Rulings on Purification for the Sick – Shaykh Ibn Baz

All praise be to Allaah, the Lords of the Worlds, and may peace and blessings of Allaah be upon the noblest of the Prophets and Messengers, our Prophet, Muhammad and upon all his family and Companions. As for what follows:

Verily, Allaah, the Most Glorified, Most High has legislated purification for every prayer, because the elimination of impurity and the removal of pollution – whether on the body, the clothes or the place of prayer – are two of the conditions of prayer. So when the Muslim wishes to pray, he must perform the well known ablution (Wudhu) to purify himself from minor impurity, or make Ghusl if the impurity is of the major kind. And before making ablution, Istinja’ must be performed with water, or Istijmar by the one who has urinated or defecated in order that the purification and cleansing be complete. What follows is an explanation of some of the rulings related to this.

Istinja’ with water is obligatory every time something is discharged from the bowel and bladder, such as urine or faeces. But it is not necessary for the sleeper or one who passes wind to perform Istinja’. He is only required to perform ablution, because Istinja’is only prescribed for the removal of impurity, and there is no impurity in this situation.

Istijmar is performed using stones, or another material in its place (such as wood, paper etc.) It must consist of three clean stones, as proved by the Hadith of the Prophet(Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) which states that he said:

“Whoever performs Istijmar, let him make it Witr (i.e. use an odd number of stones).” [Abu Dawud no.35 and Ibn Majah no. 337]

And he (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) also said:

“If any of you goes to defecate, he should take with him three stones, for they will be sufficient for him.”

Muslim narrated that he (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) forbade Istijmar with less than three stones. It is not permissible to make Istijmar with animal droppings, bones or food or anything which contains some forbidden material. It is preferred for a person to perform istijmar with stones, or the like such as tissues etc. After which, he should use water, because the stones remove the essence of the pollution, but the water purifies the area and is therefore more thorough. A person has a choice of Istinja’ with water, orIstijmar with stones or the like. It is reported on the authority of Anas, may Allaah be pleased with him, that he said:

“The Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) entered the toilet and I and a young boy like me carried materials, including water and ‘anaza (a short spear) and he would perform Istinja’ with the water.” [al-Bukhari no.152 & Muslim no.271.]

It is reported on the authority of ‘Aishah, may Allaah be pleased with her, that she said to a group of women:

“Order your husbands to clean themselves following defecation with water, for I am too embarrassed to do so, and the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) used to do so.” At-Tirmidhee said that it was authentic [At-Tirmidhee no.19]

If a person wants to use only one of them (i.e. stones or water), it is preferred to choose water, because it cleans the area removing the essence and the traces and it is more thorough in cleansing. If he chooses to only use stones, he should content himself with three, if it cleanses the area, but if it is not enough, he may use four or five (or more) until he has cleaned the area, but it is better to finish with an odd number, based upon the saying of the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam):

“Whoever performs Istijmar, let him make it Witr.” [Abu Dawud no.35 and Ibn Majah no. 337]

It is not permissable to make the Istijmar with the right hand, according to the Hadith of Salman, may Allaah be pleased with him, in which he said:

“The Messenger of Allaah forbade us from performing Istinja’ with the right hand.” And he said:

“None of you should hold his penis in his right hand while he is urinating. nor should he wipe himself with the right hand after answering the call of nature.” [Al-Bukhari no.153 & Muslim no.267]

But if his left hand has been cut off, or is broken or there is some disease in it, he may use his right hand, and there is no objection to that.

Because the Islamic law is based upon facility and ease, Allaah, the Most Glorified, Most High has lightened the burden of worship on those who have some excuse, according to the excuse. He, the Most High says:

“And (He) has not laid upon you in religion any hardship.” [Surah al-Hajj 22:78]

And He says:

“Allaah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you.”[Surah al-Baqarah 2:185]

And He says:

“So keep your duty to Allaah and fear Him as much as you can.” [Surah at-Taghabun 64:16]

And the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said:

“If I order you to do something, do it as much as you can.” [Al-Bukharino.7288 & Muslim no.1337]

And he (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said:

“Verily the Religion is ease.” [Narrated by al-Bukhari]

If a sick person is unable to cleanse himself of minor impurity with the water by making ablution, or he is unable to purify himself of major impurity by making Ghusl, due to weakness, or fear of making his illness worse, or delaying his recovery, he may performTayammum [Dry ablution using sand or dust.]

This is done by striking his hands in clean dust once, then wiping his face with the palms of his hands and his fingers slowly, based upon the Words of Him, the Most High:

“And if you are ill, or on a journey, or one of you comes after answering the call of nature, or you have been in contact with women (by sexual relations) and you find no water, perform Tayammum with clean earth and rub therewith your faces and hands (Tayammum). Truly, Allaah is Ever Oft-Pardoning, Oft-Forgiving.” [Surah An-Nisa 4:43]

The ruling on those who are unable to use water is the same that of those who are unable to find water, according to the words of the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam):

“The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended.” [Al-Bukhari no. 1]

A sick person may fall into one of a number of categories:

1. If his illness is a simple one and he does not fear to use the water, such as an ailment from which there is no fear that using the water will delay his recovery, or increase his pain, or cause any infection, such as a headache, toothache and the like, or he is able to use warm water without harm, then it is not allowed for him to make Tayammum. Because the permission to perform it is in order to prevent harm, and there is no fear of harm to him, and because he can find water, therefore he must use it.

2. If he fears from an illness which he fears may – should he use water – cause his death or harm one of his organs, or may lead to some illness which might cause his death or harm one of his organs, or cause the loss of some faculty, then it is permissible for him to perform Tayammum, based upon the words of the Most High:

“And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). Surely, Allaah is Most Merciful to you.”[Surah an-Nisa’ 4:29]

3. If he is suffering from some illness which makes him unable to move, and he finds no one to bring him water, it is permissible for him to perform Tayammum.

4. Anyone suffering from a wound, an ulcer or fracture, or any illness which will be exacerbated by using water, and who becomes Junub [in a state of sexual impurity] is allowed to perform Tayammum, based upon the above evidences. If he is able to wash the healthy areas of his body, he must do so and make Tayammum for the rest.

A sick person who is in a place in which he finds neither water nor dust, or anyone who can bring him either one of them, may pray whatever condition he is in, and he is not allowed to delay the prayer, as Allaah, the Most High say:

“So keep your duty to Allaah and fear Him as much as you can.” [Surah at-Taghabun 64:16]

6. An invalid afflicted with incontinence of urine, who is not cured by his treatment, must make ablution for every prayer after the start of its prescribed time, wash off any urine that has affected his body, and wear a clean garment for his prayer, if this is not a burden on him. But if it is, he is excused from it, based upon the Allaah Words:

“And (He) has not laid upon you in religion any hardship.” [Surah al-Hajj 22:78]

And His Words:

“Allaah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you.”[Surah al-Baqarah 2:185]

And He says:

And the words of the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam):

“If I order you to do something, do it as much as you cable.” [Al-Bukhari no.7288 & Muslim no.1337]

He must try to the best of his ability to prevent the spread of the urine to his clothes, or his body, or the place in which he will pray. And everything that invalidates ablution also invalidates Tayammum, and in addition, the ability to use water or its presence. And Allaah knows best.

Shaykh `Abdul-`Azeez Bin Baz
Fatawa Islamiyah, Vol. 2, p17-23, Dar-us-Salam

How the Shaytaan Finds His Way into Somebody’s Heart ? – Permanent Committee

Question:

Through what avenues does the Shaytaan find a way to make suggestions to man?

Answer:

There are many avenues;

He might try to incite someone to fornicate, for example. He first incites his victim to be alone with women, then to look at them, then to talk to them, then perhaps to listen to them sing, and so on until he achieves his end: when his victim fornicates.

Shaytaan may attack a person through his stomach, by tempting him into eating what is unlawful, into drinking alcohol, or even into taking drugs.

Shaytaan may find that a person has an inordinate love for owning things, so he biguiles him into gaining wealth through unlawful means: stealing, swindling, practicing usury, usurping, cheating.

He may find that a person has a great deal of pride, so he will encourage him to belittle others, to be haughty with those inferior to him in society,

and the list of Shaytaan’s tricks is endless.

May Allaah send peace and blessings on Muhammad, his family, and his Companions.

Permanent Committee for Research and Verdicts
Fataawa Islamiyah, vol. 8, p314
Dar-us-salam publications

‎It is a pity that many are only satisfied in the translated meaning of the Qur’an & Prophet’s Sunnah : Shaykh Dr. Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din Al-Hilali

Shaykh Dr. Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din Al-Hilali (Translator of the Noble Qur’an) writes:

‎It is a pity that many nations are only satisfied in the translated meaning of the Qur’an and Prophet’s Sunnah instead of studying the (true) Arabic text of the Qur’an and Prophet’‎s Sunnah. For this reason they are divided into various sects (due to the lack of knowledge about the religion of Islam) e.g. as regards to the ways of religious education, etc. so they are plunged in differences, which was prohibited by Allaah.

If the translation of the meaning of the Qur’an is meant for the above said purpose then it is a real mischief-doing, and an evil action and is against what was brought by Allaah‎s Messenger (Peace be upon him) and also against the opinions of the early and present day religious scholars. All the religious scholars unanimously agree that the Qur’an and the Sunnah should be taught in the language of the Qur’an (i.e. Arabic Language). So did the early religious scholars of the Muslim nation when they conquered different countries.

Translations are mainly meant for informing the people who have not yet embraced Islam to make clear to them the principles of Islam and the teachings of Muhammad (Peace be upon him) and to know its exact facts. When they reach this state and Allaah has blessed them with Islam, they must take the Qur’anic and the Messenger‎s Language (i.e. Arabic) as the only language to understand Islam.

May Allaah’s mercy be on Shaykh ‘Umar Uzbak, a great Turkish man, who strove for Islam in Uzbakistan under the Russian government, after his long fight against the enemies of Islam with fire (iron) and tongue (speech), he took refuge in Afghanistan at Kabul, where the government honoured him. I met him there in 1352 A.H. (approx. 1932 CE) i.e. nearly 40 years ago, and he had vowed to Allaah that he will never speak to a relative or anybody else except in the Qur’anic and Messenger’s (Arabic) language. His wife sent a man for me to intercede for her to him that he should speak with her and her children in the Turkish language even for an hour everyday. So when I spoke to him about it, he said: ‘Russians had compelled us to learn perfectly the Russian language (by force), so we learnt it. And unless they knew that the learning of the Russian language will make the person who learns it, follow their ways of thinking, characters, and their traditions, they would not have forced anybody to learn it.’ He further said to me, ‘I have vowed to Allaah long ago not to speak except in the language of the Qur’an and Sunnah (i.e. Arabic) and I do that only for Allaah’s sake. If my wife and children desire to enjoy speaking with me, they should learn the language of the Qur’an and of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) (i.e. Arabic) and I am ready to teach them the Qur’anic language whenever they desire that‎

[The Interpretation of the Meanings of the Noble Quran in the english language by Dr. Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din Al- Hilali & Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan , page xxiv ( 1994 edition )]

The Tafsir of Surat Al-Qiyamah : Ibn Kathir

 The Tafsir Ibn Kathir of Surat Al-Qiyamah (Chapter – 75)

Which was revealed in Makkah

[بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ ]

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

[لاَ أُقْسِمُ بِيَوْمِ الْقِيَـمَةِ – وَلاَ أُقْسِمُ بِالنَّفْسِ اللَّوَّامَةِ – أَيَحْسَبُ الإِنسَـنُ أَلَّن نَّجْمَعَ عِظَامَهُ – بَلَى قَـدِرِينَ عَلَى أَن نُّسَوِّىَ بَنَانَهُ – بَلْ يُرِيدُ الإِنسَـنُ لِيَفْجُرَ أَمَامَهُ – يَسْـَلُ أَيَّانَ يَوْمُ الْقِيَـمَةِ – فَإِذَا بَرِقَ الْبَصَرُ – وَخَسَفَ الْقَمَرُ – وَجُمِعَ الشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ – يَقُولُ الإِنسَـنُ يَوْمَئِذٍ أَيْنَ الْمَفَرُّ – كَلاَّ لاَ وَزَرَ – إِلَى رَبِّكَ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْمُسْتَقَرُّ – يُنَبَّأُ الإِنسَـنُ يَوْمَئِذِ بِمَا قَدَّمَ وَأَخَّرَ – بَلِ الإِنسَـنُ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ بَصِيرَةٌ – وَلَوْ أَلْقَى مَعَاذِيرَهُ ]

(1. Nay! I swear by the Day of Resurrection.) (2. And nay! I swear by An-Nafs Al-Lawwamah.) (3. Does man think that We shall not assemble his bones) (4. Yes, We are able to put together in perfect order the tips of his fingers.) (5. Nay! Man desires to break out ahead of himself.) (6. He asks: “When will be this Day of Resurrection”) (7. So, when Bariqa the sight.) (8. And the moon will be eclipsed.) (9. And the sun and moon will be joined together.) (10. On that Day man will say: “Where (is the refuge) to flee”) (11. No! There is no refuge!) (12. Unto your Lord will be the place of rest that Day.) (13. On that Day man will be informed of what he sent forward, and what he left behind.) (14. Nay! Man will be well informed about himself,) (15. Though he may put forth his excuses.)

The Oath about the Final Return on the Day of Resurrection and the Refutation against the Plots of the Thinkers

It has been mentioned previously on more than one occasion that if the thing that is being sworn about is something that is being negated, then it is permissible to use the word “La” (Nay) before the oath to emphasize the negation. Here, what is being sworn about is the affirmation of the final abode and the refutation against the claim of the ignorant that the resurrection of bodies will not occur. This is why Allah says,

[لاَ أُقْسِمُ بِيَوْمِ الْقِيَـمَةِ – وَلاَ أُقْسِمُ بِالنَّفْسِ اللَّوَّامَةِ ]

(Nay! I swear by the Day of Resurrection. And nay! I swear by An-Nafs Al-Lawwamah.) Qatadah said, “This means, I swear by both of these things.” This has also been reported from Ibn `Abbas and Sa`id bin Jubayr. Concerning the Day of Judgement, it is well known what it is. In reference to An-Nafs Al-Lawwamah, Qurrah bin Khalid reported from Al-Hasan Al-Basri that he said about this Ayah, “Verily, by Allah, we think that every believer blames himself. He says (questioning himself), `What did I intend by my statement What did I intend by my eating What did I intend in what I said to myself’ However, the sinner proceeds ahead and he does not blame himself.” Ibn Jarir recorded from Sa`id bin Jubayr that he said concerning Allah’s statement,

[وَلاَ أُقْسِمُ بِالنَّفْسِ اللَّوَّامَةِ ]

(And nay! I swear by An-Nafs Al-Lawwamah) “He criticizes himself in good and bad.” Similar has been reported from `Ikrimah. Ibn Abi Najih reported from Mujahid: “He is sorry for what he missed (of good deeds) and he blames himself for it.” Allah said;

[أَيَحْسَبُ الإِنسَـنُ أَلَّن نَّجْمَعَ عِظَامَهُ ]

(Does man think that We shall not assemble his bones) meaning, `on the Day of Judgement does he think that We are not able to return his bones and gather them from their various places’

[بَلَى قَـدِرِينَ عَلَى أَن نُّسَوِّىَ بَنَانَهُ ]

(Yes, We are able to put together in perfect order the tips of his fingers.) meaning, `does man think that We will not gather his bones Surely, We will gather them and We are quite able to put together his fingertips. This means Our power is suitable to gather (and recreate) them, and if We wished We could surely resurrect him with more than what he originally had. We could make his Banan, which are the tips of his fingers, all equal (in length).’ Concerning Allah’s statement,

[بَلْ يُرِيدُ الإِنسَـنُ لِيَفْجُرَ أَمَامَهُ ]

(Nay! Man desires to break out ahead of himself.) Sa`id reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said, “This means to proceed forward.” Mujahid said about,

[لِيَفْجُرَ أَمَامَهُ]

(to break out ahead of himself.) “This means that he wants to proceed ahead following his own whims.” `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said, “This refers to the disbeliever who denies the Day of Reckoning.” Ibn Zayd said the same thing. Thus, Allah says after this,

[يَسْـَلُ أَيَّانَ يَوْمُ الْقِيَـمَةِ ]

(He asks: “When will be this Day of Resurrection”) meaning, he says when will the Day of Judgement be His question is only a question of denying its occurrence, and rejecting its existence. This is as Allah says,

[وَيَقُولُونَ مَتَى هَـذَا الْوَعْدُ إِن كُنتُمْ صَـدِقِينَ قُل لَّكُم مِّيعَادُ يَوْمٍ لاَّ تَسْتَـَخِرُونَ عَنْهُ سَاعَةً وَلاَ تَسْتَقْدِمُونَ ]

(And they say: “When is this promise if you are truthful” Say: “The appointment to you is for a Day, which you cannot put back for an hour nor put forward.”) (34:29-30) Here Allah says,

[فَإِذَا بَرِقَ الْبَصَرُ ]

(So, when Bariqa the sight.) Abu `Amr bin Al-`Ala’ recited this Ayah as Bariqa with a Kasrah under the letter Ra, which means to be diminished. That which he (Abu `Amr) has said resembles the statement of Allah,

[لاَ يَرْتَدُّ إِلَيْهِمْ طَرْفُهُمْ]

(Their gaze returning not towards them.) (14:43) meaning, they will be looking this way and that way in horror. Their gaze will not be able to rest upon anything due to the severity of the terror on that Day. Others recited it as Baraqa with a Fathah over the letter Ra, and its meaning is close to the first recitation (Bariqa). The intent here is that the eyes will be dazzled, humbled, diminished, and humiliated on the Day of Judgement due to the severity of the horrors and the greatness of the matters that they will witness on that Day. Concerning Allah’s statement,

[وَخَسَفَ الْقَمَرُ ]

(And the moon will be eclipsed.) meaning, its light will go away.

[وَجُمِعَ الشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ ]

(And the sun and moon will be joined together.) Mujahid said, “They will be rolled up.” In explaining this Ayah, Ibn Zayd recited the following Ayat,

[إِذَا الشَّمْسُ كُوِّرَتْ – وَإِذَا النُّجُومُ انكَدَرَتْ ]

(When the sun is wound round and its light is lost and is overthrown, and when the stars fall.) (81:1,2) It has been reported from Ibn Mas`ud that he recited the Ayah as, (وَجُمِعَ بَيْنَ الشَّمْسِ وَالْقَمَرِ) (and the sun and the moon will be joined between each other.) Allah said,

[يَقُولُ الإِنسَـنُ يَوْمَئِذٍ أَيْنَ الْمَفَرُّ ]

(On that Day man will say:”Where (is the refuge) to flee”) meaning, the human will see these horrors on the Day of Judgement and he will want to flee. He will say, “Where (is the place) to flee to” This means, where is the escape or refuge Allah then says,

[كَلاَّ لاَ وَزَرَ – إِلَى رَبِّكَ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْمُسْتَقَرُّ ]

(No! There is no refuge! Unto your Lord will be the place of rest that Day.) Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn `Abbas, Sa`id bin Jubayr and several others of the Salaf said, “There will be no salvation.” This Ayah is similar to Allah’s statement,

[مَا لَكُمْ مِّن مَّلْجَأٍ يَوْمَئِذٍ وَمَا لَكُمْ مِّن نَّكِيرٍ]

(You will have no refuge on that Day nor there will be for you any denying.) (42:47) meaning, `there will be no place for you to hide.’ This is like what Allah says here,

[لاَ وَزَرَ]

(There is no refuge.) meaning, `there will be no place for you to seek shelter.’ Thus, Allah says,

[إِلَى رَبِّكَ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْمُسْتَقَرُّ ]

(Unto your Lord will be the place of rest that Day.) meaning, the place of return and the final destination. The Deeds of Man will be placed before Him on the Day of Judgement Then Allah says,

[يُنَبَّأُ الإِنسَـنُ يَوْمَئِذِ بِمَا قَدَّمَ وَأَخَّرَ ]

(On that Day man will be informed of what he sent forward, and what he left behind.) meaning, he will be informed of all of his deeds, the old of them and the recent of them, the first of them and the last of them, the small of them and the large of them. This is as Allah says,

[وَوَجَدُواْ مَا عَمِلُواْ حَاضِرًا وَلاَ يَظْلِمُ رَبُّكَ أَحَدًا]

(And they will find all that they did, placed before them, and your Lord treats no one with injustice.) (18:49) Likewise, Allah says here,

[بَلِ الإِنسَـنُ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ بَصِيرَةٌ – وَلَوْ أَلْقَى مَعَاذِيرَهُ ]

(Nay! Man will be well informed about himself, though he may put forth his excuses.) meaning, he will be a witness against himself, knowing full well what he did, even though he will try to make excuses and deny it. This is as Allah says,

[اقْرَأْ كَتَـبَكَ كَفَى بِنَفْسِكَ الْيَوْمَ عَلَيْكَ حَسِيبًا ]

((It will be said to him): “Read your book. You are sufficient as a reckoner against yourself this Day.”) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said,

[بَلِ الإِنسَـنُ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ بَصِيرَةٌ ]

(Nay! Man will be well informed about himself.) “His hearing, his sight, his two hands, his two legs and his limbs.” Qatadah said, “This means he is a witness against himself.” In another narration from Qatadah he said, “By Allah! If you wish to see him, you would see him as someone who sees the shortcomings of the people and their sins, yet he is heedless of his own sins.” It used to be said, “Verily, it is written in the Injil: `O Son of Adam, do you see the small splinters in the eye of your brother and disregard the tree stump that is in your eye, so you do not see it”’ Mujahid said,

[وَلَوْ أَلْقَى مَعَاذِيرَهُ ]

(Though he may put forth his excuses.) “This means, even though he argues in defense of it, he is a witness against it.” Qatadah said,

[وَلَوْ أَلْقَى مَعَاذِيرَهُ ]

(Though he may put forth his excuses.) “Even though he will try to make false excuses on that Day, they will not be accepted from him.” As-Suddi said,

[وَلَوْ أَلْقَى مَعَاذِيرَهُ ]

(Though he may put forth his excuses.) “This means his argument.” This is as Allah says,

[ثُمَّ لَمْ تَكُنْ فِتْنَتُهُمْ إِلاَّ أَن قَالُواْ وَاللَّهِ رَبِّنَا مَا كُنَّا مُشْرِكِينَ ]

(There will then be no Fitnah for them but to say: “By Allah, our Lord, we were not those who joined others in worship with Allah.”) (6:23) Allah also says,

[يَوْمَ يَبْعَثُهُمُ اللَّهِ جَمِيعاً فَيَحْلِفُونَ لَهُ كَمَا يَحْلِفُونَ لَكُمْ وَيَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُمْ عَلَى شَىْءٍ أَلاَ إِنَّهُمْ هُمُ الْكَـذِبُونَ ]

(On the Day when Allah will resurrect them all together; then they will swear to Him as they swear to you (O Muslims). And they think that they have something. Verily, they are liars!) (58:18) Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas:

[وَلَوْ أَلْقَى مَعَاذِيرَهُ ]

(Though he may put forth his excuses.) “This is apologizing. Haven’t you heard that Allah said,

[لاَ يَنفَعُ الظَّـلِمِينَ مَعْذِرَتُهُمْ]

(The Day when their excuses will be of no profit to wrongdoers.) (40:52) and He says,

[وَأَلْقَوْاْ إِلَى اللَّهِ يَوْمَئِذٍ السَّلَمَ]

(And they will offer submision to Allah on that Day.) (16:87) and He says,

[فَأَلْقَوُاْ السَّلَمَ مَا كُنَّا نَعْمَلُ مِن سُوءٍ]

(Then they will (falsely) submit: “We used not to do any evil.”) (16:28) and their statement,

[وَاللَّهِ رَبِّنَا مَا كُنَّا مُشْرِكِينَ]

(By Allah, our Lord, we were not those who joined others in worship with Allah.) (6:23)”

[لاَ تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ – إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا جَمْعَهُ وَقُرْءَانَهُ – فَإِذَا قَرَأْنَـهُ فَاتَّبِعْ قُرْءَانَهُ – ثُمَّ إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا بَيَانَهُ – كَلاَّ بَلْ تُحِبُّونَ الْعَاجِلَةَ – وَتَذَرُونَ الاٌّخِرَةَ – وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ نَّاضِرَةٌ – إِلَى رَبِّهَا نَاظِرَةٌ – وَوُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ بَاسِرَةٌ – تَظُنُّ أَن يُفْعَلَ بِهَا فَاقِرَةٌ ]

(16. Move not your tongue concerning to make haste therewith.) (17. It is for Us to collect it and that it be recited.) (18. And when We have recited it to you, then follow its recitation.) (19. Then it is for Us to make it clear.) (20. But no! Rather you love the present life of this world,) (21. And neglect the Hereafter.) (22. Some faces that Day shall be Nadirah.) (23. Looking at their Lord.) (24. And some faces that Day will be Basirah,) (25. Thinking that some calamity is about to fall on them.)

How the Prophet received the Revelation

This is Allah teaching His Messenger how to receive the revelation from the angel. For verily, he (the Prophet ) was rushing in his attempts to grasp the revelation and he would be reciting the revelation with the angel while he was reciting it. Therefore, Allah commanded him that when the angel brings some revelation to him he should just listen. Allah would make sure to collect it in his chest, and He would make it easy for him to recite it in the same way that it was revealed to him. Allah would explain it, interpret it and clarify it for him. So the first phase was gathering it in his chest, the second phase was recitation and the third phase was its explanation and clarification of its meaning. Thus, Allah says,

[لاَ تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ ]

(Move not your tongue concerning to make haste therewith.) meaning, with the Qur’an. This is as Allah says,

[وَلاَ تَعْجَلْ بِالْقُرْءانِ مِن قَبْلِ إَن يُقْضَى إِلَيْكَ وَحْيُهُ وَقُل رَّبِّ زِدْنِى عِلْماً]

(And be not in haste with the Qur’an before its revelation is completed to you, and say: “My Lord! Increase me in knowledge.”) (20:114) Then Allah says,

[إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا جَمْعَهُ]

(It is for Us to collect it) meaning, `in your chest.’

[وَقُرْءَانَهُ]

(and that it be recited.) meaning, `that you recite it.’

[فَإِذَا قَرَأْنَـهُ]

(And when We have recited it to you,) meaning, `when the angel has recited it to you from Allah,’

[فَاتَّبِعْ قُرْءَانَهُ]

(then follow its recitation.) meaning, `listen to it then recite it as he taught you to recite it.’

[ثُمَّ إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا بَيَانَهُ ]

(Then it is for Us to make it clear.) meaning, `after memorizing it and reciting it, We will explain it to you, clarify it and inspire you with its meaning according to what We intended and legislated.’ Imam Ahmad recorded from Ibn `Abbas that he said that the Messenger of Allah used to struggle very hard to grasp the revelation and he used to move his lips (rapidly with the recitation). The narrator, Sa`id, then said, “Ibn `Abbas said to me, `I will move my lips like the Messenger of Allah used to move his lips (in order to show you).”’ Then, the subnarrator said, “And Sa`id said to me, `I will move my lips like I saw Ibn `Abbas moving his lips (in order to show you).”’ Then Allah revealed,

[لاَ تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ – إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا جَمْعَهُ وَقُرْءَانَهُ ]

(Move not your tongue concerning to make haste therewith. It is for Us to collect it and that it be recited.) Ibn `Abbas said, “This means He will collect it in his chest to recite it.

[فَإِذَا قَرَأْنَـهُ فَاتَّبِعْ قُرْءَانَهُ ]

(And when We have recited it to you, then follow its recitation.) meaning, listen to it and pay attention.

[ثُمَّ إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا بَيَانَهُ ]

(Then it is for Us to make it clear (to you).) So after this, when Jibril would leave, he would recite it as Jibril had taught him to recite it.” This has also been recorded by Al-Bukhari and Muslim. Al-Bukhari’s wording says, “So whenever Jibril would come to him he would be silent, and when Jibril had left he would recite it just as Allah, the Mighty and Sublime had promised him.”

The Cause of rejecting the Day of Judgement is Love of the World and Heedlessness of the Hereafter

Concerning Allah’s statement,

[كَلاَّ بَلْ تُحِبُّونَ الْعَاجِلَةَ – وَتَذَرُونَ الاٌّخِرَةَ ]

(But no! Rather you love the present life of this world. And neglect the Hereafter.) meaning, the only thing that has caused them to reject the Day of Judgement and oppose the true revelation and the Mighty Qur’an Allah revealed to His Messenger is that their only concern is the present worldly life. They are preoccupied and distracted from the Hereafter.

Seeing Allah in the Hereafter

Then Allah says,

[وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ نَّاضِرَةٌ ]

(Some faces that Day shall be Nadirah.) which comes from the word Nadarah, which means splendid, radiant, glowing, delighted with goodness.

[إِلَى رَبِّهَا نَاظِرَةٌ ]

(Looking at their Lord.) meaning, they will see Him with their very eyes. This is just as was recorded by Al-Bukhari in his Sahih,

«إِنَّكُمْ سَتَرَوْنَ رَبَّكُمْ عِيَانًا»

(Verily, you all will see your Lord with your own eyes.) The believers seeing Allah in the abode of the Hereafter has been confirmed in the authentic Hadiths from numerous routes of transmission with the scholars of Hadith. It is not possible to deny this or refuse it. Examples would be the Hadiths of Abu Sa`id and Abu Hurayrah, and they are both recorded in the Two Sahihs. They both mentioned that some people said, “O Messenger of Allah! Will we see our Lord on the Day of Judgement” The Prophet said,

«هَلْ تُضَارُّونَ فِي رُؤْيَةِ الشَّمْسِ وَالْقَمَرِ لَيْسَ دُونَهُمَا سَحَابٌ؟»

(Are you harmed by seeing the sun and the moon when there are no clouds beneath them) They replied, “No.” The Prophet then said,

«فَإِنَّكُمْ تَرَوْنَ رَبَّكُمْ كَذَلِك»

(Then you will surely see your Lord like that.) In the Two Sahihs it is recorded from Jabir that he said, “The Messenger of Allah looked at the moon on a night when it was full, and he said,

«إِنَّكُمْ تَرَوْنَ رَبَّكُمْ كَمَا تَرَوْنَ هَذَا الْقَمَرَ، فَإِنِ اسْتَطَعْتُمْ أَنْ لَا تُغْلَبُوا عَلَى صَلَاةٍ قَبْلَ طُلُوعِ الشَّمْسِ وَلَا قَبْلَ غُرُوبِهَا، فَافْعَلُوا»

(Verily, you will see your Lord just as you see this moon! So if you are able to avoid missing a prayer before the rising of the sun (Fajr prayer) or before its setting (`Asr prayer) then do so.)” Among the Hadiths, which Muslim was alone in recording, is a narration from Suhayb that the Prophet said,

«إِذَا دَخَلَ أَهْلُ الْجَنَّةِ الْجَنَّةَ قَالَ يَقُولُ اللهُ تَعَالى: تُرِيدُونَ شَيْئًا أَزِيدُكُمْ؟ فَيَقُولُونَ: أَلَمْ تُبَيِّضْ وُجُوهَنَا؟ أَلَمْ تُدْخِلْنَا الْجَنَّةَ وَتُنَجِّنَا مِنَ النَّارِ؟ قَالَ: فَيَكْشِفُ الْحِجَابَ، فَمَا أُعْطُوا شَيْئًا أَحَبَّ إِلَيْهِمْ مِنَ النَّظَرِ إِلَى رَبِّهِمْ، وَهِيَ الزِّيَادَة»

(When the people of Paradise enter the Paradise, Allah will say, `Do you want me to give you anything extra’ They will say, `Haven’t you whitened our faces Haven’t you entered us into Paradise and saved us from the Fire’ Then He will remove the veil and they will not be given anything more beloved to them than looking at their Lord, and that will be the extra (Ziyadah).) Then he recited this Ayah,

[لِّلَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُواْ الْحُسْنَى وَزِيَادَةٌ]

(For those who have done good is the best and extra (Ziyadah).) (10:26) Also among the Hadiths, which Muslim was alone in recording, is the Hadith of Jabir in which the Prophet said,

«إِنَّ اللهَ يَتَجَلَّى لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ يَضْحَك»

(Verily, Allah will appear before the believers while He is laughing.) This will take place on the open plains of the Resurrection place. In some of these Hadiths, it mentions that the believers will be looking at their Lord on the open plains and some mention that this will occur in the Gardens of Paradise. If it were not due to fear of taking up a lot of space, we would present all of these Hadiths with their routes of transmission and wordings from those that are in the Sahih collections, the collections of good narrations, the Musnad collections and the Sunan collections. However, we have mentioned this in separate places in this Tafsir, and Allah is the Giver of success. This issue is something that the Companions, the Successors and the Salaf of this nation have agreed upon, and all praise is due to Allah. It is something that is agreed upon between the Imams of Islam and the guides of all mankind.

Blackening of the Faces of the Disobedient People on the Day of Judgement

Allah says,

[وَوُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ بَاسِرَةٌ – تَظُنُّ أَن يُفْعَلَ بِهَا فَاقِرَةٌ ]

(And some faces that Day will be Basirah. Thinking that some calamity is about to fall on them.) These are the faces of the sinners that will be Basirah on the Day of Judgement. Qatadah said, “This means gloomy.” As-Suddi said, “Their (the faces) color will change.”

[تَظُنُّ]

(Thinking) meaning, they will be certain.

