Ruling on performing Umrah before Obligatory Hajj – Permanent Committee

Fatawa from Permanent Committee

Q3: Is it permissible for a person to perform `Umrah before the obligatory Hajj?

A: Yes, it is permissible for a person to perform `Umrah before Hajj because the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his Companions performed `Umrah before the obligatory Hajj.

May Allah grant us success! May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions!

Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’

Q 11: What is the ruling on a person who performs `Umrah (lesser pilgrimage) before Hajj, although the former is only an act of Sunnah?

A: The correct view of the two rulings of the scholars is that `Umrah is obligatory, because Allah states:Surah Al-Baqarah, 2: 196 And perform properly (i.e. all the ceremonies according to the ways of Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him) the Hajj and ‘Umrah (i.e. the pilgrimage to Makkah) for Allâh. There are also other Hadiths narrated in this regard. If a Muslim performs `Umrah before Hajj during the months of Hajj and performs Hajj in the same year, then he has performed Tamattu` Hajj (combining Hajj and `Umrah with a break in between) which is better than the Ifrad Hajj (performing Hajj only) and Qiran Hajj (combining Hajj and `Umrah simultaneously) for the one who has not brought a hadiy with him. It is reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) told the Sahabah (Companions of the Prophet) who did not bring sacrificial animals: Make it `Umrah, for if I had formerly known what I came to know lately, I would not have driven the Hadiy with me and would have finished the state of Ihram along with the people when they finished it.

May Allah grant us success! May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions!

Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’


Ar-Rawdah an-Nabawiyah : A garden from the gardens of Paradise


The heart of the Prophet’s masjid houses a very special but small area named ar-Rawdah an-Nabawiyah, which extends from Muhammad’s tomb to his pulpit. Pilgrims attempt to visit and pray in ar-Rawdah, for there is a tradition that supplications and prayers uttered here are never rejected. Entrance into ar-Rawdah is not always possible (especially during the Hajj season), as the tiny area can accommodate only a few hundred people. Ar-Rawdah has two small gateways manned by Saudi police officers. The current marble pulpit was constructed by the Ottomans. The original pulpit was much smaller than the current one, and constructed of palm tree wood, not marble. Ar-Rawdah an-Nabawiyah is considered part of Jannah (Heaven or Paradise).

It is prescribed for the one who visits the Prophet’s Mosque to pray two rak’ahs in the Rawdah or whatever he wants of naafil prayers, because it is proven that there is virtue in doing so. It was narrated from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The area between my house and my minbar is one of the gardens ( riyaad, sing. rawdah) of Paradise, and my minbar is on my cistern (hawd)” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1196; Muslim, 1391.

And it was narrated that Yazeed ibn Abi ‘Ubayd said: “I used to come with Salamah ibn al-Akwa’ and he would pray by the pillar which was by the mus-haf, i.e. in the Rawdah. I said, ‘O Abu Muslim, I see that you are keen to pray by this pillar!’ He said, ‘I saw that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was keen to pray here.’” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 502; Muslim, 509.

Being keen to pray in al-Rawdah does not justify being aggressive towards people or pushing the weak aside, or stepping over their necks.

Women who want to pray in Rawdah area can enter the masjid through the Gates 21 – 25. Rawdah area for women is open after Fajr, Zuhr and Isha Prayers. It is open after Fajar for long time and 15 – 20 min after Zuhr prayer



How to wear the upper garment known as Rida’ for Ihram : Ibn Baz

Fatwa by Shaykh Ibn Baz Fatawa Islamiyah , Darussalam, Vol 4, Page 127

Q. Is it better for the Muhrim to cover the two shoulders or to uncover one of them during the Ihram?

A. The sunnah for the Muhrim is that he places the Rida’ (upper garment) over both of his shoulders and put its ends on his chest. This is the Sunnah and it is what the Prophet (Sallalahu Alahi wa Sallam) did.

So, if the person wants to perform the Tawaf of Arrival (Tawaful-Qudum) , he does Al-Idhtiba’. This is by him placing the center of his Rida’ under his right armpit and its edges over his left shoulder. Thus he uncovers his right shoulder. This is specifically for the Tawaf of Arrival, meaning when the person first arrives in Makkah for Hajj or ‘Umrah.

