To Make one’s Deeds Purely and Sincerely for Allaah – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lessons 38 : Point 52
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

And to make one’s deeds purely and sincerely for Allaah.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

Making one’s deeds purely and sincerely for Allaah such that there is no shirk in it for Allaah will not accept any action except that which is done purely and sincerely for His Face, having no shirk in it nor association of others along with Him in it. And this is one of the two conditions for an action to be acceptable.

And the second condition is al-mutaaba`ah (following the example of the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam in doing that action) and acting upon the Sunnah such that the action is in conformity with the Sunnah of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam such that it does not contain bid`ah (innovation) because Allaah does not accept innovation. Rather, He punishes for them even if a person exhausted himself in doing deeds. If he did not make the deeds purely and sincerely for Allaah, then they will be scattered dust. And if a person exhausted himself in doing a deed which is not in conformity with the Sunnah then it will be rejected. And it will not be accepted except along with these two conditions that it is done purely and sincerely for Allaah alone and it’s done in conformity with the Sunnah of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam.

وَقَالُوا لَن يَدْخُلَ الْجَنَّةَ إِلَّا مَن كَانَ هُودًا أَوْ نَصَارَىٰ ۗ تِلْكَ أَمَانِيُّهُمْ ۗ قُلْ هَاتُوا بُرْهَانَكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ – 2:111

And they (the People of the Book) said no-one will enter Paradise except for one who is a Jew or a Christian. That is their false hope. Say, “Bring your proof if you are speaking the truth.” (Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 111)

Rather, this is to refute what they are negating.

بَلَىٰ مَنْ أَسْلَمَ وَجْهَهُ لِلَّهِ وَهُوَ مُحْسِنٌ فَلَهُ أَجْرُهُ عِندَ رَبِّهِ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ – 2:112

Rather it will be entered by whoever submits his face to Allaah and he is a doer of good then his reward will be with his Lord and there will be no fear upon them nor will they grieve. (Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 112)

“Whoever submits his face to Allaah,” meaning he makes his deeds purely and sincerely for Allaah.

“He is a doer of good,” meaning one who is following the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam and this applies to everyone, the Jews and the Christians and the rest of the world, it must be with these two conditions; with purity and sincerity for Allaah and with following the Messenger.

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Eemaan in the Qisaas (Retribution) on the Day of Resurrection between all of the creation – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lessons 38 : Point 51
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

And to have eemaan (true faith) in the Qisaas (retribution) on the Day of Resurrection between all of the creation; the descendants of Aadam, the beasts of prey, the reptiles, even between the tiniest ants until Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic brings about retribution between them. For the People of Paradise from the People of the Fire and for the People of the Fire from the People of Paradise and for the People of Paradise from each other and for the People of the Fire from each other.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

It is already preceded that Allaah will resurrect the creation on the Day of Resurrection in order to recompense them for jazaa· (to give them their due reward), in order to recompense them for their good deeds and their evil deeds with regard to the descendants of Aadam. And for Qisaas (retribution/revenge/retaliation ) to be established with regard to again the descendants of Aadam and for the animals. So, the animals will be resurrected for Qisaas (retaliation) only, whereas the descendants of Aadam will be resurrected for jazaa (recompensing) and Qisaas (retaliation) between them.

His saying, “And to have eemaan in the retribution on the Day of Resurrection between all of the creation; the descendants of Aadam, the beasts of prey and the animals,” all of them will be raised for al-Qisaas (retribution) between them. As for the animals then when vengeance has been taken from some for others then they will end up being turned to dust. But as for the descendants of Aadam then they will be in two groups; a group will be in Paradise and a group will be in a Blazing Fire and they will not die after that ever. They will remain forever either in Paradise or in the Fire.

His saying, “Even to the extent that retaliation will be taken for the tiniest ant from the other tiniest ant,” to the extent that aththarrah (tiniest ant) will gain vengeance over each other because Allaah does not consent to zulm (oppression) ever because He is the most just and wise of Judges and He is the most just Arbitrator. He does not consent to zulm (oppression) even between the animals and the tiny ant. On the Day of Resurrection they will be resurrected and vengeance will be taken for some upon others.

As for the mu’minoon (believers) and the first matter concerning which retribution will be taken between them on the Day of Resurrection will be with regard to the shedding of blood from the rights of mankind and they’ll take revenge upon each other after they have crossed over the siraat (bridge) of the Hellfire and before they enter into Paradise. They will be stopped and retribution will be taken from some in favour of others. And then when they have been cleansed and purified, permission will be given to them to enter into Paradise because no-one will enter Paradise whilst he has any act of oppression due upon him. Because Paradise is the abode of those who are good and pure and no-one will enter it except those who are good and pure, those who have no reckoning left upon them nor anything owed to anyone else nor any sins to the extent that the believer who is sinful will be punished in the Fire in accordance with the level of sin or otherwise Allaah will pardon him in accordance with His wish and will.

He the Most High said:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَن يَشَاءُ

Allaah does not forgive that shirk is committed with Him but He forgives whatever is less than that to whomever He wishes. (Sooratun-Nisaa· (4), aayah 48)

With regard to any sins that are less than shirk, if He wishes, He will forgive him and if He wishes, He will punish him in accordance with the level of his sins until he becomes clean and purified from sins then he will enter into Paradise. So, no-one will enter into Paradise except one who is pure, be it by recompensing or by punishment.

His saying, “To the extent that Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic will bring about retribution between them for some from others and for the People of Paradise from the People of the Fire and for the People of the Fire from the People of Paradise,” so, the believer if he has wronged the disbeliever then retribution will be taken for the disbeliever on the Day of Resurrection and vice versa. The disbeliever if he has wronged the believer then retribution will be taken for the believer on the Day of Resurrection. So, no-one will be just left having acts of oppression left upon him and to the extent that the believer will be avenged upon the believer.[1]

Footnotes:

[1] Translator’s side point:

Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmee rahimahullaah then he said with regard to this point, “There occurs in the hadeeth that Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said :

Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic will call out on the Day of resurrection and say “al-Malik and ad-Dayyaan (I am the King, I am the One Who brings about retribution) and it is not befitting that anyone from the People of the Fire should enter the Fire whilst he has anything due from the People of Paradise that is due to him nor is it befitting for anyone from the People of Paradise to enter Paradise whilst there is any right due from him for someone from the People of the Fire until I take retribution for him even if it is for a single slap.”

So we (companions) said, “How will it be when it is the case that we will come to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic naked, uncircumcised and empty-handed?”. He sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said, “with good deeds and bad deeds.”

Reported by Imaam Ahmad from a hadeeth of Jaabir ibn `Abdillaah radiyAllaahu `anhuma and declared authentic by Shaykh al-Albaaniyy rahimahullaah.

So what is important is that they will not enter the Paradise or the Fire until the rights have been be taken from them for each other. Then when they have been purified and cleansed and the People of Paradise will be entered into Paradise and the People of the Fire enter the Fire and success is granted by Allaah.

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/finaljourney/

Everything that Allaah has decreed should pass away will pass away – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lessons 37 : Point 50
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

And everything that Allaah has decreed should pass away will pass away but not Paradise, the Fire, the Throne (`Arsh), the footstool (Kursee), the Horn (As-Soor), the Pen (Qalam) and the Inscribed Tablet (Al-Lawh). Nothing of these will ever pass away.

Then Allaah will resurrect the creation upon what He caused them to die upon on the Day of Resurrection and He will bring them to account as He wishes. A group will be in Paradise and a group will be in the blazing Fire and He will say to the rest of the creation; those who are not created to persist, “Be dust.”

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

His saying, “And everything that Allaah has made it binding for that it will pass away then it will pass away.

He, the Majestic and Most High said:

كُلُّ مَنْ عَلَيْهَا فَانٍ – 55:26

وَيَبْقَىٰ وَجْهُ رَبِّكَ ذُو الْجَلَالِ وَالْإِكْرَامِ – 55:27

Everyone upon the earth will perish but the Face of your Lord full of Majesty and Honour will remain. (Sooratur-Rahmaan (55), aayah 26-27)

All of the creation will pass away and nothing will remain except Allaah, the Perfect and Most High and in His saying, He, the Perfect:

كُلُّ نَفْسٍ ذَائِقَةُ الْمَوْتِ

Every soul shall taste death. (Soorah Aali `Imraan (3), aayah 185)

And His saying, He, the Perfect and Most High:

وَنُفِخَ فِي الصُّورِ فَصَعِقَ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَن فِي الْأَرْضِ إِلَّا مَن شَاءَ اللَّهُ 

And the Horn will be blown and all who are in the heavens and the earth will fall down dead except whomever Allaah wishes. (Sooratuz-Zumar (39), aayah 68)

The meaning of illaah mann shaa-Allaah (except whomever Allaah wishes). They (the People of Knowledge) said, “it means the angels or the wide-eyed Hoor (women in Paradise) and Allaah knows best.”[1]

So, the whole of the creation will die and then they will be resurrected on the Day of Resurrection.

ثُمَّ إِنَّكُم بَعْدَ ذَٰلِكَ لَمَيِّتُونَ – 23:15

ثُمَّ إِنَّكُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ تُبْعَثُونَ – 23:16

Then after that you should die then on the Day of Resurrection, you will be raised up to life. (Sooratul-Mu·minoon (23), aayah 15-16)

So, the Muslim should remember death and he should prepare for it with righteous deeds and he should ask Allaah that his life ends with a good conclusion (husn ul-khaatimah) and he should repent from evil deeds and this is the benefit of remembering death. When he remembers death then he should make preparation for it and therefore, he sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

“Remember the cutter off of pleasures; death for you will not remember it over a large amount except that it will render it small nor over a small amount except that it will increase it.”[2]

So, it is not befitting that the Muslim should be inattentive to death. Rather, he should remember death always at all times and he should prepare for it and he should have eemaan (truly believe) in the resurrection; the Day when mankind will rise from their graves, standing up for the Lord of the whole of creation.

ثُمَّ نُفِخَ فِيهِ أُخْرَىٰ فَإِذَا هُمْ قِيَامٌ يَنظُرُونَ – 39:68

Then the Horn will be blown again and they will be standing, looking on.(Sooratuz-Zumar (39), aayah 68)

The souls shall be restored to them after the bodies have been resurrected from the graves and then they will be led to the gathering place (mahshar) to the end of what they encounter in the Hereafter from great hazards that they will have to pass through until they settle after that either in Paradise or either in the Fire for indeed Paradise and the Fire are the two abodes of permanent residents.

His saying “Everything will pass away except what Allaah has written to pass away will pass away but not Paradise, not the Fire and not the `Arsh (the Throne) and not the Kursee (Footstool),” for they will not pass away; those two (Paradise and the Fire), they will not pass away and they will not seize to exist. Allaah created them to persist. And as for the heavens and the earth then they will be changed. The heavens will split apart and the earth will split open and this universe will change.

He the Most High said:

يَوْمَ تُبَدَّلُ الْأَرْضُ غَيْرَ الْأَرْضِ وَالسَّمَاوَاتُ ۖ وَبَرَزُوا لِلَّهِ الْوَاحِدِ الْقَهَّارِ – 14:48

On the Day when the earth is changed to other than the earth and the Heavens and they (the people) will appear before Allaah; the One, the Irresistible Subduer. (Soorah Ibraaheem (14), aayah 48)

As for the `Arsh (Throne) then it will not change and Paradise and the Fire will not pass away and will not change. W’al Kursee (and the Footstool); it is below the `Arsh (Throne) and the `Arsh (Throne) is bigger than it and the Kursee is wider than the heavens and the earth and the `Arsh (Throne) is wider than the Footstool.

His saying, “And the Horn,” the Soor is the Horn, which is the Horn which is with the Angel Israafeel. It will be blown along with the souls in it and the souls will fly back into their bodies and come to life with the permission of Allaah.

ثُمَّ نُفِخَ فِيهِ أُخْرَىٰ فَإِذَا هُمْ قِيَامٌ يَنظُرُونَ

Then it will be blown another time and they will be standing up looking.(Sooratuz-Zumar (39), aayah 68)

His saying, “And the Pen and the Preserved Tablet,” Al-Lawh ul-Mahfudh (Preserved Tablet) and the Pen with which Allaah wrote the decreed measures, meaning the decreed measures of how everything would be.

His saying, “Nothing from this will ever pass away,” these things which Allaah created to persist; the Throne and the Footstool and the Preserved Tablet and the Pen and Paradise and the Fire and the souls, which were created then they will not pass away.[3]

His saying, “Then Allaah will resurrect the creation upon what He caused them to die upon on the Day of Resurrection,” meaning He will resurrect them upon what He caused them to die upon with regard to disbelief or true faith (eemaan), everyone will be resurrected upon his deeds, meaning upon the deeds that he did. And having eemaan (true faith) in the resurrection is one of the six pillars of eemaan (true faith) and having eemaan (true faith) in the Last Day occurs joined along with eemaan (true faith) in Allaah in many aayahs.

W’al Ba’th (and Resurrection), it is restoring mankind to life after their death in the world of the Hereafter. So, they live in this world for the purpose of action then they will die and they will be buried in the earth and they will remain in it for as long as Allaah wishes in the place of waiting and that is Daar ul-Barzakh (Place of Separation), the period separating this world and the Hereafter.Then they will be resurrected from these graves and they will arise from them alive just as they used to be, nothing from their bodies will be lost then the souls will be restored to their bodies then they will be led to the mahshar (gathering place) for the recompensing for their deeds, which they did in the world whether good or bad.

 وَلَا تُجْزَوْنَ إِلَّا مَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ – 36:54

And you will not be recompensed except for what you did. (Soorah Yaaseen (36), aayah 54)

So, no-one will be rewarded for good that was done by somebody else or punished for the action of someone else.

وَلَا تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ وِزْرَ أُخْرَىٰ

And no bearer of burdens shall bear the burden of sins committed by someone else. (Sooratul-An`aam (6), aayah 164)

Everyone will be recompensed in accordance with his own deeds whether good or bad and this is justice (adl) from Allaah, the Perfect and Most High. He will not leave them without any recompensing when they had wearied themselves in this life in performing deeds and worship if they were righteous ones. Or wearied themselves, and Allaah’s refuge is sought, with disbelief and shirk and sin and causing corruption upon the earth if they were disbelievers. He will not leave them without a recompensing. This is justice from Allaah, the Majestic and Most High. So, this is the meaning of His saying here that everyone will be recompensed in accordance with his deeds. And since this is the case then it is obligatory upon the servant to look to his deeds, whilst he’s still alive. So, whatever is good then he should equip himself with that and whatever is evil then he should repent to Allaah from it and free himself from it as long as that is possible. He, the Most High said:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَلْتَنظُرْ نَفْسٌ مَّا قَدَّمَتْ لِغَدٍ

O you who believe, fear and be dutiful to Allaah and let each soul look at what deeds it has put forward for tomorrow. (Sooratul-Hashr (59), aayah 18)

Take account of yourself in this world before the reckoning, take account of yourself for your deeds and examine them and rectify whatever is corrupt from them and add to whatever is good from them and awaken from heedlessness. This is what is required from the person of intellect and therefore, he sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

“Al-kayyis (the wise one) (meaning al-`aaqil (the prudent one)), the person of intelligence, he takes account of his-self and acts for that which comes after death. This is the astute person, the `aaqil. And the incapable person is the one who allows himself to follow his desires (meaning in this world) and just has vain hopes in Allaah.[4]

The incapable person is the one who allows himself just to follow his desires and just has vain hopes in Allaah, he wants paradise and he wants salvation but he doesn’t do anything. So, this person is incapable, and Allaah’s refuge is sought, aameen, with blameworthy incapacity, it is not physical inability. If he is actually not able to do i.e he does not have the ability to perform deeds, then this one would not be taken to account.

لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللَّهُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا

Allaah does not burden a soul except with what it is able to do. (Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 286)

However, this one; the `aajiz (truly incapable person) has ability and he is able to act but the inability is due to laziness & not-caring. This is the one who is truly incapable and yet along with this, he has vain hopes that in the Hereafter he will be from the people of Paradise without any deed, without any action. It is not possible that this one will be from the people of Paradise without any deed.

His saying, “And He will take account of them as He wishes, there will be a group in Paradise and a group in the blazing Fire,” He will take account of them for their deeds, He, the Perfect and Most High and Al-Hisaab (the Reckoning), it is al-munaaqashah (examination) regarding the deeds. So, the people will be in different categories with regard to reckoning. Four categories of people with regards to reckoning in the herefater.

From the believers, there will be those who will receive no reckoning so he will enter Paradise without any reckoning and any punishment. May Allaah make us from it.

And from them will be those who will be given an easy reckoning and that is just presentation of records.

And from them are those who will be interrogated in the reckoning :
“Whoever is closely examined regard his record will be punished.”[5]

And the kaafir (disbeliever) will not be reckoned with a reckoning involving weighing of deeds. Rather, he will only be reckoned with a reckoning that involves confessing that he will be shown his deeds and his disbelief and his shirk for him to confess it and he will not be able to deny anything at all then he will be sent to the Fire.

His saying, “There will be a group in Paradise and a group in the blazing Fire,” this is derived from the aayah:

 وَتُنذِرَ يَوْمَ الْجَمْعِ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ ۚ فَرِيقٌ فِي الْجَنَّةِ وَفَرِيقٌ فِي السَّعِيرِ

And warn them of the Day of the Gathering about which there is no doubt, there will be a group in Paradise and a group in the blazing Fire. (Sooratush-Shooraa (42), aayah 7)

A group there will be in Paradise and they are the people of eemaan (true faith) and there will be a group in the blazing Fire and they are the people of disbelief and transgression.

His saying, “And He will say to the rest of the creation from those who are not created to persist, “Be dust”,” Allaah will raise up the creation on the Day of Resurrection; the humans and the animals and the birds.

وَمَا مِن دَابَّةٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا طَائِرٍ يَطِيرُ بِجَنَاحَيْهِ إِلَّا أُمَمٌ أَمْثَالُكُم ۚ مَّا فَرَّطْنَا فِي الْكِتَابِ مِن شَيْءٍ ۚ ثُمَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ يُحْشَرُونَ 

There is not a creature upon the earth nor any bird, which flies with its two wings except that they are communities like you. We have not neglected anything from the Book. Then they will be gathered to their Lord. (Sooratul-An’aam (6), aayah 38)

And, He, the Most High said:

وَإِذَا الْوُحُوشُ حُشِرَتْ 

And when the wild beasts are gathered. (Sooratut-Takweer (81), aayah 5)

The created beings will be gathered on the Day of Resurrection in order to establish justice between them to such an extent that revenge will be taken from some for others. The animals; revenge will be taken from some in favour of others to the extent that revenge will be taken for the hornless ram from the ram (male sheep) with horns as occurs in the authentic hadeeth.[6]

And then when vengeance has been taken from some for others, Allaah, the Majestic and Most High will say to them “Be dust” because they were not raised up to remain and persist in the Hereafter. Rather, they were only raised up for recompensing only and this is from the justice of Allaah, the Majestic and Most High. Then the disbeliever will say:

 يَا لَيْتَنِي كُنتُ تُرَابًا 

“would that I could be dust.” (Sooratun-Nabaa (78), aayah 40)

When it will be said to the animals “Be dust”, the disbeliever will vainly wish that he could be like them.

Footnotes:

[1] This was mentioned by Al-Baghawee in his Tafseer from AdDahhaak rahimahullaah.

(AdDahhaak; famous mufassir of the Qur’aan referred from a group of Taabi’een, AdDahhaak ibn Muzaahim al-Hilaalee al-Khurasaanee who died in the year 105).

Al-Baghawee mentions that he said (referring to the ones who are accepted), “they are Ridwaan and Al-Hoor (the wide-eyed Hoorees) and Maalik and Az-Zabaaniyah.”

[2] The first part of the hadeeth, “remember the cutter off of pleasures; death,” is reported by Imaam Ahmad and at-Tirmithee and Ibn Maajah and an-Nasaa`ee and Ibn Hibbaan in his saheeh from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiyAllaahu `anhu. That hadeeth up to that wording there was declared hasan; saheeh (good; authentic) by Shaykh al-Albaaniyy.

As for the full wording then al-Bayhaqee reports that wording “…for you will not remember it…” in Shu’b al-Eemaan as the hadeeth of ibn `Umar radiyAllaahu `anhuma and Shaykh al-Albaaniyy declared that particular narration weak in Da`eef al-Jaami` W`Allaahu A`lam.

[3] Translator’s side point: Al-Kursee (the Footstool), Ibn Abee Haatim reported in his Tafseer from Muqaatil that he said in explanation of His saying, He, the Most High:

 كُلُّ شَيْءٍ هَالِكٌ إِلَّا وَجْهَهُ – 28:88

Everything will perish except for Allaah’s Face. (Sooratul-Qasas (28), aayah 88)

“All the living things in particular from the inhabitants of the heavens and the angels and whoever is upon the earth and all animals; all living things and then the heavens and the earth will be destroyed after that and Paradise and the Fire will not be destroyed and whatever is within them nor the Throne and nor the Footstool.”

[4] Reported by Imaam Ahmad in his musnad and At-Tirmithee and Ibn Maajah and Al-Haakim and Al-Baghawee in Sharhus-Sunnah and others from a hadeeth of Shaddaad ibn Aws radiyAllaahu `anhu and it was declared authentic by Al-Haakim and declared hasan (good) by At-Tirmithee and Al-Baghawee.

Translator’s side point: As for Shaykh Al-Albaaniyy then he declared this narration da`eef (weak) in his checking of Mishkaat in AdDa`eefah hadeeth 5,319 because of the weakness of its narrator Aboo Bakr ibn Abee Maryam al-Ghassaanee, W`Allaahu A’lam.

Famous narration from `Umar radiyAllaahu `anhu with a similar meaning to the end of what’s reported. Imaam Ahmad reports it in his book Az-Zuhd as the saying of Umar radiyAllaahu `anhu. W`Allaahu A’lam: 

“Take account of yourselves before you are taken account of.”

[5] Reported by Al-Bukhaariyy in his saheeh, should be the reference, hadeeth 6,537 and reported by Muslim in his saheeh hadeeth 2,876 from the hadeeth of Aa’ishah radiyAllaahu `anhaa and Allaah’s refuge is sought, Aameen.

[6] Reported by Muslim in his saheeh 2,582 from Aboo Hurayrah radiyAllaahu `anhu.

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/finaljourney/

The blood of a Muslim cannot lawfully be shed except on account of one of three cases – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lessons 36 : Point 49
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

And the blood of a Muslim who bears witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger cannot lawfully be shed except on account of one of three matters; fornication after having been married or one who turned apostate after having daleel or one who murders a believing soul without right then he is executed for it, other than that then the blood of the Muslim is unlawful for the Muslim to shed forever until the Hour is established.[1]

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

The issue of killing a Muslim comes after the issue of marriage because Islaam came to protect matters of honour and to protect blood from being shed and to protect property. He sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said [2]:

“Your blood and your wealth and your honour are forbidden for you.”

And he sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

“All of the Muslim is forbidden for the Muslim; his blood and his property and his honour.”[3]

So having spoken about al-a`raad (matters of honour) in the previous sentences in what is connected to marriage and divorce, he moved onto the matter of preservation of blood from being shed. So, the Muslim when he bears witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah then his blood and his property become forbidden to shed. And therefore, Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

“I have been commanded to fight against the people until they say none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah. So, if they say it then they have rendered their blood and their property safeguarded from me except on account of a right of Islaam and their reckoning will be with Allaah, the Most High.[4]

So, whoever announces his Islaam and utters the two testifications then we accept that from him and we count him as being a Muslim and we apply the rulings of the Muslims upon him even if in his heart there is hypocrisy (nifaaq), for that will be between him and Allaah. Allaah will bring Him to account and the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam accepted Islaam of the hypocrites (munaafiqeen) and he applied the outward rulings upon them.

However, whoever commits one of those things that nullifies Islaam then in that case he is judged to be guilty of riddah (apostasy). So, either he will then repent or otherwise, he will be executed as a protection for the religion. This is the first matter that renders the blood of a Muslim lawful to be shed.

And the second matter from those things that renders the blood of a Muslim lawful to be shed is al-Qisaas (retaliatory killing); an-nafsu bin-nafs (a life for a life).

He the Most High said:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْقِصَاصُ فِي الْقَتْلَى ۖ الْحُرُّ بِالْحُرِّ وَالْعَبْدُ بِالْعَبْدِ وَالْأُنثَىٰ بِالْأُنثَىٰ ۚ فَمَنْ عُفِيَ لَهُ مِنْ أَخِيهِ شَيْءٌ فَاتِّبَاعٌ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَأَدَاءٌ إِلَيْهِ بِإِحْسَانٍ ۗ ذَٰلِكَ تَخْفِيفٌ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَرَحْمَةٌ ۗ فَمَنِ اعْتَدَىٰ بَعْدَ ذَٰلِكَ فَلَهُ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ 

وَلَكُمْ فِي الْقِصَاصِ حَيَاةٌ يَا أُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ 

Oh you who believe al-Qisaas (legal retribution) for those who have been murdered is prescribed for you. The free person for the free person and the slave for the slave and the female for the female and whoever pardons and overlooks for his brother and accepts payment of blood money instead then this should be adhered to with fairness and payment of blood money should be made in a good manner. This is an alleviation from your Lord and a mercy. So, whoever then transgresses after acceptance of the blood money and kills the murderer then for him there will be a painful punishment. And there is for you in Qisaas (legal retribution) the saving of life, O people of understanding, that you may become righteous

(Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 178-179)

Al-Qisaas (retaliatory execution) results in the preservation of life even though the murderer is killed because a would-be murderer, if he knows that he’s going to be killed, he will withhold from killing. And the rest of the people, if they see the murderer being killed then they will stop themselves from killing. So therefore, blood will be safeguarded on account of that.

So, al-Qisaas (retaliatory execution) is a means for preservation of life and even though the one upon whom retribution is taken is killed then it is a killing which leads to preservation of life of the rest of the society and transgression against blood will be reduced. As for the case, if the murderer were to be left and it were to be said this contradicts human rights and he were to be left and not executed then this will result in the shedding of blood and destruction of security and causing those people who are in a state of security to instead be in fear and it will bring about many evils and killing will increase and bloodshed will occur to the extent that they used to say even in the times of ignorance (jaahiliyyah),Execution is the best deterrent to murder.” So, killing the criminal is the best deterrent to murder in the future and in this regard is the aayah:

وَلَكُمْ فِي الْقِصَاصِ حَيَاةٌ يَا أُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ

And there is for you in legal retribution the saving of life, O people of understanding. (Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 179)

And those people who say that Qisaas (retaliatory killing) runs contrary to human rights then we say to them that the person who’s being transgressed against, “Is he not a human?” So, in taking retribution, there is protection for his right.

And the third of those whose blood it is lawful to shed is the thayyib (one who’s married or has been married) who commits zina (fornication). Ath-thayyib is the person who has had sexual relations with his wife in a correct marriage. So, if he then after that commits zinaa (fornication) then he is stoned to death with stones until he dies and his blood is rendered lawful on account of that.

So, these are the matters which render the blood of a Muslim lawful to be shed. Either al-Qisaas (retaliatory execution for murder) a life for a life or one who commits fornication after being married or al-murtadd (the apostate); the one who has left the religion of Islaam, the one who commits something, which breaks a person’s Islaam. He sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

“Whoever changes his religion then kill him.”[5]

And there occurs in the hadeeth:

“And the one who abandons his religion and leaves the Jama’ah (united body).”[6]

And this contains a refutation of those who deny the punishment for apostasy seeking to use as evidence his saying, He the Most High:

لَا إِكْرَاهَ فِي الدِّينِ

There is to be no compulsion upon the religion.
(Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 256)

And this use of evidence is an error because killing the apostate; it’s goal is not to force anyone to accept the religion. Rather, the goal from it is to protect the religion from being played around with by someone who has entered into it freely by choice and then he abandons it after having borne witness that the religion is true.

His saying, “And the blood of a Muslim person who bears witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah is not permissible,” the Muslim is the one who bears witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah. However, along with the two testifications, there must be action that he establishes the prayer and gives the Zakaah and fasts Ramadaan and performs the Hajj to the house for whoever is able to make his way to it; action is essential.

His saying, “And whatever is besides that then the blood of the Muslim is forbidden for the Muslim to shed forever until the Hour is established,” the blood of the Muslim is forbidden for the Muslim. There will not come a time when it is permissible for him to shed the blood of a Muslim ever for Allaah unless he transgresses against and attacks the people in their homes or he commits Highway robbery or revolts against the authority of the ruler or other than that then he is killed to repel his evil if his evil cannot be repelled except through killing him.[7]

Footnotes:

[1] Translator’s side point: Reported by al-Bukhaariyy (6,878) and Muslim (1,676) from `Abdullaah ibn Mas`ood radiyAllaahu `anhu who said Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

“The blood of a Muslim who bears witness than none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that I am the Messenger of Allaah is not permissible to be shed except on account of one of three cases; a life for a life and a previously married person who commits fornication and one who abandons his religion and leaves the Jamaa`ah.” 

[2] Reported by al-Bukhaariyy in his saheeh (67) and Muslim (1,679) from a hadeeth of Aboo Bakrah radiyAllaahu `anhu.

[3] Reported by Muslim in his saheeh (2,564) from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiyAllaahu `anhu.

[4] Reported by al-Bukhaariyy in his saheeh (25) and Muslim (22) from a hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn `Umar radiyAllaahu `anhuma.

[5] Reported by al-Bukhaariyy in his saheeh in two places Hadeeth Nos. (3,017) and (6,922) from `Ikrimah who said:

“Some heretics were brought to `Aliyy radiyAllaahu `anhu so he burnt them to death. So, that news reached Ibn `Abbaas so he said, “If it had been me I would not have burnt them with fire because of the prohibition of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, “Do not punish with the punishment of Allaah.” However, he would have killed them because of the saying of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, “Whoever changes his religion then kill him.” 

[6] Reported by al- Bukhaariyy (6,878) and Muslim (1,676) from a hadeeth of `Abdullah ibn Mas’ood radiyAllaahu `anhu.

Translator’s side point: Imaam ibn Qudaamah al-Maqdisee rahimahullaah said in his famous book Al-Mughnee,

“The People of Knowledge are united in consensus upon the obligation of killing the apostate and that is reported from Aboo Bakr and `Umar and `Uthmaan and `Aliyy and Mu`aadh and Aboo Moosaa and Ibn `Abbaas and Khaalid radiyAllaahu `anhum and others besides them and no one criticised that from them so it is Ijmaa` (consensus).

Likewise, Imaam an-Nawawi mentioned in his explanation of Muslim in the book Kitaab al-Imaarah (Book of Leadership) when he’s speaking about the hadeeth of Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam’s sending of Aboo Moosaa al-Ash’aree to Yemen then later on he sent Mu`aadh to go to Yemen after him so when Mu`aadh arrived, he found that there’s a Jewish man there captured who had accepted Islaam and then left Islaam and become a Jew again; he was awaiting execution. So Aboo Moosaa offered a cushion for Mu`aadh to sit down so Mu’aadh refused, “till you kill him”. Imaam an-Nawawi commented upon that hadeeth and said, “It shows the obligation of killing the apostate and they are agreed in consensus upon his killing.”