[أَن يُفْعَلَ بِهَا فَاقِرَةٌ]

(that some calamity is about to fall on them.) Mujahid said, “A disaster.” Qatadah said, “An evil.” As-Suddi said, “They will be certain that they are going to be destroyed.” Ibn Zayd said, “They will think that they are going to enter into the Hellfire.” This situation is similar to Allah’s statement,

[يَوْمَ تَبْيَضُّ وُجُوهٌ وَتَسْوَدُّ وُجُوهٌ]

(On the Day when some faces will become white and some faces will become black.) (3:106) Similarly Allah says,

[وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ مُّسْفِرَةٌ – ضَـحِكَةٌ مُّسْتَبْشِرَةٌ – وَوُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَلَيْهَا غَبَرَةٌ – تَرْهَقُهَا قَتَرَةٌ – أُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْكَفَرَةُ الْفَجَرَةُ ]

(Some faces that Day will be bright. Laughing, rejoicing at the good news. And other faces, that Day will be dust-stained; darkness will cover them, such will be the disbelieving, wicked.) (80:38-42) Allah also says,

[وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ خَـشِعَةٌ – عَامِلَةٌ نَّاصِبَةٌ – تَصْلَى نَاراً حَامِيَةً ]

(Some faces, that Day will be humiliated. Laboring, weary. They will enter in the hot blazing Fire.) (88:2-4) until Allah says,

[وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ نَّاعِمَةٌ – لِّسَعْيِهَا رَاضِيَةٌ فِى جَنَّةٍ عَالِيَةٍ ]

((Other) faces that Day will be joyful. Happy with their endeavor. In a lofty Paradise.) (88:8-10) And there are other similar Ayat and discussions (in the Qur’an).

[كَلاَّ إِذَا بَلَغَتِ التَّرَاقِىَ – وَقِيلَ مَنْ رَاقٍ – وَظَنَّ أَنَّهُ الْفِرَاقُ – وَالْتَفَّتِ السَّاقُ بِالسَّاقِ – إِلَى رَبِّكَ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْمَسَاقُ – فَلاَ صَدَّقَ وَلاَ صَلَّى – وَلَـكِن كَذَّبَ وَتَوَلَّى – ثُمَّ ذَهَبَ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ يَتَمَطَّى – أَوْلَى لَكَ فَأَوْلَى – ثُمَّ أَوْلَى لَكَ فَأَوْلَى – أَيَحْسَبُ الإِنسَـنُ أَن يُتْرَكَ سُدًى – أَلَمْ يَكُ نُطْفَةً مِّن مَّنِىٍّ يُمْنَى – ثُمَّ كَانَ عَلَقَةً فَخَلَقَ فَسَوَّى – فَجَعَلَ مِنْهُ الزَّوْجَيْنِ الذَّكَرَ وَالاٍّنثَى – أَلَيْسَ ذَلِكَ بِقَـدِرٍ عَلَى أَن يُحْيِىَ الْمَوْتَى ]

(26. Nay, when it reaches to the collarbones.) (27. And it will be said: “Who can cure him”) (28. And he will think that it was the parting;) (29. And one shank will be joined with another shank.) (30. The drive will be on that Day to your Lord!) (31. So, he neither believed nor prayed!) (32. But on the contrary, he denied and turned away!) (33. Then he walked in conceit to his family admiring himself!) (34. Woe to you! And then woe to you!) (35. Again, woe to you! And then woe to you!) (36. Does man think that he will be left neglected) (37. Was he not a Nutfah of semen emitted) (38. Then he became an `Alaqah; then shaped and fashioned in due proportion.) (39. And made of him two sexes, male and female.) (40. Is it not so then, that He would be able to give life to the dead)

Certainty will occur at the Time of Death Allah informs of the condition at the time of death and what terrors it contains.

May Allah make us firm at that time with the Firm Statement. Allah says,

[كَلاَّ إِذَا بَلَغَتِ التَّرَاقِىَ ]

(Nay, when it reaches to the collarbones.) If we make the word “Kalla” negative, then this Ayah means, `O son of Adam! You are not able to deny that which I informed you of at that time (death). This will become something witnessed by you with your own eyes.’ If we consider the word “Kalla” to be a word of affirmation, then this would be the most obvious meaning. In this case it would mean that it is certainly true when the soul reaches the collarbones – meaning, `your soul will be pulled out of your body and it will reach your collarbones.’ This is similar to Allah’s statement,

[فَلَوْلاَ إِذَا بَلَغَتِ الْحُلْقُومَ – وَأَنتُمْ حِينَئِذٍ تَنظُرُونَ – وَنَحْنُ أَقْرَبُ إِلَيْهِ مِنكُمْ وَلَـكِن لاَّ تُبْصِرُونَ – فَلَوْلاَ إِن كُنتُمْ غَيْرَ مَدِينِينَ – تَرْجِعُونَهَآ إِن كُنتُمْ صَـدِقِينَ ]

(Then why do you not (intervene) when (the soul of the dying person) reaches the throat And you at the moment are looking on, but We are nearer to him than you, but you see not, then why do you not if you are exempt from the reckoning and recompense, bring back the soul, if your are truthful) (56:83-87) Thus, Allah similarly says here,

[كَلاَّ إِذَا بَلَغَتِ التَّرَاقِىَ – وَقِيلَ مَنْ رَاقٍ ]

(Nay, when it reaches to the collarbones. And it will be said: “Who can cure him) `Ikrimah reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said, “Meaning, who is the person who recites divine prayers of healing so that he may come and cure him” Abu Qilabah made a similar statement when he said,

[وَقِيلَ مَنْ رَاقٍ ]

(And it will be said: “Who can cure him) “This means who is the doctor that can cure him” Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and Ibn Zayd all have similar statements. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said concerning the Ayah,

[وَالْتَفَّتِ السَّاقُ بِالسَّاقِ ]

(And one shank will be joined with another shank.) “This is the last day of the days of this world and the first day of the days of the Hereafter. So there will be hardships that will meet (more) hardships, except for he whom Allah has mercy upon.” `Ikrimah said,

[وَالْتَفَّتِ السَّاقُ بِالسَّاقِ ]

(And one shank will be joined with another shank.) “The great matter (will be joined) with the great matter.” Mujahid said, “A test (will be joined) with a test.” Al-Hasan Al-Basri said concerning Allah’s statement,

[وَالْتَفَّتِ السَّاقُ بِالسَّاقِ ]

(And one shank will be joined with another shank. ) “These are your two shins when they are bound together.” In another narration from him (Al-Hasan) he said, “His two legs have died and they will not carry him while he used to walk around on them.” Concerning Allah’s statement,

[إِلَى رَبِّكَ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْمَسَاقُ ]

(The drive will be on that Day to your Lord!) meaning, the place of return and the destination. This is that the soul ascends into the heavens and Allah says, “Return my servant to the earth, for verily, I have created them from it, I return them into it, and from it I will bring them out at another time.” This has been reported in the lengthy Hadith of Al-Bara’. Verily, Allah says,

[وَهُوَ الْقَاهِرُ فَوْقَ عِبَادِهِ وَيُرْسِلُ عَلَيْكُم حَفَظَةً حَتَّى إِذَا جَآءَ أَحَدَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ تَوَفَّتْهُ رُسُلُنَا وَهُمْ لاَ يُفَرِّطُونَ – ثُمَّ رُدُّواْ إِلَى اللَّهِ مَوْلَـهُمُ الْحَقِّ أَلاَ لَهُ الْحُكْمُ وَهُوَ أَسْرَعُ الْحَـسِبِينَ ]

(He is the Irresistible (Supreme), over His servants, and He sends guardians over you, until when death approaches one of you, Our messengers take his soul, and they never neglect their duty. Then they are returned to Allah, their True Master. Surely, for Him is the judgement and He is the swiftest in taking account.) (6:61,62)

Mentioning the Case of the Denier

Allah says,

[فَلاَ صَدَّقَ وَلاَ صَلَّى – وَلَـكِن كَذَّبَ وَتَوَلَّى ]

(So, he neither believed nor prayed! But on the contrary, he denied and turned away!) This is to inform about the disbeliever who used to deny the truth in his heart in the abode of this worldly life, and he used to turn away from acting according to its way. Thus, there is no good in him, internally or externally. Therefore, Allah says,

[فَلاَ صَدَّقَ وَلاَ صَلَّى – وَلَـكِن كَذَّبَ وَتَوَلَّى – ثُمَّ ذَهَبَ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ يَتَمَطَّى ]

(So he neither believed nor prayed! But on the contrary, he denied and turned away! Then he walked in conceit (full pride) to his family admiring himself!)(75:31-33) meaning, stubborn, cruel, obstinate, wanton, lazy, having no concern and doing no deeds. This is similar to Allah’s statement,

[وَإِذَا انقَلَبُواْ إِلَى أَهْلِهِمْ انقَلَبُواْ فَكِهِينَ ]

(And when they returned to their own people, they would return jesting.) (83:31) Allah also says,

[إِنَّهُ كَانَ فِى أَهْلِهِ مَسْرُوراً – إِنَّهُ ظَنَّ أَن لَّن يَحُورَ ]

(Verily, he was among his people in joy! Verily, he thought that he would never come back (to Us)!) (84:13,14) meaning, return.

[بَلَى إِنَّ رَبَّهُ كَانَ بِهِ بَصِيراً ]

(Yes! Verily, his Lord has been ever beholding him!) (84:15) Ad-Dahhak reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said,

[ثُمَّ ذَهَبَ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ يَتَمَطَّى ]

(Then he walked in conceit to his family admiring himself!) “This means arrogantly.” Qatadah and Zayd bin Aslam both said, “Strutting.” Allah then says,

[أَوْلَى لَكَ فَأَوْلَى – ثُمَّ أَوْلَى لَكَ فَأَوْلَى ]

(Woe to you! And then woe to you! Again, woe to you! And then woe to you!) This is a definite warning and threat from Allah to those who disbelieve in Him and strut about when walking. This means, `you deserve to strut like this while you have disbelieved in your Creator and Maker.’ This is what is commonly said in this type of situation in order to mock and intimidate (someone). This is as Allah says,

[ذُقْ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْكَرِيمُ ]

(Taste you (this)! Verily you were (pretending to be) the mighty, the generous!) (44:49) Similarly, Allah says,

[كُلُواْ وَتَمَتَّعُواْ قَلِيلاً إِنَّكُمْ مُّجْرِمُونَ ]

(Eat and enjoy yourselves for a little. Verily, you are criminals.) (77:46) Allah also says,

[فَاعْبُدُواْ مَا شِئْتُمْ مِّن دُونِهِ]

(So worship what you like besides Him.) (39:15) And like Allah’s statement,

[اعْمَلُواْ مَا شِئْتُمْ]

(Do what you will.) (41:40) There are other examples of this as well. Abu `Abdur-Rahman An-Nasa’i recorded from Sa`id bin Jubayr that he said, “I mentioned to Ibn `Abbas,

[أَوْلَى لَكَ فَأَوْلَى – ثُمَّ أَوْلَى لَكَ فَأَوْلَى ]

(Woe to you! And then woe to you! Again, woe to you! And then woe to you!) He (Ibn `Abbas) replied, `The Messenger of Allah said this to Abu Jahl, then Allah, the Mighty and Sublime, revealed this Ayah.”’ Ibn Abi Hatim recorded from Qatadah that he said concerning Allah’s statement,

[أَوْلَى لَكَ فَأَوْلَى – ثُمَّ أَوْلَى لَكَ فَأَوْلَى ]

(Woe to you! And then woe to you! Again, woe to you! And then woe to you!) “It is a threat followed by a threat, just as you hear it. They claim that the Prophet of Allah grabbed the clothes of the enemy of Allah, Abu Jahl. The Prophet then said to him, `Woe to you! And then (again) woe to you! Again woe to you! And then (again) woe to you!’ At this the enemy of Allah, Abu Jahl, said, `Are you threatening me, O Muhammad By Allah! Neither you nor your Lord are able to do anything, and verily, I am the mightiest person walking between its (Makkah’s) two mountains.”’

Man will not be left neglected

Allah says,

[أَيَحْسَبُ الإِنسَـنُ أَن يُتْرَكَ سُدًى ]

(Does man think that he will be left neglected) As-Suddi said, “Meaning not resurrected.” Mujahid, Ash-Shafi`i and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam, all said, “Meaning, he will not be commanded and prohibited.” Apparently the Ayah includes both meanings. This means that he will not be left neglected in this worldly life, without being commanded and prohibited. He also will not be left neglected in his grave unattended to without being resurrected. Rather he will be commanded and prohibited in this life, and gathered back to Allah in the abode of the Hereafter. The intent here is to affirm the existence of the abode of the final return and to refute whoever rejects it from the people of deviance, ignorance and stubbornness. Thus, Allah uses the beginning of creation as a proof for the repetition of the creation in His saying,

[أَلَمْ يَكُ نُطْفَةً مِّن مَّنِىٍّ يُمْنَى ]

(Was he not a Nutfah of semen emitted) meaning, was not man a weak drop of sperm from a despised fluid known as semen, that is emitted from the loins into the wombs

[ثُمَّ كَانَ عَلَقَةً فَخَلَقَ فَسَوَّى ]

(Then he became an `Alaqah; then shaped and fashioned in due proportion.) meaning, he became a clot, then a lump of flesh, then he was formed and the soul was blown into him. Then he became a perfect creation with healthy limbs, as either a male or a female by the permission and decree of Allah. Thus, Allah says,

[فَجَعَلَ مِنْهُ الزَّوْجَيْنِ الذَّكَرَ وَالاٍّنثَى ]

(And made of him two sexes, male and female.) Then Allah says,

[أَلَيْسَ ذَلِكَ بِقَـدِرٍ عَلَى أَن يُحْيِىَ الْمَوْتَى ]

(Is it not so then, that He would be able to give life to the dead) meaning, is not He Who made this perfect creation from this weak drop of sperm able to repeat that as He did originally And “the ability to repeat that” either refers to the origination only, or to both that and the process of perfecting it, according to two different views, as in Allah’s saying;

[وَهُوَ الَّذِى يَبْدَأُ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ وَهُوَ أَهْوَنُ عَلَيْهِ]

(And He it is Who originates the creation, then He will repeat it; this is easier for Him.) (30:27) The first view is more popular, and Allah knows best.

Supplication upon completing this Surah

Abu Dawud recorded from Musa bin Abi `A’ishah that he said, “A man used to pray on top of his house and whenever he recited,

[أَلَيْسَ ذَلِكَ بِقَـدِرٍ عَلَى أَن يُحْيِىَ الْمَوْتَى ]

(Is it not so then, that He would be able to give life to the dead) he would say, `Glory to You, of course.’ So the people asked him about that and he said, `I heard it from the Messenger of Allah .”’ Abu Dawud was alone in transmitting this Hadith and he did not mention who this Companion was, but there is no harm in that. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Qiyamah, all praise and thanks are due to Allah.

The Tafsir of the Last Two Ayat of Surat Al-Baqarah : Ibn Kathir

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

The Last two Ayah of Surat ul Baqarah

The Messenger (Muhammad ) believes in what has been sent down to him from his Lord, and (so do) the believers. Each one believes in Allâh, His Angels, His Books, and His Messengers. They say, “We make no distinction between one another of His Messengers” – and they say, “We hear, and we obey. (We seek) Your Forgiveness, our Lord, and to You is the return (of all).” (Al-Baqarah 2:285)

Allâh burdens not a person beyond his scope. He gets reward for that (good) which he has earned, and he is punished for that (evil) which he has earned. “Our Lord! Punish us not if we forget or fall into error, our Lord! Lay not on us a burden like that which You did lay on those before us (Jews and Christians); our Lord! Put not on us a burden greater than we have strength to bear. Pardon us and grant us Forgiveness. Have mercy on us. You are our Maulâ (Patron, Suppor-ter and Protector, etc.) and give us victory over the disbelieving people.” (Al-Baqarah 2:286)

The Virtue of These Ayah

From Ibn ‘Abbas ” who said:
“While Jibra’eel (Gibrael) ” `May Peace be upon him’ was sitting with the Prophet !, he heard the opening of a gate above him. So he raised his head and said: `This is a gate from the shies that has opened today, which has never opened before this day.’ So an angel descended from it (the gate). So he Jibra’eel ” said: “This is an angel that has descended to the earth, which has never descended except today. He gave Salam and said: ‘Receive glad tidings [Oh Muhammad ! with two lights which have been given to you, that have never been given to a Prophet before you: The Opening of the Book (i.e. Surat Al- Fatihah) and the end of Surat Al-Baqarah. Never do you read a letter from either of the two (Surahs) except that you are given it.( Which means that you are given its reward (i.e. the reward of recitation)) (Reported by Muslim) (Taken from Mukhtasar Sahih Muslim with Shaykh AI-Albani’s editing, p.553, Hadith no. 2094.)

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah said,

(Each one believes in Allah, His Angels, His Books, and His Messengers. (They say,) “We make no distinction between one another of His Messengers.”)

Therefore, each of the believers believes that Allah is the One and Only and the Sustainer, there is no deity worthy of worship except Him and there is no Lord except Him. The believers also believe in all Allah’s Prophets and Messengers, in the Books that were revealed from heaven to the Messengers and Prophets, who are indeed the servants of Allah. Further, the believers do not differentiate between any of the Prophets, such as, believing in some of them and rejecting others. Rather, all of Allah’s Prophets and Messengers are, to the believers, truthful, righteous, and they were each guided to the path of righteousness, even when some of them bring what abrogates the Law of some others by Allah’s leave. Later on, the Law of Muhammad, the Final Prophet and Messenger from Allah, abrogated all the laws of the Prophets before him. So the Last Hour will commence while Muhammad’s Law remains the only valid Law, and all the while a group of his Ummah will always be on the path of truth, apparent and dominant. Allah’s statement,

(And they say, “We hear, and we obey”) means, we heard Your statement, O our Lord, comprehended and implemented it, and adhered to its implications.

((We seek) Your forgiveness, our Lord) contains a plea and supplication for Allah’s forgiveness, mercy and kindness.

Allah’s statement,

(Allah burdens not a person beyond his scope) means, Allah does not ask a soul what is beyond its ability. This only demonstrates Allah’s kindness, compassion and generosity towards His creation. This Ayah is the Ayah that abrogated the Ayah that worried the Companions, that is, Allah’s statement,

(And whether you disclose what is in yourselves or conceal it, Allah will call you to account for it.)

This indicates that although Allah will question His servants and judge them, He will only punish for what one is able to protect himself from. As for what one cannot protect himself from, such as what one says to himself – or passing thoughts – they will not be punished for that. We should state here that to dislike the evil thoughts that cross one’s mind is a part of faith. Allah said next,

(He gets reward for that which he has earned) of good,

(And he is punished for that which he has earned) of evil, that is, concerning the acts that one is responsible for.

Allah then said, [mentioning what the believers said] while directing His servants to supplicate to Him, all the while promising them that He will answer their supplication:

(“Our Lord! Push us not if we forget or fall into error,”) meaning, “If we forgot an obligation or fell into a prohibition, or made an error while ignorant of its ruling.” We mentioned the Hadith by Abu Hurayrah, that Muslim collected, wherein Allah said, “I shall (accept your supplication).” There is also the Hadith by Ibn `Abbas that Allah said, “I did (accept your supplication).”

(Our Lord! Lay not on us a burden like that which You did lay on those before us (Jews and Christians),) means, “Even if we were able to perform them, do not require us to perform the difficult deeds as You required the previous nations before us, such as the burdens that were placed on them. You sent Your Prophet Muhammad , the Prophet of mercy, to abrogate these burdens through the Law that You revealed to him, the Hanifi (Islamic Monotheism), easy religion.” Muslim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said that Allah said, “I shall (accept your supplication).” Ibn `Abbas narrated that the Messenger of Allah said that Allah said, “I did (accept your supplication).” There is the Hadith recorded through various chains of narration that the Messenger of Allah said,

(I was sent with the easy Hanifiyyah way.)

(Our Lord! Put not on us a burden greater than we have strength to bear) of obligations, hardships and afflictions, do not make us bear what we cannot bear of this.

(Our Lord! Put not on us a burden greater than we have strength to bear.)

We mentioned that Allah said, “I shall (accept your supplication)” in one narration, and, “I did (accept your supplication),” in another narration.

(Pardon us) meaning, between us and You regarding what You know of our shortcomings and errors.

(And grant us forgiveness) concerning what is between us and Your servants. So do not expose our errors and evil deeds to them.

(Have mercy on us) in what will come thereafter. Therefore, do not allow us to fall into another error. They say that those who commit error need three things: Allah’s forgiveness for what is between Him and them, that He conceals these errors from His other servants, and thus does not expose them before the servants, and that He grants them immunity from further error.” We mentioned before that Allah answered these pleas, “I shall,” in one narration and, “I did,” in another narration.

(You are our Mawla) meaning, You are our supporter and helper, our trust is in You, You are sought for each and every type of help and our total reliance is on You. There is no power or strength except from You.

(And give us victory over the disbelieving people) those who rejected Your religion, denied Your Oneness, refused the Message of Your Prophet , worshipped other than You and associated others in Your worship. Give us victory and make us prevail above them in this and the Hereafter. Allah said, “I shall,” in one narration, and, “I did,” in the Hadith that Muslim collected from Ibn `Abbas.

Further, Ibn Jarir recorded that Abu Ishaq said that whenever Mu`adh would finish reciting this Surah,

(And give us victory over the disbelieving people), he would say “Amin.”

The Death of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) : Shaykh Safi ur-Rahmaan Mubarakfoori

From Ar-Raheeq al-Makhtoom

The Start of the Disease

On Monday the twenty-ninth of Safar in the eleventh year of al-Hijra, he participated in funeral rites in al-Baqee’. On the way back he had a headache, his temperature rose so high that the heat effect could be felt over his headband. He led the Muslims in prayer for eleven days though he was sick. The total number of his sick days were either thirteen of fourteen.

The Last Week

When his sickness grew severe he asked his wives: “Where shall I stay tomorrow?” “Where shall I stay?” They understood what he wanted. So they allowed him to stay wherever he wished. He moved to ‘Aishah’s room leaning – while he was walking – on al-Fadl bin al-‘Abbas and ‘Alî bin Abî Tâlib. Head banded as he was, he dragged his feet till he came into her abode. It was there that he spent the last week of his life.

During that period, ‘Aishah used to recite al-Mu’awwidhat (Chapters 113 and 114 of the Qur’ân) and other supplications which he has already taught her.

Five days before death

On Wednesday, five days before he died the Prophet’s temperature rose so high signalling the severness of his disease. He fainted and suffered from pain. “Pour out on me seven Qirab (water skin pots) of various water wells so that I may go out to meet people and talk to them.” So they seated him in a container (usually used for washing) and poured out water on him till he said: “That is enough. That is enough.”

Then he felt well enough to enter the Mosque. He entered it band-headed, sat on the pulpit and made a speech to the people who were gathering together around him. He said: “The curse of Allâh falls upon the Jews and Christians for they have made their Prophets’ tombs places of worship.” [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 1/62; Muatta’ Imâm Malik, p.360] Then he said: “Do not make my tomb a worshipped idol.” [Muatta’ Imâm Malik, p.65]

Then he offered himself and invited the people to repay any injuries he might have inflicted on them, saying:

“He whom I have ever lashed his back, I offer him my back so that he may avenge himself on me. He whom I have ever blasphemed his honour, here I am offering my honour so that he may avenge himself.”

Then he descended, and performed the noon prayer. Again he returned to the pulpit and sat on it. He resumed his first speech about enmity and some other things. A man then said: “You owe me three Dirhams.” The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “Fadl, pay him the money.” He went on saying:

“I admonish you to be good to Al-Ansar (the Helpers). They are my family and with them I found shelter. They have acquitted themselves credibly of the responsibility that fell upon them and now there remains what you have to do. You should fully acknowledge and appreciate the favour that they have shown, and should overlook their faults.”

In another version: “The number of believers would increase, but the number of Helpers would decrease to the extent that they would be among men as salt in the food. So he who from among you occupies a position of responsibility and is powerful enough to do harm or good to the people, he should frilly acknowledge and appreciate the favour that these benefactors have shown and overlook their faults.”

And said: “Allâh, the Great, has given a slave of His the opportunity to make a choice between whatever he desires of Allâh’s provisions in this world, and what He keeps for him in the world, but he has opted for the latter.”

Abû Sa’id Al-Khudri said: “Upon hearing that, Abû Bakr cried and said: ‘We sacrifice our fathers and mothers for your sake.’ We wondered why Abû Bakr said such a thing. People said: ‘Look at that old man! The Messenger of Allâh says about a slave of Allâh who was granted the right between the best fortunes of this world and the bounty of Allâh in the Hereafter, but he says: We sacrifice our fathers and mothers for your sake!’ It was later on that we realized what he had aimed at. The Messenger of Allâh was the slave informed to choose. We also acknowledged that Abû Bakr was the most learned among us.” [Mishkat Al-Masabih, 2/546]

Then the Messenger of Allâh said:

“The fellow I feel most secure in his company is Abû Bakr. If I were to make friendship with any other one than Allah, I would have Abû Bakr a bosom friend of mine. For him I feel affection and brotherhood of Islam. No gate shall be kept open in the Mosque except that of Abû Bakr’s.” [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 1/22,429,449, 2/638; Misbkat Al-Masabih, 2/548]

Four days before his death

On Thursday, four days before the death of the Messenger of Allâh he said to people — though he was suffering from a severe pain:

“Come here. I will cause you to write something so that you will never fall into error.” Upon this ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab said: “The Prophet of Allâh is suffering from acute pain and you have the Qur’an with you; the Book of Allâh is sufficient unto you.” Others however wanted the writing to be made. When Muhammad heard them debating over it, he ordered them to go away and leave him alone. [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 2/637]

That day he recommended three things:

1. Jews, Christians and polytheists should be expelled out of Arabia .
2. He recommended that delegations should be honoured and entertained, in a way similar to the one he used to do.
3. As for the third — the narrator said that he had forgotten it. It could have been adherence to the Holy Book and the Sunnah. It was likely to be the accomplishment and the mobilization of Osamah’s army, or it could have been performance of prayers and being attentive to slaves.

In spite of the strain of disease and suffering from pain, the Prophet used to lead all the prayers till that Thursday — four days before he died. On that day he led the sunset prayer and recited:

“By the winds (or angels or the Messengers of Allah) sent forth one after another.” [77:1] [Misbkat Al-Masabih, 1/102]

In the evening he grew so sick that he could not overcome the strain of disease or go out to enter the Mosque. ‘Aishah said: The Prophet asked: “Have the people performed the prayer?” “No. They haven’t. They are waiting for you.” “Put some water in the washing pot.” Said he. We did what he ordered. So he washed and wanted to stand up, but he fainted. When he came round he asked again “Have the people prayed?” Then the sequence of events took place again and again for the second and the third times from the time he washed to the time he fainted after his attempts to stand up. Therefore he sent to Abû Bakr to lead the prayer himself. Abû Bakr then led the prayer during those days [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 1/99]. They were seventeen prayers in the lifetime of Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

Three or four times ‘Aishah talked to the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to exempt Abû Bakr from leadership in prayer lest people should despair of him, but he refused and said: “You (women) are like the women who tried to entice Joseph (Yusuf) into immorality. Convey my request to Abû Bakr to lead the prayer.”

A Day or Two prior to Death

On Saturday or on Sunday, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam felt that he was well enough to perform the prayer; so he went out leaning on two men in order to perform the noon prayer. Abû Bakr, who was then about to lead the prayer withdrew when he saw him coming; but the Prophet made him a gesture to stay where he was and said: “Seat me next to him.” They seated him on the left hand side of Abû Bakr. The Prophet led the prayer, and Abû Bakr followed him and raised his voice at every ‘Allâhu Akbar’ (i.e. Allâh is the Greatest) the Prophet said, so that the people may hear clearly. [Sahîh al-Bukhârî 1/98,99]

A Day before his Death

On Sunday, a day before he died, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam set his slaves free, paid as a charity the seven Dinars he owned and gave his weapons as a present to the Muslims. So when night fell ‘Aishah had to borrow some oil from her neighbour to light her oil-lantern. Even his armour was mortgaged as a security with a Jew for thirty Sa’ (a cubic measure) of barley.

The Last Day Alive

In a narration by Anas bin Malik, he said: “While the Muslims were performing the dawn prayer on Monday — led by Abû Bakr, they were surprised to see the Messenger of Allâh raising the curtain of ‘Aishah’s room. He looked at them while they were praying aligned properly and smiled cheerfully. Seeing him, Abû Bakr withdrew to join the lines and give way to him to lead the prayer. For he thought that the Prophet wanted to go out and pray.” Anas said: “The Muslims, who were praying, were so delighted that they were almost too enraptured at their prayers. The Messenger of Allâh made them a gesture to continue their prayer, went into the room and drew down the curtain.” [ibid. 21640]

The Messenger of Allâh sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not live for the next prayer time.

When it was daytime, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam called Fatimah and told her something in a secret voice that made her cry. Then he whispered to her something else which made her laugh. ‘Aishah enquired from her after the Prophet’s death, as to this weeping and laughing to which Fatimah replied:

“The first time he disclosed to me that he would not recover from his illness and I wept. Then he told me that I would be the first of his family to join him, so I laughed.” [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 2/638]

He gave Fatimah glad tidings that she would become the lady of all women of the world [Rahmat-ul-lil’alameen, 1/282]. Fatimah witnessed the great pain that afflicted her father. So she said: “What great pain my father is in!”. To these words, the Prophet remarked:

“He will not suffer any more when today is over.” [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 2/641]

He asked that Al-Hasan and Al-Husain be brought to him. He kissed them and recommended that they be looked after. He asked to see his wives. They were brought to him. He preached them and told them to remember Allah. Pain grew so much severe that the trace of poison he had at Khaibar came to light. It was so sore that he said to ‘Aishah: “I still feel the painful effect of that food I tasted at Khaibar. I feel as if death is approaching.” [ibid, 2/637] He ordered the people to perform the prayers and be attentive to slaves. He repeated it several times. [ibid. 2/637]

The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam breathes his last

When the pangs of death started, ‘Aishah leant him against her. She used to say: One of Allah’s bounties upon me is that the Messenger of Allâh died in my house, while I am still alive. He died between my chest and neck while he was leaning against me. Allâh has mixed his saliva with mine at his death. For ‘Abdur Rahman – the son of Abû Bakr – came in with a Siwak (i.e. the root of a desert plant used for brushing teeth) in his hand, while I was leaning the Messenger of Allâh against me. I noticed that he was looking at the Siwak, so I asked him – for I knew that he wanted it — “Would you like me to take it for you?” He nodded in agreement. I took it and gave it to him. As it was too hard for him, I asked him “Shall I soften it for you?” He nodded in agreement. So I softened it with my saliva and he passed it (on his teeth).

In another version it is said: “So he brushed (Istanna) his teeth as nice as he could.” There was a water container (Rakwa) available at his hand with some water in. He put his hand in it and wiped his face with it and said:

“There is no god but Allah. Death is full of agonies.” [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 2/640]

As soon as he had finished his Siwak, brushing, he raised his hand or finger up, looked upwards to the ceiling and moved his lips. So ‘Aishah listened to him. She heard him say: “With those on whom You have bestowed Your Grace with the Prophets and the Truthful ones (As-Siddeeqeen), the martyrs and the good doers. O Allâh, forgive me and have mercy upon me and join me to the Companionship on high.” [ibid, 2/638-641] Then at intervals he uttered these words: “The most exalted Companionship on high. To Allâh we turn and to Him we turn back for help and last abode.” This event took place at high morning time on Monday, the twelfth of Rabi’ al-Awwal, in the eleventh year of Al-Hijrah. He was sixty-three years and four days old when he died.

The Companions’ concern over the Prophet’s Death

The great (loss) news was soon known by everybody in Madinah. Dark grief spread on all areas and hoirizons of Madinah. Anas said: “I have never witnessed a day better or brighter than that day on which the Messenger of Allâh sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam came to us; and I have never witnessed a more awful or darker day than that one on which the Messenger of Allâh died on.” [Mishkat-ul-Masabih, 2/547]

When he died, Fatimah said: “O Father, whom his Lord responded to his supplication! O Father, whose abode is Paradise . O Father, whom I announce his death to Gabriel.” [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 2/641]

‘Umar’s Attitude

‘Umar, who was so stunned that he almost lost consciousness and stood before people addressing them: “Some of the hypocrites claim that the Messenger of Allâh sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam died. The Messenger of Allâh did not die, but went to his Lord in the same way as Moses bin ‘Imran did. He stayed away for forty nights, but finally came back though they said he had been dead. By Allah, the Messenger of Allâh will come back and he will cut of the hands and legs of those who claim his death.” [Ibn Hisham, 2/655]

Abû Bakr’s Attitude

Abû Bakr left his house at As-Sunh and came forth to the Mosque on a mare-back. At the Mosque, he dismounted and entered. He talked to nobody but went on till he entered ‘Aishah’s abode, and went directly to where the Messenger of Allâh sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was. The Prophet was covered with a Yemeni mantle. He uncovered his face and tended down, kissed him and cried. Then he said: “I sacrifice my father and mother for your sake. Allah, verily, will not cause you to die twice. You have just experienced the death that Allâh had ordained.”

Then he went out and found ‘Umar talking to people. He said: “‘Umar, be seated.” ‘Umar refused to do so. People parted ‘Umar and came towards Abû Bakr, who started a speech saying:

“And now, he who worships Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Muhammad is dead now. But he who worships Allah, He is Ever Living and He never dies. Allâh says: ‘Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is no more than a Messenger, and indeed (many) Messengers have passed away before him. If he dies or is killed, will you then turn back on your heels (as disbelievers)? And he who turns back on his heels, not the least harm will he do to Allâh, and Allâh will give reward to those who are grateful.’ ” [3:144]

Ibn ‘Abbas said: “By Allâh it sounded as if people had never heard such a Qur’aanic verse till Abû Bakr recited it as a reminder. So people started reciting it till there was no man who did not recite it.”