Then when he completes the Tawaf, he adjusts the Rida’ and places it over both of his shoulders, and he prays two Rak’ahs of Tawaf.

The person who always keeps one shoulder uncovered, this is opposed to the Sunnah, and so is uncovering both of the shoulders. The Sunnah is only to cover both of them with the Rida’ while the person is in Ihram. If the person takes off the Rida’ and does not cover his shoulders while he is sitting or eating or talking with his brothers, there is no harm in that.

However, the Sunnah is that when the person wears the Rida’, it should be over his two shoulders and its ends should be on his chest.

Excellence of Supplications at Al-Multazim

Iltizaam Between The Corner And The Door ( from Rites of Hajj and Umrah – by Shaik Nasiruddin Albanee )

38. And he may cling to the place between the corner and the Door – placing his chest and face and forearms upon this place.(45)

This is narrated by two isnaads from the Prophet by which the hadith reaches the level of hasan – and is increased in strength by the fact that a group of the Sahaabah acted on it – from them Ibn ‘Abbaas – may Allaah be pleased with him – who said: “This is the Multazam between the Corner and the Door. And it is authentically narrated from ‘Urwah ibn az-Zubair also – see ‘As-Sahaabah, no.2138.

And Ibn Taimiyyah said in his ‘Mansak’ (p.387): “And if he wishes to come to the Multazam – and that is what is between the Black stone and the Door – and he places upon it his chest and face and forearms and hands – and makes du’aa – and he asks Allaah for whatever he needs – then he may do so. And he may do so before the Farewell Tawaaf there being no difference in this being at that time or any other – and the Sahaabah used to do so when they entered Makkah – and if he stands near the Door making du’aa without iltizaam of the House then that is also good, and when he leaves he does not stand or turn or walk backwards.”

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

This is a matter concerning which the scholars differed, although it was not narrated from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) (i.e. that was not narrated in a saheeh hadeeth, as the ahaadeeth that were narrated concerning this were deemed to be da’eef or weak). Rather it was narrated from some of the Sahaabah (may Allaah be pleased with them). So is iltizaam (clinging) Sunnah? When should it be done – upon arrival or when about to leave, or at any time?

The reason for this difference of opinion among the scholars is that it is not narrated in the Sunnah of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), rather the Sahaabah (may Allaah be pleased with them) used to do that when they arrived in Makkah.

The fuqaha’ said: He (the pilgrim) should do that when about to leave, and should cling to the multazam, which is the area between the corner where the Black Stone is located and the door…

Based on this, there is nothing wrong with iltizaam (clinging to the Ka’bah in this area) so long as that does not involve annoying others.

Al-Sharh al-Mumti’, 7/402, 403.

History of Makkah – Shaikh Safiur-Rahman Mubarakpuri


History of Makkah Mukarramah (Shaikh Safiur-Rahman Mubarakpuri)

Publisher: Darussalam Publishers and Distributors (2002)
Pages: 176 Binding: Paperback

You can buy Here or read most of the book @ Google Books Here

Description from the publisher:

Mentions the different aspects of Makkah, and records the most important historical events that have direct effect on the establishment and sacredness of Makkah as well as its religious weight. Highlights the sites that are highly important whenever Makkah is mentioned like the Black Stone, Zamzarn Well and others. Designates a great part of the book speaking about the Holy Ka’bah and the Holy Mosque updating the extensions and the improvements, that have taken place from the time of Muhammad (S) to the Saudi era.At the end of the book there is a complete appendix about Hajj and its rites.

Ajwa Dates Keep Away Harm, Poison And Magic


Ajwa Dates Keep Away Harm, Poison And Magic

Ajwa (عجوة) is a soft dry variety of date fruit from Saudi Arabia. It is cultivated at Madina . A delightfully soft and fruity date with fine texture.

The Messenger (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) said, “Whoever has seven Ajwa dates every morning he will not be harmed on that day by poison or magic.” [Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (5445) (5768) (5769) (5779)].

The Messenger (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) said, “Ajwa dates are from paradise.” [Tirmidhee (2068) he said hasan Saheeh and it was authenticated by Shaikh al-Albaani].