Imaam ibn `Abdul-Barr said in his book At-Tamheed when he was speaking about the narration of `Aliyy radiyAllaahu `anhu when he killed the apostates. Ibn `Abdul-Barr then said,

“The fiqh of this hadeeth is that whoever apostasizes (leaves his religion) then his blood becomes lawful and his neck is struck, meaning he’s beheaded and the ummah is united upon that.” 

[7] Translator’s side point: Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmee rahimahullaah said,

“And I say and it is not permissible to kill any soul except for one of these three by consensus and success is granted by Allaah.”

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

If a man divorces his wife three times then she has become forbidden for him – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lessons 35 : Point 48
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

And if a man divorces his wife three times then she has become forbidden for him and she will not be permissible for him unless she marries another man.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

His saying, “And if a man divorces his wife three times then she has become forbidden for him,” if a man divorces his wife three times (three separate times divorces) then she becomes forbidden for him by consensus (ijmaa`) just as if he were to say “you are divorced” then afterwards he says “you are divorced” and then he says “you are divorced” or if he says to his wife “you are divorced then divorced or and so divorced” because this indicates a sequence and she becomes irrevocably divorced and separated from him if the number of divorces reaches three and she becomes forbidden for him unless and until she has married another husband besides him.

He, the Most High, said:

الطَّلَاقُ مَرَّتَانِ ۖ فَإِمْسَاكٌ بِمَعْرُوفٍ أَوْ تَسْرِيحٌ بِإِحْسَانٍ ۗ وَلَا يَحِلُّ لَكُمْ أَن تَأْخُذُوا مِمَّا آتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ شَيْئًا إِلَّا أَن يَخَافَا أَلَّا يُقِيمَا حُدُودَ اللَّهِ ۖ فَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلَّا يُقِيمَا حُدُودَ اللَّهِ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِمَا فِيمَا افْتَدَتْ بِهِ ۗ تِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّهِ فَلَا تَعْتَدُوهَا ۚ وَمَن يَتَعَدَّ حُدُودَ اللَّهِ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ – 2:229

فَإِن طَلَّقَهَا فَلَا تَحِلُّ لَهُ مِن بَعْدُ حَتَّىٰ تَنكِحَ زَوْجًا غَيْرَهُ ۗ فَإِن طَلَّقَهَا فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِمَا أَن يَتَرَاجَعَا إِن ظَنَّا أَن يُقِيمَا حُدُودَ اللَّهِ ۗ وَتِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّهِ يُبَيِّنُهَا لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ – 2:230

Divorce is twice then you may either retain her upon reasonable terms or release her in a good manner.

Up until His saying, He the Most High:

And if then he divorces her for the third time then she is not permissible for him after that unless and until she has married another husband besides him. And if he (second husband) then divorces her, in that case there is no harm if the two of them wish to reunite provided that they think they can establish the limits laid down by Allaah.

(Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 229-230)

This is if the divorces are separate even if it is within a single sitting but as for a person who says “you are divorced, you are divorced, you are divorced” without a word of adding in between, in this case we examine if he intended by repeating it just to emphasise it then it will be a single divorce but if he was intending establishing that he wanted to divorce her three times then she will be irrevocably divorced from him if it reaches the third one.

However, if the divorces are said with a single word such as his saying “you are divorced three times over” or “you are divorced three times” then the majority hold that it counts as three divorces and she becomes separate irrevocably from him and forbidden for him unless and until she marries a different husband besides him. And this is the position of the four Imaams but in the saying of some of the verifiers that the three is counted only as one divorce and the matter; there is prolonged disagreement with regards to it. However, what will suffice us is that we know that divorce three times over makes her forbidden for him not forever more but rather it makes her forbidden for him unless and until she marries a different husband besides him and then he divorces her in that case. But as for entering into matters of disagreement then this does not concern us at the moment. [1]

And the intent of the author in entering these matters in `aqeedah (creed and belief), and Allaah knows best, is to make clear that the matter of marriage is an important matter, which is obligatory to give care and attention to in accordance with legislated principles for it so that people should not be lax about it and about its legal procedures and because the book is entitled Sharhus-Sunnah; literally ’An Explanation of the Sunnah’ meaning clarification of the Sunnah in every matter and from that is the issues of marriage.[2]

Footnotes:

[1] Translator’s side point: People of Knowledge make clear the woman marrying her second husband from the authentic evidences, has to be correct in marrying the second husband, not just as a trick to try and get back to the first one.

[2] Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmee rahimahullaah said in his explanation:

As for his saying, “So if a man divorces his wife three times then she has become forbidden for him and she will not be permissible for him unless she marries another husband besides him,” this matter, there is a great disagreement about it amongst the scholars. The majority hold that if a man divorces his wife three times at once with a single saying then she becomes forbidden for him; divorced from him. Whereas, from the People of Knowledge, there are some who say that the divorce, which makes her forbidden, is the divorce in accordance with the Sunnah that he divorces her in a period that is free from menses and he has not had sexual relations with her. So, as for divorcing three times with a single word then it is counted as one and a middle and balanced saying is that it’s counted still as three in accordance with his intention and the matter, there is a great deal of speech about it and Allaah is the one who grants success.

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

There is no marriage except with a guardian & two just witnesses & a dower – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lessons 35 : Point 47
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

And there is no marriage except with a guardian (walee) and two just witnesses and a dower (sadaaq) whether it be a small amount or a large amount. And whoever does not have a guardian then the ruler is the guardian for one who does not have a guardian (walee)

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

This is a fiqh issue and it is an explanation of the conditions for the correctness of marriage (nikaah) with the jumhoor (majority) of scholars and from them is that it should be along with the permission of the walee (guardian) and that a woman may not marry herself off and from its conditions is al ishhaad (to have witnesses) to the contracting of the marriage. So, a marriage may not be contracted in secret without witnesses. So, from the position of the Muslims is to openly announce marriage and the matter of the walee (having a guardian) is a point where there is some disagreement. The jumhoor (great majority) hold that having the walee (guardian) is essential whereas with the Hanafees, there is no harm in a woman marrying herself off without the permission of the guardian. However, this is a saying that is not the correct saying, it is contrary to the evidence because of his saying sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam:

“There is no marriage except with a guardian and with two just witnesses.”[1]

And his saying in the other hadeeth:

“A woman may not marry off another woman and a woman may not marry off herself, for the fornicatress (the one who commits zina, fornication) is the one who marries herself off.”[2]

“Whichever woman gets married without the permission of her guardian then her marriage is invalid, invalid, invalid.”[3]

So even though some of the jurists declare it to be correct (meaning a woman getting married without the permission of her guardian; walee) based upon ijtihaad (personal striving) from that scholar then what is counted is the evidence and therefore the author stated this matter even though it is a matter of fiqh to make clear that this is the correct position and it is the position which the majority of the People of Knowledge were upon that which is proven by the Prophetic Sunnah and in order that the marriages of the Muslims should be correctly regulated and not be entered upon by secrecy and ihtiyaalaat (fraudulent tricks). Rather they should be clear and open for indeed marriages are from the most important of affairs because upon them families are built and from them offspring are produced and upon them lineages are built and something even more severe is built upon them rendering the private parts lawful. So, therefore it is essential that the legislated principles are applied to contract a marriage as occurs in the ahaadeeth and in the aayahs.

And his saying, “And it should be with a sadaaq (dower) and with a dower whether it’s a small amount or a large amount,” as for the sadaaq (dower) then it is not a condition (shart). However, it is waajib (obligation). And therefore, if the marriage were to be contracted without a sadaaq (dower) then the contracting of the marriage will be correct. However, a sadaaq (dower) will be appointed for her in accordance with that of women who are like her because this is a right of hers.

His saying, “And whoever does not have a walee (guardian) then the ruler is the guardian for the one who does not have a guardian,” having a walee (guardian) is essential.

And the walee (guardian) is the wife’s close male relatives; the closest and then the next closest from them. Firstly, her father then her grandfather and so on upwards and then her son and the son of her son and so on downwards and then her full brother and then her brother through her father; meaning her brother who shares the same father but the mother is different and then her full paternal uncle and then her uncle who is the brother of her father and then the son of her full uncle (son of the father’s brother) and then the son of her uncle who is the brother of her father. This is the guardian (walee) of the woman.

And if it occurs that a woman does not have a walee (guardian) from her close male relatives then her guardianship is taken on by the ruler or the one who represents the ruler and he is the judge in the court. So marriage must have regulating principles and it may not be anarchy just in accordance with the desires and lusts of the people. [4]

Footnotes:

[1] Reported by Imaam Ahmad and Aboo Daawood and At-Tirmithee and Ad-Daarimee and AtTahaawiyy in Sharh Ma`aanee al-Aathaar from a hadeeth of Aboo Moosaa Al-Ash`aree radiyAllaahu `anhu.

Translator’s side point: This hadeeth was declared saheeh (authentic) by Shaykh al-Albaaniyy as hadeeth 1,839 in Irwa al Ghaleel .

[2] Reported by Ibn Maajah and Ad-Daaraqutnee in his Sunan and Al-Bayhaqee in his Sunan al-Kubraa from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah and it was declared saheeh (authentic) by Ibn al-Mulaqqin in Al-Badr Al-Muneer to the standard of Muslim.

Shaykh al-Albaaniyy in his checking of Ibn Maajah declared this hadeeth saheeh except for the sentence about azzaaniyah (fornicatress), the first part being authentic supported by other narrations; “A woman may not marry off another woman and a woman may not marry herself off”, that being authentic.

[3] Reported by Imaam Ahmad in his musnad and by Aboo Daawood, At-Tirmithee and Ad-Daarimee and by AtTahaawiyy in Sharh Ma`aanee al-Aathaar from a hadeeth of `Aa`ishah radiyAllaahu `anhaa.

Side point: This hadeeth was declared saheeh (authentic) also by Shaykh al-Albaaniyy.

[4]Side point: Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmee rahimahullaah said in his explanation:

“And there is no marriage except with a guardian and with two just witnesses with a dower whether it be a small amount or a large amount,” this is the position of the jumhoor (the great majority) and it is what is the truth. So, therefore, those who say that the woman can marry off herself without the permission of her guardian is a saying, which is false, opposite to the evidences and contrary to them. Indeed, it opens up a breach for the people of corruption. So, it is obligatory to believe that this is futile. And likewise, her getting married without a dower. However, if the dower is not stated at the marriage then what is correct is that it does not make it null and void and is still counted as a valid marriage but she should be given a dower the same as women who are like her and her close relatives and women of her age; meaning the dower that is well-known amongst the people, whether it be a small amount or a large amount, at that time and at that place and this woman is called Anwalliyah; one who has given up the affair to someone else with the jurists.

His saying, “Whoever does not have a guardian then the ruler is the guardian for one who has no guardian; a walee,” this is the correct saying. So the woman who does not have a guardian then her guardian will be the ruler because of the hadeeth:

“The ruler is the guardian for the one who does not have a guardian.”

Some of the evidences with regard to the necessity of having a walee that brings some of the aayahs of the Qur·aan, each of the aayahs that they bring Sooratun-Noor (24) aayah 32, Sooratul-Baqarah (2) aayah 221, Sooratul-Baqarah (2) aayah 232, each of them in an address with regard to marrying the women and the address with regard to marrying off is the addresses to the men; men marrying off the women as opposed to an address to the women looking to get married. With regard to the point where the Shaykh mentioned that a woman getting married without any guardian and saying that it’s permissible for a woman to marry herself off without any guardian, this opens up a door to people who want to cause corruption.

And they mention in the footnote, Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmee himself he said, “I myself heard that there was one of the jurists from the Hanafee’s in one of the Arab lands and he had a son who was deviant and he used to hear from his father that it is not a condition for marriage that a woman has the permission of her guardian. So, this son when he used to hear that, used to accompany a group of people who were evildoers and they used to do illicit sexual acts with the women. He taught theevil group that what they should do is say to the prostitute woman, when you go to pay her you should say, “marry yourself to me” and she should say “I marry myself to you” and he should say “I accept it” and then when he’s finished his night with her then you say to her “you’re divorced” and on the second night, you can do it with a different woman.

Shaykh said, “So you can see that this madhab has been used here contrary to the evidence as a means for causing corruption even though the Hanafee madhab itself does not make the like of this permissible. However, it makes permissible only a marriage, which is going to be permanent and it does not make permissible mixing waters of one man with another when divorced. Rather, there must be an `iddah (waiting period) making sure her womb is clear, even a woman who frees herself by khulah or a slave girl who is poor.”

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

The Knowledge of Allaah Encompasses Everything – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lessons 34 : Point 46
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

And to have eemaan that Allaah, the Most High knew whatever was going to occur from the start of time and whatever was not going to occur. Whatever was going to happen then Allaah fully comprehended and enumerated it. And whoever says that He does not know except what has already occurred or what is occurring then he has disbelieved in Allaah, the Tremendous.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

It is obligatory to affirm the knowledge of Allaah, the Majestic and Most High and its encompassing everything. So, He has full knowledge of everything and He has full ability over everything and His ilm (knowledge) has no beginning and no ending. His ilm (knowledge) is just like the rest of the attributes established for Him forever. So, just as Allaah has no beginning then likewise, there is no beginning for His names and His attributes and His actions, He, the Perfect and Most High. And just as Allaah has no end, then likewise there is no end for His names and His attributes and His actions, He, the Majestic and Most High. So, He along with His names and His attributes is the First One with no beginning and He along with His names and His attributes is the Last One with no ending just as he sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said addressing his Lord, He, the Most High:

“You are Al-Awwal (the First One) so there is nothing before You and
You are  Al-Aakhir (the Last One) so there is nothing after You and
You are Az-Zaahir (the Uppermost One) so there is nothing above You and
You are Al-Baatin (the Closest One) so there is nothing closer than You.”
[1]

His saying, “And to have eemaan that Allaah, the Most High knew whatever was going to be from the start of time and whatever was not going to be and whatever exists, He enumerated it and comprehended it all,” Allaah knew whatever was and has passed away in previous time and He knows whatever will be in the future and He knows whatever will not be, if it were to be; how it will be. So, Allaah’s knowledge comprehends everything and therefore He said:

وَلَوْ رُدُّوا لَعَادُوا لِمَا نُهُوا عَنْهُ 

If they were to be sent back, they will return to doing whatever they had been forbidden from. (Sooratul-An`aam (6), aayah 28)

So, Allaah knew that if they were to be returned to the world, they would return to doing what they had been forbidden from, meaning if they were returned to the world then they would return to disbelief even though their returning to the world would never happen ever.

His saying, “And whoever says that He does not know except what has already occurred or what is occurring then he has disbelieved in Allaah, the Tremendous,” whoever restricts the knowledge of Allaah to events that have already occurred only and that He does not know what is going to occur before it actually happens then he has disbelieved in Allaah because he has denied the knowledge of Allaah, the Majestic and Most High and he has denied the comprehensiveness of the knowledge of Allaah, the Majestic and Most High and He has affirmed for Allaah deficient knowledge so he becomes a disbeliever on account of this, for the knowledge of Allaah cannot be restricted. As for the knowledge of the created being then it is restricted no matter what level it reaches.

وَفَوْقَ كُلِّ ذِي عِلْمٍ عَلِيمٌ 

And above every person possessing knowledge there is one who knows more. (Soorah-Yoosuf (12), aayah 76)

Every person who has knowledge, there will be another person who knows more than him and above all of them is Allaah, the Most High with His knowledge. And He commanded His Messenger to say:

رَّبِّ زِدْنِي عِلْمًا 

Oh my Lord, increase me in knowledge. (Soorah Taa-Haa (20), aayah 114)

So, the person who restricts the knowledge of Allaah and says He knows such and such but He does not know such and such, this one is a disbeliever (kaafir) since he has belittled Him and denied the generality of His knowledge of everything.[2]

Footnotes:

[1] Reported by Muslim (2,713) from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiyAllaahu `anhu.