Ibn Al-Musaiyab said that ‘Umar had said: “By Allâh as soon as I heard Abû Bakr say it, I fell down to the ground. I felt as if my legs had been unable to carry me so I collapsed when I heard him say it. Only then did I realize that Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had really died.” [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 2/640,641]

Burial and Farewell Preparations to his Honourable Body

Dispute about who would succeed him broke out even before having the Messenger of Allah’s body prepared for burial. Lots of arguments, discussions, dialogues took place between the Helpers and Emigrants in the roofed passage (portico) of Barn Sa’ida. Finally they acknowledged Abû Bakr (RA) as a caliph. They spent the whole Monday there till it was night. People were so busy with their arguments that it was late night — just about dawn of Tuesday — yet his blessed body was still lying on his bed covered with an inked-garment. He was locked in the room.

On Tuesday, his body was washed with his clothes on. He was washed by Al-’Abbas, ‘Alî, Al-Fadl and Qathm — the two sons of Al-’Abbas, as well as Shaqran — the Messenger’s freed slave, Osamah bin Zaid and Aws bin Khauli. Al-’Abbas, Al-Fadi and Qathm turned his body round, whereas Osamah and Shaqran poured out water. ‘Alî washed him and Aws leant him against his chest.

They shrouded him in three white Sahooli cotton cloth which had neither a headcloth [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 1/169, Sahîh Muslim, 1/306] nor a casing and inserted him in.

A sort of disagreement arose with regard to a burial place. Abû Bakr said: “I heard the Messenger of Allâh say: ‘A dead Prophet is buried where he dies.’” So Abû Talhah lifted the bed on which he died, dug underneath and cut the ground to make the tomb.

People entered the room ten by ten. They prayed for the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The first to pray for him were people of his clan. Then the Emigrants, then the Helpers. Women prayed for him after men. The young were the last to pray.

This process took Tuesday long and Wednesday night (i.e. the night which precedes Wednesday morning). ‘Aishah said: “We did not know that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was being buried till we heard the sound of tools digging the ground at the depth of Wednesday night.” [Mukhtasar Seerat Ar-Rasool, p.471; Ibn Hisham, 2/649-665; Talqeeh Fuhoom Ahl M-Athar, p. 38, 39; Rahmat-ul-lil’alameen 1/277-286]

The Explanation of the Meanings of the Names of the Prophet – Ibn al-Qayyim

The Explanation of the Meanings of the Names of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) – Taken from ‘Zaad al-Ma`aad’ (1/88-97) of ibn al-Qayyim, rahimahullaah

Bismillaahir-Rahmaanir-Raheem

Know that the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) has been called by many names and titles in the Qur`aan and Sunnah, each one of them describing a special quality of this exalted personality. And in understanding them and reflecting upon them, we can, by the permission of Allaah, increase in our love and following of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam). This discussion is taken from ‘Zaad al-Ma`aad’ (1/88-97) of ibn al-Qayyim, rahimahullaah, summarised.

The names of the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) are of two types:

  • Those names that are specific to him and none of the Messengers before him had these names, like Muhammad, Ahmad, al-Aaqib, al-Haashir, al-Muqaffee, Nabi al-Malhama.
  • Those names and qualities that are not specific to him, and were shared by the Messengers before him, but are found in him in the most complete and perfect forms. Like: Messenger of Allaah, His Prophet, His Servant, Prophet of Mercy etc.

What follows is an explanation of some of them.

Muhammad: is a passive participle, whosoever is praised, possessing many praiseworthy qualities then he is muhammad. And Muhammad (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) is praised more than any other person, and this is why – and Allaah knows best – he was called by this name in the Torah, due to the many praiseworthy qualities which he, his religion, and his nation possess such that even Moses wished that he would be from them.

Ahmad: Derived, as is Muhammad, from the noun hamd (praise). A group of scholars said that it is a passive participle, meaning: his praising of Allaah is more than any other person’s praise of him, and therefore he is the most deserving of being praised and the first. So in meaning Ahmad is similar to Muhammad except that the distinction is that he is Muhammad due to his possessing many praiseworthy qualities, and he is Ahmad due to his being praised in a more excellent way than the praise of any other. And this is the most complete meaning of this word, and the most extensive in commending him (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam).

Also these two names stem from his character, and the praiseworthy qualities specific to him, and it is because of these that he is called Muhammad (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and Ahmad. And he is the one who is praised by the People of the Heaven, the People of the earth, the People of the world and the People of the Hereafter.

Al-Mutawakkil: (The One who puts his trust in Allaah). In the Saheeh of Bukhaaree from the hadeeth of Abdullaah bin Umru who said, “I read the description of the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) in the Torah: Muhammad is Messenger of Allaah, My servant and Messenger, I have called him al-Mutawakkil. He is neither rude nor harsh and he does not shout in the markets, and he does not return an evil for an evil, rather he overlooks and forgives. And I will not make him to die until I make firm the nation through him, causing them to say: there is none worthy of worship except Allaah.” {1}

He (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) is the most deserving of this name, because the trust he put in Allaah to establish the religion was a trust unequalled by any other.

Al-Maahee: (the destroyer/effacer). This has been explained in the hadeeth of Jubair bin Mut`am: “al-Maahee: the one through whom Allaah destroys and effaces unbelief.” {2}

Disbelief was not destroyed and removed by any single person as completely as was done by the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam). For indeed he was sent, and all of the inhabitants of the earth were in disbelief, except for some remnants of the People of the Book. Consisting of the worshippers of idols, the Jews who had the Anger of Allaah on them, the Christians who had been misguided, the atheist Saabi`een, the worshippers of the stars and the fire, and the philosophers who did not acknowledge the laws of the Prophets. And Allaah effaced them all through His Messenger until He established His religion and made it supreme over all others, and made it spread to the extent that the night and day spreads, and made his call as the rays of the sun in the various lands.

Al-Haashir: (the Gatherer). He is the one who gathered and united the people at his feet, and therefore it was as if he had been sent for this purpose.

Al-Aaqib: (The Last). He is the one who came at the end of the line of Prophets, and there is no prophet after him.

Al-Muqaffee: (). He is the one who was sent with the characteristics of the Messengers that had preceded him, and was their seal.

Nabi at-Tawba: (the Prophet of Repentance). It was by him that Allaah opened the door of repentance for the inhabitants of the earth [by them accepting his message], and Allaah forgave them with a forgiveness that was not given to the people before him. {3}

And the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) was the one who sought forgiveness from Allaah the most, to the extent that he would say, “My Lord forgive me and turn toward me, You are The Oft-Forgiving, The Oft-Returning” {4}, 100 times in a single sitting. And he used to say, “O people repent to Allaah, your Lord, for indeed I repent to Allaah 100 times in a day”. {5}

And likewise the repentance of his (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) nation is more complete than the repentance of all the other nations, the most quickest in being answered, and the easiest to be obtained. For the repentance of the previous nations was of the most difficult matters, to the extent that the repentance for the worshippers of the cow amongst the People of Israa`eel was to kill those worshippers. {6} But as for this nation, then from the Kindness of Allaah to it is that he has made repentance dependant upon sorrow and abstaining (from the sin in question).

Nabi al-Malhama: (The Prophet of Slaughter). He was the one who was sent with Jihaad to the enemies of Allaah, and no prophet before him did Jihaad to the extent that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and his nation fought Jihaad. And the like of the large wars that took place between him and the disbelievers were not seen before him. For his nation fought the disbelievers in lands to the ends of the earth.

Nabi ar-Rahma: (The Prophet of Mercy). He was the one whom Allaah sent as a Mercy for the universe. And Allaah was Merciful to all the people of the earth through him, both the believers and the disbelievers.

Al-Faatih: (the opener/conqueror). It was through him that Allaah opened the door of guidance after it had been closed, and opened closed eyes and deaf ears and sealed hearts. And through him Allaah conquered the lands of the disbelievers, and opened the doors of Paradise, and opened through him the ways of acquiring beneficial knowledge and righteous actions. And He opened through him both the doors of this world and the hereafter.

Al-Ameen: (the Trustworthy). He is the most deserving out of all creation for this name. For he is the trustee of Allaah of His revelation and religion. And he is the trusted one in the Heaven and in the earth. And this is why he was called al-Ameen before his Prophethood.

Al-Basheer: (the Bearer of glad tidings). He is the bearer of glad tidings for the one who obeys him of reward, and he is the Warner (an-Nadheer) of the one who disobeys him of punishment.

And Allaah called him his servant (Abd) in many places in His Book for example, ‘Blessed be He who revealed the Furqaan to His servant’. {7}

It is established that he (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “I am the Master (sayyid) of the children of Aadam [on the Day of Judgement] and I am not being arrogant.” {8}

And Allaah called him an Illuminating Lamp (Siraaj Muneer). And all praise is due to Allaah, and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger.

FOOTNOTES:

{1} Related by Bukhaaree in chapter dealing with the tafseer of Surah Fath.

{2}The full hadeeth is, “I am Muhammad, and I am Ahmad, and I am al-Maahee through whom Allaah effaces disbelief, and I am al-Haashir through who the people are gathered at my feet, and al-Aaqib after whom there is no Prophet.” Related by Bukhaaree in the chapter dealing with the tafseer of Surah Saff

{3} For example, a person who enters Islaam shall have all his sins forgiven provided he does not persist in them while he is a Muslim.

{4} Related by at-Tirmidhee in the chapter of du`aa (no.3430) and it is saheeh.

{5} Related by Muslim in the chapter of Dhikr and Du`aa.

{6} See Qur`aan (2:54)

{7} Qur`aan (25:1)

{8} Related by at-Tirmidhee in the chapter ‘Excellence of the Prophet’ (no.3618) and it is saheeh.

The Story of the Prisoners of the Battle of Badr : Shaykh Safi ur-Rahmaan Mubarakfoori

From Ar-Raheeq al-Makhtoom

On their way back to Madinah, at a large sand hill, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam divided the spoils equally among the fighters after he had taken Al-Khums (one-fifth). When they reached As-Safra’, he ordered that two of the prisoners should be killed. They were An-Nadr bin Al-Harith and ‘Uqbah bin Abi Muait, because they had persecuted the Muslims in Makkah, and harboured deep hatred towards Allaah and His Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam . In a nutshell, they were criminals of war in modern terminology, and their execution was an awesome lesson to oppressors. ‘Uqbah forgot his pride and cried out, “Who will look after my children O Messenger of Allaah?” The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam answered, “The Fire (of Hell).” Did ‘Uqbah not remember the day when he had thrown the entrails of a sheep onto the head of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam while he was prostrating himself in prayer, and Fatimah had come and washed it off him? He had also strangled the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with his cloak if it had not been for Abu Bakr to intervene and release the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam . The heads of both criminals were struck off by Alee bin Abi TAleeb.

The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam exhorted the Muslims to treat the prisoners so well to such an extent that the captors used to give the captives their bread (the more valued part of the meal) and keep the dates for themselves.

Prisoners of war constituted a problem awaiting resolution because it was a new phenomenon in the history of Islaam. The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam consulted Abu Bakr and Umar bin Al-Khattab as to what he should do with the prisoners. Abu Bakr suggested that he should ransom them, explaining this by saying: “They are after all our relatives, and this money would give us strength against the disbelievers, moreover, Allaah could guide them to Islaam.” Umar advised killing them, saying, “They are the leaders of Kufr (disbelief).” The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam preferred Abu Bakr’s suggestion to that of Umar’s. The following day, Umar called on the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Abu Bakr to see them weeping. He showed extreme astonishment and inquired about the situation so that he might weep if it was worth weeping for, or else he would feign weeping.

“It is not for a Prophet that he should have prisoners of war (and free them with ransom) until he had made a great slaughter (among his enemies) in the land. You desire the good of this world (i.e. the money of ransom for freeing the captives), but Allaah desires (for you) the Hereafter. And Allaah is All-Mighty, All-Wise. Were it not a previous ordainment from Allaah, a severe torment would have touched you for what you took.” [Qur’aan 8:67-68]

The previous Divine ordainment went as follows,

“Thereafter (is the time) either for generosity (i.e. free them without ransom) or ransom.” [Qur’aan 47:4]

Which included an area providing permission to take ransom, that is why no penalty was imposed. They were rebuked only for taking prisoners before subduing all the land of disbelief. Apart from this, the polytheists taken to Madinah were not only prisoners of war but rather archcriminals of war whom modern war penal law brings to justice to receive their due sentence of death or prison for life.

The ransom for the prisoners ranged between 4000 and 1000 Dirhams in accordance with the captive’s financial situation. Another form of ransom assumed an educational dimension; most of the Makkans, unlike the Madinese, were literate and so each prisoner who could not afford the ransom was entrusted with ten children to teach them the art of writing and reading. Once the child had been proficient enough, the instructor would be set free. Another clan of prisoners were released unransomed on grounds of being hard up. Zainab, the daughter of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam , paid the ransom of her husband Abul-‘As with a necklace. The Muslims released her prisoner and returned the necklace in deference to the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam but on condition that Abul-‘As allow Zainab to migrate to Madinah, which he actually did.

In captivity, there was also an eloquent orator called Suhail bin ‘Amr. Umar suggested that they pull out his front teeth to disable him from speaking, but the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam turned down his suggestion for fear Quraish should retAleeate in the same manner on one hand, and on the other for fear of Allaah’s wrath on the Day of Resurrection.

Sa’d bin An-Nu’man, a lesser pilgrim detained in Makkah, was released in return for setting Abu Sufyan’s son, a captive, free.

The Story of the 600-700 Jews Beheaded by the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam at Bani Quraiza in 5 AH

The Bani Quraiza was a tribe of Jews in a district of Madinah that betrayed the Muslims and sided with the enemy during the Battle of Ahzaab (also known as the Battle of the Confederates and the Battle of the Trench). The Sealed Nectar describes what happened to them immediately after the Battle of Ahzaab:

Archangel Gabriel, on the very day the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam came back to Madinah after the previous battle, and while he was washing in Umm Salama’s house, visited him asking that he should unsheathe his sword and head for the habitation of the seditious Banu Quraiza and fight them. Gabriel noted that he with a procession of angels would go ahead to shake their forts and cast fear in their hearts.

The Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam , immediately summoned the prayer caller and ordered him to announce fresh hostilities against Banu Quraiza, institued Ibn Umm Maktum as a ruler of Madinah, and entrusted the banner of war to Alee bin Abi TAleeb who marched towards the appointed target and came close enough to hear the Jews abusing the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam , who on his part set out at the head of three thousand infantry men and thirty horsemen of Ansar (Helpers) and Muhajireen (Emigrants). On their way to encounter the enemy, the afternoon prayer was due. Some Muslims refused to observe it until they had defeated the enemy, while others offered it in its proper time, as usual. The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam objected to neither. When they reached the habitations of Banu Quraiza, they laid tight siege to their forts. Seeing this terrible situation they were in, the chief of the Jews Ka’b bin Asad offered them three alternatives: to embrace Islaam, and consequently their life, wealth, women and children would be in full security, and reminded them that such behaviour would not be incongruous with what they had read in their books about the veracity of Muhammad’s Prophethood; to kill their children and women and then challenge the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and his followers to the sword to either exterminate the Muslims or be exterminated, or as a third possibility to take Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and his people by surprise on Saturday – a day mutually understood to witness no fighting.

None of those alternatives appealed them, so their chief, angrily and indignantly, turned to them saying: “You have never been decisive in decision-making since you were born.” The gloomy future already visible, they made contacts with some Muslims, who had maintained good relation with them, in order to learn about their fate in the light of the current circumstances. They requested that Abu Lubaba be despatched to them for advice. On his arrival, the men began to implore, women and children to cry desperately. In answer to their demand for advice he pointed to his throat saying it was homicide awaiting them. He then immediately reAleezed that he had betrayed the Prophet’s trust, so he headed directly for the mosque in Madinah and tied himself to a wooden tall pole swearing that no one would untie him save the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam , and added that he would never enter the habitation of Banu Quraiza in recompense for the deadly mistake he made. When the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was informed of this incident, he said, ” I would have begged Allaah to forgive him if he had asked me, but since he had tied himself out of his own free will, then it was Allaah Who would turn to him in forgiveness.”

The Jews of Banu Quraiza could have endured the siege much longer because food and water were plentifully available and their strongholds were greatly fortified, whereas the Muslims were in the wild bare land suffering a lot from cold and hunger, let alone too much fatigue consequent on endless warfare operations that had started even before the battle of Confederates. Nevertheless, this was a battle of nerves, for Allaah had cast fear in the the Jews’ hearts, and their morale had almost collapsed especially when two Muslim heroes, Alee bin Abi TAleeb and Az-Zubair bin ‘Awwam proceeded with Alee swearing that he would never stop until he had either stormed their garrisons or been martyred like Hamza (a former Muslim martyr).

In the light of this reluctance, they had nothing except to comply with the Messenger’s judgement. The Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ordered that the men should be handcuffed, and this was done under the supervision of Muhammad bin Salamah Al-Ansari while the women and children were isolated in confinement. Thereupon Al-Aws tribe interceded begging the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to be lenient toward them. He suggested that Sa’d bin Mu’adh, a former ally, be deputed to give verdict about them, and they agreed.

Sa’d meanwhile stayed behind in Madinah due to a serious wound he sustained in the Confederates Battle. He was summoned and brought on a donkey. On his way to the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam , the Jews used to exhort him to be lenient in his judgement on account of former friendship. Sa’d remained silent but when they persisted he uttered: “It is time for Sa’d not to be afraid of the blame of the blamers.” On hearing this decisive attitude, some of them returned to Madinah waiting for a desperate doom.

On arrival, he Aleeghted with the help of some men. He was informed that the Jews had agreed to accept his verdict about them. He immediately wondered if his judgement would pass on all the people present, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam included, turning his face away in honour of him. The reply was positive.

He decided that all the able-bodied male persons belonging to the tribe should be killed, women and children taken prisoners and their wealth divided among the Muslim fighters. The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam accepted his judgement saying that Sa’d had adjudged by the Command of Allaah. In fact, the Jews deserved that severe punitive action for the ugly treachery they had harboured against Islaam, and the large arsenal they have amassed and which consisted of one thousand and five hundred swords, two thousand spears, three hundred armours and five hundred shields, all of which went into the hands of the Muslims. Trenches were dug in the bazaar of Madinah and a number of Jews between six and seven hundred were beheaded therein. Hot beds of intrigue and treachery were thus exterminated once and for all.

Huyai, a chief criminal of war, a devil of Bani Nadir and Safiyah’s father, had joined the ranks of Banu Quraiza when Quraish and Ghatfan defected, was admitted into the audience of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with his hands tied to his neck with a rope. In audacious defiance, he declared obstinate enmity to the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam but admitted that Allaah’s Will was to be fulfilled and added that he was resigned to his fate. He was ordered to sit down, and was beheaded on the spot.

Only one woman of the Jews was killed because she had killed a Muslim warrior by flinging a grinding stone upon him. A few elements of the enemy embraced Islaam and their lives, wealth and children were spared. As for the spoils of the war, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam divided them, after putting a fifth aside, in accordance with Allaah’s injunctions. Three shares went to the horseman and one to the infantry fighter. Women captives were sent to Najd to be bartered with horses and weaponry.

After the war with Banu Quraiza had been settled and they had been defeated, Sa’d bin Mu’adh’s wish was gratified and he gave his last breath. In response to his supplication ‘Aishah narrated, Sa’d’s wounds began to bleed from the front part of his neck while he was in his tent which the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had pitched for him in the mosque so that he would be in close proximity in order to inquire about and watch his well-being closely. The people were not scared except when the blood flowed towards them, and in the Mosque along with Sa’d’s tent, there was the tent of Banu Ghifar. They said: O people of the tent, what is it that is coming to us from you? Lo! it was Sa’d’s wound that was bleeding and he died thereon.

Jabir narrated that the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had said: “The Throne of the Compassionate shook for the death of Sa’d bin Mu’adh.” When his bier was carried, At-Tirmidhi said: The hypocrites alleged it was too light. The Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam retorted: “The angels are carrying him.”

In the process of the sieze laid to Banu Quraiza, one man of the Muslims, Khallad bin Suwaid was killed when a women of the Jews dropped the grinding stone on him, and another, Abu Sinan bin Mihsan, the brother of ‘Ukasha, died.

Abu Lubaba stayed tied for six nights. His wife used to untie him at prayer times and then he tied himself again to the pole. One early morning, Allaah the All-Forgiving revealed a verse to the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to the effect that Allaah had turned to Abu Lubaba with forgiveness. The Muslims rushed to release him but he insisted that the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam himself do it. And this was done shortly before the morning prayer.

This Military Expedition took place in the month of Dhul Qa’dah in the year five Hijri (5AH), and the siege of Banu Quraiza’s forts lasted for 25 days. The Chapter of Confederates (Qur’aan, Surah 33)was revealed containing Allaah’s Words concerning the basic issues relating to the believers and hypocrites during the battle of the Confederates, and the consequences of the treachery and breaching of covenants by the Jews.

The Prophet’s Battles, Armies and Expeditions : Imam ibn al-Qayyim

From “Zâd al-Ma’âd fî Hadyi Khayri-l ‘Ibâd”

All of the Prophet’s Ghazwat, Bu’uth and Saraya [1] occurred after the Hijrah, within a span of ten years. There were either twenty-seven Ghazwat, or twenty-five, or twenty-nine. The Prophet sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam had to fight in nine battles, Badr, ‘Uhud, al-Khandaqh, Quraidhah, al-Mustaliqh, Khaybar, al-Fath’ (Conquering of Makkah), ‘Hunayn and Tâ’if. It was said that the Prophet sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam also fought against Banî an-Nadhîr (a Jewish tribe) and at al-Ghabah and Wadi al-Qura, which was a suburb of Khaybar.

As for the Saraya of the Prophet sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the armies he sent, they numbered close to sixty. There were seven major battles: Badr, ‘Uhud, al-Khandaqh, Khaybar, al-Fath’, ‘Hunayn and Tabuk. [2] Several parts of the Qur’ân mentioned these major Ghazwat. For instance, Sûrah al-Anfâl (chapter 8) was revealed about Ghazwat Badr, while the last part of Sûrah ali-‘Imrân (chapter 3) was about Ghazwat ‘Uhud, from Allâh’s statement,

“And (remember) when you [Muhammad sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam] left your household in the morning to post the believers at their stations for the battle” [3:121],

until just before the end of the Sûrah. The beginning of Sûrah al-Ahzâb (chapter 33) was revealed about the battles of al-Khandaqh, Quraydhah and Khaybar. Sûrah al-‘Hashr (59) was revealed about Banî an-Nadhîr, al-Fath’ (48) about al-‘Hudaibiyyah and the battle of Khaybar. The conquering of Makkah was mentioned indirectly in Sûrah al-Fath’ and directly in Sûrah an-Nasr (110). He sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam was wounded during the battle of ‘Uhud. [3] The angels fought alongside the Prophet sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam during the battles of Badr [4] and ‘Hunayn. They also descended during the battle of al-Khandaqh [5], where they shook the Mushriks [surrounding Madînah] and defeated them. During that battle, the Prophet sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam threw a handful of sand at the faces of the Mushriks (Polytheists) and they fled [without a fight]. [6]

The Prophet sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam won decisively in two battles, Badr and ‘Hunain. He used al-Manjaniq (mongonel, or catapult) during on battle, at-Tâ’if, and took cover behind a trench during Ghazwat al-Khandaqh, also known as Ghazwat al-Ahzâb. Salmân al-Farsî radiallâhu ‘anhu suggested that the trench be dug in that battle.


Footnotes

[1] ‘Ghazwat‘, pl. for ‘Ghazwah‘, means battles. The battles that the Prophet sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam led himself were called, ‘Ghazwat‘, whereas the armies and expeditions he sent while remaining behind are called, ‘Bu’uth‘, pl. for, ‘Ba’th‘, and ‘Saraya‘, pl. for, ‘Sariyyah‘.

[2] All of which are mentioned in detail later on in, Zâd al-Ma’âd.

[3] Al-Bukhârî (3767) narrated that Sahl bin as-Sa’idi was asked about how the wound of the Prophet sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam was treated, and he replied, “‘Alî used to bring water in his shield and Fâtimah (the Prophet’s daughter and ‘Alî’s wife) used to wash the blood off his face. Then straw mat was burnt and the wound was filled with it.”

[4] Al-Bukhârî (3694) narrated that ‘Abdullâh ibn ‘Abbâs radiallâhu ‘anhu said that the Prophet sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam said on the day of Badr, “Here is Jibrîl, holding the head of his horse and wearing war armours.” Allâh sent the angels to strengthen their hearts of the believers and to aid them.

[5] Shaykh ‘Irfân said, “Allâh said in Sûrah al-Ahzâb (33:9), ‘O you who believe! Remember Allâh’s Favour to you, when there came against you hosts, and We sent against them a wind and forces that you saw not [angels during the battle of Al-Ahzâb (the Confederates, Ghazwat al-Khandaq (in 5 AH)]. And Allâh is Ever All-Seer of what you do.’

[6] Al-Bukhârî (2716) and Muslim (3277) narrated that Allâh’s Apostle sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam asked for Allâh’s wrath upon the Ahzâb, saying: “O, Allâh, Revealer of the Holy Book, and the One swift at reckoning! O, Allâh, Defeat the confederates. O, Allâh, Defeat them and shake them.”

The Prophetic Household – Shaykh Safi ur-Rahmaan Mubarakfoori

Taken from the “The Sealed Nectar” book

1. Khadijah Bint Khuwailid: In Makkah — prior to Hijra — the Prophet’s household comprised him (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) and his wife Khadijah bint Khuwailid. He was twenty-five and she was forty when they got married. She was the first woman he married. She was the only wife he had till she died. He had sons and daughters with her. None of their sons lived long. They all died. Their daughters were Zainab, Ruqaiya, Umm Kulthum and Fatimah.

Zainab was married to her maternal cousin Abu Al-‘As bin Al-Rabi‘ and that was before Al-Hijra. Ruqaiya and Umm Kulthum were both married to ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan – may Allah be pleased with him – successively (i.e. he married one after the death of her sister). Fatimah was married to ‘Ali bin Abi Talib; and that was in the period between Badr and Uhud battles. The sons and daughters that Fatimah and ‘Ali had were Al-Hasan, Al-Husain, Zainab and Umm Kulthum.

It is well-known that the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) was exceptionally authorized to have more than four wives for various reasons. The wives he married were thirteen. Nine of them outlived him. Two died in his lifetime: Khadijah and the Mother of the poor (Umm Al-Masakeen) — Zainab bint Khuzaima, besides two others with whom he did not consummate his marriage.

2. Sawdah bint Zam‘a: He married her in Shawwal, in the tenth year of Prophethood, a few days after the death of Khadijah. Prior to that, she was married to a paternal cousin of hers called As-Sakran bin ‘Amr.

3. ‘Aishah bint Abu Bakr: He married her in the eleventh year of Prophethood, a year after his marriage to Sawdah, and two years and five months before Al-Hijra. She was six years old when he married her. However, he did not consummate the marriage with her till Shawwal seven months after Al-Hijra, and that was in Madinah. She was nine then. She was the only virgin he married, and the most beloved creature to him. As a woman she was the most learnèd woman in jurisprudence.

4. Hafsah bint ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab: She was Aiyim (i.e. husbandless). Her ex-husband was Khunais bin Hudhafa As-Sahmi in the period between Badr and Uhud battles. The Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) married her in the third year of Al-Hijra.

5. Zainab bint Khuzaimah: She was from Bani Hilal bin ‘Amir bin Sa‘sa‘a. Was nicknamed Umm Al-Masakeen, because of her kindness and care towards them. She used to be the wife of ‘Abdullah bin Jahsh, who was martyred at Uhud, was married to the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) in the fourth year of Al-Hijra, but she died two or three months after her marriage to the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) .

6. Umm Salamah Hind bint Abi Omaiyah: She used to be the wife of Abu Salamah, who died in Jumada Al-Akhir, in the fourth year of Al-Hijra. The Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) married her in Shawwal of the same year.

7. Zainab bint Jahsh bin Riyab: She was from Bani Asad bin Khuzaimah and was the Messenger’s paternal cousin. She was married to Zaid bin Haritha — who was then considered son of the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) . However, Zaid divorced her. Allâh sent down some Qur’ânic verses with this respect:

“So when Zaid had accomplished his desire from her (i.e., divorced her), We gave her to you in marriage.” [33:37]

About her, Allâh has sent down some verses of Al-Ahzab Chapter that discussed the adoption of children in detail — anyway we will discuss this later. The Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) married her in Dhul-Qa‘dah, the fifth year of Al-Hijra.

8. Juwairiyah bint Al-Harith: Al-Harith was the head of Bani Al-Mustaliq of Khuza‘ah. Juwairiyah was among the booty that fell to the Muslims from Bani Al-Mustaliq. She was a portion of Thabit bin Qais bin Shammas’ share. He made her a covenant to set her free at a certain time. The Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) accomplished the covenant and married her in Sha‘ban in the sixth year of Al-Hijra.

9. Umm Habibah: Ramlah, the daughter of Abu Sufyan. She was married to ‘Ubaidullah bin Jahsh. She migrated with him to Abyssinia ( Ethiopia). When ‘Ubaidullah apostatized and became a Christian, she stoodfast to her religion and refused to convert. However ‘Ubaidullah died there in Abyssinia ( Ethiopia). The Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) dispatched ‘Amr bin Omaiyah Ad-Damri with a letter to Negus, the king, asking him for Umm Habibah’s hand — that was in Muharram, in the seventh year of Al-Hijra. Negus agreed and sent her to the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) in the company of Sharhabeel bin Hasnah.

10. Safiyah bint Huyai bin Akhtab: From the Children of Israel, she was among the booty taken at Khaibar battle. The Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) took her for himself. He set her free and married her after that conquest in the seventh year of Al-Hijra.

11. Maimunah bint Al-Harith: The daughter of Al-Harith, and the sister of Umm Al-Fadl Lubabah bint Al-Harith. The Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) married her after the Compensatory ‘Umrah (Lesser Pilgrimage). That was in Dhul-Qa‘dah in the seventh year of Al-Hijra.

Those were the eleven women that the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) had married and consummated marriage with them. He outlived two of them — Khadijah and Zainab, the Umm Al-Masakeen. Whereas the other nine wives outlived him.

The two wives that he did not consummate marriage with were, one from Bani Kilab and the other from Kindah and this was the one called Al-Jauniyah.

Besides these, he had two concubines. The first was Mariyah, the Coptic (an Egyptian Christian), a present gift from Al-Muqauqis, vicegerent of Egypt — she gave birth to his son Ibrâhim, who died in Madinah while still a little child, on the28 th or29 th of Shawwal in the year 10A.H., i.e.27 th January, 632 A.D. The second one was Raihanah bint Zaid An-Nadriyah or Quraziyah, a captive from Bani Quraiza. Some people say she was one of his wives. However, Ibn Al-Qaiyim gives more weight to the first version. Abu ‘Ubaidah spoke of two more concubines, Jameelah, a captive, and another one, a bondwoman granted to him by Zainab bint Jahsh.[]

Whosoever meditates on the life of the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) , will conceive that his marriage to this great number of women in the late years of his lifetime, after he had almost spent thirty years of his best days of youth sufficing himself to one old wife — Khadijah and later on to Sawdah, was in no way an overwhelming lustful desire to be satisfied through such a number of wives. These marriages were in fact motivated by aims and purposes much more glorious and greater than what normal marriages usually aim at.

The tendency of the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) towards establishing a relationship by marriage with both Abu Bakr and ‘Umar and his marriage to ‘Aishah and Hafsah — and getting his daughter Fatimah married to ‘Ali bin Abi Talib, and the marriage of his two daughters, Ruqaiyah and Umm Kulthum to ‘Uthman — indicate clearly that he aimed at confirming the relationship among the four men — whose sacrifices and great achievements in the cause of Islam are well-known.

Besides this, there was that tradition of the Arabs to honour the in-law relations. For them a son or a daughter-in-law was a means by which they sought the consolidation of relationship and affection with various phratries. Hostility and fights against alliances and affinities would bring an unforgettable shame, disgrace and degradation to them.

By marrying the Mothers of believers, the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) wanted to demolish or break down the Arab tribes’ enmity to Islam and extinguish their intense hatred. Umm Salamah was from Bani Makhzum — the clan of Abu Jahl and Khalid bin Al-Waleed. Her marriage to the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) produced good results. Khalid’s deliberately undecisive attitude at Uhud — for instance — was due to the Messenger’s marriage to Umm Salamah. Khalid went even further than that, in a short time he willingly became a keen obedient Muslim.

After the Messenger of Allâh’s marriage to Umm Habibah, Abu Sufyan, her father, did not encounter him with any sort of hostility. Similarly his marriage to Juwairiyah and Safiyah made the two tribes stop all sorts of provocation, aggression or hostility against Islam. Better still, Juwairiyah, herself, was one of the greatest sources of blessing to her own people. On the occasion of her marriage to the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) , his Companions set a hundred families of her people free. They said: “It is for their affinity with the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) .” No need to say what great good impression this gratitude had on everybody’s soul. One of the greatest motives of all is Allâh’s bidding his Prophet to educate and purify the souls of people who had known nothing whatsoever about courtesy, education and culture. He had to teach them to comply with the necessities of civilization and to contribute to the solidification and the establishment of a new Islamic society.

An essential fundamental rule of the Muslim society is to prohibit mixing of men and women. Providing direct education for women, though highly compelling, is impossible in the light of this Islamic norm. Therefore, the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) had to select some women of different ages and talents, and indoctrinate them systematically in order to educate she-bedouins and townswomen, old and young, and thus furnish them with the instruments of propagating the true faith. The Mothers of believers (i.e. wives of the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) ) were in such a convenient position that they could convey the state of the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) and his affairs to people (men and women). Being educated and taught the teachings and rules of Islam, his wives, especially those who outlived him, played a very important role in conveying Prophetic traditions Ahadith to the Muslims. ‘Aishah, for instance, related a large number of the Prophet’s deeds and statements.