Referring to eating seven Ajwa dates, the Messenger (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) said, “He will not be harmed by anything until he reaches the evening.” [Saheeh Muslim (2047)].

These dates cost around 70 Saudi Riyals per KiloGram.

There are also “imitations” or some sold an inferior quality dates and “conned” the customers as “AJWA dates” To know whether its AJWA, look closely at the dates. There are very fine white lines on the dates.


Madina Dates Keep Away Harm

The Messenger (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) said, “Whoever has seven dates between the two areas (the east and west of Madina) as soon as he wakes up every morning, he will not be harmed on that day by poison until the evening.” [Saheeh Muslim (154) (2047)].

Dates In One’s Home

The Messenger (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) said, “O Aisha! A house that has no dates in it their family is hungry. Oh Aisha! A house that has no dates in it their family is hungry.” [Saheeh Muslim (153), (2046)]

Related Post: 

Ajwa Dates contain Cancer-Preventing property – King Saud University (KSU)

Brief illustration of Hajj and Umrah [Fiqh al-Ebaadaat by Sh. Uthaymeen] – Abu Muhammad al-Maghribee [Audio|En]

This is a brief illustration of Hajj and Umrah taken from the book Fiqh al-Ebaadaat by our noble sheikh Muhammad bin Saaleh al-Uthaymeen, rahimahullah.

Listen / Download Mp3 Here (Time 47:31)

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Only Performing one Umrah in one Journey – Compiled and translated By Abbas Abu Yahya

Audio Excerpt: Miraath Publications – BiteSize Ramadhaan 1434 Articles – Day 12

Shamsuddeen Muhammad bin Abee Bakr Ibn Qayyim aj-Jawzeeyah (d.751 A.H.) -Rahimullaah- said:

‘The Messenger -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- would not perform an extra Umrah exiting out of Makkah, after already having performed one, as many of the people do nowadays. Rather all the Umrahs that the Messenger performed were upon entering Makkah.

He -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- lived in Makkah for thirteen years after the revelation had first descended, and it is not reported from the outset about him that he performed Umrah exiting from Makkah in that time period.

So, the Umrah that the Messenger of Allaah -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- performed and legislated, is the Umrah of entering into Makkah, there is no Umrah for the person who is in Makkah and he goes outside the boundary of Makkah whereby he can enter again and perform Umrah. This was not ever done by anyone at the time of the Prophet, except by ‘Aeysha alone out of all those who were with her. This was because she had made the intention and entered into Ihram but had begun her menstrual cycle. So the Prophet ordered her to connect up her Umrah with the Hajj, and informed her that her Tawaf of the House and going between Safa and Marwa, would indeed be sufficient for her Hajj and Umrah together (instead of performing a separate Umrah).

So she found that her female companions were returning with a Hajj and a separate Umrah, since they had intended to perform Hajj at-Tamattu (with an Umrah and a Hajj), and they had not begun their menstrual cycle and did not have to combine their Umrah in with the Hajj. However, she would have only returned with an Umrah within her Hajj, so he -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- ordered her brother to take her to perform an Umrah from at-Tan’eem, to soothe her heart, and her brother did not perform an Umrah from Tan’eem in that Hajj nor did anyone else from those who were with him.’

[Taken from: ‘Zad al-Ma’ad’ 1/94]

Muhammad Nasir- Deen Al-Albaani (d.1420A.H) -Rahimullaah- was asked:

‘Is it permissible for me to perform Umrah twice in one journey, since I am from Jordan. The first one from Abyaar Ali (the local name for the Meeqat Dhul Hulayfah just outside Madina), and the second from at-Tan’eem (outskirts of Makkah), just like ‘Aeysha -Radhi Allaahu anha. If this is not permissible, then can I perform it for my deceased father or mother? May Allah reward you with goodness.

The Shaykh answered:

‘The person who wants to repeat an Umrah then it is necessary for him to return to the Meeqat from whence he entered into Ihraam, whether that is for his own self or for his parents.
As for entering into Ihraam from at-Tan’eem, from whence the Noble lady ‘Aeysha entered into Ihraam, then this ruling is specific for ‘Aeysha and those who are in a similar condition to her.