[2] Translator’s side point: Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmee rahimahullaah said,

“With regard to this sentence, there appears to be something missing in  the wording here and what is apparent that the meaning is “And He does not know what will be except after it has occurred” and this was the statement of Hishaam ibn Al-Hakam; the head of misguidance, the one who said Allaah does not know things until they actually happen. So, he clearly stated that He, the Perfect does not know anything until He brings about knowledge for Himself of it and this is clear disbelief. Refer to the book Al-Fissal of Ibn Hazm.

I,Shaykh Ahmad, say, the saying that “Allaah does not know things until they have actually happened,” this is the saying of some of the Mu`tazilah and it is a false and futile saying. Whoever believes that then he has disbelieved. So, knowledge (al-ilm) is an attribute of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. Allaah knew whatever was and whatever will not be and whatever is. If something were to occur, how it will be and He wrote it down in the preserved tablet (al-Lawh al-Mahfudh) before He created the heavens and the earth. So, therefore, whoever denies al-ilm (Allaah’s knowledge) then he is a disbeliever. It’s obligatory that his repentance should be sought and he’ll either repent or he’ll be executed for disbelief and apostasy. And the Salaf (predecessors) said with regard to the Qadariyyah, “Argue with them concerning Allaah’s knowledge for if they deny it, they are disbelievers.” And success is granted by Allaah.”

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/

All of the Existence is with the Command of Allaah – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lessons 34 : Point 45
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

And know that reptiles, beasts of prey and all creatures such as the tiniest ant, flies and bees are all acting as they have been commanded and they not do anything except with the permission of Allaah, the Most High.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

The whole of the creation is under orders relating to the creation. The sun proceeds and the moon proceeds and the stars and the planets orbit and the creatures and the bird, everything proceeds upon the order that Allaah has decreed for it.

قَالَ رَبُّنَا الَّذِي أَعْطَىٰ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلْقَهُ ثُمَّ هَدَىٰ – 20:50

He gave everything its due form and nature and created an appropriate mate for it and then He guided it to acquiring its benefit.

(Soorah Taa Haa (20), aayah 50)[1]

So, He ordered the whole of this worldly life and whatever is within it from existing things and beings and planets and heavens and the earth, all of them proceed in accordance with preordainment and predecree of the Creator, the Perfect and Most High and they comply with His commands relating to the creation.

إِنَّمَا أَمْرُهُ إِذَا أَرَادَ شَيْئًا أَن يَقُولَ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ – 36:82

Verily, His Command, when He intends a thing, is only that He says to it, “Be!” and it is! (Soorah Yaaseen (36), aayah 82)

So they precede and pass along in accordance with the command of Allaah, the Perfect and Most High and in accordance with His pre-decree and His creation and His will and His wish in submission to Him, He, the Perfect and Most High.

كُلٌّ يَجْرِي لِأَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى

Each running its course for an appointed time. (Soorah Ra`d (13), aayah 2)

His saying, “And they not do anything except with the permission of Allaah, the Most High,” meaning with the permission of Allaah relating to the creation and it is al-amrul kowniyy (His creational command) and the mashee-ah (His wish), Allaah, the Perfect and Most High. So, they do not proceed on the basis of their own desires or upon control from someone besides Allaah, the Majestic and Most High and therefore when the tyrant king said to Ibraheem `alayhissalaam:

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِي حَاجَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ فِي رَبِّهِ أَنْ آتَاهُ اللَّهُ الْمُلْكَ إِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ رَبِّيَ الَّذِي يُحْيِي وَيُمِيتُ قَالَ أَنَا أُحْيِي وَأُمِيتُ ۖ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْتِي بِالشَّمْسِ مِنَ الْمَشْرِقِ فَأْتِ بِهَا مِنَ الْمَغْرِبِ فَبُهِتَ الَّذِي كَفَرَ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ – 2:258

 “I give life and cause death.” Ibrahim (Abraham) said, “Verily! Allah causes the sun to rise from the east; then cause it you to rise from the west.” So the disbeliever was utterly defeated. And Allah guides not the people, who are Zalimun (wrong-doers, etc.). (Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 258)

So, the actions of Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, no one is able to do them or to copy them. So, He is the one who controls the creation, He, the Perfect and Most High and He orders it in the best and most precise arrangement, it does not alter and it does not change.

مَّا تَرَىٰ فِي خَلْقِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ مِن تَفَاوُتٍ – 67:3

You will not see any gap in that which the Most Merciful has created.(Sooratul-Mulk (67), aayah 3)

So, the sun and the moon and the stars and the heavens and the earth since Allaah created them until Allaah wishes the end of this world, they proceed in accordance with the pre-decreed and divinely arranged order that does not change and does not alter.[2]

Footnotes:

[1] Translator’s side point: Explanation been taken from Tafseer AtTabaree as usual.

[2] Translator’s side point: Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmee rahimahullaah said,

“These created beings, Allaah, the Perfect and Most High created them and for each one of them He appointed ibaadah (worship). So, each one of these creatures and wild animals and reptiles and other than that each one of them carries our ibaadah (worship); the worship that it is being commanded with. He, the Most High said:

أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَالطَّيْرُ صَافَّاتٍ ۖ كُلٌّ قَدْ عَلِمَ صَلَاتَهُ وَتَسْبِيحَهُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِمَا يَفْعَلُونَ 

وَلِلَّهِ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ وَإِلَى اللَّهِ الْمَصِيرُ 

Do you not see that Allaah, whoever is within the heavens and the earth declare His Perfection and the birds spreading their wings. Each one knows its own prayer and glorification of Him and Allaah knows whatever they do and to Allaah belongs the Sovereignty of the heavens and the earth and return will be to Allaah. (Sooratul-Noor (24), aayah 41-42)

And from this aayah, we know that these creatures and birds have different types of worship for which Allaah created them and they carry them out in compliance with command of their Lord. They do not do anything from themselves and Allaah is the One who grants success.”

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/

It is obligatory upon the Muslim to avoid reflecting upon the Self of Allaah – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lessons 34 : Point 44
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

And reflecting about Allaah is an innovation because of the saying of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, “Reflect upon the creation and do not reflect upon Allaah because reflecting about the Lord casts doubt into the heart.”

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

It is obligatory upon the Muslim to avoid reflecting upon the Self of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic and reflecting upon how (kayfiyyah), how of His names and attributes and actions? Because Allaah, the Majestic and Most High says:

يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِهِ عِلْمًا 

He, Allaah knows whatever is in front of them and whatever is behind them and they do not encompass Him with knowledge. (Soorah Taa Haa (20), aayah 110)

So it is upon you to have eemaan in Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic and to venerate the Lord, the Perfect and Most High without reflecting upon His Self and how His names and attributes are.

His saying, “Reflect upon the creation but do not reflect upon Allaah,”[1] reflect upon the things created by Allaah and upon the signs Allaah has put in the creation (aayaat ul-kowniyyah).This will indicate to you the power of Allaah.

Then he mentions some lines of poetry:

“So how can the One truly worshipped be disobeyed

or how can the denier deny Him when in everything

there is a sign for him proving that He is one.”

So you should reflect upon the signs within the creation, in the heavens and the earth and the mountains and the rocks and the trees and the oceans and the created beings to derive proof from them for the tremendousness of the Creator, the Perfect and Most High and reflect upon the aayahs of Allaah in the Qur’aan. But as for your reflecting upon Allaah’s Self and how His names and attributes are, then you will not be able to reach that.

 وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِهِ عِلْمًا 

And they do not encompass Him with knowledge.
(Soorah Taa Haa (20), aayah 110)[2]

Footnotes:

[1] Reported by atTabaraaniyy in his book Al-Awsat and also by al-Laalikaa`ee in his book Sharh Usool al-I’tiqaad from a hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn `Umar and the reality is some of the verifiers point out of those books that the chain of narration of that hadeeth is weak there and the hadeeth is also reported though by Aboo Shaykh in his book Al-Adama and by Abul Qaasim al-Asbahaaniyy in his book AtTargheeb as a hadeeth of Ibn Abbaas radiyAllaahu `anhuma and this hadeeth was declared to be hasan (good) by Shaykh al-Albaaniyy due to its having a number of narrations of support also from  a narration of Aboo Hurayrah radiyAllaahu `anhu and so on. At the end Shaykh al-Albaaniyy mentioned the different narrations. In summary, he said in As-Saheehah no. 1,788, “The hadeeth when its chain of narrations gathered is hasan (good) in my view and Allaah knows best.”

[2] Translator’s side point:

Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmee rahimahullaah said:  “Reflect upon the creation but do not reflect upon Allaah,” The verifier of the book mentioned that the hadeeth has some weakness in it and he mentioned that Shaykh al-Albaaniyy authenticates the hadeeth as being a hadeeth that is hasan (good) due to supports and he gave the reference for that. I (Shaykh Ahmad)  say,

“This hadeeth, its authentication needs examination and it may be the case that it is the speech of some of the Salaf and I say that reflecting upon Allaah meaning with regard to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic’s Self, this is not befitting because a servant if he thinks, he reflects then he will only think and reflect based upon what his intellect pictures and based upon what crosses his mind with regard to things that he’s actually seen or heard or known whereas Allaah, the Perfect and Most High is above all of that. So, it is not befitting that anyone reflects upon His Self, He, the Most High because whenever a person imagines something then Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic will be contrary to it.

What will suffice us is to reflect upon Allaah’s creation and with regard to His tremendous and amazing ability and if a person were to reflect upon his own origin that will suffice him. So, let him reflect upon how Allaah caused that sperm drop to change, which He created him from into this tremendous being. How Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic changed that sperm drop from which He created an animal; one animal from another animal and how Allaah prepared everything from the created beings for that which He intended from it. So, Allaah prepared the cows for cultivation and He prepared the camels for carrying and so on and so forth as we can see and as we know. So, the One who is able to change that sperm drop into a person and a different one into an animal, is He not the Lord who has full ability over everything? Yes indeed and we bear witness over that.

So, what is important is that reflection should be upon the creation of Allaah not about His Self and let us read the saying of Allaah, the Most High:

لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ البَصِيرُ

There is nothing like Him and He is the All-Hearing, the All-Seeing.

(Sooratush-Shooraa (42), aayah 11)

And it is obligatory upon us to submit to this aayah so that our minds do not stumble into things that are not befitting and if it is the case that Paradise contains things that no eye has ever seen and no ear has ever heard of nor have ever crossed the heart, never crossed the mind of any human and it is a created thing created by Allaah then how about the Self of Allaah? And success is granted by Allaah.”

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/

Whoever claims that he saw his Lord in this world then he is a disbeliever in Allaah – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lessons 34 : Point 43
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

ومن زعم أنه يرى ربه في دار الدنيا فهو كافر بالله عز وجل

And whoever claims that he sees his Lord in this world then he is a disbeliever in Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

Whoever claims that anyone can see Allaah in this world, seeing Him with their eyes not seeing Him in a dream then he is a disbeliever; kaafir because Allaah, the Majestic and Most High cannot be seen in this world and therefore when kaleemullaah, the one to whom Allaah spoke, Moosa alayhissalam:

قَالَ رَبِّ أَرِنِي أَنظُرْ إِلَيْكَ ۚ قَالَ لَن تَرَانِي وَلَٰكِنِ انظُرْ إِلَى الْجَبَلِ فَإِنِ اسْتَقَرَّ مَكَانَهُ فَسَوْفَ تَرَانِي

لَمَّا تَجَلَّىٰ رَبُّهُ لِلْجَبَلِ جَعَلَهُ دَكًّا وَخَرَّ مُوسَىٰ صَعِقًا

Moosaa (`alayhissalaam) said, “Oh my Lord, show Yourself to me so that I may look upon You.” So He said, “You will not see Me, however look at the mountain and if it remains settled at its place then you will see Me.”

(Sooratul-A`raaf (7), aayah 143)

So no one can see Allaah in this world (dunya). This is a point of consensus (ijmaa) amongst the scholars. Rather, seeing Allaah will be in the Hereafter because the people in this world are weak, they are not able to see Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic because of their weakness and therefore when Allaah manifested Himself to the mountain, it shattered and became dust. So, how about the son of Aadam who is made of flesh and blood?

But as for in the Hereafter, Allaah will give to the believers strength through which they will be able to see Allaah and they will delight in seeing Him, He, the Perfect and Most High. So, seeing Allaah in the Hereafter is established and is mutawaatir (quoted by a huge number of people at each level of transmission) is established for the believers. But as for in this world then no one will see Allaah with His eyes.

They disagree whether the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam saw Him on the night of the ascent through the Heavens or did not see Him. And what is correct or the great majority are upon is that the Messenger did not see Him with His eye but rather, he saw Him with his heart and with his insight because no one can see Allaah in this life, because Allah is greater than that anyone should see Him in this life and therefore when the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam was asked:

“Did you see your Lord on the night of the ascent (mi`raaj), ascent through the Heavens?” He said, “Noorun Anna Araahu.” (Light, how could I see Him?) ”[1]

Footnotes:

[1] Reported by Muslim hadeeth no. (178) from a hadeeth of Aboo Tharr radiyAllaahu `anh that the Prophet responded:

“Light, how could I see Him?”

And he said:

“His screen is light, if He were to uncover it then the shining light of His face would consume whatever his gaze came upon from His creation.

Hadeeth also reported by Muslim (179) from a hadeeth of Aboo Moosaa radiyAllaahu `anhu.

Translator’s side point:

Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmee rahimahullaah said,

“As for the saying of the author,  ‘Whoever claims that he can see His Lord in the life of this world then he is a disbeliever in Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic’.  I say, this claim has been claimed by many of the heretic Soofees, those who say that they see their Lord and they see the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam and take from him and take from Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic directly and they believe that they are in a station higher than the station of Messengership and whoever claims this claim then he is a kaafir (disbeliever). There is no doubt about his disbelief and Allaah is the one who grants success.”

Shaykh Saalih as-Suhaymee hafizahullaah likewise mentions the same point that,

“This is the claim of the extreme Soofees, those who claim that they can take knowledge directly from Allaah, the Most High by way of Kashf and who claim that they can obtain knowledge of the hidden and unseen (ghaib) directly from Allaah, the Most High, this point refers to the like of them and that claim is disbelief.”

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/

The Attributes of Allaah & The Creed of Ahlus-Sunnah wal Jama’ah – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lessons 32 & 33 : Point 42
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

وكل ما سمعت من الآثار شيئا مما لم يبلغه عقلك نحو قول رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قلوب العباد بين إصبعين من أصابع الرحمن عز وجل وقوله إن الله ينزل إلى السماء الدنيا وينزل يوم عرفة وينزل يوم القيامة وإن جهنم لا يزال يطرح فيها حتى يضع عليها قدمه جل ثناؤه وقول الله تعالى للعبد إن مشيت إلي هرولت إليك وقوله خلق الله آدم على صورته وقول رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم رأيت ربي في أحسن صورة وأشباه هذه الأحاديث فعليك بالتسليم والتصديق والتفويض والرضا ولا تفسر شيئا من هذه بهواك فإن الإيمان بهذا واجب فمن فسر شيئا من هذا بهواه ورده فهو جهمي

And whenever you hear something from the narrations, which your intellect cannot fully comprehend such as the saying of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam : “The hearts of the servants are between two fingers from the fingers of the Most Merciful, the Mighty and Majestic”

and His saying:  “Allaah descends to the lowest heaven and He descends on the Day of `Arafah and He will descend on the Day of Resurrection and that the Hellfire will continue to have people cast into it until He, the Majestic and Praise will place His foot upon it”

and the saying of Allaah the Most High to the servant: “if you come towards Me walking, I will comes towards you running.”

And His saying “Allaah created Aadam upon His image.”

And the saying of the Messenger of Allaah sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam : “I saw my Lord in the most excellent form” and the like of these ahaadeeth.