His marriage to his paternal cousin Zainab bint Jahsh was a peculiar case which aimed at eradicating a deeply rooted pre-Islamic tradition — i.e. the adoption of children. In Al-Jahiliyah the Arabs used to consider an adopted person exactly like a real son or daughter as far as rights and sanctities are concerned. That Jahiliyah tradition had been so deeply rooted in their hearts that it was not easy to remove or uproot it. This tradition in fact affronts the basic principles of Islam; especially those concerned with marriage, divorce and inheritance and some other cases, and brought about lots of corruptions and indecencies. Naturally Islam stands against such deeds, and attempts to remove them from the Islamic society.

For the eradication of this tradition, Allâh, the Exalted, bid His Messenger (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) to marry his cousin Zainab bint Jahsh, who was an ex-wife to Zaid. She was at variance with Zaid to an extent that he intended to divorce her — that was at the time when the Confederates (Al-Ahzab) were making an evil alliance against the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) and against the Muslims. The Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) feared that the hypocrites, the idolaters, and the Jews would make a propaganda out of it and try to influence some Muslims of weak hearts. That was why he urged Zaid not to divorce her, in order not to get involved into that trial.

Undoubtedly this hesitation and partiality were alien to the character of the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) . They did not apply to the power of determination and will with which he had been sent. Allâh, the Exalted, blamed him for that by saying:

 “And (remember) when you said to him (Zaid bin Haritha may Allah be pleased with him – — the freed slave of the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) on whom Allâh has bestowed grace (by guiding him to Islam) and you (O Muhammad (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) too) have done favour (by manumitting him), ‘Keep your wife to yourself, and fear Allâh.’ But you did hide in yourself (i.e. what Allâh has already made known to you that He will give her to you in marriage) that which Allâh will make manifest, you did fear the people (i.e. Muhammad (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) married the divorced wife of his manumitted slave) whereas Allâh had a better right that you should fear him.” [33:37]

Finally Zaid divorced Zainab and the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) married her at the time he laid siege to Bani Quraiza. That was after she had finished her Iddat (i.e. period during which a widow or a divorcee may not remarry). Allâh Himself had already ordained it, and so gave him no other alternative. Allâh had even started the marriage Himself by saying:

 “So when Zaid had accomplished his desire from her (i.e. divorced her), We gave her to you in marriage, so that (in future) there may be no difficulty to the believers in respect of (the marriage of) the wives of their adopted sons when the latter have no desire to keep them (i.e. they have divorced them).” [33:37]

And that was in order to break down the tradition of child adoption in practice after He had done it in words:

 “Call them (adopted sons) by (the names of) their fathers, that is more just near Allâh.” [33:5]

“Muhammad ( saw) is not the father of any man among you, but he is the Messenger of Allâh, and the last (end) of the Prophets.” [33:40]

Lots of deeply-rooted traditions cannot be uprooted or demolished or even adjusted by mere words. They must be matched and associated with the action of the advocate of the Message himself.

This could be perceived through the deeds practised by the Muslims at Al-Hudaibiyah ‘Umrah (Lesser Pilgrimage) during which ‘Urwah bin Mas‘ud Al-Thaqafi saw certain Muslims tend to pick up any expectoration that fell down from the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) . He also saw them race to the water of his ablution and they almost quarrelled for it. There were others who competed to pledge allegiance to death and some others pledged not to flee from (the battlefield). Among those people, were eminent Companions like ‘Umar and Abu Bakr, who although dedicated all their lives to the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) and to the cause of Islam, but refused to carry out the Messenger’s ordres with respect to slaughtering sacrificial animals after the ratification of Al-Hudaibiyah Peace Treaty, the thing that perturbed and caused the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) to feel anxious. However, when Umm Salamah – may Allah be pleased with her – advised that he take the initiative and sacrifice his animals, his followers raced to follow his example; a clear evidence in support of the saying: Actions speak louder than words, in the process of exterminating a deeply-established tradition.

Hypocrites aroused a lot of suspicions and made a broad false propaganda against that marriage. Their acts and talks about that marriage had ill-effects on those Muslims whose Faith was still weak, particularly that Zainab was the fifth wife — and the Noble Qur’ân limited the number up to four only; Zaid was traditionally his son, and so a father marrying his son’s divorcee was a heinous sin in the eyes of the Arabians.

Al-AhzabSurah was revealed to shed full light on the two issues, i.e. Islam does not recognize adoption of children, and the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) is given (by Allâh) more freedom as regards the number of wives he can hold than other Muslims in order to achieve noble and honourable purposes.

However, the treatment of the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) to his wives was of honourable, noble, and superb nature. His wives were on tops in respect of honour, satisfaction, patience, modesty, and service (that is to say the performance of housework and marriage duties). Although the Messenger’s house-life was hard and unbearable, none of his wives complained. Anas said about the Prophet’s life: “According to my knowledge, the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) has never tasted a thin flattened loaf in all his lifetime, nor has he ever seen with his own eyes roasted mutton.”[]

‘Aishah said: “Over two months have elapsed — during which we have seen three crescents — and yet no fire has been kindled in the houses of the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) (i.e. they did not cook food).” “What did you eat to sustain yourselves?” ‘Urwah asked. She said “The two blacks: dates and water”[]. Lots of information about the hard life of the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) were told.

In spite of these hardships, straits and adversity of life in the house of the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam), none of his wives uttered a word of complaint worthy of reproach — but once. This exception was required by human instinctive inclinations. However, it was not so important and consequently it did not require the decree of a legislative rule. Allâh has given them an opportunity to choose between two things, as clearly stated in the following verses:

 “O Prophet (Muhammad (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam)! Say to your wives: ‘If you desire the life of this world, and its glitter, — then come! I will make a provision for you and set you free in a handsome manner (divorce). But if you desire Allâh and His Messenger, and the Home of the Hereafter, then verily, Allâh has prepared for Al-Muhsinat (good doers) amongst you an enormous reward.’” [33:28,29]

They were so noble and honest that none of them preferred ‘the life of this world and its glitter’ to the abode in the Hereafter.

Although they were many in number, nothing of the dispute occurrences that normally happen among co-wives, took place in their houses. Very few cases could be the only exception; but they were quite normal. Allâh reproached them for that, so they ceased to do such a thing. This incident is mentioned in At-Tahreem Chapter:

 “O Prophet! Why do you ban (for yourself) that which Allâh has made lawful to you …” [66:1] (to the end of the fifth verse).

Discussing polygamy — in my opinion — is not a necessity; since a person who is familiar with the Europeans, and indecent practices, sufferings, wickedness, their sorrows and distresses, the horrible crimes they commit in this respect as well as the trials, the disasters that they are involved in, and which emanate directly from their disregard of the principle of polygamy form a good reason (to justify the soundness of polygamy). The distorted picture of life in Europe with the ill-practices featuring it, could truthfully justify the existence and practice of polygamy. In this, there are Divine signs for all people possessed of lucid mind.

The Story of the Boy and the King (from Surah Burooj) : Ibn Kathir

Imam Ahmad recorded from Suhayb that the Messenger of Allah said:Among the people who came before you, there was a king who had a sorcerer, and when that sorcerer became old, he said to the king, “I have become old and my time is nearly over, so please send me a boy whom I can teach magic.” So, he sent him a boy and the sorcerer taught him magic. Whenever the boy went to the sorcerer, he sat with a monk who was on the way and listened to his speech and admired them. So, when he went to the sorcerer, he passed by the monk and sat there with him; and on visiting the sorcerer the latter would thrash him. So, the boy complained about this to the monk. The monk said to him, “Whenever you are afraid of the sorcerer, say to him: `My people kept me busy.’ And whenever you are afraid of your people, say to them: `The sorcerer kept me busy.”’ So the boy carried on like that (for some time). Then a huge terrible creature appeared on the road and the people were unable to pass by. The boy said, “Today I shall know whether the sorcerer is better or the monk is better.” So, he took a stone and said, “O Allah! If the deeds and actions of the monk are liked by You better than those of the sorcerer, then kill this creature so that the people can cross (the road).” Then he struck it with a stone killing it and the people passed by on the road.

The boy came to the monk and informed him about it. The monk said to him, “O my son! Today you are better than I, and you have achieved what I see! You will be put to trial. And in case you are put to trial, do not inform (them) about me.”The boy used to treat the people suffering from congenital blindness, leprosy, and other diseases. There was a courtier of the king who had become blind and he heard about the boy. He came and brought a number of gifts for the boy and said, “All these gifts are for you on the condition that you cure me.” The boy said, “I do not cure anybody; it is only Allah who cures people. So, if you believe in Allah and supplicate to Him, He will cure you.” So, he believed in and supplicated to Allah, and Allah cured him.

Later, the courtier came to the king and sat at the place where he used to sit before. The king said, “Who gave you back your sight”The courtier replied, “My Lord.” The king then said, “I did” The courtier said, “No, my Lord and your Lord – Allah” The king said, “Do you have another Lord beside me” The courtier said, “Yes, your Lord and my Lord is Allah.” The king tortured him and did not stop until he told him about the boy. So, the boy was brought to the king and he said to him, “O boy! Has your magic reached to the extent that you cure congenital blindness, leprosy and other diseases”He said, ” I do not cure anyone. Only Allah can cure.” The king said, “Me” The boy replied, “No.” The king asked, “Do you have another Lord besides me”The boy answered, ” My Lord and your Lord is Allah.” So, he tortured him also until he told about the monk. Then the monk was brought to him and the king said to him, “Abandon your religion.” The monk refused and so the king ordered a saw to be brought which was placed in the middle of his head and he fell, sawn in two. Then it was said to the man who used to be blind, “Abandon your religion.” He refused to do so, and so a saw was brought and placed in the middle of his head and he fell, sawn in two. Then the boy was brought and it was said to him, “Abandon your religion.” He refused and so the king sent him to the top of such and such mountain with some people. He told the people, “Ascend up the mountain with him till you reach its peak, then see if he abandons his religion; otherwise throw him from the top.” They took him and when they ascended to the top, he said, ” O Allah! Save me from them by any means that You wish.” So, the mountain shook and they all fell down and the boy came back walking to the king. The king said, ” What did your companions (the people I sent with you) do” The boy said, “Allah saved me from them.” So, the king ordered some people to take the boy on a boat to the middle of the sea, saying, “If he renounces his religion (well and good), but if he refuses, drown him.” So, they took him out to sea and he said, “O Allah! Save me from them by any means that you wish.” So they were all drowned in the sea.

Then the boy returned to the king and the king said, “What did your companions do” The boy replied, “Allah, saved me from them.” Then he said to the king, “You will not be able to kill me until you do as I order you. And if you do as I order you, you will be able to kill me.” The king asked, “And what is that” The boy said, “Gather the people in one elevated place and tie me to the trunk of a tree; then take an arrow from my quiver and say: `In the Name of Allah, the Lord of the boy.’ If you do this, you will be able to kill me.” So he did this, and placing an arrow in the bow, he shot it, saying, “In the Name of Allah, the Lord of the boy.” The arrow hit the boy in the temple, and the boy placed his hand over the arrow wound and died. The people proclaimed, “We believe in the Lord of the boy!’’ Then it was said to the king, “Do you see what has happened That which you feared has taken place. By Allah, all the people have believed (in the Lord of the boy).”So he ordered that ditches be dug at the entrances to the roads and it was done, and fires were kindled in them. Then the king said, “Whoever abandons his religion, let him go, and whoever does not, throw him into the fire.” They were struggling and scuffling in the fire, until a woman and her baby whom she was breast feeding came and it was as if she was being somewhat hesitant of falling into the fire, so her baby said to her,”Be patient mother! For verily, you are following the truth!”)

Muslim also recorded this Hadith at the end of the Sahih. Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar related this story in his book of Sirah in another way that has some differences from that which has just been related. Then, after Ibn Ishaq explained that the people of Najran began following the religion of the boy after his murder, which was the religion of Christianity, he said, “Then (the king) Dhu Nuwas came to them with his army and called them to Judaism. He gave them a choice to either accept Judaism or be killed, so they chose death. Thus, he had a ditch dug and burned (some of them) in the fire (in the ditch), while others he killed with the sword. He made an example of them (by slaughtering them) until he had killed almost twenty thousand of them. It was about Dhu Nuwas and his army that Allah revealed to His Messenger :

(Cursed were the People of the Ditch. Of fire fed with fuel. When they sat by it. And they witnessed what they were doing against the believers. And they had no fault except that they believed in Allah, the Almighty, Worthy of all praise! To Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth! And Allah is Witness over everything.) (85:4-9)

This is what Muhammad bin Ishaq said in his book of Sirah — that the one who killed the People of the Ditch was Dhu Nuwas, and his name was Zur`ah. In the time of his kingdom he was called Yusuf. He was the son of Tuban As`ad Abi Karib, who was the Tubba` who invaded Al-Madinah and put the covering over the Ka`bah. He kept two rabbis with him from the Jews of Al-Madinah. After this some of the people of Yemen accepted Judaism at the hands of these two rabbis, as Ibn Ishaq mentions at length. So Dhu Nuwas killed twenty thousand people in one morning in the Ditch. Only one man among them escaped. He was known as Daws Dhu Tha`laban. He escaped on a horse and they set out after him, but they were unable to catch him. He went to Caesar, the emperor of Ash-Sham. So, Caesar wrote to An-Najashi, the King of Abyssinia. So, he sent with him an army of Abyssinian Christians, who were lead by Aryat and Abrahah. They rescued Yemen from the hands of the Jews. Dhu Nuwas tried to flee but eventually fell into the sea and drowned. After this, the kingdom of Abyssinia remained under Christian power for seventy years. Then the power was divested from the Christians by Sayf bin Dhi Yazin Al-Himyari when Kisra, the king of Persia sent an army there (to Yemen). He (the king) sent with him (Sayf Al-Himyari) those people who were in the prisons, and they were close to seven hundred in number. So, he (Sayf Al-Himyari) conquered Yemen with them and returned the kingdom back to the people of Himyar (Yemenis).

Miracle of the Crying of the Tree Trunk

[Below is a portion from the book “Miracles of the Messenger (Sallalahu Alaihi wa Sallam)” regarding the remembrance of Allah. This miracle occurred when Rasulallah moved from the tree trunk to the newly made pulpit to give the Khutbah. Rasulallah used to lean against the tree trunk but when he left for the pulpit it cried out loud like a child for it would no longer be in the company of the Prophet and hear the remembrance of Allah (azzawajal). You can read the detailed story and hadith in chapter 6 page 105 in the book “Miracles of the Messenger (Sallalahu Alaihi wa Sallam)”]

There was also another reason for the weeping of the tree trunk and this was made clear by the Prophet when he said to his Companions: “It wept because of the remembrance of Allah (Dhikr) which it used to hear.”

So, the tree trunk also used to hear remembrance of Allah from the mouth of the Messenger of Allah (Sallalahu Alaihi wa Sallam) and Allah, the Most Blessed, the Most High says regarding remembrance of Him: “Those who believed (in the Oneness of Allah Islamic Monotheism), and whose hearts find rest in the remembrance of Allah verily, in the remembrance of Allah do hearts find rest. “

Therefore, it is not surprising that the tree trunk cried for that which brought tranquility to it. Haply, we may learn from this lifeless thing to love the remembrance of Allah and to accustom ourselves to it.

The word Dhikr means to remember something through constant verbal repetition of it.

So if a person were to constantly repeat the Names of Allah for example he would be remembering Allah; and due to the great need of man for remembrance of Allah, He has encouraged us to do it, in His Words: “He said: ‘O my Lord! Make a sign for me.’ (Allah) said: ‘Your sign is that you shall not speak to mankind for three days except with signals. And remember your Lord much (by praising Him again and again), and glorify (Him) in the afternoon and in the morning.”

And He says: “O you who believe! Remember Allah with much remembrance.” In remembrance of Allah there is great virtue, including:

Reminding Others to Remember Allah:

Allah, the Most Glorified, the Most High says: “Therefore remember Me (by praying, glorifying). I will remember you, and be grateful to Me (for My countless Favors on you) and never be ungrateful to Me. “

And He inspired the Prophet (Sallalahu Alaihi wa Sallam) to say: “Shall I not inform you about the best of your deeds with Allah and the purest of them with your King and the highest of them in status for you, which are better for you than spending gold and silver in charity and better than meeting your enemy and cutting off their heads, while they also cut off yours?” They said “Certainly, oh, Messenger of Allah!” He said: “It is remembrance of Allah, the All-Mighty, the All Powerful.”

And the Prophet (Sallalahu Alaihi wa Sallam) also said: “The likeness of one who remembers Allah and one who does not remember Allah is as the likeness of the living and the dead.”

It repels Satan and pleases the Most Gracious, according to the Words of the Prophet (Sallalahu Alaihi wa Sallam): “Whenever a people sit in a meeting-place and remember Allah, they are surrounded by angels and enveloped in mercy, and tranquility descends upon them as they remember Allah; and Allah makes mention of them to those with Him.”

It removes Anxiety and Sadness and enlightens the Heart and brings Peace and Tranquility to it, according to the Words of Allah, the Most High: “Those who believed (in the Oneness of Allah Islamic Monotheism), and whose hearts find rest in the remembrance of Allah verily, in the remembrance of Allah do hearts find rest.”

It strengthens the Heart and the Body, according to the Words of the Prophet (Sallalahu Alaihi wa Sallam) to His Daughter, Fatimah and ‘Ali (R). He told them to glorify Allah (i.e., say Subhan Allah) thirty-three times, to praise and thank Allah (i.e., to say Al-Hamdu Lilldh) thirty-three times and to extol Allah (i.e., to say Allahu Akbar) thirty-four times. This was when she (i.e., Fatimah ) asked him for a servant which would help her in her work.

Remembrance of Allah also attracts Sustenance, according to the Words of Allah, the Most High: “Ask forgiveness from your Lord, verily, He is Oft Forgiving; He will send rain to you in abundance, and give you increase in wealth and children, and bestow on you gardens and bestow on you rivers. “

Through remembrance of Allah, the hearts live, according to the Saying of Ibn Taimiyyah: Remembrance of Allah for the heart is like water to the fish; and what would the situation of the fish be if it left the water?

Remembrance of Allah causes the One Who remembers Him to be with Him, according to the Hadith Qudsi: “I am with My slave whenever he remembers me and moves his lips to pronounce My Names.”

And he spoke the truth who said: “The heart becomes diseased due to two things: negligence and sin; and it becomes clear due to two things: seeking forgiveness from Allah and remembrance of Allah.”

By Remembrance of Allah, the Slave earns Allah’s Love, according to the Words of Ibn ‘Abbas (R): “When Moses t went to Mount Sinai, he said: ‘Oh, my Lord! Which of Your slaves is most beloved to You?’ He said: “The one who remembers me and does not forget me.”

Remembrance of Allah also opens up the door to knowledge for the slave and protects the tongue from backbiting and tale-bearing.

It has also been said that it causes the slave to be conscious of Allah’s Observation of him, which admits him to the door of Ihsan, so that he worships Allah as if he could see Him. It also gives rise to Inabah, which is to return to Allah, the All-Mighty, the All-Powerful. So when a person returns frequently to Allah by remembrance of Him, it will cause him to return to Allah in all circumstances.

Remembrance of Allah is the Easiest Act of Worship: It is easy for a person in every place, in every situation and at all times to remember Allah and in spite of this, it is one of the best acts of worship for the movement of the tongue is lighter and easier than the movement of any other part of the body. Therefore, it is incumbent upon the Muslim to take care to accustom his tongue to remembrance of Allah and keep it moist thereby and he should do so in all circumstances, according to the Hadith of ‘Aishah : “The Messenger of Allah (Sallalahu Alaihi wa Sallam), used to remember Allah, the Most High in all circumstances.”

So, we must observe his Sunnah, for there is a supplication and a remembrance of Allah (Dhikr) legislated for every time and every action.

In the Shade of this Miracle

It might appear that the weeping of an inanimate object is something strange, but it was a subjugation from Allah in order that the tree trunk should deliver a Message not only for the Companions (R) rather, it was for all mankind, in every time and place.

It was a message delivered by the tree trunk through Allah’s Ability to do all things and it announced it in a resounding manner, which echoed: “La ilaha illallah (none is worthy of worship except Allah).”

The tree trunk addressed mankind, with a message of complete faith, in that language which purifies the hearts and washes the senses and when humanity understands it, its soul which is wandering in the wilderness will return to it.

Its message will remain to soften hard hearts, to remind forgetful hearts and to awaken sleeping feelings and to give life to sensations which have died and it will remain to shout out to mankind: The dry, lifeless object cried out for the intimacy and delight which it lost, when the Prophet (Sallalahu Alaihi wa Sallam) passed by it in favor of the new pulpit.

The dry, lifeless object was distressed at being far from the Prophet (Sallalahu Alaihi wa Sallam) and alarmed at being parted from him and wished that it should continue. It was as if this dry, lifeless object was declaring to us that we should seek that delight which comes from following the guidance of Al-Mustafa e; and adhering to his Sunnah. And (that it was declaring also) that we should feel distress at being far from it, that we beware of transgress in it, that we should hold fast to it and cling to it by our molar teeth, in order that we might attain closeness to the Prophet and companionship with him, and that the Miracle should remove from us all traces of doubt which might remain present in the hearts of some, regarding the Messenger (Sallalahu Alaihi wa Sallam)

The Meaning of “Al Hamdulillah” (All Praise and Thanks be to Allah) : Tafseer Ibn Katheer Surah Fatiha

Al Hamdulillah
(All Praise and Thanks be to Allah)

The Meaning of Al-Hamd

Abu Ja`far bin Jarir said,

The meaning of (Al-Hamdu Lillah) (all praise and thanks be to Allah) is: all thanks are due purely to Allah, alone, not any of the objects that are being worshipped instead of Him, nor any of His creation. These thanks are due to Allah’s innumerable favors and bounties, that only He knows the amount of.

Allah’s bounties include creating the tools that help the creation worship Him, the physical bodies with which they are able to implement His commands, the sustenance that He provides them in this life, and the comfortable life He has granted them, without anything or anyone compelling Him to do so. Allah also warned His creation and alerted them about the means and methods with which they can earn eternal dwelling in the residence of everlasting happiness. All thanks and praise are due to Allah for these favors from beginning to end.”

Further, Ibn Jarir commented on the Ayah,

(Al-Hamdu Lillah), that it means, “A praise that Allah praised Himself with, indicating to His servants that they too should praise Him, as if Allah had said, `Say: All thanks and praise is due to Allah.’

It was said that the statement, (All praise and thanks be to Allah), entails praising Allah by mentioning His most beautiful Names and most honorable Attributes. When one proclaims, `All thanks are due to Allah,’ he will be thanking Him for His favors and bounties.”

The Difference between Praise and Thanks

Hamd is more general, in that it is a statement of praise for one’s characteristics, or for what he has done. Thanks are given for what was done, not merely for characteristics.

The Statements of the Salaf about Al-Hamd

Hafs mentioned that `Umar said to `Ali, “We know La ilaha illallah, Subhan Allah and Allahu Akbar. What about Al-Hamdu Lillah” `Ali said, “A statement that Allah liked for Himself, was pleased with for Himself and He likes that it be repeated.”

Also, Ibn `Abbas said, “Al-Hamdu Lillah is the statement of appreciation. When the servant says Al-Hamdu Lillah, Allah says, `My servant has praised Me.” Ibn Abi Hatim recorded this Hadith.

The Virtues of Al-Hamd

Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal recorded that Al-Aswad bin Sari` said,

“I said, `O Messenger of Allah! Should I recite to you words of praise for My Lord, the Exalted, that I have collected’ He said,

(Verily, your Lord likes Al-Hamd.)

An-Nasa’i also recorded this Hadith.

Furthermore, Abu `Isa At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah recorded that Musa bin Ibrahim bin Kathir related that Talhah bin Khirash said that Jabir bin `Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(The best Dhikr (remembering Allah) is La ilaha illallah and the best supplication is Al-Hamdu Lillah.)

At-Tirmidhi said that this Hadith is Hasan Gharib.

Also, Ibn Majah recorded that Anas bin Malik said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(No servant is blessed by Allah and says,`Al-Hamdu Lillah’, except that what he was given is better than that which he has himself acquired.)

Further, in his Sunan, Ibn Majah recorded that Ibn `Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(A servant of Allah once said, `O Allah! Yours is the Hamd that is suitable for the grace of Your Face and the greatness of Your Supreme Authority.’ The two angels were confused as to how to write these words. They ascended to Allah and said, `O our Lord! A servant has just uttered a statement and we are unsure how to record it for him.’ Allah said while having more knowledge in what His servant has said, ‘What did My servant say’ They said, `He said, `O Allah! Yours is the Hamd that is suitable for the grace of Your Face and the greatness of Your Supreme Authority.’ Allah said to them, `Write it as My servant has said it, until he meets Me and then I shall reward him for it.)

Al before Hamd encompasses all Types of Thanks and Appreciation for Allah

The letters Alif and Lam before the word Hamd serve to encompass all types of thanks and appreciation for Allah, the Exalted.

A Hadith stated,

(O Allah! All of Al-Hamd is due to You, You own all the ownership, all types of good are in Your Hand and all affairs belong to You.)

Source: Tafseer Ibn Katheer – Surah Fatiha, Darusslam English Publication

If You Want To..

if you want to

The Book of Purification : Hadith from Buloogh Al Maaram

Contents

  1.  Water
  2. Utensils
  3. The Nature And Cleansing Of An-Najasah (The Impurities)
  4. Wudu (Ablution)
  5. Mash (Wiping) Over Khuffain (Two Leather Socks)
  6. The Nullification Of Wudu (Ablution)
  7. The Manners Of Answering The Call Of Nature
  8. Taking Ghusl (Bath) And The Precepts Regarding Sexual Impurity
  9. Tayammum (Purification With Soil)
  10. Menstruation

Chapter 1: Water

Narrated Abu Huraira[1] (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) Said regarding the sea, “Its water is purifying and its dead (animals) are lawful (to eat)”.
[Al-Arba’a[2] and Ibn Abu Shaiba reported it, version is of the latter. Ibn Khuzaima and At-Tirmidhi graded it Sahih (sound). Malik, Ash-Shafi’i and Ahmad reported it].

Narrated Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri[3] (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “Water is purer[4] and nothing can make it impure.”
[Reported by Ath-Thalatha[5], and Ahmad graded it Sahih (sound)]

Narrated Abu Umama Al-Bahili[6] (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “Water cannot be rendered impure by anything except something which changes its smell, taste and color[7]”.
[Ibn Majah reported it and Abu Hatim described it as Da’if (weak)]. And Al-Baihaqi reported: “Water is pure unless any impure thing is added which changes its smell, taste and color.

Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar[8] (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “If there is enough water to fill two pots (Qulla)[9], it carries no impurity.” Another version has: “it does not become unclean”.
[AI-Arba’a reported it. Ibn Khuzaima, Ibn Hibban and Al-Hakim graded it Sahih (sound)].

Narrated Abu Huraira (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم), said, “None of you should take bath in stagnant water when he is sexually impure.”
[Muslim reported it].
Another version of Al-Bukhari has: “None of you should urinate in stagnant water that is not flowing, then take bath in it.[10] “A version of Muslim has the words: “from it (i.e. the water)”.
A version of Abu Da’ud has: “One should not take bath in it from sexual impurity.”

A man[11] who accompanied the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) narrated: Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) forbade a woman to bathe with the water left over by a man, and that a man should not bathe with the water left over by a woman, (and instead) they should both take scoopfuls of the water together.
[Reported by Abu Da’ud and An-Nasa’i and its chain of narrators is Sahih (authentic)]

Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas (رضي الله عنه)[12]: The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) used to bath with the water left over by Maimuna (رضي الله عنه) [Muslim reported it]. And Ashab As-Sunan (compilers of the Prophet’s sayings) reported that one of the wives of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) took bath from a vessel, then came the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) and when he wanted to take bath from that (vessel), she[13] said, “I was sexually impure.” He said, “Water does not become sexually impure.”
[At- Tirmidhi and Ibn Khuzaima graded it Sahih (sound)].

Narrated Abu Huraira (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said “The cleansing of the utensil belonging to one of you, after it has been licked by dog, is to wash it seven[14] times, using soil for cleaning at the first time.
[Muslim reported it· Another version has: “he should spill the contents]”
Al-Tirmidhi’s version has: “using soil at the first or last time.

Narrated Abu Qadata[15] (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) Said about the cat that, “It is not unclean, but is one of those who intermingle with you
[Reported by Al-Arba’a[16]. At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Khuzaima graded it Sahih (sound)]

Narrated Anas bin Malik[17] رضي الله عنه): A Bedouin came and urinated in one corner of the mosque, and the people shouted at him, but Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) stopped them, and when he finished urinating, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) ordered for a bucket of water which was split[18] over it.
[Agreed upon][19]

Narrated Ibn ‘’Umar (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) ‘said, “Two types of dead animals and two types of bloods have been made lawful for us, the two types of dead animals are locusts and fish (seafood), while the two types of bloods are the liver and the spleen.”
[Reported by Ahmad and Ibn Majah, and this Hadith has some weakness.]

Narrated Abu Huraira (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “When a fly falls in the drink of one of you, he should fully dip it and then throw it away because there is disease in one of its wings and cure in the other[20].
[Reported by Al-Bukhari and Abu Da’ud who added: “It (the fly) protects itself with the diseased wing (by dipping it first in a drink)].

Narrated Abu Waqid Al-Laithi[21] (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “Whatever (portion) is cut off from an animal when it is alive is dead (meat).
[Reported by Abu Da’ud and At-Tirmidhi who graded it Hasan (fair), and this version is of Tirmidhi].


[1]           His real name is ‘Abdullah or ‘Abdur-Rahman bin Sakhr Ad-Dausi, and was one of the greatest Sahaba (Companions of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم) and reported the largest number of Ahadith. More than 800 men narrated from him. He became a Muslim in the year of Khaibar (7 H.) and stayed in the company of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) until he (the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم) died. He was appointed a Mufti (scholar of Islamic verdicts) during the caliphate of’ Umar and later became the governor of Al-Madina during the reign of Mawan bin Al-Hakam. He died in 59 H. and was buried at Al-Baqi’.

[2]           The collectors of Hadith: Abu Da’ud, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah.

[3]           His name is Sa’d bin Malik bin Sinan Al-Khazraji Al-Ansari. He was one of the learned Sahaba, reported many Ahadith and gave religious opinions for some time. He died at the beginning of 74H at the age of 86 years.

[4]           It is reported in Ahmad, At-Tirmidhi and Abu Da’ud that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said these words answering a question about the well of Bud’a, which is located in the vicinity of Al-Madina, and was always filled with filth. This well was situated in a low-lying area and the rainwater would carry all the dirt and garbage into it. These words are certainly about this well.

[5]           The collectors of Hadith: Abu Da’ud, At-Tirmidhi, and An-Nasa’i.

[6]           His name is Suday bin ‘Ajlan, one of the Sahaba who reported many Ahadith. He lived in Egypt then moved to Hims (now in Syria) and died there at the age of 81 or 86 years.

[7]           Some of the people remark that water may be less or more in quantity, if filth alters its one quality out of three (its colors, odor and taste), it would become impure. But the proper view in this connection is that if water is less than 227 kilograms (two Qulla) then mere filth makes it impure, whether there is a change in any one of its quality or not, but when water is more than the said quantity, it does not get impure, until there is a change at least in one quality.

[8]           He was among the most ascetic and most knowledgeable Sahaba. He became a Muslim at Makka while a small boy, and mi grated to Al-Medina. He first participated in the battle of Al-Khandaq, died in 73AH, and was buried at Dhi Tuwa.

[9]           Qulla is a large earthen pot, which may contain water up to two and a half water-skins, viz., and one hundred and thirteen kilograms.

[10]         It means less quantity of water; if water is in abundance, it will be regarded as flowing water, which is not an impure one and is good for bathing. It has been prohibited to urinate in the stagnant water on the ground that one may not make it a habit and pollute the water. Condition of the stagnant water is only because flowing water is always clean and never becomes impure, even dirt and filth do not make it impure.

[11]         This man is one of the Sahaba, and failure to mention his name does not harm because the Sahaba are all trust worthy.

[12]         He is ‘Abdullah bin ‘Abbas bin ‘Abdul-Muttalib, the Prophet’s cousin and the scholar of the Muslim Ummah. He was born 3 years before Al-Hijra and died at Ta’if in 67 AH.

[13]         This Hadith apparently seems to be in contradiction with the first, but actually it is not, because the order is not of absolute prohibition, but is only of suggestive prohibition to avoid any trace of impurity.

[14]         It must be clear that just to clean a thing from impurity, it is not necessary to wash a for seven times. The philosophy of cleaning a thing for seven times is different from that of simple purification. Physicians of today say that mostly in the intestines of dogs there are germs and small worms approximately 4 mm. in length, and these move out from intestines with the excrement and stick to the hair around the anus· When dogs clean this place with tongue, it gets soiled with these organisms If a dog licks a pot or someone kisses the dog, as the European and American ladies do, these ate transferred from dog to the pot or to the mouth of the woman and then to the stomach These organisms keep on moving, and penetrate into blood cells causing many fatal diseases· As the detection of these germs is not possible without microscopic tests, the Shari’a (Islamic law) declared the dog’s saliva an inherently impure thing by a general command, and whatever a thing is polluted with dog’s saliva, must be cleaned seven times (which in one time should be with the soil) to be sure of its purity. For more details please see the footnotes of the book Ahkam-ul-Ahsan, Sharh Umdat-ul-Ahkam].

[15]         He is Al-Harith bin Rib’i Al-Ansari, the prophet’s horseman. He fought the battle of Uhud and those, which followed. It is said he died at Al-Madina or Kufa in 54H

[16]         Abu Da’ud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah·

[17]         He was the Prophet’s servant from the time he came to Al-Madina till his death. He is known as Abu Hamza and was Khazraji· He lived in Basra during Umar’s Caliphate and died in it at the age of 99 or 103 years in 91 or 92 or 93 H.

[18]         This Hadith proves that earth gets pure when dried up, as Ibn Abi Shaiba has narrated, specially when you let the water flow over the spot.

