer. [05]

‘And it increases through obedience.’ This is from the completion of the definition, that eemaan increases through obedience. And this is clear in the Qur·aan.

And Allaah increases those who are guided in guidance
(Sooratul-Maryam (19), aayah 76)

And when His ayaahs are recited to them, it increases them in eemaan
(Sooratul-Anfaal (8), aayah 2)

And so that those who believe can increase in eemaan
(Sooratul-Muddaththir (74), aayah 31)

This clearly shows that eemaan increases through obedience.

‘And it decreases through sin/disobedience to Allaah’. Because something which can increase, then it can also decrease. And also there occurs in the hadeeth that the person who does not refuse an evil with his heart, then there is no eemaan even to the level of a mustard seed beyond that.6 So this shows that eemaan can become so weak that it becomes like a mustard seed. And there occurs in the authentic hadeeth that there will come out from the Fire whoever has in his heart the slightest slightest mustard seed of eemaan. [07] So this proves that eemaan can become weak, until it is just like a mustard seed. And He the Most High said:

On that day they were closer to disbelief than they were to eemaan (Soorah Aali `Imraan (3), aayah 167)

With them their eemaan was weak, and it was closer to disbelief. So this shows that the eemaan can be so weak to the extent that a person can become closer to disbelief. And Allaah’s refuge is sought.

This is the meaning of his saying, “and it can decrease until nothing remains of it.” It can decrease until nothing remains from it. There may remain from it the amount of a mustard seed. And this will benefit the person on the Day of Resurrection. He will exit the Fire with it. And if there does not remain even a mustard seed, then he will be from the people of the Fire, those who will remain forever in it.

Footnotes:

[05] Translator’s side point: Shaykh Saalih as-Suhaymee hafizahullaah said about this point (where Imaam al-Barbahaaree said that eemaan is: speech and action and niyyah [intention]), “ ‘Speech and action and belief’ and that is what the author rahimahullaah meant by his saying “and niyyah”, intention. So what is intended by niyyah is belief and attestation.”

[06] Reported by Muslim in his Saheeh as a hadeeth of `Abdullaahj

[07] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (no. 6565) and Muslim (no. 193) as a hadeeth of Anas radiyAllaahu `anhu

Transcribed by Fawad ibn `Abdul Fataah
Download PDF of Lesson 21

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhu Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

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Eemaan in the descent of Eesaa ibn Maryam – Sharhu Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 21 : Point 23
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

And to have eemaan in the descent of `Eesaa ibn Maryam `alayhis-salaam. He will descend and he will kill the Dajjaal. He will marry and he will pray behind the one who will be in authority from the family of Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam. And he will die and the Muslims will bury him.

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Transcribed Audio:

His saying, “And to have eemaan in the descent of `Eesaa ibn Maryam `alayhissalaatu was-salaam (may Allaah extol him and grant him peace and security).”

And he will be from the major signs of the hour.

His ‘descent’, meaning from heaven, because Allaah raised him up when the Jews wanted to kill him. And they came to him to kill him and to crucify him, and they entered upon him. Allaah raised him up from amongst them, whilst they were not aware, and he caused another man to look like him. So they killed that man thinking that it was the Messiah, and it was not him. He the Most High said:

And they did not kill him and they did not crucify him but it was made to appear so to them (Sooratun-Nisaa· (4), aayah 157)

So Allaah caused this man to resemble him. It is said that this man was the one who guided them to him, so therefore Allaah punished him. Or it is said that he was from the followers of `Eesaa from the disciples, that `Eesaa `alayhis-salaam said to him, “You shall be given my appearance and Paradise shall be for you.” So the man had patience and he accepted this resemblance and being killed and being crucified, because he wanted Paradise through that.

His saying that, “He will descend and he will kill the Dajjaal.” He will kill the Dajjaal at the gate of Ludd. And it, Ludd, is a well-known place. `Eesaa ibn Maryam `alayhissalaam will chase the Dajjaal. When he (the Dajjaal) sees him, he will dissolve away, just as salt dissolves in water. Then he will draw close to him and strike him with his spear and kill him.

His saying, “And he will marry and he will pray behind the one in authority from the family of Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam.

His saying, “And he will marry,” this occurs in some reports, however it is not established. [01]

As for the fact that he will pray behind the Mahdee then this is established. The Mahdee will ask him to lead the Muslims in Prayer because he will descend at the time of the Fajr prayer. And the Muslims will be gathered for the prayer. So the Mahdee will request from him that he should lead the Muslims in prayer. So the Messiah will say, “No some of you are Imaams for the rest.” [02] So he will pray behind the Mahdee.