Then upon you is to submit and to believe and to consign the how to Allaah and to be pleased and do not explain anything from this based upon your desires since having eemaan in this is obligatory so whoever explains anything from this based upon his desires and rejects it then he is a Jahmee.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

The texts of the sifaat (attributes) that are established for Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, it is obligatory upon you to affirm them just as they come upon their reality without interfering with them with your intellect and saying this does not befit Allaah. Allaah is declared free of that and this is resemblance; tashbeeh, as is said by the Mu’attilah; deniers of the attributes or that you believe that Allaah resembles His creation as is said by the Mumaththilah; those who declare the Creator to be like the creation. So each of the two groups are upon misguidance.

  • Mu`attilah; those who deny the attributes, they went beyond the limit in tanzeeh (declaring Allaah free) to such an extent that they denied the names and attributes in order to flee away from tashbeeh (resemblance) they claimed.
  • Mumaththilah; those who liken Allaah to the creation, they went beyond the limit in affirming to such an extent that they likened Allaah to His creation.

Both of these positions are baatil (false and futile).

And the position of the Ahl-ul-Sunnah is al-wasat (the middle and justly balanced position), they affirm the names and attributes for Allaah with affirmation without tashbeeh (without likening Allaah to the creation) and they negate from Him any resemblance to a created being declaring Him free of imperfections but without denying the attributes. This is the position of the Ahl-ul Sunnah W`al Jama`ah. In accordance with His saying He the Most High said:

لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ ۖ

There is nothing like Him.
(Sooratus-Shurah (42) aayah 11)

This is a refutation of the Mumaththilah; those who liken Allaah to the creation, “there is nothing like Him.”

وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ

And He, Allaah is the All-Hearing, the All-Seeing.
(Sooratus-Shurah (42) aayah 11)

This is a refutation of the Mu`attilah; those who deny the attributes and the aayah proves that affirming the names and attributes does not necessitate tashbeeh (resemblance) to the creation nor tamtheel (His being like) the creation and the fact that the people affirm whatever attributes He has affirmed for Himself or His Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, we affirm those attributes and that in no way necessitates that we have likened Him to the creation or declared Him to be resemblance to the creation. This is the correct methodology with regard to the matter of Al-Asma Wa-Sifaat (names and the attributes).

Like such as “The hearts of the servants are between two fingers from the fingers of the Most Merciful, the Mighty and Majestic,”[1] you should affirm asaabi` (the fingers) for the Most Merciful as occurs in the hadeeth and you should not say that they are like the fingers of the created being for this is tashbeeh (likening) Him to the creation, we declare Allaah free of it. Rather, we affirm it as befits the Majesty of Allaah, the Perfect and Most High not like the fingers of the created beings.

And we affirm the Hadeeth Qudsee in which Allaah, the Majestic and Most High says:

“Whoever comes to me walking, I come to him running.”[2]

Meaning whoever hastens towards My pleasure and towards obedience to Me then I will hasten to forgive his sins and to carry out his needs. so the meaning of harwalah (running) is not the meaning that is well-known with us but rather it is explained by the end of the hadeeth by His saying, “If he were to ask Me, I would certainly give to him and if he were to ask My refuge, I would certainly grant him refuge.” So, the meaning of al-harwalah here is hastening to carry out the needs of His servant just as the servant hastens to the obedience to Allaah. So, does the servant run in reality or in meaning?[3]

So this contains a refutation of some of those who are overhasty in affirming al-harwalah (running) for Allaah and this is the case of actions which are done as a response just as He, the Most High said:

فَيَسْخَرُونَ مِنْهُمْ ۙ سَخِرَ اللَّهُ مِنْهُمْ

So they (the disbelievers) mock at the believers, Allaah will mock at them.(Sooratut-Towbah (9), aayah 79)

He, the Most High said:

إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ مُسْتَهْزِئُونَ

اللَّهُ يَسْتَهْزِئُ بِهِمْ

They (the hypocrites) say, “We were only mocking.” Allaah will mock them.(Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 14-15)

He, the Most High said:

وَمَكَرُوا وَمَكَرَ اللَّهُ ۖ وَاللَّهُ خَيْرُ الْمَاكِرِينَ

And they plotted and Allaah planned.
(Soorah Aali `Imraan (3), aayah 154)

So, it is obligatory to have awareness of these tremendous principles so that a person may be upon clear insight and be aware of the position of the Salaf with regard to it; those who are more firmly grounded than you and had more knowledge than you and a person should not try and make himself independent with his own understanding and his own intellect and affirm for Allaah things that he does not know about based upon what is apparent or based upon some unclear things, when there are decisive evidences, which explain and clarify them. So, it is obligatory to refer that which is unclear back to that which is clear and only those who are firmly grounded in knowledge will be guided to doing this. So, it is obligatory upon the student of knowledge and the beginner that he should not be hasty in these matters. Rather, he should withhold with regard to them and he should learn how he is to understand them upon the methodology of the Salaf and upon the clear, correct way. The Salaf (predecessors) did not fall short in making the truth clear and in laying down principles and regulations. However, this requires learning and understanding.

And the like of this also is his saying sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam:

“Our Lord descends to the lowest heaven.”[4]

“And He descends on the evening of Arafah.”[5]

“He will come on the Day of Resurrection.”

He, the Most High said:

هَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَّا أَن يَأْتِيَهُمُ اللَّهُ فِي ظُلَلٍ مِّنَ الْغَمَامِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ وَقُضِيَ الْأَمْرُ ۚ وَإِلَى اللَّهِ تُرْجَعُ الْأُمُورُ

Do they but await that Allaah should come to them screened by clouds and the angels come and the affair will be finished and to Allaah return all affairs. (Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 210)

And likewise with regard to Allaah, the Most High’s coming on the Day of Resurrection, it occurs also as a side point in a hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah radiyAllaahu `anh.[6]

“He will come on the Day of Resurrection to carry out judgement upon His servants.”[7]

We affirm these matters for Allaah upon their reality (haqeeqah) without interfering by defining the kayfiyyah (how). So, we do not burden ourselves with awareness of how He will descend and how He will come. So, the kayfiyyah (how), we do not enter into it but as for the meaning then it is ma’qool (understood) and therefore, when Imaam Maalik was asked about how al-istiwaa; how the ascending is when the questioner said:

الرَّحْمَٰنُ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ اسْتَوَىٰ

The Most Merciful ascended over the Throne.
(Soorah Taa Haa (20), aayah 5)

Then the questioner said to Imaam Maalik:

“How did He ascend?”

He was asking about kayfiyyah (how).

Imaam Maalik rahimahullaah said to him:

الاستواء معلوم

“The ascending is known.”

Meaning known with regard to its meaning.

Imaam Maalik said:

والكيف مجهول , والإيمان به واجب , والسؤال عنه بدعة

“And how is unknown and having eemaan in it is obligatory and asking about it is bid’ah (innovation).”

This is the sound methodology in the like of these affairs.[8]

Likewise, affirmation of assoorah (a form) for Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic in his saying sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam:

“Allaah created Aadam upon his image.”[9]

And in a narration:

“Upon the form of the Most Merciful one.”[10]

So, we affirm assoorah (a form or image) for Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic just as His Messenger affirmed it for Him in his saying:

“I saw my Lord in the best form.” [11]

i.e this was in the world seeing Him in a dream in the best form. It contains affirmation of assoorah (form or image) for Allaah, the Majestic and Most High as befits His Majesty, not like the images of the created beings but rather, it is the assoorah (image or form) of the Most Merciful, the Majestic and Most High. So, these matters, we affirm them and we do not enter into them nor raise doubts about them nor delve further into them.

His saying, “We consign or surrender the matter,” what is correct is to perform tafweed of the kayfiyyah (how) it is, not tafweed of the meaning.[12]

His saying, “Do not explain anything from these with your desires,” rather you must explain them with the correct meaning that befits Allaah, the Majestic and Most High. It should not be said that they are not to be explained. Rather, they are to be explained and their meaning is to be made clear and tafweed (surrender, consigning) is just with regard to how only. So, therefore you affirm an-nuzool (His descending) but you negate the kayfiyyah (how). Allaah, the Majestic and Most High comes on the Day of Resurrection to carry out the judgement just as He, the Most High said:

وَجَاءَ رَبُّكَ وَالْمَلَكُ صَفًّا صَفًّا

And your Lord will come. (Sooratul-Fajr (89), aayah 22)

هَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَّا أَن يَأْتِيَهُمُ اللَّهُ فِي ظُلَلٍ مِّنَ الْغَمَامِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ وَقُضِيَ الْأَمْرُ ۚ وَإِلَى اللَّهِ تُرْجَعُ الْأُمُورُ

Do they but await that Allaah comes to them screened by clouds and the angels and the affair is concluded. (Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 210)

He, the Perfect will come to carry out judgement upon His servants. However, it is not like the coming of the created being and the coming of one of the creation. Rather, it is coming as befits His Majesty however He wishes, He, the Perfect and Most High.

His saying, “You should not explain any of this Bi Hawaaka (with your desires),” meaning do not explain them without knowledge (`ilm) but as for your explaining them as necessitated by the evidences and referring that which is unclear back to that which is clear then there is no harm in it. But as for a person who is a beginner or an ignorant person then he should not enter into these very grave matters and these tremendous matters because this is a mistake and something very dangerous and I see many of the youth who feign knowledge being bold upon the matters of `aqeedah and they start to derive things from them and to speak about them and then they have enmity towards each other based upon these things and they break ties with each other when they disagree.

So, oh brothers, Allaah did not burden us with these matters. Upon you is to proceed upon the methodology of the Salaf and to say what they said. The books of `aqeedah are precisely written and all praise is for Allaah and printed and corrected and being studied and carefully checked so do not introduce things from yourselves and understandings from yourselves, you have been  sufficed having to do this.

His saying, “Having eemaan in this is obligatory,” having eemaan in the names of Allaah and attributes and His actions is obligatory. It is obligatory upon the servant and from having eemaan in Allaah is to have eemaan in His names and His attributes as befits His Majesty, He, the Perfect and Most High. So, the person who interferes in the matters of names and attributes, either with ta`teel (negation) or with tamtheel (likening the Creator to the creation) or with tafweed (claiming ignorance about the meaning) or by bringing explanation from himself then this person has not believed in Allaah with true and full eemaan. Rather, his eemaan is deficient.

His saying, “So, whoever explains anything from this based upon his desires and rejects it then he is a Jahmee,” the Jahmiyyah negated the names and attributes because they explain them in accordance with what befits the created being. There is no doubt that Allaah is declared free of that which befits the created being. So, they initially likened Him and then secondly, they negated based upon their tamtheel (having likened Him to the creation) since nothing was apparent to them from these texts except that which resembles the created beings.

So, therefore they denied them on account of that but as for if they had just said these texts contain attributes and names of Allaah in reality, that they are as befit Him, they are not like the names of the created beings nor like the attributes of the created beings, if they’d just followed this methodology, they would have been safe and sound but they were afflicted on account of their understanding and their desires.

And the Jahmiyyah, this is an ascription to Al-Jahm ibn Safwaan at-Tirmidhiyy or As-Samar Qandee, this well-known deviant, ascribed to the town of Tirmidh or the area of Samar Qand and he was the first one who manifested the saying that the Qur’aan is created and who had the saying that the names and the attributes are to be negated and who said that eemaan is just merely awareness in the heart to the rest of his sayings of misguidance and disbelief. So, whoever holds this belief then he is ascribed to him or it is to be said this person is a Jahmee in ascription to Al-Jahm.

Footnotes:

[1] Part of a hadeeth reported by Muslim (2,654) from a hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn `Amr ibn al-`Aas radiyAllaahu `anhuma.

[2] Reported by Al-Bukhaariyy (7,405) and Muslim (2,675) from a hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah radiyAllaahu `anh.

[3] Side point: Whether ar-harwalah (running) is to be understood literally or it’s to be explained as Shaykh al-Fowzaan mentioned in the likes of what occurs at the end of the hadeeth then as Shaykh al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah said, This is also what was said by Shaykh ul-Islaam ibn Taymeeyah in Majmoo` al-Fataawa and likewise you’ll find in the explanation of Shaykh Saalih Aal ash-Shaykh upon Al-Waasitiyyah of Ibn Taymeeyah, the same explanation, he explained it that here in this particular hadeeth al-harwalah means Allaah, the Most High’s hastening to carry out the needs of His servant and to forgive him.

However, there are others from the People of Knowledge who affirm al-harwalah (running) as an attribute for Allaah, the Most High as is apparent. From them was Imaam Ad-Daranee in his refutation of Al-Mareesee. Likewise, from the present day scholars Shaykh bin Baaz rahimahullaah in his fataawa; Fataawa Noor `Alaa al-Darb. Likewise, Shaykh ibn `Uthaymeen in his fataawa and in his fataawa of al-`aqeedah in his book Al-Qawaa`id al-Muthlaa and Shaykh `Ubayd in his explanation, he agreed with that as well. Likewise, the Saudi Lajna also and likewise, Shaykh al-Albaaniyy in Silsilatul Huda Wan-Noor tape series, all of them affirming this as an attribute for Allaah as befits His Majesty.”

Likewise, Shaykh Saalih as-Suhaymee hafizahullaah said in his taped explanation – “So, the Salaf had a great deal of speech concerning it, however, what has most right in the matter is that we should have eemaan in it as befits the Majesty of Allaah, meaning we affirm it as an attribute for Allaah as it stands and it is a proof for His responding to His creation, we affirm the attribute and what’s necessitated by the attribute is that Allaah indeed responds to His creation. So what is indicated by the attribute and its affect is His reward. So affirming the attribute ar-harwalah has more right than the saying of those who say that it means giving reward alone.”

[4] Reported by Al-Bukhaariyy (6,321) and Muslim (758) from Abu Hurayrah radiyAllaahu `anhu.

[5] Reported by Muslim (1,348) from `Aa`ishah that Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

“There is no day when Allaah frees more slaves from the fire than the day of Arafah and He indeed draws close then He boasts about them to the angels and says “what do those people want?” 

[6] Reported by Al Bukhaariyy (806) and Muslim (182), a long hadeeth containing the wording:

“And Allaah will come to them, He, the Mighty and Majestic.” 

[7] He, the Most High said:

وَجَاءَ رَبُّكَ وَالْمَلَكُ صَفًّا صَفًّا

And your Lord will come and the angels in ranks.
(Sooratul-Fajr (89), aayah 22)

[8] Side point: Shaykh Saalih as-Suhaymee hafizahullaah in his explanation mentioned a number of attributes and he applied the same principle to each one with regard to Allaah’s hand for example, he says, “The hand the meaning is known, the how is unknown, having eemaan in it is obligatory and asking how is an innovation.”

[9] Reported by Al Bukhaariyy (6,227) and reported by Muslim (2,841) from a hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah radiyAllaahu `anhu.

[10] Reported by AtTabaraaniyy in Al-Mu’jam al-Kabeer and by Al-Haarith ibn `Abee Usaamah in his Musnad and by Ibn Khuzaymah in Kitaab at-Tawheed from a hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn `Umar radiyAllaahu `anhuma and it was declared authentic by Imaam Ahmad and Ishaaq ibn Raahaweyh as occurs in Meezaan al-I’tidaal of Imaam athThahabiyy.

Side point: Some of the People of Knowledge such as Ibn Khuzaymah and some others declare this wording to be weak and likewise Shaykh al-Albaaniyy declared this wording weak in AdDa`eefah, hadeeth number 1,176 because of four weaknesses in the chain of narration. Ibn Khuzaymah himself pointed out three of the weaknesses and Shaykh al-Albaaniyy mentions the 4th weakness as well, Allaahu `Aalam.