I term this Umrah from at-Tan’eem as the Umrah of the menstruating woman. The reason for this is because when ‘Aeysha -Radhi Allaahu anha- went out with the Prophet -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- to perform the farewell Hajj, and she had entered into Ihraam to perform Umrah, but when she reached a place close to Makkah, known as ‘Sarif’ the Messenger -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- entered upon her and found her crying. So he said to her:

مالك أنفست

‘Why are you crying? Have you started your menstrual cycle?’

She replied: ‘Yes, O Messenger of Allaah.’

He –sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- said:

هذا أمر قد كتبه الله على بنات آدم، فاصنعي ما يصنع الحاج غير ألَّا تطوفي ولا تصلي

‘This is a matter which Allaah has written for the daughters of Adam, so do that which the person performing Hajj does, except do not perform the Tawaf and do not perform the Salat.’

So she did not perform the Tawaf or the Salat until she had become clean in Araafat, then she continued with the rites of Hajj and accomplished Hajj completely. When the Messenger -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- had decided to travel and return to Madina, he entered upon ‘Aeysha in her tent and again he found her crying.

He asked her: ‘What is wrong with you?’

She said: ‘What is wrong with me? The people are returning with Hajj and Umrah, and I am returning with Hajj without Umrah.’

The reason was because her menstruation had caused her Umrah to be changed to a Hajj, a Hajj Mufrad (Hajj without Umrah), so here she is saying, she is crying out of grief of what she missed out from performing an Umrah before performing the Hajj, whereas her co-wives like Umm Salamah and other than her, returned with Umrah and Hajj, and that is why was crying.

She said: ‘Why should I not cry? The people are returning with a Hajj and Umrah and I am returning with a Hajj.’ So the Messenger -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- had compassion on her and ordered her brother AbdurRahmaan bin Abi Bakr as-Siddiq to accompany her, with him on his camel and go out with her to at-Tan’eem. So he did that and she returned, and performed an Umrah and soothed her soul.

This is why we say, if a woman is afflicted with that which had afflicted ‘Aeysha from amongst the women, whereby her menstrual cycle started, while she wanted to perform Umrah, and she could not complete the Umrah, so that her Umrah was changed into a Hajj. So here a woman can perform Umrah in place of what she missed out on, in the same way that Allaah legislated upon the tongue of His Messenger for ‘Aeysha, so the woman who was menstruating goes out again to at-Tan’eem and comes and performs an Umrah.

As for men then, Alhamdulillah they do not menstruate so they do not take the ruling of the menstruating woman. The proof is, as some of the scholars of Seerah and history of the Companions, say: a hundred thousand Companions performed Hajj with the Messenger, not one of them did an Umrah the like of the Umrah of ‘Aeysha -Radhi Allaahu anha, so if that was something good then they would have proceeded us in that action. Therefore, the person who wants to perform an Umrah returns to the Meeqat and enters into Ihraam from there, whether for himself or for his mother and father.

This is sufficient and praise be to Allaah Lord of all the worlds.’

[Taken from: ‘Silsilah Huda wa Noor’ no.2]

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What Did Abu Dharr Eat During His 30 Days In Makkah – Dr Murtaza bin Baksh [Video – Urdu/English]

Video Courtesy : Bilal Nahim

It was reported in Sahih Muslim that the Prophet, sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said to Abu Dharr, who had stayed near the Ka’bah and its coverings for forty days and nights with no food or drink other than (Zamzam), “How long have you been here?” Abu Dharr said, “I have been here for thirty days and nights.” The Prophet, sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said, “Who has been feeding you?” He said, “I have had nothing but Zamzam water, and I have gotten so fat that I have folds of fat on my stomach. I do not feel any of the tiredness or weakness of hunger and I have not become thin.” The Prophet, sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said, “Verily, it is blessed, it is food that nourishes.” [Narrated by Imam Muslim, 2473]

The Terms ‘al-Munawarah’ and ‘al-Mukkarama’ – Shaykh Hamad al-Ansaari (rahimahullaah)

The Term ‘al-Munawarah’

Hamad al-Ansaari (rahimahullaah) said:

‘I searched for the origin of what people say these days of al-Madina ‘al-Munawarah’ and I found that the first people to label it ‘al-Munawarah’ were the ‘Uthmaanyoon’.  As for the Companions and the Successors and those after them, then for many centuries they called it al-Madina an-Nabaweeyah.’