[19]         Al-Bukhari and Muslim

[20]         It is evident from this Hadith that if a fly drops into water or syrup, it will not become impure, and the creatures of this family who’s blood does not flow, like mosquito, wasp and spider, etc, do not make the water impure if fallen or died into it.

[21]         His name is Al-Harith bin ‘Auf and is a descendant of Banu ‘Aamir bin Laith. He became a Muslim very early and is counted among the people of Al-Madina. It is said that he fought at Badr, lived in Makka and died in it in 65H or 68H at the age· of 57 and was buried at Funj.

Chapter 2: Utensils

Narrated Hudhaifa bin Al-Yaman[1] (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “Do not drink in silver or gold utensils, and do not eat in plates of such metals,[2] for such things are for them (the disbelievers) in this worldly life and for you in the Hereafter.”
[Agreed upon][3]

Narrated Umm Salama[4] (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم)· Said, “He who drinks in a silver utensil is only swallowing Hell-fire in his stomach.”
[Agreed upon].

Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “When the skin is tanned it becomes purified[5]”
[Reported by Muslim]
AI-Arba ‘a have the words: “Any skiI1 that is tanned…”

Narrated Salama bin Al-Muhabbiq[6] (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “The tanning of a dead animal’s skin purifies it.”
[Ibn Hibban graded it Sahih (sound)].

Narrated Maimuna (رضي الله عنه): Some people dragging a (dead) goat passed by the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم). He told them, “Had you better taken its skin.” They said, “It is dead”. He said, “Water and the leaves of the Acacia tree will purify it.”
[Reported by Abu Da’ud and An-Nasa’i].

Narrated Abu Tha’laba Al-Khushni[7] (رضي الله عنه): I said, “O Allah’s Messenger! We are living in a land inhabited by the people of the Scriptures, can we take our meals in their utensils?” He said, “If you can get utensils other than theirs, do not eat in theirs[8] but if you cannot get other than theirs, wash them and eat in them.”
[Agreed upon].

Narrated ‘Imran bin Husain[9] (رضي الله عنه): The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) and his Companions performed Wudu (ablution) from a skin water container[10] belonging to a polytheist woman.
[Agreed upon]. (It is an extract of a long Hadith)

Narrated Anas bin Malik (رضي الله عنه): When the cup of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) got broken, he fixed it with a silver wire[11] at the crack.
[Reported by Al-Bukhari]


[1]           He is nicknamed Abu Abdullah, both him and his father were Sahaba and he became famous for being the confidant of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) He died at Midian (Madain) forty nights after the killing of ‘Uthman in the year 35H or 36 H.

[2]           This Hadith is mentioned here with a purpose to clarify that if it is prohibited to eat and drink in gold and silver utensils, then performing ablution is also prohibited with using gold and silver utensils, otherwise this Hadith would have been placed in the chapter of eating and drinking Eating, drinking and performing ablution in utensils studded with rubies and diamonds is permissible

[3]           Al-Bukhari and Muslim

[4]           She is Hind bint Abu ‘Umaiya. She was married to Abu Salama, she immigrated with him to Abyssinia (Ethiopia) and came with him to Al-Madina When Abu Salama died from an injury, he had sustained during the battle of Uhud the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) married her in Shawwal 4 H· It is said that she died in 59H or 62 H at the age of 84 years and was buried at Al-Baqi’.

[5]           This Hadith approves that a hide, after tanning becomes pure and clean, may be the hide is of an animal which is (haram) prohibited to eat or (halal) lawful to eat and whether the animal is slaughtered or died. But the skins of human beings and some of the animals are unlawful and not permitted for use. The skin of man is unlawful due to his sacredness and reverence and the skins of animals like dog and pig are unlawful and not permitted for use because they are inherently impure and unclean. It should also be remembered that hair, teeth and horns of permitted animals are also lawful for use and trade.

[6]           He is nicknamed Abu Sinan of Hudhali tribe. He is considered as a resident of Basra and Al-Hasan Al-Basri took the Hadith from him.

[7]           He is a Sahabi (Companion of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم.) descending from Khushain bin An-Nimir of Quda’a tribe. He was one of the Ashab Ash-Shajara who entered a covenant with the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) on the day of Al-Hudaibiya. He was sent to his people and they accepted Islam. He settled in Sham and died there in 75H.

[8]           This Hadith makes it clear that if the utensils from a Muslim are available then the utensils of a non-Muslim should not be used for eating, drinking or cooking. If it is certain about a non-Muslim that he does not eat something unlawful or prohibited, then his utensils may be used, but even then one should be careful.

[9]           He is nicknamed Abu Nujeid and is from the Khuza’a tribe. He accepted Islam in the year of Khaibar. He settled in Basra and died there in 52H or 53H.

[10]         This Hadith clarifies that such utensils of the polytheists may be used without any hesitations, about which there is no probability of being impure.

[11]         This Hadith proves that if this much amount of gold or silver is present m any utensil, then making ablution with it or eating and drinking in it is not prohibited.

Chapter 3: The Nature and Cleansing of An-Najasah

(The Impurities)

Narrated Anas bin Malik (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) was asked about making vinegar out of wine. He said, “No (it is prohibited)”.[1]
[Reported by Muslim, and At-Tirmidhi and the latter graded it Hasan-Sahih (fair and sound)]

Narrated (Anas bin Malik) (رضي الله عنه): On the day of Khaibar, Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) commanded Abu Talha[2] to announce: “Allah and His Messenger have prohibited for you (eating of) the flesh of the donkeys, for it is unclean.”[3]
[Agreed upon.]

Narrated ‘Amr bin Kharija[4] (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) delivered a Khutba (religious talk) to us at Mina while mounted on his camel and its saliva was pouring on my[5] shoulders.
[Reported by Ahmad and At-Tirmidhi and the latter graded it Sahih (sound)]

Narrated ‘Aisha[6] (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) used to wash the semen[7] and then go out for prayer in that (very) garment, and I could still see the trace of the washing on it.
[Agreed upon].
In the version of Muslim: “I used to scrape it (the semen) off the garment of Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) and then he offered prayer with it.”
In yet another version of Muslim: “Verily! I (‘Aisha) used to scrape it (the semen) off his garment with my nails while it was dry”.

Narrated Abu As-Samh[8] (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “The urine of a baby girl should be washed off and the urine of a baby boy should be sprinkled[9] with water).”
[Reported by Abu Da’ud and An-Nasa’i and Al-Hakim graded it Sahih (sound)

Narrated ‘Asma’ bint Abu Bakr[10] (رضي الله عنه): The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said regarding menstruation blood that smears a garment, “She should scrape it, rub it with water, then wash it and then she may pray in it”.
[Agreed upon].

Narrated Abu Huraira (رضي الله عنه): Khaula[11] said, “O Messenger of Allah, suppose the (trace of) the blood does not go?” He said, “(Washing it with) water will suffice you and its trace won’t harm you.”
[Reported by At- Tirmidhi, and its Sanad (chain of narrators) is weak].


[1]           Making of vinegar from wine by adding something in it is prohibited.

[2]           He is Zaid bin Sahl bin Al-Aswad bin Haram Al-Ansari An-Najari who was one of the senior Sahaba. He attended the ‘Aqaba Covenant and all the battles. He fought bravely during the battle of Uhud and defended the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) till his hand got paralyzed. He also killed 20 men in the battle of Hunain. He died in the year 34 H. or 51 H.

[3]           Leftover water of a donkey is pure and usable

[4]           He is ‘Amr bin Kharija bin Al-Muntafiq Al-Asadi. He was an ally of Abu Sufyan. He is regarded as being from the clan of Al-Ash’ar. He is among the Sahaba who settled in Sham and this Hadith was reported by the people of Basra.

[5]           From this Hadith we come to know that the saliva of a Halal [lawful to eat] animal is also pure. This Hadith was approved by the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم.

[6]           She is the daughter of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq and the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) married her 2 years before the Hijra in the month of Shawwal, but wedded her in 1 H. at the age of9 years. She was very learned and reported many Ahadith. She died on 17 Ramadan 57 H or 58 H. Abu Huraira (رضي الله عنه) offered her Funeral prayer and she was buried at Al-Baqi’.

[7]           There is a difference of opinion concerning the human semen, whether it is impure or not. Some religious elites consider it like saliva or nasal secretion, and according to others it is necessary to wash it. Former group gives its reason from the Hadith of scraping it when dried, and the latter group argues from the Hadith of washing the semen. In fact, semen is impure and it must be cleaned by washing, scraping, rubbing or wiping. (See the book Nail-ul-Autar by Imam Shaukani)

[8]           His name is Iyya’d. He was a manumitted slave and servant of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم). Ibn Abdul-Bar said that he was reported to be lost and nobody knew where he died.

[9]           It means that there is difference in the urine of a boy and a girl. In the suckling period, girl’s urine is more impure than the boy’s urine.

[10]         She is the mother of’ Abdullah bin Az-Zubair and the elder sister of’ Aisha. She became a Muslim very early in Makka and migrated to Al-Madina. She died less than a month after the killing of her son Ibn Az-Zubair in 73H at the age of about 100 years, yet she neither lost a tooth nor had any mental problem.

[11]         Khaula bint Yasar was a Sahabiya and Abu Salama bin ‘Abdur-Rahman narrated the Hadith from her.

Chapter 4: Wudu (Ablution)

29.  Narrated Abu Huraira (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “Had I not feared burdening my Ummah (followers), I would have commanded them to use Siwak[1] (stick toothbrush) before every Salat (prayer).”
[Reported by Malik, Ahmad and An-Nasa’i. Ibn Khuzaima graded it Sahih (sound) and Al-Bukhari mentioned as a Mu’allaq (suspended — without its chain of narrators)]

30.  Narrated Humran[2], the manumitted slave of ‘Uthman[3] (RA): ‘Uthman (رضي الله عنه) called for water to perform ablution. He washed palms of his hands three times, then rinsed his mouth and sniffed water in his nose and then blew it out. He then washed his face three times. Thereafter he washed his right hand up to his elbow three times[4] then the left one likewise, then he passed wet hands on his head. Then he washed his right foot up to the ankle three times, then the left one likewise. He then said, “I saw Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) performing ablution like this ablution of mine.” [Agreed upon]

31.  Narrated ‘Ali[5] (رضي الله عنه), regarding the description of the ablution of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم): He (the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم) wiped his head (with water) only once[6].
[Reported by Abu Da’ud, An-Nasa’i, At-Tirmidhi with a Sahih Sanad (authentic chain of narrators). At-Tirmidhi said, “It’s the most sound Hadith on this subject”]

32.  Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Zaid bin ‘Aasim[7] (رضي الله عنه) describing the nature of ablution performance: Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) wiped his head from the forehead to the back of his head and then back to the forehead[8] with his (wet) hands.
[Agreed upon].
And in another version of theirs: “He began from the front of his head and took them (his wet hands) to the back of his head and then returned them to the place he had begun from.”

33.  Narrated Abdullah bin ‘Amr[9] (رضي الله عنه), regarding the description of the ablution: “Then he (Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم) wiped his head, inserted his index finger in his ears and wiped the exterior of his ears with his thumbs.”[10]
[Reported by Abu Da’ud and An-Nasa’i and Ibn Khuzaima graded it Sahih (sound)]

34.  Narrated Abu Huraira (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “When one of you wakes up from his sleep, he must blow off his nose three times, for the Satan spends the night inside one’s nostrils”
[11][Agreed upon]

35.  Narrated (Abu Huraira رضي الله عنه): (Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم said,) “When one of you wakes up from his sleep, he must not put his hand in a utensil till he has washed it three times[12], for he does not know where his hand was (while he slept).”
[Agreed upon. This is Muslim’s version]

36.  Narrated Laqit bin Sabra (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “Perform a perfect Wudu (ablution), run (your fingers) through the fingers of the hands and the toes[13], and if not fasting, sniff water up well inside the nose.”
[Reported by Al-Arba ‘a[14], and Ibn Khuzaima graded it Sahih (sound)]
In another version of Abu Da’ud is: “If you perform ablution rinse your mouth.”

37.  Narrated ‘Uthman (رضي الله عنه): While performing Wudu, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) would run (his) fingers through his beard[15].
[Reported by At-Tirmidhi, and Ibn Khuzaima graded it Sahih (sound)]

38.  Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Zaid (رضي الله عنه): Two-thirds of a Mudd[16] (of water) was brought to the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم (for ablution) so he began rubbing his arms.
[Reported by Ahmad, and Ibn Khuzaima graded it Sahih (sound)]

39.  Narrated (‘Abdullah bin Zaid رضي الله عنه): He saw the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم taking some water to wipe his ears other than the water he had taken to wipe his head.
[Reported by Al-Baihaqi, who said that its Isnad (chain of narrators) is authentic, At-Tirmidhi also graded it Sahih (sound)]
And the words of the Muslim version are: “he wiped his head taking extra water from that he had taken for the washing of the hands,” and this Hadith is Al-Mahfuz.

40.  Narrated Abu Huraira (رضي الله عنه):I heard Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) saying, “My people will come on the Day of Resurrection with bright faces, hands and feet from the traces of Wudu (ablution). If any of you can lengthen his brightness[17], let him do so.”
[Agreed upon and this is Muslim’s version]

41.  Narrated ‘Aisha (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم· loved to begin with the right while putting on his shoes, combing his hair, in his purification and in all his affairs[18].
[Agreed upon]

42.  Narrated Abu Huraira (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم said, “When you perform ablution, begin with your right limbs.”
[Reported by Al-Arba’a[19] and graded Sahih (sound) by Ibn Khuzaima]

43.  Narrated Al-Mughira bin Shu’ba[20][](رضي الله عنه): The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) performed ablution and passed wet hands on his forelock, over the turban and over the two leather socks[21].
[Reported by Muslim]

44.  Narrated Jabir bin Abdullah[22] (رضي الله عنه) regarding the Hajj (pilgrimage) of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم): He (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “Begin with what Allah had begun with.”[23]
[Reported by An- Nasa’i in this commanding version while Muslim has reported it in the reporting[24] one]

45.  Narrated (Jabir bin Abdullah رضي الله عنه): The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم used to run the water down his elbows while performing ablution.
[Reported by Ad-Daraqutni with a weak chain of narrators]

46.  Narrated Abu Huraira (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “There is no Wudu (ablution) for one who does not mention Allah’s Name upon it[25].”
[Reported by Ahmad, Abu Da’ud and Ibn Majah with a weak chain of narrators].
At-Tirmidhi reported something similar to the above from Sa’id bin Zaid[26], and Abu Sa’id like this, and Ahmad said that nothing is authenticated in it]

47.  Narrated Talha bin Musarrif[27] quoting his father on the authority of his grandfather[28]: “I saw Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) rinsing his mouth and sniffing up and blowing his nose with separate scoops[29] of water.”
[Reported by Abi Da’ud with a weak chain of narrators].

48.  Narrated ‘Ali (رضي الله عنه), regarding performance of Wudu (ablution): The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم, rinsed his mouth and sniffed and blew (his nose) with water three times. He sniffed up and blew his nose with the same hand from which he took the water.
[Reported by Abu Da’ud and An-Nasa’i]

49.  Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Zaid (رضي الله عنه) regarding Wudu (ablution): The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) put his hand (in the utensil) rinsed (his mouth) and sniffed up and blew (his nose) from one scoop (of water). He did that three times.
[Agreed upon].

50.  Narrated Anas (رضي الله عنه): The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) saw a man on whose foot appeared a portion like the size of a nail, which was not touched by water. He then said, “Go back and perform your Wudu (ablution) properly[30].”
[Reported by Abu Da’ud and An-Nasa’i].

51.  Narrated (Anas رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) · used only one Mudd[31] of water for ablution and one Sa'[32] to five Mudd of water for his bath.
[Agreed upon].

52.  Narrated Umar[33] (رضي الله عنه): ‘Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “If one after performing ablution completely recites the following supplication: (Ash-hadu an la ilaha ill-Allau wahdahu 1a sharika lahu, wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa Rasuluhu) ‘I testify that there is no one worthy of worship but Allah, He is Alone and has no partner and Muhammad is His slave and Messenger,’ all the eight gates of Paradise will be opened for him and he may enter through any gate he wishes.”
[Reported by Muslim and At-Tirmidhi who added the following words to the supplication: (Allahumma aj ‘alni minAl-tawwabina waj’alni minAl-mutatahhirina) “Oh Allah! Include me among those who repent and those who keep themselves pure”]


[1]           It means that the use of Siwak (tooth cleaning stick from the tree or the toothbrush) with every ablution is Sunna [the way of the noble Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم] and the Hadith reported by Muslim tells us that Siwak should be used before every prayer. It means that if anybody is going to offer prayers with ablution performed previously, even then he should use Siwak. These Ahadith prove extreme emphasis on the constant use of Siwak for the cleaning of teeth. It is Sunna (supererogatory) and not Wajib (compulsory).

[2]           Humran bin Aban was caught by Khalid bin Al-Walid in a war during Abu Bakr’s caliphate, and he sent him to serve ‘Uthman who freed him. He is trustworthy of the 2nd grade in the reporting of Ahadith. He died in 75 H.

[3]           The third Guided Caliph. He accepted Islam early and married Ruqaiya and then Umm Kulthum, daughters of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) and was therefore nicknamed Dhun-Nuirain (the possessor of the two lights, i.e. the daughters of the Prophet h صلى الله عليه و سلم). He was killed as a martyr on Friday, 18th Dhul Hijja, 35H.

[4]           In this Hadith washing of face, hands and feet is stated to be done three times each, whereas in others, two times and one time washing is regarded as enough. Imam Nawawi has written the consensus of opinions that washing once is Fard (obligatory).

[5]           The fourth Guided Caliph. He fought all the battles except Tabuk, for the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) had left him as in charge in Al-Madina. An evildoer called ‘Abdur-Rahman bin Muljam killed him as a martyr on Friday morning 17th Ramadan 40 H. at Kufa.

[6]           It means that wiping of head (doing Mash) only once is obligatory.

[7]           He was an Ansari belonging to Bani Mazin from An-Najar clan. He fought at Uhud and killed Musailima Al-Kadhdhab together with Wahshi on Al-Yamama Day. He was killed on the day of Al-Harrah in 63 H.

[8]           This Hadith tells us that Mash (wiping) of head should be started from the front.

[9]           He is the son of’ Amr bin Al’-Aas Al-Qurashi. He became a Muslim before his father who was older than him by 13 years. He was an Aalim (learned), memorized Ahadith and was very pious. He died in the 63 H. or 70 H.

[10]         It means that ears are to be wiped internally and externally. The side close to the head is external and near the face is internal. Tirmidhi after narrating the Hadith concerning wiping of ears internally and externally, says that religious scholars follow the same practice.

[11]         Spending the night of Satan inside the nostrils of a man is plausible, but its actual state is better known to Allah and His Messenger. May be this is a figurative expression, because bad excretions gather in the nose and cause laziness, indolence, slackness and negligence. All these states are satanic dispositions

[12]         It means that hands should not be dipped in the ablution water container, as the word ‘ablution’ is present in some of the Ahadith narrated by Bukhari. Allamah Ibn Hajar, in his book Fath Al-Bari, says: Though this Hadith apparently seems to be related with the utensils of ablution but it includes all other utensils and bathing water containers. But if there is a big pool or tank of water then it is permissible to put hands in it

[13]         It means that the fingers of hands and feet should be washed completely and carefully.

[14]         Abu Da’ud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah

[15]         During the performance of ablution, combing of beard with fingers is Sunnah (supererogatory) and not Wajib (compulsory).

[16]         In some Ahadith, a full Mudd has been mentioned. One Mudd is a little more than six hundred grams. This is the least quantity of water mentioned for ablution; otherwise it will be very difficult to perform ablution with small amount of water. Maximum limit of water has not been ordained, any amount of water may be used for ablution and bath, but water should not be wasted

[17]         It may have more than one meaning. It may mean washing of limbs more than the minimum limits, for example, washing of hands up to shoulders and washing of feet up to knees; Abu Huraira رضي الله عنه assumes this meaning. It may also mean that every limb should be washed three times, instead of washing it for one time — the minimum limit for washing. It may also mean to perform ablution again and again or to remain with ablution all the time.

[18]         This mode of action of the noble Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم was for noble actions, for other actions like coming out of mosque and entering a toilet etc., one should put his left feet first.

[19]         Abu Da’ud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah

[20]         Abu Abdullah or Abu Iesa, Al-Mughira bin Shu’ba bin Mas’ud Ath-Thaqafi was a prominent Sahabi. He became a Muslim in the year of the Khandaq (trench) and migrated. He first participated in Al-Hudaibiya. He died in 50 H. in Kufa

[21]         This Hadith makes it clear that wiping over turban (cap) is also correct. There are two forms of it. First, to wipe partly on the turban and partly on the head. There is no difference of opinion on this form of action. Secondly, to wipe only on turban. There is a difference of opinion on this, but this is also proved by Sahih Hadith narrated by Tirmidhi

[22]         Jabir was an Ansari from Sulami clan and he was nicknamed Abu ‘Abdullah. He was among the eminent Sahaba. He fought at Badr though some said that he did not witness neither Badr nor Uhud, but took part in those battles that followed them. He was also at Siffin. He was among the memorizers of many Ahadith. He became blind towards the end of his life, and died in 74 H at the age of 94 years. It is reported that he was the last Sahabi to die at Al-Madina.

[23]         Noble Quran has mentioned As-Safa in the first place between As-Safa and Al-Marwa. The

Noble Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) Started Sa’i (running between the Safa and Marwa during Hajj and ‘Umrah) from the Safa side, so start ablution in the same manner, starting from washing of the face, then hands up to elbows; then wipe the head and wash the feet.

[24]         In this Hadith the word (bada) has been used in Arabic text, in the sense of giving information instead of order

[25]         In this regard, there exist contradictory Ahadith, which indicate opposing views about saying (Bismillah) before performing ablution. Correct answer of this issue is to say Bismillah is Sunna.

[26]         He is Sa’id bin Zaid bin ‘Amr Al-Qurashi, nicknamed Abu Al-A’war and is one of the ten who were promised Paradise. He accepted Islam very early and was married to Fatima, the sister of ‘Umar, and they were both instrumental to ‘Umar becoming a Muslim. He fought all the battles except Badr, because he was away looking for the caravan. He died in 51 H. and was buried at Al-Baqi’.

[27]         He is Abu Muhammad or Abu ‘Abdullah Talha bin Musarrif. He was a reliable Tabi’i (see glossary) of the 5th grade. He was a righteous reciter of the Quran, and died in 112 H. His father Musarrif is unknown and that has made this Hadith Da’if

[28]         He is called Ka’b bin ‘Amr or Amr bin Ka’b bin Juhdub Al-Yami — descending from a Yamani tribe called Yam of Hamadan. Ibn ‘Abdul-Bar said he (Ka’b) settled in Kufa and is a Sahabi.

[29]         It means that the noble Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم), used to take water separately for cleaning the nose and rinsing the mouth. According to the author, this Hadith is Da’if (weak). According to Al-Bukhari and Muslim, the noble Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم used a single handful of water for cleaning the nose and rinsing the mouth. Imam Nawawi has stated its five forms and regarded sound the one, Al-Bukhari and Muslim has stated.

[30]         This Hadith makes it clear that washing of the whole foot is obligatory. In a Hadith recorded by Muslim, it is stated that it is Fire for that part of the foot, which is dry. In this Hadith, there is repudiation for those who consider the Mash (wiping) of foot as proper and acceptable; or those who consider the Mash (wiping) and Ghusl (washing) both compulsory; or those who consider Mash and Ghusl both permissible.

[31]         One Mudd is equal to six hundred grams approx., and one Sa’ is equal to a little more than two and a half kilograms, and this is the least quantity to be used. It means that one should be very careful in the use of water.

[32]         One Sa ‘ is equivalent to 4 Mudd or 2660 grams

[33]         The second Guided Caliph who was unique throughout history. He filled the world with wisdom, justice and conquests. He was Qurash’s ambassador during the Jahiliya (ignorance) period. He accepted Islam in Dhul Hijja, the 6th year of the Prophet-hood and fought all the battles. He made conquests in Iraq, Persia, Sham, Egypt and other places. He was killed by Abu Lu’lu’a, a slave of Al-Mughira bin Shu’ba and died as a martyr on 1st Muharram 24H.

Chapter 5: Mash (Wiping) Over Khuffain
(Two Leather Socks)

Narrated Mughira bin Shu’ba (رضي الله عنه): Once I was in the company of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم), he then performed ablution and I dashed to take off his socks (Khuffain). He said, “Leave them for I had put them on after performing ablution[1].” So he wiped over them.
[Agreed upon].

Narrated by Al-Arba’a except An-Nasa’i: The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) wiped over the upper part of the leather socks and the under part of it.
[In its chain of narrators there is weakness]

Narrated ‘Ali (رضي الله عنه): If the religion were based on opinion,[2] it would be more important to wipe over the under parts of the leather socks than the upper, but I have seen Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) wiping over the upper parts of his leather socks.
[Reported by Abu Da’ud with good Isnad (chain of narrators)]

Narrated Safwan bin ‘Assal[3] (رضي الله عنه): When we were on a journey,[4] the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) used to command us to wear our leather socks for three days and three nights,[5] whether we had to answer the call of nature or slept. However, in case of ejaculation or sexual impurity, he commanded us to remove the leather socks.
[Reported by An-Nasa’i and At-Tirmidhi, version is of the latter. With them Ibn Khuzaima graded it Sahih (sound)]

Narrated ‘Ali (رضي الله عنه): The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) fixed the period of Mash (wiping) over the leather socks (Khuffain — plural of Khuff) for three days and nights for a traveler and one day and a night for the resident person in a town
[Reported by Muslim].

Narrated Thawban[6] (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) sent out a military expedition and commanded them to wipe over the turbans[7] and leather socks.
[Reported by Ahmad and Abu Da’ud. Al-Hakim graded it Sahih (sound)]

Narrated ‘Umar (رضي الله عنه) in a Mawquf (untraceable) and Anas in a Marfu ‘ (traceable) Hadith: “If one of you performs ablution and puts on his two leather socks, let him perform Mash (wipe) over them (with water) and pray in them, and he may not take them off if he so wishes[8] except after ejaculation or sexual impurity.
[Reported by Ad-Daraqutni and Al-Hakim and graded Sahih (sound) by him]

Narrated Abu Bakra[9] (رضي الله عنه): The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) gave permission for the traveler to perform Mash (wiping) over his leather socks for three days and nights and for a non-traveler for a day and a night, if he had put them on in a state of purity.
[Reported by Ad-Daraqutni, and graded Sahih (sound) by Ibn Khuzaima]

Narrated Ubai bin ‘Imara[10] (رضي الله عنه): I asked, “O Messenger of Allah, may I wipe over the Khuffain (leather socks)?” The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) replied, “Yes”. I asked, “For one day?” He replied, “For one day”. I again asked, “And for two days?” He replied, “For two days too”. I again asked, “And for three days?” He replied, “Yes, as long as you wish”.[11]
[Reported by Abu Da’ud, who said, “It is not strong.”[12]]


[1]           Mash (wiping) over the socks is conditioned. One should have put on the socks after performing ablution, if socks have been worn without performing an ablution then wiping over the socks is not permissible.

[2]           It means that the religious commands and prohibitions are based on Revelation and not on prudence. One cannot accept or reject the orders on their comprehension or incomprehension. It does not mean that the commands and prohibitions of religion are against the intellect and wisdom. It also proves that in the presence of a Sahih (authentic and sound) Hadith, giving a verdict against it is not allowed, that is why it has been clarified in Islamic Jurisprudence and its principles.

[3]           Safwan bin ‘Assal Al-Muradi Al-Jumali was a well-known Sahabi who had accompanied the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) in twelve Ghazwat (expeditions). He settled at Kufa and it is said that among the Sahaba, only ‘Abdullah bin Mas’ud reported a Hadith from him.

[4]           Mash (wiping) over the socks is right, and permitted by Ahadith. There are more than eighty (80) Companions of the noble Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) who have narrated and spoke about this topic. ‘Ashra-e-Mubashshara (ten most pious companions of the noble Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم, who were given the glad tiding of Paradise in this world) are also included in the list of reporters. Ibn ‘Abdul-Barr has related the consensus of opinion concerning this issue.

[5]           It means that Mash (wiping) is allowed for a traveler up to three days and for a resident up to thirty-four hours. The time period for Mash starts from the nullification of ablution and not from the time of wearing the socks. The way of carrying out Mash (wiping) is to soak the hands with water and starting from the fingers, drawing it up to the calf of the leg. After the completion of permitted time and by passing of the wind, urine, etc., Mash nullifies, and is also cancelled by all those things, which cancel or nullify the ablution.

[6]           He is Thawban bin Bujdud bin Jahdar, who was nicknamed Abu ‘Abdullah. He was an inhabitant of As-Surat, which is a place between Makka and Al-Madina. It was also said that he was from Himyar. He stayed with the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) throughout his life, then settled in Sham and later on moved to Hims, in which he died in 54 H.

[7]           In Arabic text the word Asa’ib stands for a bandage, which is used for dressing of wounds; or in case of broken leg or arm, over the wooden strips around the broken bone.

[8]           ‘If he so wishes’ means within the permitted time for Mash (wiping). After the completion of Mash time, it is a must to take off the socks and perform ablution afresh and wash the feet too and put on the socks again then the time for Mash will start anew.

[9]           His name is Nufai’ bin Al-Harith or bin Al-Masuh. He descended from Ta’if Fort together with a group of slaves and became a Muslim, whereupon the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) freed him. He was among the virtuous Sahaba and died at Basra in 51 H or 52 H.

[10]         Ubai bin ‘Imara was a Sahabi from the Ansar of Al-Madina. He settled in Egypt. Ibn Hibban said, “He prayed to the two Qiblah, but I do not take his report as a complete chain of narrators.”

[11]         Sanad (transmitted chain) of this Hadith is not sound. That Hadith in which the period of one day (twenty-four hours) for a resident and three days for a traveler is granted is sound.

[12]         This Hadith was not taken as evidence for its weakness and for contradicting the sound and good Hadith that fixed the durations. An-Nawawi has mentioned in Sharh Al- Muhadhdhab that the Imam have agreed on the weakness of this Hadith and Ahmad said, ” Its narrators are unknown.”

Chapter 6: The Nullification[1] of Wudu (Ablution)

Narrated Anas (رضي الله عنه): The Companions of Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) in his lifetime used to wait for the ‘Isha (night) prayer, so much so that their heads were lowered down (by dozing)[2]. They would then pray without performing ablution.[3]
[Reported by Abu Da’ud and Ad- Daraqutni graded it Sahih (sound). Its origin is in Muslim].

Narrated ‘Aisha (رضي الله عنه): Fatima bint Abu Hubaish[4] came to the Prophet r (صلى الله عليه و سلم) and said, “O Messenger of Allah, I am a woman whose blood keeps flowing (even after the menstruation period).[5] I am never purified; should I, therefore, stop praying?” He (the Prophet) said, “No, for that is only a vein, and is not menstruation. So when the menstruation comes, abstain from prayers, and when it ends, wash the blood from your self and then pray.”
[Agreed upon].
Al-Bukhari’s version adds: “Then perform ablution for every prayer,”[6] and Muslim admitted that he dropped this addition deliberately.

Narrated ‘Ali bin Abi Talib (رضي الله عنه): I was one whose Madhi (urethral discharge)[7] flowed readily and asked Miqdad[8] to ask the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) about it. He (the Prophet) said: “One should perform Wudu (ablution) in this case.”
[Agreed upon and this is Al-Bukhari’s version]

Narrated ‘Aisha (رضي الله عنه): The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) kissed[9] one of his wives and went to pray without performing (fresh) ablution.
[Reported by Ahmad, and Al-Bukhari graded it Da’if (weak)]

Narrated Abu Huraira (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “If one of you feels disturbance in his stomach and doubts whether he has released some air or not, then he should not leave the mosque unless he hears its sound or smells (its) odor.[10]”
[Reported by Muslim]

Narrated Talq bin ‘Ali[11] (رضي الله عنه): A man said: “I touched my penis” or he said, “Does a man who touch his penis during the prayer should perform Wudu (ablution)?” The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم), replied, “No, it is only a part of your body.”
[Reported by Al-Khamsa[12]. Ibn Hibban graded it Sahih (sound) and Ibn Al-Madini said, “It is better than the Hadith of Busra”]

Narrated Busra bint Safwan[13] (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “He who touches his penis should perform ablution.”[14]
[Reported by Al-Khamsa, and At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Hibban graded it Sahih (sound), and Al-Bukhari said, “It is the most authentic (Hadith) in this chapter”]

Narrated ‘Aisha (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “Whoever vomits, bleeds through the nose[15], or releases Madhi(urethral discharge) should go, perform ablution and then complete his Salat (prayer)[16] (by continuing from where he had stopped at) on condition that he does not speak in the process.”
[Reported by Ibn Majah, and Ahmad and others graded it Da’if].

Narrated Jabir bin Samura[17] (رضي الله عنه): A man asked the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم), “Should I perform ablution after eating mutton?” He replied, “If you wish so”, he then asked, “Should I perform ablution after eating camel meat?[18] He(صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “Yes.”
[Reported by Muslim]

Narrated Abu Huraira (رضي الله عنه): The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said: “Whoever washes a dead person[19] should take a bath (thereafter); and whoever carries it should perform ablution.”
[Reported by Ahmad, An-Nasa’i and At-Tirmidhi who graded it Hasan (fair). And Ahmad said that there is no authentic Hadith in this chapter]

Narrated Abdullah bin Abu ‘Bakr[20] (رضي الله عنه): The book written by Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) for ‘Amr bin Hazm[21] also contained: “None except a pure person should touch the Quran[22].
[Reported by Malik as a Mursal and by An-Nasa’i and Ibn Hibban as Mawsul. And it is graded as Ma’lul (defective)].