And the one in charge he is the Mahdee. (His name will be) Muhammad ibn ` Abdillaah (Muhammad the son of `Abdullaah). His name will be the same as the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam and the name of his father will be the like the name of the father of the Messenger. And he will be of the family (descendants) of al-Hassan ibn `Alee radiyAllaahu `anhumaa. They (the People of Knowledge) said, the wisdom, and Allaah knows best, is that al-Hasan radiyAllaahu `anhu, when he stepped down from the Khilaafah in favour of Mu`aawiyah in order to preserve the blood of the Muslims, then because of this, Allaah honoured him and made the Mahdee from his descendants.

His saying, “And he will die and the Muslims will bury him.” This is in the Qur’aan. He, the Most High, said:

There is not anyone from the people of the Book except that he will believe in him before his (`Eesaa’s [03] ) death. (Sooratun-Nisaa· (4), aayah 159)

So he will die, just as the rest of mankind die.

And We did not grant everlasting life to any human before you. So if you die, will they then live forever? (Sooratul-Anbiyaa· (21), aayah 34)

So he will die `alayhis-salaatu was-salaam at the end of the life which Allaah has written for him. And the Muslims will bury him, just as they bury their dead. [04]

Footnotes:

[01] This is related from Ibn `Abbaas. Refer to Fat.hul-Baari and `Umdatul-Qaari (Translator’s Note: two of the explanations of al-Bukhaaree).

Translator’s side point: Ibnul-Jowzee mentions such a report in al-`Ilal al-Mutanaahiyah, he mentions as a narration of `Abdullaah ibn `Amr as a hadeeth with regard to `Eesaa coming down and getting married. And Ibnul-Jowzee said, “This hadeeth is not authentic.” And Shaykh al-Albaanee said the same about this report in ad-Da`eefah (no. 6562) that this report is munkar, meaning weak/contradictory to what is authentic.

The wording of that report is, that “Eesaa ibn Maryam will descend to the earth and he will marry and he will have offspring and he will remain for forty-five years. Then he will die and he will be buried along with me in my grave. So I and `Eesaa ibn Maryam will get up from one grave in between Aboo Bakr and `Umar.”

[02] Reported by Muslim in his Saheeh from the hadeeth of Jaabir with the wording: So `Eesaa will descend and their leader will say, “Come and lead us in prayer.” So he will say, “No, some of you (or one of you) will lead the others in Prayer as an honour from Allaah upon this nation.”

[03] Translator’s side point: As is authentic from Ibn `Abbaas radiyAllaahu `anhumaa, meaning before the death of `Eesaa ibn Maryam `alayhis-salaam.

[04] Translator’s side point: A hadeeth which mentions that is reported by Aboo Daawood (no. 4324), a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiyAllaahu `anhu that the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said, “There is not between me and him (`Eesaa ibn Maryam) a Prophet; and he will descend…” the hadeeth. At the end of the hadeeth there occurs: “And he will destroy the Maseehud-Dajjaal. And he will remain upon the earth for forty years. Then he will die and the Muslims will pray over him.” (pray funeral prayer over him)” Shaykh al-Albaanee said about this hadeeth, “Saheeh.”

Transcribed by Fawad ibn `Abdul Fataah
Download PDF of Lesson 21

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhu Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

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Eemaan in al-Maseehud-Dajjaal (the False Messiah) – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 21 : Point 22
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

And to have eemaan in al-Maseehud-Dajjaal (the False Messiah).

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

From the fundamentals of the Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah is to have eemaan in al-Maseehud-Dajjaal. And he is a man from the descendants of Aadam who will emerge amongst the Jews, and the Jews will follow him. And he is the Mahdee who the Jews are awaiting, because everyone lays claim to the Mahdee (this awaited Messiah). The Jews lay claim to him, and their Messiah is the al-Maseehud-Dajjaal. The Shee`ah are awaiting for the Mahdee who is hidden in the cave, as they say, who is from the descendants of al-Husayn radiyAllaahu `anhu. Whereas the Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah, they are waiting for the Mahdee whom the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam foretold about in the authentic ahaadeeth which are mutawaatir (reported in huge numbers) in meaning. And he will be a man from the family of the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam from the family of al-Hasan ibn `Alee. He will emerge at the end of time and the Muslims will give him pledge (bay `ah). And he will fight jihaad in Allaah’s cause. And he will fill the earth with justice. And he will lead the Muslims in Prayer. And whilst they are in that condition, al-Maseehud-Dajjaal will emerge. So the Muslims will continue to suffer from him until `Eesaa ibn Maryam `alayhis-salaam descends. So there are two Messiahs:

  • The Messiah of misguidance and he is the Dajjaal, and
  • The Messiah of right guidance, and he is `Eesaa ibn Maryam `alayhissalaatu was-salaam.