AbdulAwal bin Hamad al-Ansaari commented:

‘I noticed from my father -Rahimullaah- that if he saw a person write ‘al-Munawarah’, he would say to him to wipe out the word ‘al-Munawarah’ and write ‘an-Nabaweeyah.’[28]

‘Indeed the people of knowledge apply the term ‘an-Nabaweeya’ to al-Madina.’[29]

The Shaykh also said:

‘Applying the word ‘al-Munawarah’ after the word al-Madina was introduced by the non-Arabs.  What was well known by the Companions and the Successors was the addition ‘an-Nabaweeyah’. Likewise, adding the term ‘al-Mukkarama’ to Makkah is not known.’[30]

Source : Taken from A Brief Biography of Shaykh, ‘Allaama, al-Muhaddith Hamad al-Ansaari – Translated & Compiled  By  Abbas Abu Yahya

Salah (Prayer) inside the Ka’bah (Hijr) is preferred and is a means of drawing close (to Allaah)

Hijr Ka'bah Makkah Masjid al haram

Making Takbir, then du’aa to Allaah after praying two rak’ah inside the Ka’bah (Hijr) is a Sunnah

Question: Is salat inside the Ka’bah in any way superior to salat outside it, and is it permissible for a person to speak of what he has seen inside the ka’bah?

Answer by The Permanent Committee: Salat inside the Ka’bah is preferred, if it is possible to do so without any inconvenience, difficulty or harm to anyone, as the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) entered it and prayed therein, according to an authentic narration in the Sahihain (Two Sahihs). And it has been reported from him (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) that he came out one day looking sad, and he said: “Verily, I fear that I may have placed a burden upon my Ummah (i.e. by entering the ka’bah).” [1]

And when ‘A`ishah (radiallaahu ‘anha) asked him about salat in the Ka’bah, he said: “Pray in the Hijr, because it is a part of the House.” [2]

This proves that salat inside the Ka’bah is preferred and is a means of drawing close (to Allaah) and an act of obedience, and in it is great merit.

However, it is not fitting that there should be crowding, or harm, or doing anything which causes difficulty to him or to the people. It is enough for him to pray in the Hijr, because it is a part of the House; and there is no objection to speaking about what he has seen inside the Ka’bah, such as its inscriptions, or what is on its ceiling or the like. There is no objection to a person talking and saying: “I saw such and such and such and such.” There is no sin in that.

The Sunnah, when one enters the Ka’bah, is to pray two rak’ahs and to say “Allaahu Akbar” and invoke Allaah, the Almighty, the All-Powerful with whatever supplications are easy for him at the end of it, especially those which have been reported (from the Prophet, salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) because the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) entered the Ka’bah and prayed therein, then he performed Takbir and supplicated Allaah. All of this has been authentically reported from him (salallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam).

The Permanent Committee; Fatawa Islamiya, Volume 2

[1] Abu Dawud no. 2029.
[2] Abu Dawud no. 2028; Ahmad 6:92

Umar and the Black Stone – From Ibn Hajr, Fath Al-Bârî, and other hadîth commentaries

Al-Bukhârî reports that ‘Umar – Allâh be pleased with him – came to the Black Stone (performing tawâf, circumambulation), kissed it, and said, “I know that you are a stone, you do not cause benefit or harm; and if it were not that I had seen Allâh’s Messenger – peace and blessings of Allâh be upon him – kiss you, I would never have kissed you.”

Al-Bukhârî, Al-Sahîh, Chapter on what has been said about the Black Stone.

Points to note

· The illustrious Companion and Caliph ‘Umar reminded us in this narration of the pure belief that benefit and harm are not caused by created objects and thus should not be sought from them. Only Allâh has control over these things.

· We are reminded that acts of worship are taken from Allâh’s Messenger, and a person is not supposed to make up his own way of worship, he must follow the manner of worship that the Prophet taught and practiced.

· We also learn that once an action is confirmed in the Sunnah, the believer submits and complies and practices it because it is confirmed that Allâh’s Messenger did it, even if we don’t know the wisdom behind it.