Narrated ‘Aisha (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) used to mention A11ah’s Name (praise Him) at all times.[23]
[Reported by Muslim and Al-Bukhari recorded it as Mu’allaq (suspended)].

Narrated Anas bin Malik (رضي الله عنه): The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) had blood extracted from his body[24] and offered the prayer and did not perform (a new) ablution.
[Reported by Ad-Daraqutni who graded it Da’if (weak)]

Narrated Mu’awiya[25] (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “The eye (when awake) is the string of anus (to stop air escaping), and if the two eyes sleep the string is untied.”[26]
[Reported by Ahmad and At-Tabardni who added, “Whoever sleeps should perform ablution.]” Also reported by Abu Da’ud mentioning the above addition without the words “the string is untied”, but both versions are weak]. And Ibn ‘Abbas (رضي الله عنه), narrated in a Marfu’ (traceable) Hadith that: “Ablution is necessary for one who sleeps while he is lying flat[27].”
[Reported by Abu Da’ud and there is weakness in its chain of narrators]

Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “Satan comes to one of you in Salat (prayer) and blows air in his bottom, so he imagines that he has released air yet he did not. So if he gets that feeling he should not leave his prayer unless he hears the sound (of the air) or smells its odor.”
[Reported by Al-Bazzar] . It is originally from the Sahihain of Bukhari and Muslim as the Hadith narrated by ‘Abdullah bin Zaid. And Muslim reported by Abu Huraira likewise. And Abu Sa’id narrated in a Marfu’ Hadith: “If Satan comes to one of you and says: ‘You have nullified your ablution (by releasing air)’, let him say: ‘You have lied.'” [Reported by Al-Hakim]. Ibn Hibban also reported the above Hadith with the version: “Let him say in his heart…”


[1]           All those causes which invalidate the Wudu (ablution) also invalidate the Tayammum (purification with clean soil in case the water is not available).

[2]           It proves that ablution is not cancelled by dozing.

[3]           Sleep invalidates the ablution or not, is a controversial issue. In this matter final decision is that with a sound sleep ablution is nullified, otherwise not.

[4]           Fatima bint Abu Hubaish is a Sahabiya from Quraish and then Asad. Her father is Qais bin ‘Abdul-Muttalib bin Asad bin ‘Abdul-‘Uzza bin Qusai. She was a renowned Muhajira and was married to ‘Abdullah bin Jahsh.

[5]           Vaginal bleeding is of three types: 1) Haid – Blood of regular monthly menstrual course which starts at the age of puberty. This type of blood ceases during the period of pregnancy. 2) Nifas – Puerperal blood coming after the childbirth, it lasts maximum for forty days. 3) Istihada – The blood which may happen to come differently from the above two types. Here it means the last mentioned.

[6]           It means that the Istihada blood invalidates the ablution, that is why the noble Prophet (PUH), ordered to perform a fresh ablution for every prayer.

[7]           Madhi is a white water like lubricant, which oozes out involuntarily at the time of sexual desire. This urethral discharge invalidates the ablution, but is not a cause for obligatory bath

[8]           Miqdad bin ‘Amr bin Tha’laba Al-Bahrani was nicknamed Abul-Aswad or Abu ‘Amr and is known as Al-Miqdad bin Al-Aswad. Al-Aswad bin Yaghuth Az-Zuhri had fostered and entered into a defense agreement with Miqdad in the Jahiliya days. He was among the virtuous, wise and eminent Sahaba. He was the sixth Muslim, made the two migrations and attended all the major battles. He was a horseman during Badr and participated in the conquest of Egypt. He died at the age of 70 in 33 H. at Al-Jauf, three miles from Al- Madina so he was carried to Al-Madina, ‘Uthman offered his Funeral prayer, and was buried at Al-Baqi’.

[9]           This Hadith confirms that ablution is not cancelled by touching a woman with or without lust. This is supported by a reporting of Imam Bukhari narrated by ‘Aisha (رضي الله عنه): The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) was praying in the darkness and I was laying at rest while my feet were at the place where the Prophet prostrated (on his prayer mat). At the time of prostration he would touch my feet and I would remove them.

[10]         This Hadith points out an important principle that everything remains at its command until there is something certain against it. Suspicion carries no weight, whether one is in prayer or not

[11]         He is Abi Ali Talq bin Ali bin Talq bin ‘Amr Al-Hanafi As-Siheimi Al-Yamami. He visited the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) as soon as he arrived at Al-Madina and worked with him in building the Prophet’s Mosque.

[12]         Ahmad, Abu Da’ud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah.

[13]         Busra bint Safwan bin Naufal bin Asad bin ‘Abdul-‘Uzza Al-Qurashiya Al-Asadiya was a Sahabiya, among the first Muslims, migrated early and lived till the caliphate of Mu’awiya.

[14]         Foregoing Hadith of Talq bin Ali seems to be contradictory to this, but infect it is not. If the organ is touched uncovered or with lustful intention, then the ablution is nullified, otherwise not.

[15]         This Hadith is Da’if (weak), and there is no Sahih (sound) Hadith concerning this issue.

[16]         It means that if a man prayed two Rak’a with the Imam (leader of prayer) and it happens that his ablution is cancelled. He leaves the prayer and after making a fresh ablution joins again with the Imam in the same part of prayer where he left, then he should finish the prayer with Imam.

[17]         He is a famous Sahabi and the son of Sa’d bin Abi Waqqas’ sister. He settled at Kufa and built a house there. He died in 74 H. or 66 H. His father Samura bin Junada As-Sawai Al. ‘Aamiri is also a Sahabi.

[18]         Some people mean by this the complete ablution and others mean only the rinsing of mouth. Latter view is correct because the noble Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) pointed out fat as its cause and fat always sticks in the mouth only.

[19]     Concerning this issue there is no authentic Hadith. Some say that bath is compulsory on one who bathes the dead body, some others are of the opinion that it is just desirable; while to others ablution is compulsory, and there are still others who consider it also not necessary.

[20]         ‘Abdullah bin Abu Bakr bin Muhammad bin ‘Amr bin Hazm Al-Ansari Al-Madani Al- Qadi was a Tabi’i of the 5th grade. He died in 135 H. at the age of 70 years.

[21]         He is a Khazraji, a Najari and is nicknamed Abu Ad-Dahhak. He first took part in Al-Khandaq and the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) sent him to Najran to teach the people about the religion and collect their Sadaqat. He wrote for them a book containing the obligatory and voluntary acts, the Sadaqat and the blood wit, and this is the book mentioned in the Hadith. He died in Al-Madina after the fifties

[22]         Hadath Akbar (sexual discharge) and Hadath Asghar (passing wind, urine or defecation) both make the purification due, if Hadath (impurity) is the result of coition then it is unanimously agreed not to touch the noble Quran, but there is a difference of opinion in doing that without ablution.

[23]         The times of answering the call of nature, urination and coition are not included. In the state of being impure by coition, remembrance and pronouncing the Name of Allah is permissible, but touching and reciting the noble Quran is prohibited.

[24]         This Hadith clarifies that bleeding except from two (vagina and anus) does not invalidate the ablution. Ahadith of same class have also been narrated by Ibn ‘Umar, Ibn ‘Abbas and Abi Aufa (رضي الله عنه)

[25]         Both him and his father Abu Sufyan Sakhr bin Harb became Muslims at the conquest of Makka. ‘Umar appointed him as the governor of Sham after the death of his brother Yazid bin Abu Sufyan and he remained so until ‘Ali came out in order to dispose him by force and he was sworn as the caliph when Al-Hasan stepped down in his favor in the year 40 H. He died in Rajab 60 H. at the age of 78 years

[26]         It means sleep is a cause of Hadath (impurity) and not Hadath itself

[27]         It means that sleeping in the flat position results in the invalidation of ablution, whereas in the foregoing Hadith mere sleep is described as the factor of invalidation. Sleeping in the flat position is an indication of sound sleep, when all the organs of body are at rest, it enhances the possibility of uncontrolled passing of wind; while in a light sleep or napping one is not completely unconscious.

Chapter 7: The Manners of Answering
the Call of Nature

Narrated Anas bin Malik (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) used to remove his ring[1] when entering the lavatory.
[Reported by Al-Arba’a[2], and it is defective]

Narrated (Anas) (رضي الله عنه): The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) on entering the lavatory used to say[3]: [Alla’humma inni a’udhu bika minal khubthi wal khaba’ithi] “O Allah, I seek refuge with you from devils – males and females (or all offensive and wicked things, evil deeds and evil spirits, etc.).”
[Reported by As-Sab’a].

Narrated (Anas) (رضي الله عنه): Whenever Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) went to the privy, a servant and I used to carry a skin water container and a spear, and he would cleanse himself with the water[4]
[Agreed upon]

Narrated Al-Mughira bin Shu’ba (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) told me, “Take the skin water container”, he then went forward till he disappeared[5] from me and relieved himself.
[Agreed upon].

Narrated Abu Huraira (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “Safeguard your selves from the two matters which cause ac cursing that befalls the one who relieves himself on people’s path-ways[6] and under the shades.”
[Reported by Muslim]
Narrated Mu’adh[7] (رضي الله عنه): He (the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم) said: “Guard against the three things which cause curse (i.e.) defecating at the watering places, on the roadbeds and in the shades.”[8]
[Reported by Abu Da’ud]. Ahmad reported from Ibn Abbas (رضي الله عنه) that defecation is prohibited also at the place where water collects.
[And both the two (i.e. the previous and this Hadith) have weakness.
And Ibn ‘Umar (رضي الله عنه) the prohibition of relieving oneself under fruity trees and on the bank of a flowing river.
[Reported by At-Tabardni with a weak chain of narrators]

Narrated Jabir (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “When two people go together to relieve themselves they should disappear from each other and do not talk, for Allah detests that.”
[Reported by Ahmad; Ibn As-Sakan and Ibn Al-Qattan graded it Sahih (sound) but ‘it is defective[9]].

Narrated Abu Qatada (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “Nobody should touch his penis with his right hand[10] when urinating, and should not clean himself (from defecation or urine) using his right hand and should not breathe in the utensil (he is drinking from).”
[Agreed upon. This version is of Muslim].

Narrated Salman[11] (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) forbade us to face the Qiblah when defecating or urinating, or to clean ourselves using the right hand, or to clean ourselves with less than three stones, or to clean ourselves with dung or a bone.
[Reported by Muslim]

Narrated Abu Ayub[12] (رضي الله عنه): (Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم said,) “Neither face nor turn your back to the Qiblah[13] while defecating or urinating, but turn towards the east or the west.”
[Reported by the As-Sab’a]

Narrated ‘Aisha (رضي الله عنه): The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “If anyone goes to relieve himself, he should conceal himself.”
[Reported by Abu Da’ud]

Narrated (‘Aisha رضي الله عنه): When the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) came out of the privy, he used to say, “Ghufra’naka (O Allah! Grant me Your forgiveness).”
[Reported by Al-Khamsa[14]. Abu Hatim and Al-Hakim graded it Sahih (sound)]

Narrated Ibn Mas’ud (رضي الله عنه): The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) went out to answer the call of nature and asked me to bring three stones. I found two stones and searched for the third but could not find it. So I took a dried piece of dung and brought it to him. He took the two stones and threw away the dung[15] and said, “This is a filthy thing”.
[Reported by Al-Bukhari. And in the version of Ahmad and Ad-Daraqutni it is added: “Bring me more[16] (something other than dung)”]

Narrated Abu Huraira (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) forbade us to use a bone or dung for cleaning and said, “These two things do not purify.”
[Reported by Ad-Daraqutni who graded it Sahih (sound)]

Narrated Abu Huraira (رضي الله عنه): A11ah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “Beware of (smearing yourselves with) urine, because it is the main cause of punishment in the grave.”
[Reported by Ad-Daraqutni]
and Al-Hakim reported that: “Urination is the main cause of punishment in the grave”.
[Its chain of narrators is authentic]

Narrated Sura’qa bin Malik[17] (رضي الله عنه): A11ah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) educated us about lavatory (manners) that we should sit on our left foot[18] and keep erect our right foot.
[Reported by Al-Baihaqi through a chain of weak narrators][19]

Narrated ‘Iesa bin Yazdad[20] from his father (رضي الله عنه,): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “When one of you passes urine, he should empty his penis three times.”
[Reported by Ibn Majah through a weak chain of narrators]

Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas (رضي الله عنه): The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) asked the residents of Quba’ that what had earned them the Praise of Allah and they replied, “We use water after (cleaning ourselves with) stones.”
[Reported by Al-Bazzar with Da’if chain of narrators and its Asl (original source) is in Abu Da’ud and At-Tirmidhi, and Ibn Khuzaima graded it Sahih (sound) through Abu Huraira (رضي الله عنه) without mentioning the “stones.”]


[1]           On that ring “Allah’s Messenger Muhammad” (صلى الله عليه و سلم) was carved in three lines. It means that Names of Allah and the verses of noble Quran in the written form should not be carried to the lavatory or while going out to answer the call of nature.

[2]           Abu Da’ud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah

[3]           Usually jinns live in such filthy places, for that reason the noble Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) sought the refuge of Allah. Before entering the lavatory one should recite this prayer in an audible voice. According to the narration of Anas (رضي الله عنه), in wilds or in jungle, one should recite this prayer before sitting for the call of nature. During the call of nature one should also be careful about one’s body and clothes.

[4]           Most of the people [religious scholars] prefer to purify with clod of mud and water both.

[5]           This action of the noble Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) guides that while going out for the call of nature, it is necessary to arrange some kind of privacy and be hidden from others. In another Hadith, it is stated that in an open space, a mound of soil or a heap of sand should be made for the purpose of screening. If someone eases himself in an open, Satan will laugh at his buttocks and will make him a laughing stock of people.

[6]           It is prohibited to answer the call of nature near pathways or near the ways in the vicinity of populated areas. Sites of abandoned road or deserted place can be used for the purpose

[7]           Mu’adh is an Ansari of Al-Khazraj tribe and was one of the virtuous, noble and most learned Sahaba. He attended Al-‘Aqaba, Badr and other major battles. The Prophet ·(صلى الله عليه و سلم) appointed him as his representative in Yemen. Then ‘Umar appointed him as the governor of Sham after Abu ‘Ubaida bin Al-Jarrah. He died in the plague of Amwa’s in 17H or 18 H at the age of 38.

[8]           Altogether these are six places. It is forbidden in a Hadith to answer the call of nature or to urinate near the gates of the mosques.

[9]           This is confirmed by other authentic Ahadith, so it is correct.

[10]         Handling the male organ with right hand during urination or washing, and breathing in the utensils during drinking is prohibited according to some, while according to others it is undesirable. Breathing in the utensil is harmful because this is the cause of transmission of germs from one to another, and the Hadith which informs about three pauses while drinking means drink should be taken slowly and not at a gulp.

[11]         He was known as “Salman the benevolent” and was nicknamed Abu ‘Abdullah. His origin is from Persia. He traveled in search of a religion and became a Christian. Then he moved to Al-Madina and believed in the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) as soon as he arrived at Al-Madina He was a leader in Islam and died in Al-Madina in 50 H or 32 H. It is reported that he lived long for either 250 or 350 years.

[12]         His name is Khalid bin Zaid bin Kulaib. He hosted the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) when he first arrived in Al-Madina. He was one of the senior and most great Sahaba. He attended Badr and was martyred while taking part in an expedition against the Byzantinians in 50 H. His grave, situated at the walls of Istanbul, is well known and visited.

[13]         In this issue ‘Forbiddance’ is for open places, it is not forbidden in inside the building where there are walls around. As there is a Hadith narrated by ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (رضي الله عنه). He narrates: “In the house of my sister Hafsa, I went upstairs on the roof, I saw the noble Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) answering the call of nature, he was facing towards Sham.” This Hadith is of Sahih Muslim.

[14]         The Collectors of Hadith: Ahmad, Abu Da’ud, An-Nasa’i, At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah.

[15]         It is known from this Hadith that one should not clean the private parts with dung or excrement of animals, and so it is forbidden to clean with bones.

[16]         The mentioned addition proves that for cleanliness three clods of mud are needed, even though two may suffice, but the condition of three is a must. More than three may be used if needed, but the number should be odd. This Hadith also proves that dung cannot be used for cleaning private parts, likewise cleaning by bones is also prohibited.

[17]         Sura’qa bin Malik bin Ju’shum Al-Mudlaji Al-Kinani, nicknamed Abu Sufyan was a prominent Sahabi. He was the one who traced Allah’s Messenger (رضي الله عنه) on his way to migration whereupon the forelegs of his horse sunk into the ground up to the knees. He died in 24 H.

[18]         There is always advisability in every command of Islam, whether we comprehend it or not The noble Prophet b (صلى الله عليه و سلم) instructed us to sit on the left foot (to put weight of the body on left foot) while sitting for answering the call of nature; as the stomach is on the left side, it makes the action easy; and the constipation, the mother of diseases, is also eradicated.

[19]         This Hadith is weak because there are unknown narrators in its chain.

[20]         ‘Iesa and his father Yazdad are both unknown. Ibn Ma’in said, ” ‘Iesa and his father are unknown.”

Chapter 8: Taking Ghusl (Bath) and the Precepts Regarding Sexual Impurity.

Narrated Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said: “The water (of the Ghusl is due to the water (of sexual emission)”[1].
[Reported by Muslim and its Asl (origin) is in Al-Bukhari].

Narrated Abu Huraira (رضي الله عنه): AllahÐh’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said that, “If one of you sits between her legs (of a woman) and penetrates her[2], Ghusl (bath) is obligatory.”
[Agreed upon]
And Muslim added: “Even if he does not ejaculate.”

Narrated Umm Salama (رضي الله عنه): Umm Sulaim[3], the wife of Abu Talha said, “O Allah’s Messenger! (صلى الله عليه و سلم) A11ah is not ashamed of the truth. Is a Ghusl (bath) compulsory for a woman when she has a sexual dream.”[4] He (صلى الله عليه و سلم) replied, “Yes! When she sees signs of liquid.”
[Agreed upon.]

Narrated Anas (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) Said about the precept of a woman having ejaculation during sleep like a man, “She should take a Ghusl (bath)”.
[Agreed upon]
Added Muslim: Umm Salama said, “Does this happen (to a woman)?” He (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “Yes, otherwise where does the resemblance (of a child to its mother) come from)[5]?”

Narrated ‘Aisha (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) used to take a bath from four things; after sexual intercourse, on Fridays, after extracting blood from his body and after washing a dead body.[6].
[Reported by Abu Da’ud and Ibn Khuzaima graded it Sahih (sound)]

Narrated Abu Huraira (رضي الله عنه), regarding the story of Thumama bin Utha’l[7] when he embraced Islam: The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) ordered him to take a bath.[8]
[Narrated by Abdur- Razzaq and its origin is in Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

100. Narrated Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “Taking a bath on Friday is a must for every adult”.
[Reported by As-Sab’a[9]].

101. Narrated Samura[10] [2] (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “Whoever performs ablution on Friday has done a good thing and he who takes bath, taking bath is better (for him).”
[Reported by Al-Khamsa[11] and At-Tirmidhi graded it Hasan (fair)]

102. Narrated ‘Ali (رضي الله عنه): The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) used to teach us the Quran except when he was in a state of sexual impurity[12].
[Reported by Ahmad and Al-Arba’a·. This is the version of At-Tirmidhi who graded it Hasan (fair). And Ibn Hibban graded it Sahih (sound)].

103. Narrated Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “If one of you has sexual intercourse with his wife, and wishes to repeat he should perform ablution [1] [13]between them.”
[Reported by Muslim.]
Al-Hakim added: “Ablution makes one active for repeating (the sexual act).”
Narrated ‘Aisha (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) used to sleep in the state of sexual impurity without touching water[14].
[Reported by Al-Arba ‘a. This Hadith is defective.]

104. Narrated ‘Aisha (رضي الله عنه): Whenever Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) took Ghusl (bath) after sexual intercourse, he would begin by washing his hands, then pour water with his right hand on his left hand and wash his sexual organ. He would then perform ablution, then take some water and run his fingers through the roots of his hair. Then he would pour three handfuls on his head, then pour water over the rest of his body and subsequently wash his feet.
[Agreed upon and this version is of Muslim]. Narrated Maimuna (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) poured water over his private parts and washed them with his left hand. He then struck his hand against the earth. In another version: ‘He rubbed it on the earth.’ And in the last of this version: “Then I brought him a towel[15] but he returned it and kept wiping off the water with his hand.”
[Agreed upon].

105. Narrated Umm Salama (رضي الله عنه): I said, “O Messenger of Allah, I am a woman with tightly plaited hair on my head; should I undo it for taking a bath from sexual intercourse?
“In another version is: “from menstruation?” He (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “No, it is enough for you to throw three handfuls of water[16] on your head”.
[Reported by Muslim.]

106. Narrated ‘Aisha (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “I do not permit a woman in menstrual condition[17][3] or anyone in a state of sexual impurity to (enter) the mosque”.[18]
[Reported by Abu Da’ud and Ibn Khuzaima graded it Sahih (sound)]

107.     Narrated (‘Aisha رضي الله عنه): I and Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) took a Ghusl (bath) due to sexual impurity from the same vessel and our hands alternated into it.
[Agreed upon.] Ibn Hibban added “and (our hands) met.”

108. Narrated Abu Huraira (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “There is sexual impurity under every hair[19], so wash the hair and cleanse the skin.”
[Reported by Abu Da’ud and At-Tirmidhi who both graded it Da’if (weak); and in the version of Ahmad, a similar Hadith is narrated by ‘Aisha (رضي الله عنه), and in the chain is one narrator who is Majhul (unknown)].


[1]           It means after seminal discharge, taking of bath is essential and obligatory. This Hadith is linked only with ‘night discharge’ and not with coition. Most of the religious scholars believe in it. Ubai bin K’ab said that in the early period of Islam, in case of coition, taking of bath was not obligatory until the seminal discharge happened, but afterwards this order was abrogated. Some of the research scholars have reported the consensus of Muslims on this issue that as soon as coition is started, taking of Ghusl (bath) becomes obligatory, whether seminal discharge occurs or not.

[2]           It means that with the start of coitus, taking of Ghusl (bath) becomes obligatory. This Hadith cancels the previous one, if linked with coition.

[3]           Her name is Ar-Rumaisa’ or Al-Ghumaisa’ bint Milha’n, Anas bin Malik’s mother. She was among the virtuous Sahabiyat. She was married to Malik bin An-Nasr, then she became a Muslim and invited him to Islam, but he became angry and went to Sham where he died. She was then proposed to by Abu Talha while still a Mushrik, but she made a condition that he should become a Muslim, so he became one and married her. She died during the caliphate of’ Uthman.

[4]           As Men, women also have “wet dreams”, so taking bath is obligatory for them too.

[5]           It means that women also have seminal discharge otherwise how a child can take after the mother? Resemblance of children to their parents is on account of potency of semen.

[6] Among all these four, taking bath after coition is Fard (obligatory), on Friday is Sunna (the way of noble Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم) and the rest of the two are Mustahab (desirable). Ahadith regarding obligation of Friday bath are more authentic, therefore, those are to be followed.

[7]           Thumama bin Utha’l was from Banu Hanifa and the chief of Al-Yamama people. He went to perform ‘Umrah while still a Mushrik and was captured by some horsemen of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم). They brought him to Al-Madina and tied him to one of the mosque’s pillars. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) released him after three days. He then became a devoted Muslim and stood firm, during the Ridda (apostasy) days, against his people who were cheated by Musailima Al-Kadhdhab.

[8]           When a non-Muslim embraces Islam, it is obligatory for him to take a bath. Abu Da’ud reported that the noble Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) ordered Thumama to take a bath, when he embraced Islam.

[9]           Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Da’ud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i, Ibn Majah and Musnad Ahmad.

[10] Samura bin Jundub is a well-known Sahabi nicknamed Abu .Abdullah. He was a Fazari and an ally of the Ansar. He was also one of the memorizers who narrated many Ahadith. He settled at Basra and was very harsh against Al-Haruriya. He died rewards the end of the year 59 H.

[11] Abu Da’ud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i, Ibn Majah and Musnad Ahmad

[12] From this Hadith and from others it is proved that reading of noble Quran for a person, needing post-coition Ghusl (bath) is not right.

[13] This ablution is desirable and not essential, it also brings about a pleasure and freshness in mood. It is reported that if the noble Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) to his different wives in one night, he used to take a Ghusl (bath) after going to each of them. It is also reported that he performed ablution in between and sometimes he did not. So, in this matter one can choose any mode.

[14] It means that before going to sleep, ablution is not essential for a Junubi (a man in the post-discharge state). There is a Hadith from Bukhari regarding this issue that the noble Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) used to perform ablution before eating, drinking or sleeping. Therefore, it is better to follow the way of the noble Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) though it is merely preferable.

[15] The issue of drying the limbs after performing ablution is discretionary, therefore, it depends on the choice whether to dry or not.

[16] This Hadith makes it clear that for a menstruating woman and Junubi (a man in the post-discharge state) it is not essential to unravel the hair. There is another Hadith from ‘Aisha (رضي الله عنه), in which untying of hair is reported. Both the Ahadith are for different occasions.

[17] A menstruating woman is not allowed to enter a mosque and circumambulate the Sacred Ka’ba. She should not pray or fast in this period. Prayers of this period are pardoned but she must fast later on. Reading and touching the noble Quran is also prohibited. She should also not recite a complete verse .f Quran at a time. Remembrance of Allah is allowed to her. She can participate in invocation upon Allah with other Muslims. She is allowed to go to the place of Eid prayers.

[18] It means that a menstruating woman and a man in post-discharge state is not allowed to stay in a mosque but passing through is allowed. If somebody gets discharged as a result of wet dream during a sleep in a mosque, it is essential for him to go out. This is unanimously agreed upon.

[19] We come to know by this Hadith that it is obligatory to wash the whole body after having a sexual intercourse except rinsing of mouth and putting water in the nose because these two are controversial.

Chapter 9: Tayammum (Purification with Soil)

109.    Narrated Jabir bin ‘Abdullah (رضي الله عنه): The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “I have been given five things which were not given to anyone else before me. Allah made me victorious by awe (of frightening my enemies) for a distance of one month’s journey. The earth has been made for me (and my followers) a place for praying and purification (performing Tayammum). Therefore, anyone (of my followers) should pray wherever the time of Salat (prayer)[1] becomes due.”[2]
In the version of Muslim narrated by Hudhaifa: “The soil[3] of the earth has been made for us as a means of purification when we do not find water.”
In the version of Ahmad narrated by ‘Ali (رضي الله عنه): “The soil has been made for us a means of cleansing.”

Narrated Ammar bin Yasir[4] (رضي الله عنه): The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) sent me on an errand, then I had ejaculation (in my sleep) and I did not find water. (For performing Tayammum) I rolled on the soil like an animal. Then I returned to the Prophet and mentioned that to him. He (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “It was sufficient for you to do with your hands this way”. He then struck his hands once on the soil and then rubbed the left hand on the right and the exterior part of his palms and his face.
[Agreed upon. The version is that of Muslim].
And in the version of Al-Bukhari: ‘He (Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم) struck the earth with his palms of both hands[5] and then blew the dust and rubbed his palms of both hands over his face and hands.

Narrated Ibn ‘Umar (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “Tayammum (purifying with the soil) consists of two strikings[6], of the soil, one for the face and one for the hands up to the elbows.”
[Reported by Ad-Daraqutni, and the Imam graded it Sahih as Mawquf

Narrated Abu Huraira (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “The soil is a means of ablution for a believing Muslim, even if he does not find water for ten years[7]; but when he finds water he should guard against disobeying Allah and let it touch his skin.”
[Reported by AI-Bazzar, and Al-Qattan graded it Sahih  (sound).  But Ad-Daraqutni approved it as Mursal, At-Tirmidhi also reported a similar version on the authority of Abu Dhar,[8] which he authenticated and so did Al-Hakim].

Narrated Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri (رضي الله عنه): Two men set out on a journey and when the time of Salat (prayer) came they had no water. They performed Tayammum with clean earth and prayed. Later on they found water within the time of the prayer.  One of them repeated the prayer and ablution but the other did not repeat. Then they came to Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم), and related the matter to him. Addressing himself to the one who did not repeat, he said, “You followed the Sunna and your (first) prayer was enough for you.”[9] He said to the one who performed ablution and repeated: “For you there is a double reward”.[10]
[Reported by Abu Da’ud and An-Nasa’i]

Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas (رضي الله عنه) regarding the explanation of the Words of Allah “And if you are ill[11] or on a journey…” If a man sustains a wound in the cause of Allah and an injury, then becomes sexually impure and fears death if he takes Ghusl (bath), he should perform Tayammum.
[Reported by Ad- Daraqutni in a Mawquf (untraceable) Hadith and Al-Bazzar in a Marfu’ (traceable) one. Ibn Khuzaima and Al-Hakim graded it Sahih (sound)].

Narrated ‘Ali (رضي الله عنه): One of my forearms was broken. Then I asked Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) and he ordered me to wipe over the bandages.[12]
[Reported by Ibn Majah with a very weak chain of narrators].

Narrated Jabir (رضي الله عنه) concerning the man who had sustained a cut on his head and took a bath and died: (Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم said) “It was enough for him to perform Tayammum then bind a bandage over the wound and wipe water on it and then wash the rest of his body.”
[Reported by Abu Da’ud, its chain is Da’if and there is disagreement concerning its narrator].

Narrated Ibn Abbas (رضي الله عنه): It is the Sunna that a person should not pray more than once [13]with a (one) Tayammum and he should perform Tayammum for the next Salat (prayer).
[Reported by Ad-Daraqutni with a very weak chain of narrators][14]


[1]           It means that if water is not available, one should not miss the first part of prayer time in search of water.

[2]           Other three things are: a) Booty has been made lawful; b) Intercession on the Day of Judgment; c) Messengership for the whole universe

[3]           Soil and all other things from the kind of soil are regarded as same and Tayammum is permissible with them, but things like lime, antimony and arsenic, etc. do not fall in the kind of soil.

[4]           ‘Ammar was nicknamed Abul-Yaqzan, and was among the most senior and early Muslims, and was tortured in Makka for his Faith. He made the two migrations and took part in Badr and all the other important battles. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) told him, “O ‘Ammar, the transgressive party will kill you.” This happened in Siffin in 36 H. when he was with ‘Ali and he was killed by some soldiers of Mu’awiya at the age of 73 years.

[5]           This Hadith argues about Tayammum (purification with soil). Religious elites are of the opinion that one stroke on earth is enough for face and both hands. Some others say that two strokes are essential, one for face and the other for hands as is mentioned in the next Hadith. But all Ahadith, which mention ‘two strokes’, are Da’if (weak).

[6]           The scholars of Ahadith have regarded this Hadith as Da’if (weak), and all its chains are also weak.

[7]           It means that at the time of necessity soil is a complete substitute of water and fulfills all purposes of purification whether it concerns ablution, or Ghusl (bath). With one Tayammum many obligatory acts can be performed, if there is no factor, which nullifies it.

[8]           Abu Dhar’s name was Jundub bin Junada, and he was among the most prominent Sahaba and an ascetic. He became a Muslim very early at Makka. Then went back to his people. He came to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم), at Al-Madina and later settled and died at Rabdha in 32 H.

[9]           It means that if somebody has already prayed a certain prayer by performing Tayammum, then there is no need to repeat the prayer, even afterwards water is found and still there is time for the prayer.

[10]         It was not necessary to pray again, if the prayer had been offered by performing Tayammum. The second person got double reward not for the reason that he prayed again but for the exercise of judgment regarding the problem, which was although wrong but there is one reward for a wrong judgment. Second reason for earning double reward may be that he prayed twice, once with Tayammum and once with ablution

[11]         It means that when you intend for prayer and there is some hindrance in performing ablution or having Ghusl (bath), the Tayammum is essential. Here illness means some serious disease and not the ordinary boils and eruptions.

[12]     Ðp;    The word in Arabic is Jaba’ir used for those wooden strips, which are placed around the broken arm or leg for support and to keep it straight.

[13]         Since Tayammum (purification with soil) is a substitute for ablution, it works the same. Many prayers can be offered with one ablution, in the same way many prayers can be offered with one Tayammum. Some people after performing Tayammum for coition or wet dream hesitate to enter the mosque or to recite the Quran. This is only an evil apprehension and a satanic distraction and should not be cared for. In this Hadith Hasan bin ‘Ammar is weak in the chain of narrators. There are two other Ahadith on the same issue and both of them are Da’if (weak).

[14]         This Hadith is weak because it was narrated by Hasan bin ‘Ammar who was weak, and due to this fact the Hadith scholars did not rely on it, but said that, “Allah has permitted for us the use of soil in the absence of water and since ablution becomes obligatory after passing urine, excreting or releasing air, so is the case of Tayammum.”

Chapter 10: Menstruation

118. Narrated ‘Aisha (رضي الله عنه): Fatima bint Abu Hubaish had a prolonged flow of blood[1] and Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم)· told her, “The menstruation blood is a dark recognizable blood, so if that comes then avoid prayer. And if it is the other  (light colored blood), then perform Wudu (ablution) and offer Salat  (prayer) (for that is blood of a vein).”
[Reported by Abu Da’ud and An-Nasa’i. Ibn Hibban and Al-Hakim graded it Sahih (sound). Abu Hatim termed it Munkar (unusual)]
And in the Hadith of Asma bint ‘Umais[2] (رضي الله عنه) reported by Abu Da’ud, (the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said:) “She should sit in a tub, and when she sees yellowish color on the top of the water, she should take a bath once for the Zuhr and Asr prayers, and take another bath for the Maghrib and Isha prayers, and take a bath once for the Fajr prayer, and in between these times she should perform ablution.”