And al-Maseehud-Dajjaal, he is called al-Maseeh because of how quickly he can travel across the earth, because Allaah will make for him means that enable him to proceed quickly upon the earth to cause harm and to bring about evil and tribulations. And he is called ad-Dajjaal which is from the word ad-dajal which means falsehood, because the Dajjaal is the one who is extreme in ad-dajal, falsehood, because he is a great liar to the extent that he will claim that he is Allaah. And the people will be put to trial on account of him except for whomever Allaah makes firm. And there will be with him a garden and a fire. And he will work ‘miracles’, but they are supernatural events of devils; they are not karaamaat (miracles granted for righteous people), they are just supernatural events of the devils. Allaah will cause them to occur at his hand as a trial and as a test for the servants. So his danger is great; and therefore the Prophets warned against him.

And the one who warned most against him is our Prophet Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam. And he commanded that we should seek refuge from his trial in our prayers in the last tashahhud when we seek refuge with Allaah from four: from the punishment of Hellfire and from the punishment of the grave and from the trials of life and death and from the trial of al-Maseehud-Dajjaal.

And his trial will be the greatest trial to occur upon the face of the earth, and Allaah’s refuge is sought. This is al-Maseehud-Dajjaal. And whilst he is like that, and he will have caused hardship to the Muslims and harmed them and put them to trial, then the Messiah `Eesaa ibn Maryam will descend from heaven. And he will chase the Dajjaal and he will kill him and relieve the Muslims from him. And he will take charge of the affair, and he will bring about justice upon the earth. And he will break the cross and kill the pigs and no religion will remain except for the religion of Islaam. Judaism, Christianity and the religions of the disbelievers will be abolished and nothing will remain except for Islaam. And he will judge with the sharee `ah, revealed law, given to Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam. And he will be a follower of him, because there is no Prophet after Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam. So the Messiah will descend as a follower of the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam and as one who judges by his revealed law, the sharee `ah of Islaam. This is what will occur with regard to the emergence of the Dajjaal and the descent of the Messiah.

And `Eesaa is called Maseeh (Messiah), it is said, because he would wipe upon a person suffering an ailment and he would be cured by the permission of Allaah. And this was from his miracles `alayhis-salaatu was-salaam, that he would wipe with his hand upon the blind and the leper and a person born blind and his illness would pass away by his wiping upon him `alayhis-salaatu was-salaam. So therefore he was called al-Maseeh with the meaning of one who wipes.

Transcribed by Fawad ibn `Abdul Fataah
Download PDF of Lesson 21

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhu Sunnah
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Paradise and Hellfire are true and are already Created. They will never pass away – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 20 : Point 21
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

And to have eemaan that Paradise, al-Jannah, is true and the Fire, an-Naar, is true and that they are already created. The Paradise is in the seventh heaven and its ceiling is the Throne, al-`Arsh, and the Fire is beneath the seventh earth, the lowest one; and they are both already created. Allaah, the Most High, knew the number of the people of Paradise and who will enter it and the number of the people of the Fire and who will enter it. They will never pass away. They will both last along with Allaah always, for ever and ever. And Aadam `alayhis-salaam was in the everlasting created Paradise, and he was removed from it after he disobeyed Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

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Transcribed Audio:

From the pillars of eemaan is to have eemaan in the Last Day with everything within it. And from that which will be within the Last Day is Paradise and the Fire, and they are the abode of recompense. So the true believers will be in Paradise which was prepared for the people of taqwaa, people who were fearful of Allaah and were dutiful to Him.And the disbelievers will be in the Fire which was prepared for the disbelievers. So these two are the abode of recompense; and this world is the abode of action with no recompense in it. So the Hereafter is the abode of recompense, and there is no action in that.

So whoever does not believe in Paradise and the Fire then he is a kaafir, a disbeliever, since it is essential that eemaan includes everything that is authentic with regard to the Last Day, and from that is the Paradise and the Fire. This is mentioned in the Qur’aan in different places. So the person who disbelieves in them or who explains them away, such as the Qaraamitah and the Baatiniyyah who explain them away, then they are disbelievers in Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

So there must be eemaan in the Paradise and the Fire and that they are two real abodes; an abode for the people who were dutiful to Allaah and an abode for the disbelievers.