· This narration is also an example of how a responsible person tries to clarify and do away with any misunderstandings that people may have about matters of faith. The people had recently left their unbelief and polytheism, so ‘Umar wanted to make it clear that kissing the Black Stone is by no means done as an act of devotion to it, as people used to do with their stone idols.

Adapted from Ibn Hajr, Fath Al-Bârî, and other hadîth commentaries.


The Mother of Ishmael (peace be upon him) – Sahih Bukhari

Sahih Bukhari Volume 4, Book 55, Number 583:

Narrated Ibn Abbas:

The first lady to use a girdle was the mother of Ishmael. She used a girdle so that she might hide her tracks from Sarah. Abraham brought her and her son Ishmael while she was suckling him, to a place near the Ka’ba under a tree on the spot of Zam-zam, at the highest place in the mosque. During those days there was nobody in Mecca, nor was there any water So he made them sit over there and placed near them a leather bag containing some dates, and a small water-skin containing some water, and set out homeward. Ishmael’s mother followed him saying, “O Abraham! Where are you going, leaving us in this valley where there is no person whose company we may enjoy, nor is there anything (to enjoy)?” She repeated that to him many times, but he did not look back at her Then she asked him, “Has Allah ordered you to do so?” He said, “Yes.” She said, “Then He will not neglect us,” and returned while Abraham proceeded onwards, and on reaching the Thaniya where they could not see him, he faced the Ka’ba, and raising both hands, invoked Allah saying the following prayers:

‘O our Lord! I have made some of my offspring dwell in a valley without cultivation, by Your Sacred House (Kaba at Mecca) in order, O our Lord, that they may offer prayer perfectly. So fill some hearts among men with love towards them, and (O Allah) provide them with fruits, so that they may give thanks.’ (14.37) Ishmael’s mother went on suckling Ishmael and drinking from the water (she had).

When the water in the water-skin had all been used up, she became thirsty and her child also became thirsty. She started looking at him (i.e. Ishmael) tossing in agony; She left him, for she could not endure looking at him, and found that the mountain of Safa was the nearest mountain to her on that land. She stood on it and started looking at the valley keenly so that she might see somebody, but she could not see anybody. Then she descended from Safa and when she reached the valley, she tucked up her robe and ran in the valley like a person in distress and trouble, till she crossed the valley and reached the Marwa mountain where she stood and started looking, expecting to see somebody, but she could not see anybody. She repeated that (running between Safa and Marwa) seven times.”

The Prophet said, “This is the source of the tradition of the walking of people between them (i.e. Safa and Marwa).” When she reached the Marwa (for the last time) she heard a voice and she asked herself to be quiet and listened attentively. She heard the voice again and said, ‘O, (whoever you may be)! You have made me hear your voice; have you got something to help me?” And behold! She saw an angel at the place of Zam-zam, digging the earth with his heel (or his wing), till water flowed from that place. She started to make something like a basin around it, using her hand in this way, and started filling her water-skin with water with her hands, and the water was flowing out after she had scooped some of it.”

The Prophet added, “May Allah bestow Mercy on Ishmael’s mother! Had she let the Zam-zam (flow without trying to control it) (or had she not scooped from that water) (to fill her water-skin), Zam-zam would have been a stream flowing on the surface of the earth.”

The Prophet further added, “Then she drank (water) and suckled her child. The angel said to her, ‘Don’t be afraid of being neglected, for this is the House of Allah which will be built by this boy and his father, and Allah never neglects His people.’

The House (i.e. Kaba) at that time was on a high place resembling a hillock, and when torrents came, they flowed to its right and left. She lived in that way till some people from the tribe of Jurhum or a family from Jurhum passed by her and her child, as they (i.e. the Jurhum people) were coming through the way of Kada’. They landed in the lower part of Mecca where they saw a bird that had the habit of flying around water and not leaving it. They said, ‘This bird must be flying around water, though we know that there is no water in this valley.’ They sent one or two messengers who discovered the source of water, and returned to inform them of the water. So, they all came (towards the water).” The Prophet added, “Ishmael’s mother was sitting near the water. They asked her, ‘Do you allow us to stay with you?” She replied, ‘Yes, but you will have no right to possess the water.’ They agreed to that.” The Prophet further said, “Ishmael’s mother was pleased with the whole situation as she used to love to enjoy the company of the people. So, they settled there, and later on they sent for their families who came and settled with them so that some families became permanent residents there. The child (i.e. Ishmael) grew up and learnt Arabic from them and (his virtues) caused them to love and admire him as he grew up, and when he reached the age of puberty they made him marry a woman from amongst them.