119. Narrated Hamna bint Jahsh[3](رضي الله عنه): MY menstruation was too much and severe. So I came to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) to ask for his (religious) opinion. He said, “This is a stroke of the devil, so observe your menses for six or seven days, then take a bath and when you see that you are purified and quite clean, pray for twenty-three or twenty-four days, and fast and pray for that will suffice you. And do so every month just as the other women menstruate  (and are purified).  But if you are strong enough[4] to delay the Zuhr prayer and advance the Asr prayer then take a bath and combine the Zuhr and the Asr prayer; then delay the Maghrib prayer and advance the Isha prayer then take a bath and combine the two prayers, do so; and take a bath at Fajr.” Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم said of the two types of actions: “This one appeals more to my liking (i.e. taking a bath for every prayer)”.
[Reported by Al-Khamsa except An- Nasa’i, At-Tirmidhi graded it Sahih (sound) and Al-Bukhari graded it Hasan (fair)]

120. Narrated ‘Aisha (رضي الله عنه): Umm Habiba bint Jahsh[5] complained to Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) about the blood (which flows beyond the menstruation period). He said, “Keep away (from prayer) the length of time that your menses prevented you, then take a bath (and offer prayers)”. And she used to take a bath for every prayer[6].
[Reported by Muslim.]
In a version of Al-Bukhari is: “Perform ablution for every Salat (prayer)”. It has been reported by Abu Da’ud and others in another version

121. Narrated Umm Atiya[7] (رضي الله عنه): We considered it nothing (as impure) the muddiness and yellowness (of the fluids) after purification[8] (from menstruation).
[Reported by Al-Bukhari and Abu Da’ud and version is of the latter].

122. Narrated Anas (رضي الله عنه): The Jews used not to eat with a woman during her menstruation period, so the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “Do every thing else apart from sexual intercourse (with your wives)”.
[Reported by Muslim.]

123. Narrated ‘Aisha (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم), used to order me to put on an Izar[9] and then caress[10] me while menstruating.
[Agreed upon]

124. Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said regarding a husband who has sexual intercourse with his wife during her menstruation period, “He should give out (as atonement) one Dinar or ½ Dinar as alms”
[Reported by Al-Khamsa. Al-Hakim and Ibn Al-Qattan graded it Sahih (sound). And others considered it to be Mawquf (untraceable)][11]

125. Narrated Abu Sa’id AI-Khudri (رضي الله عنه): Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “Is it not the case that a woman in her menstruation period neither prays nor fasts?”[12]
[Agreed upon. It is part of a long Hadith]

126. Narrated ‘Aisha (رضي الله عنه): When we came to a place called Sarif, I menstruated and the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) told me, “Do what a pilgrim does except that you don’t circumambulate round the Ka’ba until you are purified”.
[Agreed upon and it is part of a long Hadith.]

127. Narrated Mu’adh (رضي الله عنه): He asked the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم), “What is lawful for a man regarding his wife when she is menstruating?” and he replied, “What is above the waist wrapper (Izar).”[13]
[Reported by Abu Da’ud and graded it Da’if.]

128. Narrated Umm Salama (رضي الله عنه): During the time of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) the women having bleeding after delivery (postnatal or puerperal blood) would refrain (from prayer) for forty days.[14]
[Reported  by Al-Khamsa except An-Nasa’i, and the version is that of Abu Da’ud].
And in another version of Abu Da’ud: “The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) did not command her to repeat the prayers (abandoned during the period of bleeding).” And Al-Hakim graded it Sahih (sound).


[1]           Istihada may be either prolonged puerperium or prolonged menstruation period (and is regarded as bleeding between the periods). Period of menstruation, according to some scholars is from one to fifteen days; and according to others, its duration is from three to ten days. Experience confirms the later assertion. Every woman knows her period if bleeding exceeds the normal time then it would be Istihada.

[2]           She was the wife of Jafar bin Abu Talib. She had migrated with him to Abyssinia (Ethiopia) and bore him there children, among them was ‘Abdullah. Then Abu Bakr As-Siddiq married her after the martyrdom of Jafar at the battle of Mu’ta, and she bore him Muhammad. Ali bin Abu Talib also married her after the death of Abu Bakr and she bore him Yahya ‘Umar used to ask her the interpretation of dreams. She died after the death of ‘Ali.

[3]           Hamna bint Jahsh is the sister of the ‘Mother of the Believers’ Zainab bint Jahsh. She was married to Mus’ab bin ‘Umair, who was martyred during the battle of Uhud after which she was married by Talha bin ‘Ubaidullah.

[4]           In this Hadith, Hamna was ordered to take a bath three times a day. One bath for Zuhr and Asr prayers; second for Maghrib and Isha; and third for Fajr. In the preceding Hadith Fatima bint Abu Hubaish was ordered merely to perform ablution before every prayer. It means in case of Istihada taking a bath is not compulsory but performing ablution is obligatory for every prayer. Taking a bath is preferable if weather conditions and health allows, otherwise there is no need to take bath.

[5]           Habiba bint Jahsh was another sister of Zainab bint Jahsh,’the Mother of the Believers’ and she was married to ‘Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Auf Muslim narrated that she had a prolonged flow of blood for seven years. She died in 44H.

[6]           It was only a precautionary or voluntary act of Umm Habiba to take a bath for every prayer. Authentic decision regarding this issue is to take a post-menstruation Ghusl (bath) and purify oneself. Concerning prolonged bleeding, there is an order to wash the blood and perform ablution for every prayer

[7]           Her name was Nusaiba bint Ka’b or bint Al-Harith Al-Ansariya. She was among the prominent Sahabiya women, and she used to accompany Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) to battles, nursing the sick and treating the injured. She fought during the battle of Uhud like heroes. She witnessed the washing of the body of the daughter of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم), which she perfected and narrated, and a number of Sahaba and Tabi’i Ulama at Basra recorded that from her. Her Hadith is considered to be the basis of washing the dead. She was counted to be among the Sahabiya who settled at Basra.

[8]           In the narration of’ Aisha (رضي الله عنه), yellow and dusty colored water is considered as menses, but this Hadith states: “We considered it nothing.” Apparently both Ahadith appear to be opposing each other, but actually both are correct in their context. If the yellow or dusty color water oozes out in the menstruation period, it will be considered as ‘menses’; and if it percolates after the period, it is ‘nothing’ as the word B ‘ad At-Tuhr gives the clue.

[9]           A cloth worn from the waistline downwards like a skirt.

[10] Those who do not believe in the Ahadith (i.e. deniers of Sunna), create ambiguity and doubt at this point, and make the people suspicious about the Ahadith. They assert that sexual intercourse in menstruation periods is prohibited by the noble Quran but according to this Hadith the Prophet would do it during that period, therefore, Hadith is not true. Literal meaning of Mubasharat is to touch and rub the body with the body, and speaking metaphorically it means coition.  In other Ahadith it has been clarified that sexual intercourse is strictly forbidden during menstruation, thus, it is quite a dishonesty to translate the word Mubasharat as sexual intercourse instead of ‘fondling’ and create the suspicion.

[11] This is a Da’if (weak) Hadith, therefore, most of the religious scholars do not deem it necessary to expiate, although some of the scholars are in favor of this opinion; but first opinion is correct because order is only for encouraging charity.

[12] This is a small portion of a long Hadith. The noble Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم), while delivering a Khutba (religious talk) to the women, told them that their religion was imperfect. They asked, “How?” In the answer to their question, he spoke these words, which mean that a menstruating women should not pray or fast.

[13] “Everything above the Izar (dress worn below the waist)” may have two meanings: First, the Izar may be a figurative speech for ‘sexual intercourse’, in other words, except sexual intercourse everything is permitted. Secondly, it may metaphorically mean the portion of body related to Izar. But this meaning will contradict the other Hadith stating: “Do everything except intercourse·” Therefore, first meaning is preferable.

[14] It means the maximum period of puerperal blood is forty days and minimum time for it is not fixed. If it continues more than forty days, it will be regarded as Istihada (bleeding between periods), which is not a hindrance for prayer, fasting and having sexual intercourse. Every command of the puerperium is identical to that of menstruation.

Source: DarusSalam english Publication

Zakah on Rented House, Jewelry, Personal Car – Shaik ibn Uthaymeen

Fatawa on Zakah

Excerpted from Islamic Verdicts on the Pillars of Islam by Sheikh Muhammad Bin Salih Al-‘Uthaimeen, complied and arranged by Fahd Bin Nasir Ibrahim As-Sulaiman

What is the ruling on the Zakah of a rented house?

If a rented house is rented out for profit, then there is no Zakah payable on the value of the house. The Zakah is only payable on the income that is generated from it if the hawl (passage of one Hijrah hear) is completed upon it from the time of the rental agreement. If the hawl has not been completed from the time of the rental agreement, then there is no Zakah payable upon it either.

For example, if the person rented out the house for ten thousand riyals, of which he receives five thousand at the time of the agreement which he spends. Then he receives five thousand in the middle of the year, which he spends before the end of the year, there is no Zakah upon him in this case. This is because the hawl has not been completed upon this money.

However, if he kept the house for sale and waited to receive the profit from it, but said: Since it has not been sold, I will rent it out,’ then in that case, he must pay Zakah for the value of the house because he has kept it for sale; he did not want to keep it and profit from it.

And everything which is intended for the purpose of trade and profit is liable for Zakah, according to the words of the Prophet (peace be upon him), “Deeds are according to intentions and every person shall have what he intended.” And Allah knows best.

A man has daughters and he gave them jewelry, and all the jewelry combined amounted to the nisab, but the jewelry of each of them did not amount to the nisab. Is all of the jewelry to be taken together for calculation and Zakah paid on it?

If he gave this jewelry as a loan, then the jewelry is his property, and he must total it all and if that reaches the nisab, he must pay Zakah. But if he gave his daughters this jewelry with the intention that it was their property, then it is not incumbent upon him to combine the jewelry he gave to each one of them with the jewelry of the other daughters, because each of them owns it independently of the other. Based upon this, if the jewelry of one amounts to the nisab, she must pay Zakah for it, and if it does not, then she does not have to. And Allah knows best.

Is there Zakah payable on one’s personal car?

There is no Zakah payable on it. Everything a person uses for himself, except gold and silver jewelry, there is no Zakah to be paid on it, whether a car, a camel, a farm implement or anything else, according to a saying of the Prophet (peace be upon him), “There is no Zakah payable by a Muslim on his slave, nor on his horse.”[1]

[1] Reported by Al-Bukhari in the book of Zakah, in the Chapter: No sadaqah is payable by the Musli for his Slave (1464) ; and by Muslim in the Book of Zakah, in the Chapter: There is no Zakah Incumbent Upon the Muslim for His Slave or His Horse (982).

Fatawa on Zakah

Az-Zakah is Obligatory on the Wealth of the orphan and the Insane.

Question: Is Az-Zakah obligatory on the wealth of the orphan and the insane?

Answer:

Az-Zakah is obligatory on the wealth of each of them, if the person is a free Muslim who has complete ownership of his wealth. This is due to what Ad-Daraqutni narrated that was reported as a statement of the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam): “Whoever is made the guardian over the wealth of an orphan, let him do business with it and he should not leave it to be devoured by chrity i.e, Az-Zakah).” [Ad-Daraqutni 2:109 no. 1951.]

This is due to what Malik narrated in Al-Muwatta’ from ‘Abdur-Rahman bin Al-Qasim from his father, that he said:

“A’ishah used to keep me and my brother as two orphans in her appartment, and she used to pay Az-Zakah from our wealth.”

The view that Az-Zakah is obligatory upon the wealth of each of them (the orphan and the insane person)was held by ‘Ali, Ibn ‘Umar, Jabir, A’shah and Al-Hasan bin ‘Ali. Ibn Al-Mundhir related this from them.

Permanent Committee for Research and Verdicts

Fatawa Islamiyah, DARUSSALAM, Vol.3, Page Nos. 157-158

Az-Zakah on Wealth that is kept for Marriage 1.

Question:

A man saved some money for his son over a number of years so that the son can get married. Is he obliged to pay any Zakah on this wealth of his? This is in consideration of the fact that he does not intend anything with this money other than getting his son married.

Answer:

He must pay Az-Zakah on all of the money that he saved if it was in his possesion for a year, even if he intended to use this money to get his son married. This is because as long as the money was with him and it was considered his possession, and he must pay its Zakah every year until it is used for the marriage. This is due to the generality of the evidences from the Book and the Sunnah that prove this.

Shaykh `Abdul-`Azeez Bin Baz
Fatawa Islamiyah, DARUSSALAM, Vol.3, Page No. 159

Az-Zakah on Wealth that is kept for Marriage 2.

Question:

I am currently an employee in one of the governmental departments and I receive approximately four thousand riyals per month. In approximately one year, I collected seventeen thousand riyals. This money is currently in the bank and it does not increase (i.e., from interest or investment). I am ready to spend in the month of Shawwal – if Allaah wills – as I am getting married. I am going to take a loan that is many times more than this amount to cover the expenses of the wedding. My question is: Am I obliged to pay any Zakah on this seventeen thousand? This is while considering that it has been in my possession for about a year. If there is Az-Zakah due on it, how much is it?

Answer:

Az-Zakah is due on the mentioned sum of money if it was possessed for a year, even if it was kept for marriage. The amount of Zakah that is due is one fortieth, i.e., 2.5%. And Allaah knows best.

Shaykh `Abdul-`Azeez Bin Baz
Fatawa Islamiyah, DARUSSALAM, Vol.3, Page Nos. 159/160

Az-Zakah is due on whatever wealth is owned a year and reaches the minimum amount.

Question:

A person saved a sum of money from his own earnings. Most of it he possessed for a year, but he spent it on some things that would bring benefit to himself. Therefore, he asks whether it is obligatory for him to pay Az-Zakah on it.

Answer:

Whatever wealth he saved or owned for a year while it had reached the minimum required amount, then Az-Zakah is due on it. This is the case even if he spent some of it after that on marriage or anything similar. If he did not pay the Zakah of his wealth which was due upon, then it is still due from him and he is responsible for it. It is incumbent upon him to pay it. However, what he did not possess for a year of his wealth due to his spending from it before a year’s time, then there is no Zakah due upon it.

Permanent Committee for Research and Verdicts

Fatawa Islamiyah, DARUSSALAM, Vol.3, Page Nos. 160/161

Paying Az-Zakah in advance is permissible.

Question:

I am an employee who receives a salary, and every month I save a portion of it. There is not a specific percentage for the savings, so how do I pay the Zakah of this wealth?

Answer:

What is obligatory upon you is to pay the Zakah of every amount that you save if you have possessed it for a year. If you pay the Zakah of all of the money when a year has passed on the first amount that was saved, then that is sufficient. In this way, the Zakah of the latter sums is considered as being paid in advance before the completion of their year. And paying Az-Zakah in advance before it is possessed for a complete year is permissible, especially if there is a need for it or a religious benefit in that.

Shaykh `Abdul-`Azeez Bin Baz
Fatawa Islamiyah, DARUSSALAM, Vol.3, Page No. 165

Land that is kept for building does not require paying of Az-Zakah

Question:

I have a piece of land that I bought with the intent of building on it. Then after a period of time, I needed to sell it, so I sold it. Is there any Zakah due on me for the period of time that I was not trying to sell it.

Answer:

If the matter is as you mentioned in the question, there is no Zakah due on you for whatever time passed before the sale. This is because the reason that necessitates the the payment of Az-Zakah is not present, which is the intent to sell, and you were not intending to sell it.

Shaykh `Abdul-`Azeez Bin Baz
Fatawa Islamiyah, DARUSSALAM, Vol.3, Page No. 166

The ruling of Az-Zakah on Jewellery, Diamonds and precious Stones

Question:

I am a married woman and I am almost 30 years old. For approximately 24 years I have had pieces of gold that are not kept for business. They are only for beautification and some times I sell them. Then I add some money to their price and buy better jewelry. Now I have some jewellery and I have herd that it is obligatory to pay Az-Zakah on gold that is kept for beautification. Thus, I would like a clarification of this matter for myself. If Az-Zakah was obligatory on me what is the ruling of the past period of time during which I did not pay Az-Zakah on the jewellery? This is while keeping in mind that I am not able to estimate the amount of gold that I had during all of these long years.

Answer:

Az-Zakah is obligatory on you from the time you knew it was obligatory on you to pay Az-Zakah on jewellery. Whatever occurred before that in the previous years before your knowledge of this, then you do not have to pay Az-Zakah for it. This is because the Islamic laws only become obligatory after they are known. The amount that must be paid is 2.5% if the jewellery reaches the minimum amount required for Az-Zakah, which is 20 Mithqal (gold). This is equivalent to 11.5 Saudi Junayhs. If gold jewellery reaches this amount or more, then Az-Zakah must be paid on it. For every 1000 Junayhs, 25 Junayhs is due. In reference to silver, its minimum amount before Az-Zakah is due is 140 Mithqal, which is equivalent to it of monetary currency. The amount that must be paid is 2.5% just like with gold.

In reference to diamond and other stones, no Zakah is due on them if they are for wearing. However, if they are for sale, then Az-Zakah is obligatory on them according to their value in gold and silver if they reach the minimum amount required for Az-Zakah. And Allaah is the Giver of success.

Shaykh `Abdul-`Azeez Bin Baz
Fatawa Islamiyah, DARUSSALAM, Vol.3, Page Nos. 178/179

Az-Zakah on Jewellery is obligatory on its Owner

Question:

My wife has gold that she wears that reaches the minimum amount required for Az-Zakah. Is there any Zakah due on it? Is paying its Zakah obligatory on me or on my wife? Is Az-Zakah given from the jewellery itself or is its value determined and then Az-Zakah paid according to the value?

Answer:

Az-Zakah is obligatory on jewellery that is made of gold and silver if its weight reaches the minimum amount required for Az-Zakah, which is 20 Mithqal of gold and 140 Mithqal of silver. The minimum amount of gold in the current currency is equal to 11 (and three sevenths) Saudi Junayhs. If the gold jewellery reaches this amount or more, Az-Zakah must be paid on it, even if it is only for wearing according to the most correct view of the scholars.

The minimum amount of silver required for Az-Zakah is 56 Saudi Riyals (of silver). If the silver jewellery reaches this amount or more, Az-Zakah must be paid on it. The amount of Az-Zakah to be paid is 2.5% of gold, silver and sale merchandise. This is 2½ out of 100 or 25 out of 1000. Any amount more than this is calculated in this way.

Az-Zakah is due upon the woman who owns the jewellery. If her husband or other than him pays it on her behalf with her permission, there is nothing wrong with that. It is not obligatory to give the Zakah from the jewellery itself. Rather, it suffices to pay its value every time a year passes on it. This is according to the value of gold and silver in the market at the completion of the year’s time. And Allaah is the Giver of success.

Shaykh `Abdul-`Azeez Bin Baz
Fatawa Islamiyah, DARUSSALAM, Vol.3, Page Nos. 180/181

Is it Lawful to Give Charity on their Behalf

Question:

A number of years ago, I took a sum of one hundred Saudi Riyals from a number of my colleagues, after which, I travelled to another area and forgot those colleagues and they also forgot me. Now I do not know where they are, so what should I do with the sum of money which is my responsibility? Inform me and may Allah reward you with goodness.

Answer:

If the matter is as you have mentioned in your question, which is that you forgot the owners of the hundred (Riyals) then it is lawful for you to give charity on their behalf. Then if you remembered any of them you must give him his right, unless he approves of your having given it in charity on his behalf. In that case, you will be absolved from blame and you and them will be rewarded.

Shaykh `Abdul-`Azeez Bin Baz
Fatawa Islamiyah, volume 5 / page 27

Who is considered eligible to receive the Zakaat ?

It does not befit that the Zakaat be given to the one who does not utilize it for obedience to Allaah. For indeed Allaah The Most High has obligated it as an aid towards obedience to Him for whosoever is in need of it from the believers, such as the poor and those under debt or one who helps the believers.

So whoever does not pray from the people who are needy should not be given anything until he repents; and until he adheres to the performance of the prayers in their correct times.

Shaykh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah
Ikhtiyaaraat al-Fiqhiyyah min Fataawaa Shaikh ul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah page 103
Translated by Aboo Haatim Muhammad Farooq

Is the Zakaat ul Fitr due on behalf of the unborn child?

‘Abdullaah bin Ahmad bin Hanbal said: I heard my father say:

‘Zakaat ul Fitr is to be given on behalf of the unborn child – if it is known of.’*

‘Abdullaah bin Ahmad bin Hanbal said: I heard my father say: Mu’tamir bin Sulaimaan At-Taymee narrated to us from Humaid from Bakr and Qataadah that ‘Uthmaan would give the Sadaqatul Fitr on behalf of the small child and the elder and the unborn child.

_____________________

*Note: There occurs a narration from Imaam Ahmad with this meaning mentioned by Aboo Dawood in Al-Masaa’il page 86, and Ibn Haani’ in Al-Masaa’il vol 1 page 111 number 550.

As for the madhab itself (the Hanbali madhab): then within it the Zakaat ul Fitr is not obligatory on behalf of the foetus, this is because there is no ruling upon it until it is born. However; it is recommended that it is given on its behalf if it is known to exist due to the practice of ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallaahu ‘anhu). See: Mukhtasir Al-Kharqee page 75 and Al-Hidaayah vol 1 page 75 and Al-Mughnee vol 3 page 99 and Al-Furoo’ vol 2 page 526 and Al-Qawaa’id of Ibn Rajab page 189 and Al-Insaaf vol 3 page 168 and Al-Mubdi’ vol 2 page 388.

Imaam Ahmad bin Hanbal
Masaa’il Al-Imaam Ahmad vol 2 pages 585-586
Translated by Aboo Haatim Muhammad Farooq

The particular group of people to whom the Zakaat ul Fitr is to be distributed to

The Scholars have differed concerning the issue of distributing the Zakaat ul Fitr, such that there are two sayings:

The first saying: That it is to be distributed amongst the eight types of individuals that have been mentioned by Allaah in Soorah At-Tawbah in His saying:

((Indeed the Sadaqaat (obligatory Zakaat) are for the poor and the destitute and those employed to collect (the funds); and for those whose hearts have inclined (towards Islaam), and to free the captives; and for those in debt, and in the Path of Allaah (the Mujahideen), and for the wayfarer: an obligation imposed by Allaah, and Allaah is All-Knower All-Wise.)) Soorah At-Tawbah: 60

This is a saying which is well-known from amongst the Shaafi’ee’s.

The second saying: Is that it is not to be distributed except amongst the poor and the destitute as occurs in the Hadeeth of Ibn ‘Abbaas which preceded in which there was the statement: ((a sustenance for the destitute))*.

Ibn Al-Qayyim (rahimahullaah) said: ((It was from his guidance (Sallalaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) that he would specify those that were destitute for this particular Sadaqah, so he would not distribute it amongst the eight types of people – handful by handful. Nor did he command for that to be done that way, nor did any one of the companions do that, nor did those that came after them. Rather it is one of two sayings with us that it is impermissible to give it except to the destitute in particular.))

So this is the saying which is to be taken, except if you see dire need amongst someone from the other categories or an acceptable advantage by way of the Sharee’ah (to give it such), in which case it is to be given from this Sadaqah after it has been given to the poor and the destitute – in an ample portion. This is because it is a means of sustenance for them as has been established through that narration.

Here arises an issue which should be taken into consideration which is:

That it is permissible for one individual person to distribute his Zakaat to either one destitute person or to a number of them. Just as it is (allowed) for a group of people to give their fitrah to a single poor person so long as they are not committing an injustice in the right of the others who are present.

The second issue which is also recommended to pay attention to is that: It is impermissible to give it to those that it is impermissible to give the Zakaat to in accordance to that which we mentioned concerning the Zakaat of the types of wealth. And Allaah Knows best.

__________________________

*The full text of the Hadeeth:

((Allaah’s Messenger (Sallalaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) ordered the giving of Zakaat ul Fitr as a purification for the fasting person from idle talk and obscenity, and as a sustenance for the poor. So whosoever gives it before the prayer (of ‘Eid) then it is an accepted Zakaat, and whosoever gives it after the prayer, then it is a Sadaqah (charity) from the Sadaqaat.))

Reported by Aboo Dawood in the book of Zakaat chapter: Zakaat ul Fitr; number 1609 and Ibn Maajah in the book of Zakaat chapter: Sadaqatul Fitr; number 1827and Ad-Daaraqutnee in the book of Zakaat ul Fitr number 1.

Shaykh Zayd al-Madkhalee
Al-Afnaan an-nadiyyah sharh mandhoomah as-subul as-sawiyyah le-Fiqh As-Sunan al-marwiyyah vol 3 pages 97-98
Translated by Aboo Haatim Muhammad Farooq

The Tafsir of Surat At-Talaq : Tafsir Ibn Kathir

The Tafsir Ibn Kathir of Surat At-Talaq

(Chapter – 65)

Which was revealed in Al-Madinah

[بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ ]

(In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

[يأيُّهَا النَّبِىُّ إِذَا طَلَّقْتُمُ النِّسَآءَ فَطَلِّقُوهُنَّ لِعِدَّتِهِنَّ وَأَحْصُواْ الْعِدَّةَ وَاتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ رَبَّكُمْ لاَ تُخْرِجُوهُنَّ مِن بُيُوتِهِنَّ وَلاَ يَخْرُجْنَ إِلاَّ أَن يَأْتِينَ بِفَـحِشَةٍ مُّبَيِّنَةٍ وَتِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّهِ وَمَن يَتَعَدَّ حُدُودَ اللَّهِ فَقَدْ ظَلَمَ نَفْسَهُ لاَ تَدْرِى لَعَلَّ اللَّهَ يُحْدِثُ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ أَمْراً ]

(1. O Prophet! When you divorce women, divorce them at their `Iddah and count their `Iddah. And have Taqwa of Allah, your Lord. And turn them not out of their homes nor shall they leave, except in case they are guilty of Fahishah Mubayyinah. And those are the set limits of Allah. And whosoever transgresses the set limits of Allah, then indeed he has wronged himself. You know not, it may be that Allah will afterward bring some new thing to pass.)

There is a Period during which Divorced Women remain in Their Homes

The Prophet was addressed first in this Ayah, to honor him, even though his Ummah is also being addressed in Allah’s statement,

[يأيُّهَا النَّبِىُّ إِذَا طَلَّقْتُمُ النِّسَآءَ فَطَلِّقُوهُنَّ لِعِدَّتِهِنَّ]

(O Prophet! When you divorce women, divorce them at their `Iddah) Al-Bukhari recorded that `Abdullah bin `Umar divorced his wife, during the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger , while she was menstruating. `Umar bin Al-Khattab mentioned that to Allah’s Messenger . Allah’s Messenger became angry and said,

«لِيُرَاجِعْهَا ثُمَّ يُمْسِكْهَا حَتْى تَطْهُرَ، ثُمَّ تَحِيضَ فَتَطْهُرَ، فَإِنْ بَدَا لَهُ أَنْ يُطَلِّقَهَا، فَلْيُطَلِّقْهَا طَاهِرًا قَبْلَ أَنْ يَمَسَّهَا، فَتِلْكَ الْعِدَّةُ الَّتِي أَمَرَ بِهَا اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَل»

(Order him to take her back and keep her until she is clean from her menses, and then to wait until she gets her next period and becomes clean again. Then, if he wishes to divorce her, he can divorce her when she is clean from her menses, before he has sexual intercourse with her. This is the `Iddah which Allah the Exalted and Most Honored has fixed.) Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith in several parts of his Sahih. Muslim collected this Hadith and his narration uses these words,

«فَتِلْكَ الْعِدَّةُ الَّتِي أَمَرَ اللهُ أَنْ يُطَلَّقَ لَهَا النِّسَاء»

(This is the `Iddah which Allah has fixed for the women being divorced.) In his Sahih, Muslim has recorded a Hadith which is a more appropriate version from a narration of Ibn Jurayj who said that Abu Az-Zubayr informed him that he heard `Abdur-Rahman bin Ayman, the freed slave of `Azzah, questioning `Abdullah bin `Umar. And Abu Az-Zubayr heard the question, “What about a man who divorces his wife while she is still on her menses” `Abdullah answered, “During the time of Allah’s Messenger , `Abdullah bin `Umar divorced his wife who was menstruating in the life time of Allah’s Messenger . So Allah’s Messenger said:

«لِيُرَاجِعْهَا»

(Let him take her back.) so she returned and he said:

«إِذَا طَهُرَتْ فَلْيُطَلِّقْ أَوْ يُمْسِك»

(When she is pure, then either divorce or keep her.) `Abdullah bin `Umar said, “Allah’s Messenger recited this Ayah: (ياأَيُّها النَّبِيُّ إِذا طَلَّقْتُمُ النِّساءَ فَطَلِّقُوهُنَّ فِي قُبُلِ عِدَّتِهِنَّ) (O Prophet! When you divorce women, divorce them at their `Iddah) And `Abdullah (Ibn Mas`ud) commented on Allah’s statement,

[فَطَلِّقُوهُنَّ لِعِدَّتِهِنَّ]

(divorce them at their `Iddah) He said, “Purity without intercourse.” Similar was reported from Ibn `Umar, `Ata’, Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Ibn Sirin, Qatadah, Maymun bin Mihran and Muqatil bin Hayyan. It is also reported from `Ikrimah and Ad-Dahhak.`Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas about the Ayah;

[فَطَلِّقُوهُنَّ لِعِدَّتِهِنَّ]

(divorce them at their `Iddah), “He does not divorce her while she is on her menses nor while she is pure if he has had intercourse during that (purity). Rather, he leaves her until she has her menses and after the menses ends, then he divorces her once.” And `Ikrimah said about

[فَطَلِّقُوهُنَّ لِعِدَّتِهِنَّ]

(divorce them at their `Iddah), “The `Iddah is made up of clean- liness and the menstrual period.” So he divorces her while it is clear that she is pregnant, or he does not due to having sex, or since he does not know if she is pregnant or not. This is why the scholars said that there are two types of divorce, one that conforms to the Sunnah and another innovated. The divorce that conforms to the Sunnah is one where the husband pronounces one divorce to his wife when she is not having her menses and without having had sexual intercourse with her after the menses ended. One could divorce his wife when it is clear that she is pregnant. As for the innovated divorce, it occurs when one divorces his wife when she is having her menses, or after the menses ends, has sexual intercourse with her and then divorces her, even though he does not know if she became pregnant or not. There is a third type of divorce, which is neither a Sunnah nor an innovation where one divorces a young wife who has not begun to have menses, the wife who is beyond the age of having menses, and divorcing one’s wife before the marriage was consummated. Allah said,

[وَأَحْصُواْ الْعِدَّةَ]

(and count their `Iddah.) meaning, count for it and know its beginning and end, so that the `Iddah does not become prolonged for the woman and she cannot get married again,

[وَاتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ رَبَّكُمْ]

(And have Taqwa of Allah, your Lord.) in this matter.

Spending and Housing is up to the Husband during the Revocable `Iddah Period

Allah said,

[لاَ تُخْرِجُوهُنَّ مِن بُيُوتِهِنَّ وَلاَ يَخْرُجْنَ]

(And turn them not out of their homes nor shall they leave,) meaning, during the duration of the `Iddah, she has the right to housing from her husband, as long as the `Iddah period continues. Therefore, the husband does not have the right to force her out of her house, nor is she allowed to leave his house, because she is still tied to the marriage contract. Allah said,

[إِلاَّ أَن يَأْتِينَ بِفَاحِشَةٍ مُّبَيِّنَةٍ]

(except in case they are guilty of Fahishah Mubayyinah.) meaning that the divorced wife is not to abandon her husband’s house unless she commits Fahishah Mubayyinah, in which case, she vacates her husband’s house. For example, Fahishah Mubayyinah implies adultery, according to `Abdullah bin Mas`ud, Ibn `Abbas, Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib, Ash-Sha`bi, Al-Hasan, Ibn Sirin, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Abu Qilabah, Abu Salih, Ad-Dahhak, Zayd bin Aslam, `Ata’ Al-Khurasani, As-Suddi, Sa`id bin Hilal and others. Fahishah Mubayyinah implies disobeying her husband openly or when she abuses her husband’s family in words and actions, according to Ubay bin Ka`b, Ibn `Abbas, `Ikrimah and others. Allah’s statement,

[وَتِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّهِ]

(And those are the set limits of Allah.) means, these are from His legislation and prohibitions,

[وَمَن يَتَعَدَّ حُدُودَ اللَّهِ]

(And whosoever transgresses the set limits of Allah,) meaning, whoever violates these limits, transgresses them and implements anything else besides them,

[فَقَدْ ظَلَمَ نَفْسَهُ]

(then indeed he has wronged himself.) by doing so.

The Wisdom of `Iddah at the Husband’s House

Allah said,

[لاَ تَدْرِى لَعَلَّ اللَّهَ يُحْدِثُ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ أَمْراً]

(You know not, it may be that Allah will afterward bring some new thing to pass.) meaning, `We commanded that the divorced wife remains in her husband’s house during the `Iddah period, so that the husband might regret his action and Allah decides that the husband feels in his heart for the marriage to continue.’ This way, returning to his wife will be easier for him. Az-Zuhri said that `Ubaydullah bin `Abdullah said that Fatimah bint Qays said about Allah’s statement,

[لاَ تَدْرِى لَعَلَّ اللَّهَ يُحْدِثُ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ أَمْراً]

(You know not, it may be that Allah will afterward bring some new thing to pass.) “Taking her back.” Similar was said by Ash-Sha`bi, `Ata’, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, Muqatil bin Hayyan and Ath-Thawri.