[11] Reported by Imaam Ahmad in his Musnad and it should be volume 5, page 243 and by At-Tirmidhiyy in his Sunan from a hadeeth of Mu`aadh radiyAllaahu `anhu and it was declared authentic by At-Tirmidhiyy and he mentioned Al-Bukhaariyy declared it authentic also and likewise it was declared  saheeh (authentic) by Shaykh al-Albaaniyy.

[12] Side Point: The position of the People of the Sunnah is with regard to the attributes of Allaah, the Most High then we say just as Imaam Maalik said as for the meaning of the attributes then we affirm the meaning but as regards to how the attribute is then we do not know so that is what we consign to Allaah, we give up on that, how it is; we do not know, we leave that to our Lord, Allaahu `Aalam. Whereas, as regards to the Mufawwidah; the deviant group then they  do the tafweed of the meaning i.e  they say we don’t know what the meaning is.

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/

No Muslim Exits Islaam Unless He Perpetrates That Which Nullifies It – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 32 : Point 41
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

ولا يخرج أحد من أهل القبلة من الإسلام حتى يرد آية من كتاب الله عز وجل أو يرد شيئا من آثار رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أو يصلي لغير الله أو يذبح لغير الله وإذا فعل شيئا من ذلك فقد وجب عليك أن تخرجه من الإسلام فإذا لم يفعل شيئا من ذلك فهو مؤمن ومسلم بالاسم لا بالحقيقة

And no one from the People of the Qiblah leaves Islaam unless he rejects an aayah from the Book of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic or rejects anything from the narrations from Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam or praise to other than Allaah or sacrifices for other than Allaah. So, if he does any of that then it is binding upon you to expel him from Islaam and if he does not do anything from that then he is a believer and a Muslim in name, even if not in reality.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

No one from the People of the Qiblah exits from Islaam except through committing one of the well-known nawaaqid (nullifiers of Islaam) along with any valid excuse being removed.

His saying, “or through his rejecting anything from the narrations of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, if he denies the Qur’aan or a part of it or the authentic Sunnah or a part of it or he rebuts anything from the Qur’aan or rebuts anything from the authentic Sunnah then he is judged to be guilty of riddah (apostasy) because he is denying the truth of what has been said by Allaah and his Messenger as long as he is not jaahil (an ignorant person) or muqallid (someone just blindly following somebody else) or muta`awwil (somebody’s who’s misinterpreting), in which case the matter is made clear to him and when it is made clear to him and if he still persists then he is judged to be guilty of apostasy. And what is meant by aathaar (narrations from Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) is the ahaadeeth.

And his saying, “or he rejects anything from the narrations of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, meaning he becomes a disbeliever and this is a tremendous principle with the people of the Sunnah and the Jamaa`ah. With it they contradict two groups;

  • Khawaarij and the extremists, those who declare people to be disbelievers on account of kabaa`ir (committing major sins), which are less than shirk and,
  • Murji`ah, those who say that sin does not harm if a person has eemaan as long as the person is a believer; has eemaan in his heart then no sins will harm him even if he leaves off all actions and does not do any action then he will be a believer (mu`min) who is complete in his eemaan.

As for the Ahl-ul Sunnah W`al Jamaa`ah (the people of the Sunnah and the Jamaa`ah) then it is just as the author said that they are upon a middle and balanced position between the two groups. So they say that the kabaa`ir (major sins) vary. So, if it something from shirk or major kufr then he exits from the religion by consensus. And as for if it is not kufr (disbelief) and if it is not shirk and it is not denying the Book of Allaah nor the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah and it is not abandoning the prayer and it is not calling upon other than Allaah or sacrificing for other than Allaah, rather  it is just a major sin, it is less than that then this does not cause a person to exit from Islaam contrary to the Khawaarij and the Mu`tazilah. However, it does harm the believer and it will reduce his eemaan contrary to the Murji`ah, those who say that sin does not harm along with eemaan. So, this is the middle position, which harmonises between the texts of Wa’eed (which mention a threat of punishment) and the texts of Wa‘ad ( which mentions a promise of reward)

The Khawaarij and the Mu`tazilah took hold of the texts of the threat and they abandoned the texts of promise. Whereas, the Murji’ah did the opposite, they took hold of the texts of promise and they abandoned the texts where there is a threat. So, each of the two groups are daal (astray).

His saying, “or unless he prays to other than Allaah or he sacrifices for other than Allaah,” such that he prays towards a grave seeking nearness to it or he makes prostration to an idol or he makes a sacrifice for other than Allaah and does anything from the acts of worship for other than Allaah then this person is a mushrik (a person of shirk), a kaafir (disbeliever) outside the religion and whatever is lesser than that then the people of the Sunnah are upon a middle position with regard to him in between the Murji`ah and the Khawaarij.

His saying, “and if he does anything from that then it becomes binding upon you to expel him from Islaam,” if he does anything from that, meaning if he prays to other than Allaah or sacrifices for other than Allaah or does an act of worship for other than Allaah then it is binding upon you to expel him from the religion and it is binding upon you to believe that he is a disbeliever (kaafir) and you may not say this is not my concern or I don’t know about him. Rather, it is obligatory upon you to declare the disbeliever and the mushrik to be a disbeliever and that you declare the sinner to be a sinner, one who commits a major sin, which is less than shirk. So, the truth about this matter must be made clear.

His saying, “and if he does not do anything from that then he is a believer and a Muslim in name, even if not in reality,” meaning with regard to what is apparent with us and his hidden condition is left to Allaah.

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Funeral Prayer (Janaazah) over the Muslims who committed Major Sins – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 31 : Point 40
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

والصلاة على من مات من أهل القبلة سنة والمرجوم والزاني والزانية والذي يقتل نفسه وغيره من أهل القبلة والسكران وغيرهم الصلاة عليهم سنة

And to pray over whoever dies from the People of the Qiblah is the Sunnah and over the one who has been stoned to death and the male fornicator and the female fornicator and the one who commits suicide and other than him from the People of the Qiblah and the drunkard and other than them, the funeral prayer over them is the Sunnah.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

This is just as has preceded that whoever manifests eemaan and Islaam, we pray funeral prayer over him and he is from the People of the Qiblah and they are those who pray towards the Ka’bah (the direction of prayer of the Muslims), those people we deal with them in accordance with what is apparent so we judge them to be Muslims and we treat them as we treat the Muslims whilst they are alive and when they are dead.

His saying, “and likewise the one who has been stoned to death and the male fornicator and the female fornicator and the one who has committed suicide and other than him from the People of the Qiblah”, the sinful believer who does not exit from Islaam on account of his major sin is treated as a Muslim and supplication is made for him just like the person who commits suicide and just like the one who is stoned for fornication and the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam prayed funeral prayer over those who were stoned to death. He prayed over Maa`iz radiyAllaahu `anhu and over Al-Ghaamidiyyah; the woman of the Ghaamidiyyah tribe radiyAllaahu `anhaa.[1] [2]

And he sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam would withhold from praying over some people such as the one who committed suicide and such as the person who misappropriated something from the booty in Allaah’s cause in order to discipline the people not because he was a disbeliever and therefore he gave permission to the companions to pray upon him and he did not prevent them from prayer over him because he is still a Muslim.

His saying, “and the drunkard and other than them, the prayer over them is Sunnah”, the one who drinks alcohol is a faasiq (sinner), the hadd (prescribed punishment) is established upon him. However, he does not exit from Islaam. So, if he dies then he is prayed over even if he used to drink alcohol because he is still from the People of the Qibla.

And his saying, “it is the Sunnah”, meaning it is from the Sunnah of the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, which it is obligatory to follow.[3]

Footnotes:

[1] This incident of Maa`iz with the long story connected to it; he came and he admitted what he had done and sought that he should be stoned to death is reported in Al-Bukhaariyy (6,820) in the book of hudood (prescribed punishments), Chapter 25 ‘Stoning to Death at the Musallaa (outdoor place of prayer)’ from the hadeeth of Jaabir.

Side point: contains the wording there when it mentions his story and that he was stoned to death and then at the end of it occurs that the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam prayed over him.

Side point: Shaykh Al-Albaaniyy said with regard to that wording there it is quoted at the end of the narration in a disconnected form and Shaykh Al-Albaaniyy said in IrwaAl Ghalil Volume 7, page 353 that this narration is actually shaaddah (contrary to what’s authentic) that the fact that the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam himself prayed over Maa`iz is contrary to the correct reports. It’s only reported by one narrator Mahmood ibn Gheelaan to the exclusion of all other narrators of this hadeeth and Al-Haafidh ibn Hajar mentions their names in Fathul Baari Volume 12, page 115-116. Likewise, in addition Aboo Daawood reports in his Sunan hadeeth 3,186 from Aboo Burdah Al-Aslami that Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam did not pray over Maa`iz ibn Malik and he did not forbid prayer over him.  Shaykh Al-Albaaniyy said this report by Aboo Daawood is hasan, saheeh (good, authentic), Allaahu A’lam.

[2] This hadeeth that she was stoned to death and the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam prayed over her, hadeeth being reported by Muslim (1,695) from hadeeth of Buraydah radiyAllaahu `anh.

[3] Side point: Shaykh as-Suhaymee hafizahullaah said,

“The author affirming that the prayer is said over all of them, there is tafseel  (detail) here  that needs to be mentioned, which is that he is to be prayed over by everyone except for the Imaam (ruler) because it is not befitting that the ruler should pray over those people so that the sinful people should not become emboldened to commit those sins and crimes. Rather, what is befitting is that they should be deterred from that. So, the ruler should not pray the funeral prayer over them. Rather, his deputy should pray over him so that the people should know that the ruler not praying over those people who have died, they should recognise it, it will be a deterrent for them and the people should recognise how despicable that action is, which has led the ruler to stay back from praying the funeral prayer over him. As for the rest of the nation then they should pray over those people.”

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

This world is an abode of Eemaan and Islaam – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 31 : Point 39
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

واعلم بأن الدنيا دار إيمان وإسلام وأمة محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم فيها مؤمنون مسلمون في أحكامهم ومواريثهم وذبائحهم والصلاة عليهم ولا نشهد لأحد بحقيقة الإيمان حتى يأتي بجميع شرائع الإسلام فإن قصر في شيء من ذلك كان ناقص الإيمان حتى يتوب واعلم أن إيمانه إلى الله تعالى تام الإيمان أو ناقص الإيمان إلا ما أظهر لك من تضييع شرائع الإسلام

And know that this world is an abode of eemaan (true faith) and Islaam and the nation of Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam in it are believers and Muslims with regard to rulings, inheritance, slaughtering animals and with regard to praying the funeral prayer over them. And we do not bear witness for any of them that he is a true believer unless he fulfils all of the duties of Islaam. So if he neglects any of that then he will be deficient in eemaan until he repents and you should know that his eemaan is left to Allaah, the Most High, to judge whether he is complete in eemaan or incomplete in eemaan unless he manifests to you neglect of the Islaamic duties.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

His saying, “And you should know that this world is an abode of eemaan (true faith) and Islaam”, meaning Islaam and eemaan (true faith) are in this world; duniya, which is the abode of action. As for the aakhirah (Hereafter) and it is the abode of jazaa (recompense). So Islaam and eemaan are to be found in this world. As for one who dies on other than Islaam and eemaan then he is a kaafir, a disbeliever and it will not benefit him, that on the Day of Resurrection when he witnesses that which he disbelieved in, that he then believes in it or that he wishes to return and seeks from his Lord that he can return in order to believe.

He the Most High said:

وَلَوْ تَرَىٰ إِذْ وُقِفُوا عَلَى النَّارِ فَقَالُوا يَا لَيْتَنَا نُرَدُّ وَلَا نُكَذِّبَ بِآيَاتِ رَبِّنَا وَنَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ 

And if only you could see when they are held in the Fire and they will say, woe to us, would that we could be sent back into the world and then do not deny the signs of our Lord and so that we could be from the believers.  (Sooratul-An’aam (6), aayah 27)

And there is a distinction between Islaam and eemaan (true faith) because the deen (religion) is of three levels:

  1. Islaam
  2. Al-eemaan (true faith)
  3. Al-ihsaan (perfection of worship). – highest level

As occurs in the hadeeth of Jibreel and the broadest and widest of these three levels is the level of Islaam because Islaam is al-Istislaam bid-dhaahir (to surrender outwardly) and he may be a believer inwardly or he may be a hypocrite who is just submitting outwardly but  a disbeliever inwardly.

As for eemaan, it is not applied to the hypocrite; munaafiq, for the believer who is complete in his eemaan enters into it and the believer who is deficient in his eemaan enters into it.

And when they Islaam and eemaan are mentioned together then in that case Islaam means the outward rulings and what is meant by eemaan are the inner rulings.[1]

As occurs in the hadeeth of Jibreel that:

“Islaam is that you testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah and that you establish the prayer and that you give the zakaah and that you fast ramadaan and that you perform Hajj to the house.”

These are the outward actions; actions of the tongue and the limbs.

Jibreel said to the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam:

“Inform me about eemaan (true faith).”

So he said:

“It is that you truly believe in Allaah and in His angels and in His books and in His Messengers, in the Last Day and that you truly believe in Al-Qadr (predecree), the good of it and the bad of it.[2]

These are the inward actions, in other words, the actions of the heart.

And Islaam and eemaan must be combined so if only one of them is mentioned then the other one enters within it. So if eemaan alone is mentioned then Islaam enters within it and if Islaam is mentioned then eemaan enters within it. And therefore, the People of Knowledge say Islaam and eemaan if they come together then they separate in meaning, when they are found separate then they come together, each one of them will have the meaning of both, meaning, in meaning just like the case of faqeer (the poor person) and al-miskeen (the destitute person), if they are mentioned together meaning in a text then the faqeer (the poor person) has a certain meaning and the word al-miskeen (the destitute person) has a separate meaning. When only one of them is mentioned then the other one enters within it.[3]

His saying, “and the nation of Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam in it are believers and Muslims with regard to their rulings and with regard to their inheritance and with regard to the animals that they slaughter and with regard to the funeral prayer over them”, the nation of Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam are Muslims and believers (mu`minoon) because whoever is a believer (a mu`min) then he will be a Muslim automatically. Whereas whoever is a Muslim then he may be a believer; a mu`min but he may be a hypocrite (munaafiq). However, as for correct Islaam then it must have eemaan along with it even if it is a small amount.

He the Most High said:

قَالَتِ الْأَعْرَابُ آمَنَّا ۖ قُل لَّمْ تُؤْمِنُوا وَلَٰكِن قُولُوا أَسْلَمْنَا

The desert Arabs, bedouins said, “we have believed.” Say, “you are not believers but rather you should say aslamnaa (we have submitted).”  (Sooratul-Hujuraat (49), aayah 14)

His saying, “and the nation of Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam in it are believers and Muslims with regard to their rulings and with regard to their inheritance”, the Muslim even if he is only such outwardly then he will have the ruling of the Muslims. They should ally themselves to him and if he dies, they should wash him and shroud him and pray the funeral prayer over him and bury him in the graveyard of the Muslims and whilst he is alive, they should love him and ally themselves with him and they have mercy amongst themselves and they behave as brothers between themselves. This is the nation of Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam who said:

“The likeness of the believers with regard to the mutual love and mutual mercy and mutual compassion is the likeness of a single body. If one part of it has a complaint then the rest of the body suffers sleeplessness and feverishness on account of it.”[4]

And he `alayhis-salaatu was-salaam said:

“The believer to the believer is just like a solid structure each part of which supports the rest (and he interlaced his fingers).”[5]

So the  believers are brothers; ikhwaa.

He the Most High said:

ِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِخْوَةٌ فَأَصْلِحُوا

“The believers are but brothers.” (Sooratul-Hujuraat (49) aayah 10)

Brothers with regard to eemaan not in lineage.