After Ishmael’s mother had died, Abraham came after Ishmael’s marriage in order to see his family that he had left before, but he did not find Ishmael there. When he asked Ishmael’s wife about him, she replied, ‘He has gone in search of our livelihood.’ Then he asked her about their way of living and their condition, and she replied, ‘We are living in misery; we are living in hardship and destitution,’ complaining to him. He said, ‘When your husband returns, convey my salutation to him and tell him to change the threshold of the gate (of his house).’ When Ishmael came, he seemed to have felt something unusual, so he asked his wife, ‘Has anyone visited you?’ She replied, ‘Yes, an old man of so-and-so description came and asked me about you and I informed him, and he asked about our state of living, and I told him that we were living in a hardship and poverty.’ On that Ishmael said, ‘Did he advise you anything?’ She replied, ‘Yes, he told me to convey his salutation to you and to tell you to change the threshold of your gate.’ Ishmael said, ‘It was my father, and he has ordered me to divorce you. Go back to your family.’ So, Ishmael divorced her and married another woman from amongst them (i.e. Jurhum).

Then Abraham stayed away from them for a period as long as Allah wished and called on them again but did not find Ishmael. So he came to Ishmael’s wife and asked her about Ishmael. She said, ‘He has gone in search of our livelihood.’ Abraham asked her, ‘How are you getting on?’ asking her about their sustenance and living. She replied, ‘We are prosperous and well-off (i.e. we have everything in abundance).’ Then she thanked Allah’ Abraham said, ‘What kind of food do you eat?’ She said. ‘Meat.’ He said, ‘What do you drink?’ She said, ‘Water.” He said, “O Allah! Bless their meat and water.” The Prophet added, “At that time they did not have grain, and if they had grain, he would have also invoked Allah to bless it.” The Prophet added, “If somebody has only these two things as his sustenance, his health and disposition will be badly affected, unless he lives in Mecca.” The Prophet added,” Then Abraham said Ishmael’s wife, “When your husband comes, give my regards to him and tell him that he should keep firm the threshold of his gate.’ When Ishmael came back, he asked his wife, ‘Did anyone call on you?’ She replied, ‘Yes, a good-looking old man came to me,’ so she praised him and added. ‘He asked about you, and I informed him, and he asked about our livelihood and I told him that we were in a good condition.’ Ishmael asked her, ‘Did he give you any piece of advice?’ She said, ‘Yes, he told me to give his regards to you and ordered that you should keep firm the threshold of your gate.’ On that Ishmael said, ‘It was my father, and you are the threshold (of the gate). He has ordered me to keep you with me.’

Then Abraham stayed away from them for a period as long as Allah wished, and called on them afterwards. He saw Ishmael under a tree near Zamzam, sharpening his arrows. When he saw Abraham, he rose up to welcome him (and they greeted each other as a father does with his son or a son does with his father). Abraham said, ‘O Ishmael! Allah has given me an order.’ Ishmael said, ‘Do what your Lord has ordered you to do.’ Abraham asked, ‘Will you help me?’ Ishmael said, ‘I will help you.’ Abraham said, Allah has ordered me to build a house here,’ pointing to a hillock higher than the land surrounding it.” The Prophet added, “Then they raised the foundations of the House (i.e. the Ka’ba). Ishmael brought the stones and Abraham was building, and when the walls became high, Ishmael brought this stone and put it for Abraham who stood over it and carried on building, while Ishmael was handing him the stones, and both of them were saying, ‘O our Lord! Accept (this service) from us, Verily, You are the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing.’ The Prophet added, “Then both of them went on building and going round the Ka’ba saying: O our Lord ! Accept (this service) from us, Verily, You are the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing.” (2.127)

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