And these two will remain and they are present now, they are already created now, and they will remain and not pass away. He, the Most High, said with regard to the Paradise:

It is already prepared for those who are dutiful to Allaah.
(Soorah Aali `Imraan (3), aayah 133)

And He said with regard to the Fire:

Already prepared for the disbelievers
(Soorah Aali `Imraan (3), aayah 131)

The word ‘prepared‘, is a proof that it is already present and prepared, and it does not mean that it will be created later on, with the evidence that the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam mentions some things which prove that Paradise and the Fire are already present. From them is his saying sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam,

“The severity of the summertime heat is from the breathing out of the Hellfire.” [01]

And he said with regard to the severity of cold in the winter,

“Allaah has given two breaths to the Hellfire: a breath in the summertime and that is the hottest that you experience, and a breath in the wintertime and that is the severity of the cold. So that is from the coldness of the Hellfire.” [02]

So this proves that they are both already present. And Paradise, likewise, is present. Allaah has already prepared it for the people of taqwaa (the dutiful ones). And He has appointed angels over both of them. And there occurs in a hadeeth of `Ubaadah ibn asSaamit radiyAllaahu `anhu that Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said,

“Whoever bears witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah, and that `Eesaa is the slave of Allaah and His Messenger, and a soul created by means of His word which He sent to Maryam, and a soul created by Him, and that Paradise is true, and the Fire is true, then Allaah will enter him into Paradise whatever his deeds were.” [03]

The witness for the topic here is in his saying,

“…and that Paradise is true and the Fire is true…”

And in the initial supplication of the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam that he made in the night prayer, that he would say,

“The meeting with you is true, and your promise is true, and Paradise is true, and the Fire is true.” [04]

His saying, “and they are both already created”. Meaning, they are already created now. [05]

His saying, “Paradise, al-Jannah (literally the garden), is in the seventh heaven and its ceiling is the `Arsh, the Throne,” This is authentic in the hadeeth,

“In Paradise there are a hundred levels Allaah has prepared for those who fight Jihaad in Allaah’s cause. Between each of the two levels is the like of what is between the heaven and the earth. So if you ask of Allaah, then ask Him of al-Firdows, for it is the centre of Paradise and the highest part of Paradise. And above it is the Throne of the Most Merciful. And from it flow the rivers of Paradise”. [06]

This proves that Paradise is in heaven, in the highest of the heavens, `illeeyeen. He, the Most High, said:

But no, the book of the righteous is certainly in `illeeyeen (the highest [seventh] heaven) (Sooratul-Mutaffifeen (83), aayah 18)

The highest thing. And the Fire is in the lowest of the low places. He Most High said,

But no, the book of the wicked ones is certainly in sijjeen (the lowest of the seven earths). And what will explain to you what sijjeen is. (Sooratul-Mutaffifeen (83), aayahs 7-8)

His saying, “Allaah always knew the number of the people of Paradise and who will enter it.” Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, knew everything with His Eternal Knowledge. And from that is that He knew the people of Paradise and who will enter it. And He knew the people of the Fire and who will enter it. Nothing escapes His Knowledge, He the Perfect and Most High. He knew everything and He wrote it down in the Preserved Tablet.

His saying, “These two will never pass away.” Paradise and the Fire are two abodes that will remain and will never pass away. And this contains a refutation of those who think that the Paradise and the Fire will pass away, and who say, “So that nothing will share along with Allaah in remaining always.” And they are those who deny there having being continuous existence in the past and continuous existence in the future out of ignorance from them. And we say, there is indeed a difference between Allaah’s Remaining Forever and the remaining forever of Paradise and the Fire. The Remaining Forever of Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, is as befits Him. It is an Attribute from His Attributes, He, the Majestic and Most High. But as for the remaining of the Paradise and of the Fire then it is that Allaah will cause them to remain, and that Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, creates. So it is a remaining forever that is earned (given to them). Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, He is the One Who gives it ‘remaining forever’. But as for Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, then His Eternity and His Remaining Forever is an Attribute from His Attributes, sifatun thaateeyah, an Attribute of His Self.

His saying, “They will remain along with Allaah always,” The remaining of these two will be along with Allaah Remaining. And Allaah’s Remaining, there is no end to it. So likewise the remaining of the Paradise and the Fire, there is no end to them. And there is no resemblance between the two remainings and these two remaining forever/eternally, just like the rest of the attributes.

His saying, “for all time, forever.” ‘For all time, forever’ – this is for emphasis.