His saying, “nation of Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam are believers and Muslims with regard to their slaughtered animals”, the meat sacrificed by a Muslim is halaal (lawful) even if he is a faasiq (sinner) as long as he has not exited from Islaam then the meat that he has slaughtered is halaal (permissible) and the hypocrite if he slaughters also, then we will eat it based upon his being judged to be a Muslim as long as it does not become clear that he is a hypocrite; munaafiq.

He the Most High said:

إِلَّا مَا ذَكَّيْتُمْ

Except for that which you (plural) slaughter. (Sooratul-Maa`idah(5), aayah 3)

This is an address to the Muslims and He made permissible the sacrifices of Ahl ul-Kitaab (People of the Book).

He the Most High said:

وَطَعَامُ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ حِلٌّ لَّكُمْ

And the meat of those who were given the scripture is lawful for you. (Sooratul-Maa`idah(5), aayah 5)

Meaning the sacrificed animals because they sacrifice upon the legislated manner in accordance with what they have from the scripture. As for the animals sacrificed by the idol worshippers and the kuffaar (disbelievers) and the atheists and the apostates then we do not eat that because it is a sacrifice of a disbeliever (kaafir) and it is impure because the sacrifice of a disbeliever is dead meat. So it is impure on account of the disbelief since it is affected by the one who sacrifices it so it will be foul because the one who slaughters it is foul and it is affected by him and the fact that Allaah, the Majestic and Most High has permitted for us the slaughtered meat of the People of the Book specifically. This is a proof that the slaughtered meat of other than them is forbidden.

His saying, “and with regard to the funeral prayer over them”, the prayer is performed over every Muslim even if he was a sinner and a disobedient one or a hypocrite who did not make his hypocrisy apparent as long as he did not exit from Islaam then the prayer is performed for him and supplication is made for him and forgiveness is sought for him and he inherits from his close Muslim relative and his close Muslim relative inherits from him.

His saying, “And we do not bear witness for any of them that he is a true believer unless he fulfils all of the duties of Islaam”, meaning we do not declare anyone pure such that we say so and so is a mu`min (believer) because bearing witness for him that he is a believer (mu`min) is a witness that he may not be deserving of and therefore when  a man said to the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam:

“Give something to so and so because he is a believer.”

Then he sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

“Our Muslim (or he is a Muslim).”

Then the person said:

“Give to so and so because he is a believer (from the booty).”

So he sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

“Our Muslim (or he is a Muslim).”[6]

So the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam intended by this that the person should not declare someone to be pure and perfect by saying he’s a believer. Rather, he should apply the general term to him and say he is a Muslim and he may be a Muslim who is firm upon Islaam and he may be a Muslim who has sins and acts of disobedience and deficiencies and he may be a hypocrite so you should not bear witness for him with completeness.[7]

His saying, “So if he neglects anything from that then he will be deficient in eemaan unless and until he repents”, the `aqeedah (creed and belief) of the Ahl ul-Sunnah W`al Jamaa`ah is that sins even if they are major sins (kabaa’ir) as long as they are less than shirk then they do not cause the Muslim to exit from Islaam or they do not exit him from the domain of eemaan. Rather, he will be a believer (mu`min) in accordance with his eemaan, a sinner in accordance with the level of his major sin or you say “he is a believer who is deficient in eemaan”.

His saying, “and know that his eemaan is left to Allaah, the Most High whether he is complete in eemaan or deficient in eemaan”, meaning we accept from him what is apparent and we entrust his hidden state to Allaah.

His saying, “unless he manifests to you neglect of the duties of Islaam”, meaning unless he commits something, which nullifies a person’s Islaam and from them is to neglect or abandon the religious duties of Islaam so then you will judge that he is guilty of apostasy just as if he abandoned the prayer deliberately or if he spoke with a word of disbelief such as abusing Allaah or abusing the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam or abusing the religion of Islaam for then you would judge that he is guilty of riddaa (apostasy) in accordance with what has become apparent. So whoever manifests something, which nullifies Islaam along with removal of any valid excuse and removal of any preventing factors and is he misinterpreting something or is he just blindly following someone else or is he jaahil (one who is totally ignorant), was he angry. For in that case, he will not be judged to be an apostate along with these preventing factors.

Footnotes:

[1] Side point: As occurs here in the text, “this world is a place of eemaan and Islaam”, when the two are mentioned together they separate in meaning. Islaam means the outward duties of Islaam; the prayers, the zakaat and so on and so forth whereas eemaan in that case refers to the inner actions and beliefs of the heart.

[2] Reported by Muslim (1), hadeeth of Umar Ibn al-Khattaab radiyAllaahu `anhu.

[3] Majmoo` Al Fataawa of Shaykh ul-Islaam ibn Taymiyyah Volume 7, page 551.

[4] Reported by Al-Bukhaariyy (6,001) and reported by Muslim (2,586) as a hadeeth of Nu’maan ibn Basheer radiyAllaahu `anhuma.

[5] Reported by Al-Bukhaariyy (481) and reported by Muslim (2,585) from a hadeeth of Aboo Moosaa al-Ash`ariyy radiyAllaahu `anh.

[6] Reported by Al-Bukhaariyy (27) and Muslim (150) as hadeeth of Sa`ad ibn Abee Waqqaas radiyAllaahu `anh.

[7] Side point: With regard to “We do not bear witness for anyone with the full reality of eemaan, Shaykh Saalih ibn Sa`ad As-Suhaymee hafizahullaah said: “What he means here by haqqeeqatul eemaan (true reality of eemaan), you shouldn’t bear witness for anyone that he has complete eemaan.”

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhu Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

When was Al-Hijrah legislated & Types of hijrah in the era of the Prophet ﷺ – Shaykh AbdurRahman al-Adani

Question 4: 

“When was Al-Hijrah (Migration) legislated, and what were the types of hijrah in the era of the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa Sallam)?”

The Answer:

The hijrah of the Muslims from Makkah to Al-Habasha (in Ethiopia), which is the first hijrah, took place in the month of Rajab five years after the mab’ath (the time when the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘Alayhi Wa ‘Alaa Aalihi Wa Sallam) was sent with Islaam) as the historians mention. As for the hijrah of the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam) from Makkah to Madeenah, it took place in the month of Rabee’ Al-Awwal thirteen years after being sent.

As for the types of hijrah which existed in the era of the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam), a group of Scholars have mentioned various types of hijrahs to the point that some of them mentioned eight types, however, some of these types are not accepted as being called hijrah, rather they are delegations.

Whatever the case may be, the hijrahs that occurred in Islaam and have the right to be called hijrah are of two forms:

1. Moving from the land of fear to the land of safety, as occurred in the two hijrahs to Al-Habasha, for verily Al-Habasha was a land of disbelief, but it was safe and secure for the Muslims in comparison to Makkah, and likewise in the beginning of the hijrah from Makkah to Madeenah, for verily Madeenah at first was a land of disbelief, but it was safe and secure for the Muslims.

2. The hijrah from the land of disbelief to the land of belief. That occurred after the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam) took residence in Madeenah, and those Muslims who were able to, made hijrah to it. Al-Hijrah at that time was only relevant to moving to Madeenah, until Makkah was conquered. The specific ruling then ceased, while the general ruling of leaving the land of disbelief for whoever was able to do so remained.

Source Questions and answers concerning al-Hijrah – By Shaykh ‘Abdur Rahmaan al-‘Adanee

Visithttps://abdurrahman.org/hijrah/

Hypocrisy in Belief (Nifaaq I’tiqaadee) and Hypocrisy in Action (Nifaaq ‘Amaliy) – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 30 : Point 38
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

And hypocrisy (an-nifaaq) is to display Islaam upon the tongue whilst hiding disbelief (al-kufr) in the heart.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

An-nifaaq (hypocrisy) is to show outwardly that which is good and to conceal inwardly that which is evil. And it (nifaaq; hypocrisy) is of two categories:

The first of them being:

Nifaaqun I`tiqaadiyy (hypocrisy of belief) and this is kufrun akbar (major disbelief). And the hypocrite; munaafiq is worse than the kaafirun asliyy (original disbeliever) because the original disbeliever, it is well known about him that he is a disbeliever; kaafir and that he is an enemy. However, the munaafiq (the hypocrite), he deceives the Muslims and he manifests that he is from them when he is actually an enemy to them. He manifests openly that he is a Muslim whilst when he is actually a kaafir (a disbeliever).

He the Most High said:

They try to deceive Allaah and those who believe but they do not actually deceive except their ownselves whilst they do not perceive. (Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 9)

And therefore, Allaah will put them in the lowest depths of the Fire beneath the worshippers of the idols and the kuffaar (disbelievers) because they are worse than the disbelievers. And therefore, He, the Majestic and Most High said with regard to them:

They (the hypocrites), they are the enemy so beware of them, may Allaah curse them, how do they deviate away from the truth? [01] (Sooratul-Munaafiqoon (63), aayah 4)

An-Nifaaqun I`tiqaadiyy (hypocrisy of belief) is that which eemaan (true faith) can never combine with.

The second type is:

An-Nifaaqun `Amaliyy (hypocrisy in actions); it is that a person is a believer; a mu`min outwardly and inwardly. However, some characteristics come from him from the characteristics of the hypocrites, which render his eemaan deficient and there is a severe threat for it. However, he does not exit from the religion. It is called an-nifaaqun `amaliyy (hypocrisy in action) and it is called an-nifaaq ul-asghar (the lesser hypocrisy).

And the like of this is occurs in his saying sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam:

“There are four things, whoever has them all in him then he will be a pure hypocrite and whoever has a single characteristic from them then he will have a characteristic of hypocrisy till he abandons it. When he talks, he lies and when he makes a promise, he breaks it and when he is trusted, he proves treacherous and when he argues, he speaks in a foul manner.” [02]

So with regard to the believer, then hypocrisy in action may appear from him and it will be a deficiency in his eemaan and he will be deserving of the threat, however, he does not depart from the religion on account of that. [03]

And this hypocrisy in action is ar-riya (performing deeds to show off), which Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam feared for his companions and he called it lesser shirk. So he said: “That which I fear most for you is lesser shirk.” So they said: “And what is lesser shirk, Oh Messenger of Allaah?” So he said:

“It is ar-riya (acting to show off). Allaah will say on the Day of Resurrection when the people are recompensed for their deeds; go to those people whom you used to show off to in the world and look and see, do you find any recompense with them and any reward with them?” [04]

And he sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said: “Shall I not inform you of that which is more fearful with me upon you than AlMaseehud-Dajjaal?” So they said: “Yes indeed.” So he said: “It is hidden shirk that a man stands up and prays and he beautifies his prayer because of the fact that he sees a man looking at him.” [05]

So when this person prays in the presence of the people, he adorns his prayer and when he prays in his house or in a place when he is unseen, he prays very quickly. Then this is what the Companions used to fear for themselves severely. So, no-one can declare himself to be totally free and innocent of it. So a person should fear it and therefore they said with regard to this:

“No-one fears it except for a true believer and no-one feels secure from it except for a hypocrite.”

So the Muslim fears for himself from this hypocrisy, which is lesser hypocrisy.

His saying, “And hypocrisy is that he manifests Islaam upon his tongue and he hides disbelief in the heart”, this is the definition of an-nifaaqun i`tiqaadiyy (hypocrisy in belief) and it is an-nifaaqun akbar (major hypocrisy) and eemaan cannot combine with this. So it will never occur from a mu`min (a believer).

And Allaah, the Majestic and Most High at the start of Sooratul-Baqarah divided mankind into three categories :

(1) believers; mu’mineen outwardly and inwardly ,
(2) disbelievers; kuffaar outwardly and inwardly and
(3) the hypocrites; munaafiqeen; those who manifest Islaam outwardly but hide disbelief.

So, He, the Perfect said in the Qur’aan:

Alif-Laam-Meem. This is the Book about which there is no doubt, it is a guidance for the people of Taqwaa (dutiful to Allaah), those who truly believe in the ghaib (hidden and the unseen) and who establish the prayer and who spend from that which we have given them and those who truly believe in that which was sent down to you (Muhammad) and who believe in that which came down before you and those who truly believe in the Hereafter. They are upon guidance from their Lord and they are the ones who will prosper. (Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 1-5)

These aayahs are with regard to the believers; mu’mineen, those who are believers outwardly and inwardly. As for the disbelievers; outwardly and inwardly and Allaah said with regard to them in the following aayahs:

He, the Most High said:

Those who disbelieve, it is the same for them whether you warn them or do not warn them, they will not believe. Allaah has put a seal upon their hearts and upon their hearing and upon their sight there is a covering and there will be a tremendous punishment for them. (Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 6-7)

Then He said with regard to the 3rd category; the hypocrites:

And from the people, there are those who say we believe in Allaah and in the Last Day but they are not believers. They attempt to deceive Allaah and those who believe but they do not actually deceive except themselves whilst they do not perceive….

Up until His saying, He, the Most High:

Deaf , dumb and blind so they will not return to the truth. (Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 8-18)

So these aayahs are with regard to the hypocrites; the munaafiqeen and they are ten and odd aayahs.

His saying, “The hypocrite is the one who manifests Islaam upon his tongue and hides disbelief in the dameer; heart.” Ad-dameer means that which he conceals within the heart. [06]

Footnotes:

[01 Shaykh Saalih as-Suhaymee hafizahullaah said,

“Indeed there has come down with regard to them (the hypocrites) a soorah which is specifically about them, which is called Sooratul-Munaafiqoon; 63rd soorah and it from its start to its end speaks about their shameful deeds just as Allaah, the Most High also exposed them in other soorahs as occurs in Sooratul-Noor, 24th soorah, and Sooratut-Towbah the 9th soorah to the extent that this soorah is called Al-Faadeehah (the exposing soorah) because it exposes the hypocrites and also Sooratul-Ahzaab; 33rd soorah and some parts of Sooratul-Baqarah and some parts of Soorah-Aali `Imraan.”

[02] Reported by Al Bukhaariyy (34) and Muslim (58) from a hadeeth of Abdullaah ibn Amr radiyAllaahu `anhuma.

[03] Shaykh Saalih As Suhaymee hafizahullaah said,

“And this type of hypocrisy; nifaaqun `amaliyy (hypocrisy with regard to actions) does not take the person outside the fold of Islaam even though the seriousness of its sin is great because it may lead over time to falling into hypocrisy in belief and Allaah’s refuge is sought, Aameen. And all of it is evil and hypocrisy is blameworthy from every angle and therefore there has never been any movement against Islaam and against the Muslims except that the hypocrites were found within their ranks; either aiding them with material or by laying down plans for them, plotting for them or by preparing the way for them or by making false promises until Allaah, the Exalted and Most High exposed them.”

[04] Reported by Imaam Ahmad in his Musnad, al-Bayhaqiyy in Shu`b al-Eemaan, al-Bagawiyy in SharhusSunnah from a hadeeth of Mahmood ibn Labeeb radiyAllaahu `anh and al-Mundhiriyy said in his book AtTargeeb Wa At-Tarheeb, “its chain of narration is good.” Shaykh al-Albaaniyy said in his checking of AtTargeeb Wa At-Tarheeb, “saheeh (authentic).”

[05] Reported by Imaam Ahmad in his Musnad, ibn Maajah in his Sunan, at-Tahaawiyy in Sharh Mushkili alAathaar, ibn Adiyy and a number of others, at-Tabariyy in Tahdheebu al-Aathaar, al-Haakim and others from a hadeeth of Aboo Sa`eed al-Khudriyy radiyAllaahu `anh. This hadeeth was declared saheeh by atTahaawiyy and al-Haakim and ad-Dhaahabi agreed and al-Boosayriyy declared it hasan in his Misbaah AzZujaajah; al-Boosayriyy`s notes on his checking of ibn Maajah. Shaykh al-Albaaniyy said in his checking of ibn Maajah, “this hadeeth is hasan (good).”