His saying, “and Aadam `alayhis-salaam, he was in the Paradise that will remain, the created one.” When Allaah created Aadam, and when He honoured him as He did, and when He manifested his virtue over the angels, then Iblees envied him for that and he refused to prostate to him. So he disobeyed Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, on account of envy and pride. So Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, said to Aadam:

Dwell you and your wife in Paradise and eat from it freely wherever you wish. (Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 35)

So Allaah caused them to dwell in Paradise as an honour to both of them. And this Paradise is in heaven. Then when Iblees beguiled Aadam, and Aadam ate from the tree which he had been forbidden from, then Allaah send Aadam down and He sent Iblees down to the earth.

We said get down from it all of you
(Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 38)

So they went down to the earth. And Allaah forgave Aadam because he repented to Allaah, he and his wife.

O our Lord we have wronged ourselves and if You do not forgive us and have Mercy upon us we will certainly be amongst the losers. (Sooratul- A`raaf (7), aayah 23)

And Aadam disobeyed his Lord and he erred. Then his Lord chose him and guided him to repent (Soorah TaaHaa (20), aayahs 121 – 122)

So Aadam and Howwaa· `alayhimas-salaam, they both turned to Allaah in repentance, so Allaah accepted their repentance. As for Iblees, then he persisted upon his error and he did not repent. And therefore Allaah banished him away from His Mercy and He cursed Him, and He made him a leader for every evil.

His saying, “So he was expelled from it after he disobeyed Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.” His being removed from Paradise was as a punishment for his sin. However he repented to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, as Allaah mentioned in the Qur’aan. [07]

Footnotes:

[01] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (no. 535 and no. 536) and Muslim (no. 615) from the hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiyAllaahu `anh. The narration of al-Bukhaaree is from Aboo Hurayrah and Ibn `Umar radiyAllaahu `anhum.

[02] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (no. 537) and Muslim (no. 617) as a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiyAllaahu `anhu

[03] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (no. 3435) and Muslim (no. 28)

[04] Reported by al-Bukhaaree as a hadeeth of Ibn `Abbaas radiyAllaahu `anhumaa (no. 6317) and Muslim (no. 769)

[05] Translator’s side point: Shaykh Saalih as-Suhaymee hafizahullaah said,

“There are two matters of belief here, two matters which the people of the Sunnah affirm here. And these are two points which are denied by the Mu`tazilah and the Jahmeeyah and some sects from the people of innovation. And these points are: Firstly, that Paradise and the Fire are already present, already created. And secondly, that Allaah has written for both of them that they will remain forever.”

[06] This is reported by al-Bukhaaree (no. 2790) as a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiyAllaahu `anhu.

[07] Translator’s side point: Shaykh Saalih as-Suhaymee hafizahullaah said in his taped explanation,

“The texts which prove that Paradise and the Fire will remain without any end, that is proven in authentic texts:

They will remain therein forever (Sooratun-Nisaa· (4), aayah 57)

And there occurs in a hadeeth that death will be brought in the form of a ram, and it will be slaughtered between Paradise and the Fire. Then it will be said, “O people of Paradise, everlasting life with no death. And O people of the Fire, everlasting life with no death.” (Reported by al-Bukhaaree [no.4730] as a hadeeth of Aboo Sa`eed al-Khudree radiyAllaahu `anhu)

And there occurs with regard to Paradise:

They will have therein everlasting bliss (Sooratut-Towbah (9), aayah 21)

And there occurs with regard to the Fire:

And they will have everlasting punishment (Sooratul-Maa·idah (5), aayah 37)

Meaning forever/eternal. It will not come to an end. So this is the position of the Ahlus-Sunnah.”

Somebody asked Shaykh Saalih as-Suhaymee: “Is it correct that Ibnul-Qayyim used to say that the Fire will come to an end?”

The Shaykh made it clear that this is not correct from Ibnul-Qayyim that he said that the Fire will come to an end, as some people quote from him. But rather they have made a misunderstanding here of something that occurs in his book, Haadiyul-`Arwaah ilaa Bilaadil-`Afraah. In that book he mentions the different saying of the people with regard to whether the Fire will come to an end or not. He quotes six or seven different sayings from the people (what they say). Shaykh as-Suhaymee said, “What makes his position very clear is another of his books, al-Waabilus-Sayyib. In that book he makes his position very clear, that indeed the Hellfire will never come to an end. The Hellfire the abode of the disbelievers, the Paradise the abode of the believers and will never end.”

Transcribed by Fawad ibn `Abdul Fataah
Download PDF of Lesson 20

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhu Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/belief/imaan-faith-pillars/