[06] Translator’s side point: Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmee rahimahullaah said in his explanation,

An-nifaaq (hypocrisy) is derived from an-nafq, which means al-juhr; literally animal burrow or a tunnel, which is found in the earth and it is called that because the person who has it has hypocrisy. He makes apparent something contrary to that which he hides. And this is what is called an-nifaaqun i`tiqaadiyy; (hypocrisy in belief) and as for nifaaqun `amaliyy (hypocrisy in action) then that does not take a person outside Islaam, rather this person remains as a Muslim and this is called nifaaqun `amaliyy (hypocrisy in action) because the person with it, he manifests something contrary to what he hides does something. As for an-nifaaqun i`tiqaadiyy (hypocrisy in belief) then that is the hypocrisy of the hypocrites, those who were in the time of the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam and it is to manifest Islaam whilst hiding disbelief and the person tries to guard against revealing what he actually believes and therefore Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic has informed about them that the hypocrites will be in the lowest depth of the Fire and Allaah is the one who grants success.”

Transcribed by Saima Zaher. Download PDF of Lesson 30

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhu Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Praying in Trousers or Pants – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 29 : Point 37
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

And there is no harm in praying whilst wearing saraaweel (broad and loose trousers).

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

This word as-saraweel is in the singular.[04] So saraaweel (loose trousers), this word assaraaweel is the singular and it is something well known; it is what is worn upon the `awrah, over the private parts, that which needs to be covered from navel to knee so it is sewn to fit the lower half of the body and it has legs. The prayer is correct in saraweel (loose trousers), this is with regard to the man because the `awrah of the man is between the navel to the knee, and trousers (saraaweel), they cover that. So if a person prays in saraaweel (loose trousers), which properly cover what’s between his navel and his knee, then his prayer will be correct. As for the woman then all of her is `awrah in the prayer except for her face if she has no men who are non mahram. So if he prays in an izaar (waist wrapper) then that would be better than trousers (saraweel) or if he prays in a qamees (a shirt) reaching down to the shins then that would be even better because it will be more beautiful for the appearance.

He the Most High said:

O Children of Aadam, take your adornment at every Prayer.
(Sooratul-A`raaf (7), aayah 31)

Masjid, meaning at every Prayer.

Az-zeenah, adornment, is as Shaykhul-Islaam ibn Taymiyyah said:

“Adornment is more general just being a cover for the private parts.” [05]

Footnotes:

[04] Translator’s side point: They mentioned as occurs in Lisaanul-`Arab, this word is a word originally from Persian introduced into Arabic. And the singular term is saraaweel and the plural is saraaweelaat, meaning trousers.

[05] Translator’s side point: In this speech from Imaam al-Barbahaariyy rahimahullaah, there is some refutation of some of the categories of the Shee`ah, those who hold it is forbidden to pray in saraaweel (trousers) because they are affected from wind that comes out of the trousers. So they make it obligatory to remove the trousers when performing the Prayer.

Translator’s side point: Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmiyy rahimahullaah said in his explanation:

“I say, as for saraaweel (loose trousers), which it is permissible to pray in then they are the saraaweel (looser trousers) which cover the `awrah, those which are broad and loose upon the body such that the person is able to carry out the prayer in the most complete manner. As for if they are tight and they show off the shape of the buttocks then prayer in them would be makroo`ah (disliked) and the prayer may even be null and void if the one wearing them is not able to carry out the pillars, if he is not able to sit properly for the tashahhud and between the sajdahs. And Allaah is the one who grants success.”

Likewise Shaykh Saalih as-Suhaymiyy hafizahullaah said in his explanation of this point:

“Likewise, prayer in saraaweel (loose trousers) covers two things:

Firstly, it covers the permissibility of sufficing of wearing loose trousers if they cover and they are loose and wide. And it also contains a refutation of some of the sects of the Ismaa`eeliyys and those who follow their way because when they want to pray, it is essential upon them, they hold, to take off their trousers.”

Shaykh `Abdul `Azeez bin Baaz was asked about al-bantaloon (tighter trousers);

“Is it permissible to pray in these trousers?”

Shaykh `Abdul `Azeez Bin Baaz rahimahullaah responded,

“If the trousers saraaweel cover what’s between the navel and the knee of the man and they are waasi` (broad), they are not dayyiq (tight) then in that case the Prayer will be correct in them and what is better is that there should be a long shirt over them which covers between the navel and knee. And if it goes down to halfway down the shins or down to the ankles, that is better because that will cover better. And Prayer in an izaar (a waist wrapper) is even better than prayer in loose trousers which do not have a long shirt over them because the izaar is more complete in covering than just loose trousers.”

An answer from Shaykh Muhammad Naasiruddin al-Albaaniyy rahimahullaah that you find on some of his taped answers to the questions, he said,

“Wearing these tight trousers, bantaloon it has two problems (museebataan):

The 1st problem is:

The person wearing them will be resembling the disbelievers whereas the Muslims used to wear saraaweel (looser trousers) that were very broad and loose, which some people still wear in Syria and Lebanon. And the Muslims had not used to know about these bantaloon, these tight trousers, except when they were colonised; and then when the colonialists departed they left their evil affects behind and the Muslims took them up based upon their stupidity and their ignorance.

And, The 2nd problem is:
These tight trousers describe the shape of the `awrah.”

Transcribed by Saima Zaher. Download PDF of Lesson 29

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhu Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Breaking the Fast during the Journey is from the Concessions of the Shariah – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 29 : Point 36
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

“And as for Fasting whilst upon a journey, then whoever wishes may Fast and whoever wishes may withhold from Fasting.”

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

From the rukhas (concessions/allowances) that Allaah has made for his servants is to withhold from Fasting in Ramadaan when upon a journey. So it is a rukhsah (concession). So whoever wishes, he can aftara (withhold) from Fasting and whoever wishes he can Fast. And if he Fasts whilst upon a journey then his Fasting will be correct because a Companion asked the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam saying that he had strength and he was able to Fast upon a journey so he asked the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam and the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam gave him permission to Fast upon the journey. [02]

So it is a concession, so an allowance has been made, it is not obligatory to do it, rather it is better to do it just like the rest of the concessions. And if the person returns to the original situation (the asl ) and Fasts then there is no harm upon that. And Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, says:

So whoever amongst you witnesses the beginning of the month (month of Ramadaan), whilst he is resident then let him Fast it and whomever is sick or upon a journey, let him Fast other days. (Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 185)

And He sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam used to break his Fast upon his journeys. [03]

Footnotes:

[02] Reported by Muslim (no. 1121) from Hamzah ibn `Amr al-Aslamiyy radiyAllaahu `anh that he said, “Oh Messenger of Allah, I find that I have strength to Fast upon the journey so would there be any sin upon me?”

So Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

“It is a concession from Allaah so whoever takes it up then this is fine and whoever wishes to Fast then there is no sin upon him.”

[03] Reported by al-Bukhaariyy, correct reference is (no. 1944) and Muslim (no. 1113) from Ibn `Abbaas radiyAllaahu `anhumaa that Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam went out to go to Makkah in Ramadaan. So he Fasted until he reached Al-Kadeed then he broke his Fast; and the people stopped Fasting.

Translator’s side point: This was in the eighth year; it was the journey for the Conquest of Makkah. AlKadeed is a place around two riding stages from Makkah, a place around fifty-five miles from Makkah.

Transcribed by Saima Zaher. Download PDF of Lesson 29

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhu Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Links: https://abdurrahman.org/category/islam/travel/

Shortening the prayer whilst upon a journey is Sunnah – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 29 : Point 35
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

“And shortening the prayer whilst upon a journey is Sunnah.”

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

From the rukhas (concessions/allowances), which the legislation came with to make things easier for the servants and to remove difficulty, is shortening the prayer whilst upon a journey and it is shortening the four rak`ah prayer and this is by the text of the Qur’aan, He, the Most High, said:

And if you travel upon the earth …
(Sooratun-Nisaa· (4), aayah 101)

Meaning saafartum; when you go on a journey.

… then there is no sin upon you if you shorten the prayer if you fear that those who disbelieve may put you to trial. (Sooratun-Nisaa (4), aayah 101)

What is apparent from the aayah is then it is not permissible to shorten the prayer except in a state of fear. However, this problem has been removed because Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam was asked:

“Why is it that we still shorten, now that we have become secure?”

So he sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

“That is a charity which Allaah has given to you so accept from Allaah His charity.” [01]

And he sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam used to shorten the prayer on all of his journeys; he would shorten the four rak`ahs prayer to two rak`ahs. This is the Sunnah, and whoever completes it then that is permissible, however it is in opposition to that which is better.

So shortening (al-qasr) is a concession, whoever wishes he can do it and that is better, whoever wishes, he can leave it and complete it, then there is no harm in that because completing (four rak’ahs) is the asl. And the author mentioned that because accepting the concessions of the legislation is from matters of `aqeedah and that contains a refutation of those who are mutashaddideen (over harsh); those who do not accept the legislated concessions.

Footnotes:

[01] Reported by Muslim (no. 686) from a hadeeth of `Umar ibnul-Khattaab radiyAllaahu `anhu.

Transcribed by Saima Zaher. Download PDF of Lesson 29

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhu Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Links:

Moosaa’s call was directed to tawheed, NOT to gain rulership and authority – Shaykh Rabee’

Moosaa, the one to whom Allaah spoke directly, the strong and trustworthy.

We see that his call was directed to tawheed and carried the lights of guidance and wisdom. Moosaa was brought up and was raised in the palaces of the greatest tyrant who claimed divinity. He knew the various types of corruption, unbelief, tyranny, injustice and despotism from what he witnessed in the palaces. He saw things which it is difficult to imagine or think possible. He also saw the enslavement of his people, the Children of Israa’eel, and their humiliation, and their women taken as slaves, and the killing of their children, to such an extent that it surpassed any oppression known to mankind. Allaah, the Most High, says,

“Pharaoh exalted himself haughtily in the land, and divided its people into castes. He enslaved a group of them (i.e., the Children of Israa’eel), killing their sons and letting their women live. He was indeed one of the corrupt evil-doers.”[1]

The people of Pharaoh were also people of shirk and idol-worship without a doubt.

So how did Moosaa begin? Was his call directed to correction of the ‘aqeedah of this idolatrous nation? Or did it begin with a demand for the restoration of the rights of the Children of Israa’eel, and a struggle to gain rulership and authority from the hands of the tyrant, and at the head of them Pharaoh, who claimed divinity for himself?

The call of Moosaa was just like the call of his forefathers and brothers from the earlier Prophets. His Lord instructed him and inspired him with the principle of tawheed, and chose him to carry his revelation, and to establish worship of Him. Allaah, the Most High, says,

“Has not the story of Moosaa come to you? When he saw a fire and said to his family, ‘Remain where you are for I have seen a fire. Perhaps I can bring a fire-brand from it or find someone who can show us the way.’ So when Moosaa came to the fire his Lord called him, ‘O Moosaa, I am your Lord. Remove your shoes, indeed you are in the purified valley of Tuwaa. I have chosen you as My Messenger, so listen to and heed what I reveal to you. Indeed I am Allaah. None has the right to be worshipped but Me. So worship Me and do not worship anything else besides Me, and establish Prayer for My remembrance. Indeed the Final Hour is certainly coming, which I keep hidden from all except Myself, in order to reward each soul according to its good or bad deeds.’”[2]

So this was the beginning of his Messengership; he was inspired and ordered with the ‘aqeedah of tawheed. He was ordered to establish it in himself and to represent it in his life. Then he was entrusted with the duty of calling to this sublime principle and was sent by Allaah to the Pharaoh. Allaah furthermore explained to him the correct manner of giving da’wah and the wise way in which he was to face the Pharaoh. Allaah, the Most High, said: 

“Go to Pharaoh who has transgressed all bounds in his haughtiness, pride, unbelief, and say, ‘Will you not purify yourself from the sin of unbelief and be obedient to your Lord? And that I guide you to the worship of your Lord, so that you may submit fearfully to Him and obey Him.’”[3]

He also supported him with his brother Haaroon in order for the proof to be established to the utmost, and He taught them to use gentleness and mildness in da’wah since that is the best way to attain the guidance of those whom Allaah wishes to guide:

“Go both of you to Pharaoh, indeed he has transgressed beyond all bounds, and speak mildly with him that he might accept admonition and fear and be obedient to his Lord.”[4]

So they carried out the order of their Lord and called him to Allaah, hoping for him to be guided and purified, so that he should be one of those who fear Allaah and fear and beware of the evil consequences of shirk and oppression. But he did not respond to this wise and composed call. So Moosaa manifested the great signs and clear proofs of his Prophethood and the truthfulness of his Messengership. But the despotic tyrant Pharaoh merely increased in his transgression and rejection of the truth:

“But Pharaoh denied the signs which Moosaa came with and disobeyed his order for him to fear and obey his Lord. Then he turned away from what he ordered him (i.e., obedience to his Lord) and instead worked evil and corruption, and he gathered his people and his followers and said, ‘I am your lord, the most high.’ So Allaah seized him with punishment for his latter and his earlier saying.”[5] 

The Escalation of the Tyranny of the Pharaoh and how Moosaa and his People Faced it with Patient Perseverance and Forbearance

“The chiefs of Pharaoh’s people said, ‘Will you leave Moosaa and his people to cause mischief in the land when they have abandoned worship of you and worship of your gods?’ He said, ‘We will kill their sons and let their women live, and will have full power over them.’”[6]

So what was the sin of Moosaa and his people in the view of these criminals? No crime except that they called to the tawheed of Allaah and to remain firm upon it, and to disbelieve in Pharaoh and his idols. Then what was the response of Moosaa with respect to these disgraceful and outrageous transgressions which exceeded all bounds in its barbarity and ferocity?!

His response was to remain firm upon correct belief, and to have patience and forbearance, and to seek the aid of Allaah in facing these calamities. Then he awaited the good outcome, and victory as a consequence and a good fruit of this remaining firm and this patient perseverance.

“Moosaa said to his people, ‘Seeks Allaah’s help and be patient, the earth is Allaah’s, He gives it as a heritage to whom He pleases from His servants. The final outcome is in favour of those who fear Allaah by avoiding disobedience of Him and doing what He orders.’”[7]

Then when no hope that the Pharaoh and his people would believe remained, and the suffering which the Children of Israa’eel were subjected to increased in severity, the sole request which Moosaa made to the Pharaoh was that he should allow the Children of Israa’eel the freedom to leave the land of Egypt and emigrate to wherever Allaah willed that they should go, in order to save them from the torment inflicted upon them.

“So go to the Pharaoh, saying, ‘We are the Messengers sent by your Lord, to order you to free the Children of Israa’eel. So release them and cease tormenting them. Indeed we bring you a clear sign from your Lord, and peace and safety from Allaah’s punishment are for those who follow the guidance.’”[8]

It was a sublime call to the tawheed of Allaah containing light and wisdom. It was also accompanied by an eager desire for the guidance of those who were being called, and that they should be purified. It also contained a clear example of the utmost patience and forbearance in enduring great harm, and in facing tyranny and haughty oppression. It also shows the way to face the most difficult situations with wisdom and forbearance, whilst having the strongest hope in Allaah, that He will assist and grant victory to the Believers and destroy the unbelieving oppressors. Including clear lessons for those who make their call purely seeking the Face of Allaah and desire to rectify mankind and to turn to their Lord, and for them to be guided to His Straight Path.

Footnotes :

[1] Soorah al-Qasas (28):4.

[2] Soorah Taa Haa (20):9-15.

[3] Soorah an-Naazi’aat (79):17-19.

[4] Soorah Taa Haa (20):43-44.

[5] Soorah an-Naazi’aat (79):21-25.

[6] Soorah al-A’raaf (7):127.

[7] Soorah al-A’raaf (7):128.

[8] Soorah Taa Haa (20):47.

[Excerpted from the book : “The Methodology of the Prophets in Calling to Allaah – that is the way of wisdom and intelligence” – by Shaykh Rabee hafidhahullaah, translated by Dawud Burbank rahimahullah]

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