The Irrevocably Divorced Woman does not have a Right to Provisions and Accommodations from the Husband

Here the view of the scholars of the Salaf and those who follow them is that housing is not obligatory in the case of the irrevocably divorced woman. They also relied on the Hadith of Fatimah bint Qays Al-Fihriyah when her husband Abu `Amr bin Hafs divorced her the third and final time. He was away from her in Yemen at the time, and he sent her his decision to divorce her. He also sent some barley with his messenger, but she did not like the amount or method of compensation. He said, “By Allah I am not obligated to spend upon you.” So, she went to Allah’s Messenger , who said,

«لَيْسَ لَكِ عَلَيْهِ نَفَقَة»

(There is no obligation on him to spend on you.) Muslim added in his narration,

«وَلَا سُكْنَى»

(nor housing.) And he ordered her to finish her `Iddah period in the house of Umm Sharik. He then said,

«تِلْكَ امْرَأَةٌ يَغْشَاهَا أَصْحَابِي، اعْتَدِّي عِنْدَ ابْنِ أُمِّ مَكْتُومٍ، فَإِنَّهُ رَجُلٌ أَعْمَى تَضَعِينَ ثِيَابَك»

(She is a woman my Companions visit. Spend this period in the house of Ibn Umm Maktum, for he is a blind man; [he cannot see you if] you take off your garments.) Imam Ahmad collected this Hadith using another chain of narration. In his narration, the Messenger of Allah said,

«انْظُرِي يَا بِنْتَ آلِ قَيْسٍ إِنَّمَا النَّفَقَةُ وَالسُّكْنَى لِلْمَرْأَةِ عَلَى زَوْجِهَا، مَا كَانَتْ لَهُ عَلَيْهَا رَجْعَةٌ، فَإِذَا لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ عَلَيْهَا رَجْعَةٌ فَلَا نَفَقَةَ وَلَا سُكْنَى،اخْرُجِي فَانْزِلِي عَلَى فُلَانَة»

(Look O daughter of the family of Qays! Spending and housing are required from the husband who can return to his wife. So if he does not have the right to return to her, then she does not have the right to spending and housing. So leave his house and go to so-and-so woman.) He then said,

«إِنَّهُ يُتَحَدَّثُ إِلَيْهَا، انْزِلِي عَلَى ابْنِ أُمِّ مَكْتُومٍ فَإِنَّهُ أَعْمَى لَا يَرَاك»

(They speak to her. Therefore, go to Ibn Umm Maktum, for he is a blind man and cannot see you.) Abu Al-Qasim At-Tabarani recorded that `Amir Ash-Sha`bi went to Fatimah bint Qays, sister of Ad-Dahhak bin Qays, from the tribe of Quraysh. Fatimah was married to Abu `Amr bin Hafs bin Al-Mughirah, from Bani Makhzum. She said, “Abu `Amr bin Hafs sent me his decision to divorce me while he was in an army that had gone to Yemen. I asked his friends to provide me with financial provisions and housing. They said, `He did not send us anything for that, nor did he request it from us.’ I went to Allah’s Messenger and said to him, `O Allah’s Messenger! Abu `Amr bin Hafs divorced me, and I asked his friends to provide me with spending and housing and they said that he did not send them anything for that.’ Allah’s Messenger said,

«إِنَّمَا السُّكْنَى وَالنَّفَقَةُ لِلْمَرْأَةِ إِذَا كَانَ لِزَوْجِهَا عَلَيْهَا رَجْعَةٌ، فَإِذَا كَانَتْ لَا تَحِلُّ لَهُ حَتْى تَنْكِحَ زَوْجًا غَيْرَهُ:فَلَا نَفَقَةَ لَهَا وَلَا سُكْنَى»

(Spending and housing are required from the husband for his divorced wife if he can return to her. If she is not permitted for him anymore, until she marries another husband, then he does not have to provide her with spending and housing.)” An-Nasa’i also recorded this narration.

[فَإِذَا بَلَغْنَ أَجَلَهُنَّ فَأَمْسِكُوهُنَّ بِمَعْرُوفٍ أَوْ فَارِقُوهُنَّ بِمَعْرُوفٍ وَأَشْهِدُواْ ذَوَى عَدْلٍ مِّنكُمْ وَأَقِيمُواْ الشَّهَـدَةَ لِلَّهِ ذَلِكُمْ يُوعَظُ بِهِ مَن كَانَ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الاٌّخِرِ وَمَن يَتَّقِ اللَّهَ يَجْعَل لَّهُ مَخْرَجاً – وَيَرْزُقْهُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لاَ يَحْتَسِبُ وَمَن يَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ فَهُوَ حَسْبُهُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بَـلِغُ أَمْرِهِ قَدْ جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لِكُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدْراً ]

(2. Then when they are about to attain their term appointed, either take them back in a good manner or part with them in a good manner. And take as witness two just persons from among you. And establish the testimony for Allah. That will be an admonition given to him who believes in Allah and the Last Day. And whosoever has Taqwa of Allah, He will make a way for him to get out.) (3. And He will provide him from where he never could imagine. And whosoever puts his trust in Allah, then He will suffice him. Verily, Allah will accomplish his purpose. Indeed Allah has set a measure for all things.)

Ordaining Kindness towards Divorced Women

Allah the Exalted says that when the woman who is in her `Iddah nears the end of the `Iddah term, the husband must decide to reconcile with her, thus keeping their marriage together,

[بِمَعْرُوفٍ]

(in a good manner) while being kind to her in their companionship. Otherwise, he must decide to divorce her on good terms, without abusing, cursing, or admonishing her. To the contrary, he should divorce her on good terms, observing kindness and good manners.

The Command to have Witnesses for the Return

Allah said,

[وَأَشْهِدُواْ ذَوَى عَدْلٍ مِّنكُمْ]

(And take as witness two just persons from among you.) meaning when taking her back, if this is your decision. Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah recorded that `Imran bin Husayn was asked about a man who divorced his wife and then had sexual intercourse with her, without notifying witnesses of when he divorced her and when he took her back. `Imran said, “His divorce and taking her back was in contradiction to the Sunnah. Incorporate the presence of witnesses for divorcing her and taking her back, and do not repeat your conduct.” Ibn Jurayj said that `Ata’ commented on the Ayah,

[وَأَشْهِدُواْ ذَوَى عَدْلٍ مِّنكُمْ]

(And take as witness two just persons from among you.) “It is not permissible to marry, divorce or take back the divorced wife except with two just witnesses, just as Allah the Exalted has said, except when there is a valid excuse.” Allah’s statement,

[ذَلِكُمْ يُوعَظُ بِهِ مَن كَانَ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الاٌّخِرِ]

(That will be an admonition given to him who believes in Allah and the Last Day.) means, `this, Our command to you to have witnesses in such cases and to establish the witness, is implemented by those who believe in Allah and the Last Day.’ This legislation is meant to benefit those who fear Allah’s punishment in the Hereafter.

Allah provides, suffices, and makes a Way out of Every Hardship for Those Who have Taqwa

Allah said,

[وَمَن يَتَّقِ اللَّهَ يَجْعَل لَّهُ مَخْرَجاًوَيَرْزُقْهُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لاَ يَحْتَسِبُ]

(And whosoever has Taqwa of Allah, He will make a way for him to get out. And He will provide him from where he never could imagine.) meaning, whoever has Taqwa of Allah in what He has commanded and avoids what He has forbidden, then Allah will make a way out for him from every difficulty and will provide for him from resources he never anticipated or thought about. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said, “The most comprehensive Ayah in the Qur’an is,

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْمُرُ بِالْعَدْلِ وَالإْحْسَانِ]

(Verily, Allah enjoins Al-`Adl (justice) and Al-Ihsan (doing good) (16:90). The greatest Ayah in the Qur’an that contains relief is,

[وَمَن يَتَّقِ اللَّهَ يَجْعَل لَّهُ مَخْرَجاً]

(And whosoever has Taqwa of Allah, He will make a way for him to get out.)” `Ikrimah also commented on the Ayah, “Whoever divorces as Allah commanded him, then Allah will make a way out for him.” Similar was reported from Ibn `Abbas and Ad-Dahhak.`Abdullah bin Mas`ud and Masruq commented on the Ayah,

[وَمَن يَتَّقِ اللَّهَ يَجْعَل لَّهُ مَخْرَجاً]

(And whosoever has Taqwa of Allah, He will make a way for him to get out.) “It pertains to when one knows that if Allah wills He gives, and if He wills He deprives,

[مِنْ حَيْثُ لاَ يَحْتَسِبُ]

(from where he never could imagine.) from resources he did not anticipate” Qatadah said,

[وَمَن يَتَّقِ اللَّهَ يَجْعَل لَّهُ مَخْرَجاً]

(And whosoever has Taqwa of Allah, He will make a way for him to get out.) “meaning, from every doubt and the horrors experienced at the time of death,

[وَيَرْزُقْهُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لاَ يَحْتَسِبُ]

(And He will provide him from where he never could imagine) from where he never thought of or anticipated.” Allah said,

[وَمَن يَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ فَهُوَ حَسْبُهُ]

(And whosoever puts his trust in Allah, then He will suffice him.) Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that he rode the Prophet’s camel while sitting behind the Prophet , and the Messenger of Allah said to him,

«يَا غُلَامُ إِنِّي مُعَلِّمُكَ كَلِمَاتٍ: احْفَظِ اللهَ يَحْفَظْكَ، احْفَظِ اللهَ تَجِدْهُ تُجَاهَكَ، وَإِذَا سَأَلْتَ فَاسْأَلِ اللهَ، وَإِذَا اسْتَعَنْتَ فَاسْتَعِنْ بِاللهِ، وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ الْأُمَّةَ لَوِ اجْتَمَعُوا عَلَى أَنْ يَنْفَعُوكَ لَمْ يَنْفَعُوكَ إِلَّا بِشَيْءٍ قَدْ كَتَبَهُ اللهُ لَكَ، وَلَوِ اجْتَمَعُوا عَلَى أَنْ يَضُرُّوكَ لَمْ يَضُرُّوكَ إِلَّا بِشَيْءٍ قَدْ كَتَبَهُ اللهُ عَلَيْكَ، رُفِعَتِ الْأَقْلَامُ وَجَفَّتِ الصُّحُف»

(O boy! I will teach you words [so learn them]. Be mindful of Allah and He will protect you, be mindful of Allah and He will be on your side. If you ask, ask Allah, and if you seek help, seek it from Allah. Know that if the Ummah gather their strength to bring you benefit, they will never bring you benefit, except that which Allah has decreed for you. Know that if they gather their strength to harm you, they will never harm you, except with that which Allah has decreed against you. The pens have been raised and the pages are dry.) At-Tirmidhi collected this Hadith and said: “Hasan Sahih.” Allah’s statement,

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ بَـلِغُ أَمْرِهِ]

(Verily, Allah will accomplish his purpose.) meaning, Allah will execute His decisions and judgement that He made for him, in whatever way He wills and chooses,

[قَدْ جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لِكُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدْراً]

(Indeed Allah has set a measure for all things.) This is like His saying:

[وَكُلُّ شَىْءٍ عِندَهُ بِمِقْدَارٍ]

(Everything with Him is in (due) proportion.) (13:8)

[وَاللاَّئِى يَئِسْنَ مِنَ الْمَحِيضِ مِن نِّسَآئِكُمْ إِنِ ارْتَبْتُمْ فَعِدَّتُهُنَّ ثَلَـثَةُ أَشْهُرٍ وَاللَّـتِي لَمْ يَحِضْنَ وَأُوْلَـتُ الاٌّحْمَالِ أَجَلُهُنَّ أَن يَضَعْنَ حَمْلَهُنَّ وَمَن يَتَّقِ اللَّهَ يَجْعَل لَّهُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِ يُسْراً – ذَلِكَ أَمْرُ اللَّهِ أَنزَلَهُ إِلَيْكُمْ وَمَن يَتَّقِ اللَّهَ يُكَفِّرْ عَنْهُ سَيِّئَـتِهِ وَيُعْظِمْ لَهُ أَجْراً ]

(4. Those in menopause among your women, for them the `Iddah, if you have doubt, is three months; and for those who have no courses. And for those who are pregnant, their `Iddah is until they lay down their burden; and whosoever has Taqwa of Allah, He will make his matter easy for him.) (5. That is the command of Allah, which He has sent down to you; and whosoever has Taqwa of Allah, He will expiate from him his sins, and will increase his reward.)

The `Iddah of Those in Menopause and Those Who do not have Menses

Allah the Exalted clarifies the waiting period of the woman in menopause. And that is the one whose menstruation has stopped due to her older age. Her `Iddah is three months instead of the three monthly cycles for those who menstruate, which is based upon the Ayah in (Surat) Al-Baqarah. [see 2:228] The same for the young, who have not reached the years of menstruation. Their `Iddah is three months like those in menopause. This is the meaning of His saying;

[وَاللَّـتِي لَمْ يَحِضْنَ]

(and for those who have no courses…) as for His saying;

[إِنِ ارْتَبْتُمْ]

(if you have doubt…) There are two opinions: First, is the saying of a group of the Salaf, like Mujahid, Az-Zuhri and Ibn Zayd. That is, if they see blood and there is doubt if it was menstrual blood or not. The second, is that if you do not know the ruling in this case, then know that their `Iddah is three months. This has been reported from Sa`id bin Jubayr and it is the view preferred by Ibn Jarir. And this is the more obvious meaning. Supporting this view is what is reported from Ubay bin Ka`b that he said, “O Allah’s Messenger! Some women were not mentioned in the Qur’an, the young, the old and the pregnant.” Allah the Exalted and Most Honored sent down this Ayah,

[وَاللاَّئِى يَئِسْنَ مِنَ الْمَحِيضِ مِن نِّسَآئِكُمْ إِنِ ارْتَبْتُمْ فَعِدَّتُهُنَّ ثَلَـثَةُ أَشْهُرٍ وَاللَّـتِي لَمْ يَحِضْنَ وَأُوْلَـتُ الاٌّحْمَالِ أَجَلُهُنَّ أَن يَضَعْنَ حَمْلَهُنَّ]

(Those in menopause among your women, for them the `Iddah, if you have doubt, is three months; and for those who have no courses. And for those who are pregnant, their `Iddah is until they lay down their burden.) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded a simpler narration than this one from Ubay bin Ka`b who said, “O Allah’s Messenger! When the Ayah in Surat Al-Baqarah was revealed prescribing the `Iddah of divorce, some people in Al-Madinah said, `There are still some women whose `Iddah has not been mentioned in the Qur’an. There are the young, the old whose menstruation is discontinued, and the pregnant.’ Later on, this Ayah was revealed,

[وَاللاَّئِى يَئِسْنَ مِنَ الْمَحِيضِ مِن نِّسَآئِكُمْ إِنِ ارْتَبْتُمْ فَعِدَّتُهُنَّ ثَلَـثَةُ أَشْهُرٍ وَاللَّـتِي لَمْ يَحِضْنَ]

(Those in menopause among your women, for them the `Iddah, if you have doubt, is three months; and for those who have no courses.)”

`Iddah of Pregnant Women

Allah’s statement,

[وَأُوْلَـتُ الاٌّحْمَالِ أَجَلُهُنَّ أَن يَضَعْنَ حَمْلَهُنَّ]

(And for those who are pregnant, their `Iddah is until they lay down their burden;) Allah says: the pregnant woman’s `Iddah ends when she gives birth, whether in the case of divorce or death of the husband, according to the agreement of the majority of scholars of the Salaf and later generations. This is based upon this honorable Ayah and what is mentioned in the Prophetic Sunnah. Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Salamah said, “A man came to Ibn `Abbas while Abu Hurayrah was sitting with him and said, `Give me your verdict regarding a lady who delivered a baby forty days after the death of her husband.’ Ibn `Abbas said,` [Her `Iddah period lasts until] the end of the longest among the two prescribed periods.’ I recited,

[وَأُوْلَـتُ الاٌّحْمَالِ أَجَلُهُنَّ أَن يَضَعْنَ حَمْلَهُنَّ]

(For those who are pregnant, their prescribed period is until they deliver their burdens;) Abu Hurayrah said, `I agree with my cousin (Abu Salamah).’ Then Ibn `Abbas sent his slave Kurayb to Umm Salamah to ask her. She replied, `The husband of Subay`ah Al-Aslamiyyah was killed while she was pregnant, and she delivered a baby forty days after his death. Then she received a marriage proposal and Allah’s Messenger married her to somebody. Abu As-Sanabil was one of those who proposed to her.” Al-Bukhari collected this short form of the Hadith, which Muslim and other scholars of Hadith collected using its longer form. Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Miswar bin Makhramah said, “Subay`ah Al-Aslamiyyah gave birth to a child a few days after the death of her husband. When she finished the postdelivery term, she was proposed to. So she sought the permission of Allah’s Messenger for the marriage, and he permitted her to marry, so she got married.” Al-Bukhari collected this narration, as did Muslim, Abu Dawud, An-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah with a different chain of narration from the Hadith of Subay`ah. Muslim bin Al-Hajjaj recorded that `Ubaydullah bin `Abdullah bin `Utbah said that his father wrote to `Umar bin `Abdullah bin Al-Arqam Az-Zuhri, requesting that he go to Subay`ah bint Al-Harith Al-Aslamiyyah to ask her about the matter in question, and about what Allah’s Messenger said to her when she sought his verdict. `Umar bin `Abdullah wrote to `Ubaydullah bin `Abdullah bin `Utbah informing him that Subay`ah told him that she had been married to Sa`d bin Khawlah, and he was one of those who participated in the battle of Badr. He died during the Farewell Pilgrimage, while she was pregnant. Soon after his death, she gave birth. When she passed the postnatal term, she beautified herself for those who might propose to her. Abu As-Sanabil bin Ba`kak came to her and said, `Why do I see you have beautified yourself Do you wish to remarry By Allah, you cannot marry unless four months and ten days have passed.” Subay`ah said, “When he said that, I dressed myself in the evening and went to Allah’s Messenger and asked him about his verdict. He gave me a religious verdict that I was allowed to marry after I had given birth to my child, saying I could marry if I wish.” This is the narration that Muslim collected. Al-Bukhari collected this Hadith in a shorter form. Allah’s statement,

[وَمَن يَتَّقِ اللَّهَ يَجْعَل لَّهُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِ يُسْراً]

(and whosoever has Taqwa of Allah, He will make his matter easy for him.) means, Allah will make his matters lenient for him and will soon bring forth relief and a quick way out,

[ذَلِكَ أَمْرُ اللَّهِ أَنزَلَهُ إِلَيْكُمْ]

(That is the command of Allah, which He has sent down to you;) meaning, this is His commandment and legislation that He sent down to you through His Messenger ,

[وَمَن يَتَّقِ اللَّهَ يُكَفِّرْ عَنْهُ سَيِّئَـتِهِ وَيُعْظِمْ لَهُ أَجْراً]

(and whosoever has Taqwa of Allah, He will expiate from him his sins, and will increase his reward.) means, Allah will prevent what he fears and multiply his reward even for the little good he does.

[أَسْكِنُوهُنَّ مِنْ حَيْثُ سَكَنتُم مِّن وُجْدِكُمْ وَلاَ تُضَآرُّوهُنَّ لِتُضَيِّقُواْ عَلَيْهِنَّ وَإِن كُنَّ أُوْلَـتِ حَمْلٍ فَأَنفِقُواْ عَلَيْهِنَّ حَتَّى يَضَعْنَ حَمْلَهُنَّ فَإِنْ أَرْضَعْنَ لَكُمْ فَـَاتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ وَأْتَمِرُواْ بَيْنَكُمْ بِمَعْرُوفٍ وَإِن تَعَاسَرْتُمْ فَسَتُرْضِعُ لَهُ أُخْرَى – لِيُنفِقْ ذُو سَعَةٍ مِّن سَعَتِهِ وَمَن قُدِرَ عَلَيْهِ رِزْقُهُ فَلْيُنفِقْ مِمَّآ ءَاتَاهُ اللَّهُ لاَ يُكَلِّفُ اللَّهُ نَفْساً إِلاَّ مَآ ءَاتَاهَا سَيَجْعَلُ اللَّهُ بَعْدَ عُسْرٍ يُسْراً ]

(6. Lodge them where you dwell, according to what you have, and do not harm them so as to suppress them. And if they are pregnant, then spend on them till they lay down their burden. Then if they suckle the children for you, give them their due payment, and let each of you deal with each other in a mannerly way. But if you make difficulties for one another, then some other woman may suckle for him.) (7. Let the rich man spend according to his means; and the man whose resources are restricted, let him spend according to what Allah has given him. Allah puts no burden on any person beyond what He has given him. Allah will grant after hardship, ease.)

The Divorced Woman has the Right to Decent Accommodations, and what is Reasonable

Allah the Exalted orders His faithful servants that when one of them divorces his wife, he should provide housing for her until the end of her `Iddah period,

[أَسْكِنُوهُنَّ مِنْ حَيْثُ سَكَنتُم]

(Lodge them where you dwell,) means, with you,

[مِّن وُجْدِكُمْ]

(according to what you have,) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and several others said, it refers to “Your ability.” Qatadah said, “If you can only afford to accommodate her in a corner of your house, then do so.”

Forbidding Ill-Treatment of Divorced Women

Allah’s statement,

[وَلاَ تُضَآرُّوهُنَّ لِتُضَيِّقُواْ عَلَيْهِنَّ]

(and do not harm them in order to suppress them.) Muqatil bin Hayyan said, “meaning, do not annoy her to force her to pay her way out nor expel her from your house.” Ath-Thawri said from Mansur, from Abu Ad-Duha:

[وَلاَ تُضَآرُّوهُنَّ لِتُضَيِّقُواْ عَلَيْهِنَّ]

(and do not harm them in order to suppress them) “He divorces her, and when a few days remain, he takes her back.”

The Irrevocable Divorced Pregnant Woman has the Right of Support (Maintenance) from Her Husband until She gives Birth

Allah said,

[وَإِن كُنَّ أُوْلَـتِ حَمْلٍ فَأَنفِقُواْ عَلَيْهِنَّ حَتَّى يَضَعْنَ حَمْلَهُنَّ]

(And if they are pregnant, then spend on them till they lay down their burden.) This is about the woman who is irrevocably divorced. If she is pregnant, then she is to be spent on her until she lays down her burden. This is supported due to the fact that if she is revocably divorced, the she has then right to receive her support (maintenance) whether she is pregnant or not.

The Divorced Mother may take Compensation for suckling Her Child

Allah said,

[فَإِنْ أَرْضَعْنَ لَكُمْ]

(Then if they suckle them for you,) meaning, when pregnant women give birth and they are irrevocably divorced by the expiration of the `Iddah, then at that time they may either suckle the child or not. But that is only after she nourishes him with the milk, that is the early on milk which the infant’s well-being depends upon. Then, if she suckles, she has the right to compensation for it. She is allowed to enter into a contract with the father or his representative in return for whatever payment they agree to. This is why Allah the Exalted said,

[فَإِنْ أَرْضَعْنَ لَكُمْ فَـَاتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ]

(Then if they suckle the children for you, give them their due payment,) Allah said,

[وَأْتَمِرُواْ بَيْنَكُمْ بِمَعْرُوفٍ]

(and let each of you deal with each other in a mannerly way.) meaning, the affairs of the divorced couple should be managed in a just way without causing harm to either one of them, just as Allah the Exalted said in Surat Al-Baqarah,

[لاَ تُضَآرَّ وَلِدَةٌ بِوَلَدِهَا وَلاَ مَوْلُودٌ لَّهُ بِوَلَدِهِ]

(No mother shall be treated unfairly on account of her child, nor father on account of child.) (2:233) Allah said,

[وَإِن تَعَاسَرْتُمْ فَسَتُرْضِعُ لَهُ أُخْرَى]

(But if you make difficulties for one another, then some other woman may suckle for him.) meaning, if the divorced couple disagrees, because the woman asks for an unreasonable fee for suckling their child, and the father refuses to pay the amount or offers an unreasonable amount, he may find another woman to suckle his child. If the mother agrees to accept the amount that was to be paid to the woman who agreed to suckle the child, then she has more right to suckle her own child. Allah’s statement,

[لِيُنفِقْ ذُو سَعَةٍ مِّن سَعَتِهِ]

(Let the rich man spend according to his means;) means, the wealthy father or his representative should spend on the child according to his means,

[وَمَن قُدِرَ عَلَيْهِ رِزْقُهُ فَلْيُنفِقْ مِمَّآ ءَاتَاهُ اللَّهُ لاَ يُكَلِّفُ اللَّهُ نَفْساً إِلاَّ مَآ ءَاتَاهَا]

(and the man whose resources are restricted, let him spend according to what Allah has given him. Allah puts no burden on any person beyond what He has given him.) This is as Allah said,

[لاَ يُكَلِّفُ اللَّهُ نَفْسًا إِلاَّ وُسْعَهَا]

(Allah does not burden a person beyond what He can bear.) [2:286]

A Story of a Woman who had Taqwa

Allah’s statement;

[سَيَجْعَلُ اللَّهُ بَعْدَ عُسْرٍ يُسْراً]

(Allah will grant after hardship, ease.) This is a sure promise from Him, and indeed, Allah’s promises are true and He never breaks them, This is an Allah’s saying;

[فَإِنَّ مَعَ الْعُسْرِ يُسْراً – إِنَّ مَعَ الْعُسْرِ يُسْراً ]

(Verily, along with every hardship is relief. Verily, along with every hardship is relief.) [94:5-6] There is a relevant Hadith that we should mention here. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, “A man and his wife from an earlier generation were poor. Once when the man came back from a journey, he went to his wife saying to her, while feeling hunger and fatigued, `Do you have anything to eat’ She said, `Yes, receive the good news of Allah’s provisions.’ He again said to her, `If you have anything to eat, bring it to me.’ She said, `Wait a little longer.’ She was awaiting Allah’s mercy. When the matter was prolonged, he said to her, `Get up and bring me whatever you have to eat, because I am real hungry and fatigued.’ She said, `I will. Soon I will open the oven’s cover, so do not be hasty.’ When he was busy and refrained from insisting for a while, she said to herself, `I should look in my oven.’ So she got up and looked in her oven and found it full of the meat of a lamb, and her mortar and pestle was full of seed grains; it was crushing the seeds on its own. So, she took out what was in the mortar and pestle, after shaking it to remove everything from inside, and also took the meat out that she found in the oven.” Abu Hurayrah added, “By He in Whose Hand is the life of Abu Al-Qasim (Prophet Muhammad )! This is the same statement that Muhammad said,

«لَوْ أَخَذَتْ مَا فِي رَحْيَيْهَا وَلَمْ تَنْفُضْهَا (لَطَحَنَتْهَا) إِلى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَة»

(Had she taken out what was in her mortar and not emptied it fully by shaking it, it would have continued crushing the seeds until the Day of Resurrection.)”

[وَكَأِيِّن مِّن قَرْيَةٍ عَتَتْ عَنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّهَا وَرُسُلِهِ فَحَاسَبْنَـهَا حِسَاباً شَدِيداً وَعَذَّبْنَـهَا عَذَاباً نُّكْراً – فَذَاقَتْ وَبَالَ أَمْرِهَا وَكَانَ عَـقِبَةُ أَمْرِهَا خُسْراً – أَعَدَّ اللَّهُ لَهُمْ عَذَاباً شَدِيداً فَاتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ يأُوْلِى الأَلْبَـبِ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ قَدْ أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ إِلَيْكُمْ ذِكْراً – رَّسُولاً يَتْلُو عَلَيْكُمْ ءَايَـتِ اللَّهِ مُبَيِّنَـتٍ لِّيُخْرِجَ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ مِنَ الظُّلُمَـتِ إِلَى النُّورِ وَمَن يُؤْمِن بِاللَّهِ وَيَعْمَلْ صَـلِحاً يُدْخِلْهُ جَنَّـتٍ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا الاٌّنْهَـرُ خَـلِدِينَ فِيهَآ أَبَداً قَدْ أَحْسَنَ اللَّهُ لَهُ رِزْقاً ]

(8. And many a town revolted against the command of its Lord and His Messengers; and We called it to a severe account, and We shall punish it with a horrible torment.) (9. So it tasted the evil result of its affair, and the consequence of its affair was loss.) (10. Allah has prepared for them a severe torment. So have Taqwa of Allah, O men of understanding, those who believe! Allah has indeed sent down to you a Reminder.) (11. A Messenger, who recites to you the Ayat of Allah containing clear explanations, that He may take out those who believe and do righteous good deeds, from the darkness to the light. And whosoever believes in Allah and performs righteous deeds, He will admit him into Gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein forever. Allah has indeed granted for him an excellent provision.)

Punishment for defying Allah’s Commandments

Allah the Exalted threatens those who defy His commands, deny His Messengers and contradict His legislation, by informing them of the end that earlier nations met who did the same,

[وَكَأِيِّن مِّن قَرْيَةٍ عَتَتْ عَنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّهَا وَرُسُلِهِ]

(And many a town revolted against the command of its Lord and His Messengers;) meaning, they rebelled, rejected and arrogantly refused to obey Allah and they would not follow His Messengers,

[فَحَاسَبْنَـهَا حِسَاباً شَدِيداً وَعَذَّبْنَـهَا عَذَاباً نُّكْراً]

(and We called it to a severe account, and We shall punish it with a horrible torment.) meaning, horrendous and terrifying,

[فَذَاقَتْ وَبَالَ أَمْرِهَا]

(So it tasted the evil result of its affair,) meaning, they tasted the evil consequences of defiance and they regretted their actions when regret does not avail,

[وَكَانَ عَـقِبَةُ أَمْرِهَا خُسْراًأَعَدَّ اللَّهُ لَهُمْ عَذَاباً شَدِيداً]

(and the consequence of its affair was loss. And Allah has prepared for them a severe torment.) means, in the Hereafter, added to the torment that was sent down on them in this life. Allah the Exalted said, after mentioning what happened to the disbelieving nations,

[فَاتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ يأُوْلِى الأَلْبَـبِ]

(So have Taqwa of Allah, O men of understanding,) meaning, `O you who have sound understanding, do not be like them because if you do, you will suffer what they suffered, O people of comprehension,’

[الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ]

(who believe) meaning, in Allah and His Messengers,

[قَدْ أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ إِلَيْكُمْ ذِكْراً]

(Allah has indeed sent down to you a Reminder.) meaning, this Qur’an. Allah also said,

[إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَـفِظُونَ ]

(Verily, We, it is We Who have sent down the Dhikr and surely, We will preserve it.) (15:9)

The Qualities of the Messenger

Allah’s statement,

[رَّسُولاً يَتْلُو عَلَيْكُمْ ءَايَـتِ اللَّهِ مُبَيِّنَـتٍ]

(A Messenger, who recites to you the Ayat of Allah containing clear explanations,) Some said that the Messenger is the subject of what is being sent [as a reminder] because the Messenger is the one that conveys the Dhikr. Ibn Jarir said that what is correct is that the Messenger explains the Dhikr. This is why Allah the Exalted said here,

[رَّسُولاً يَتْلُو عَلَيْكُمْ ءَايَـتِ اللَّهِ مُبَيِّنَـتٍ]

(A Messenger, who recites to you the Ayat of Allah containing clear explanations,) meaning, plain and apparent. The statement of Allah;

[لِّيُخْرِجَ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ مِنَ الظُّلُمَـتِ إِلَى النُّورِ]

(that He may take out those who believe and do righteous good deeds, from the darkness to the light.) Allah’s is like saying;

[كِتَابٌ أَنزَلْنَـهُ إِلَيْكَ لِتُخْرِجَ النَّاسَ مِنَ الظُّلُمَـتِ إِلَى النُّورِ]

(A Book which We have revealed unto you in order that you might lead mankind out of darkness) (14:1), and,

[اللَّهُ وَلِيُّ الَّذِينَ ءامَنُواْ يُخْرِجُهُم مِّنَ الظُّلُمَـتِ إِلَى النُّورِ]

(Allah is the Guardian of those who believe. He brings them out from darkness into light.) (2:257) meaning, out of the darkness of disbelief and ignorance into the light of faith and knowledge. Allah the Exalted called the revelation that He has sent down, light, on account of the guidance that it brings. Allah also called it Ruh, in that, it brings life to the hearts,

[وَكَذَلِكَ أَوْحَيْنَآ إِلَيْكَ رُوحاً مِّنْ أَمْرِنَا مَا كُنتَ تَدْرِى مَا الْكِتَـبُ وَلاَ الإِيمَـنُ وَلَـكِن جَعَلْنَـهُ نُوراً نَّهْدِى بِهِ مَن نَّشَآءُ مِنْ عِبَادِنَا وَإِنَّكَ لَتَهْدِى إِلَى صِرَطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ ]

(And thus We have sent to you Ruh of our command. You knew not what is the book, nor what is faith But We have made it a light wherewith we guide whosoever of Our servants We will. And verily, you are indeed guiding to the straight path.) (42:52) Allah’s statement,

[وَمَن يُؤْمِن بِاللَّهِ وَيَعْمَلْ صَـلِحاً يُدْخِلْهُ جَنَّـتٍ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا الاٌّنْهَـرُ خَـلِدِينَ فِيهَآ أَبَداً قَدْ أَحْسَنَ اللَّهُ لَهُ رِزْقاً]

(And whosoever believes in Allah and performs righteous good deeds, He will admit him into Gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein forever. Allah has indeed granted for him an excellent provision.) was explained several times before, and therefore, we do not need to repeat its explanation here. All the thanks and praises are due to Allah.

[اللَّهُ الَّذِى خَلَقَ سَبْعَ سَمَـوَتٍ وَمِنَ الاٌّرْضِ مِثْلَهُنَّ يَتَنَزَّلُ الاٌّمْرُ بَيْنَهُنَّ لِّتَعْلَمُواْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيرٌ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ أَحَاطَ بِكُلِّ شَىْءٍ عِلْمَا ]

(12. It is Allah Who has created seven heavens and of the earth the like thereof. His command descends between them, that you may know that Allah has power over all things, and that Allah surrounds all things with (His) knowledge.)

Allah’s Perfect Power

Allah the Exalted asserts His perfect power and infinite greatness, so that the great religion that He has legislated is honored and implemented,

[اللَّهُ الَّذِى خَلَقَ سَبْعَ سَمَـوَتٍ]

(It is Allah Who has created seven heavens) Allah said in similar Ayat, like what Prophet Nuh said to his people,

[أَلَمْ تَرَوْاْ كَيْفَ خَلَقَ اللَّهُ سَبْعَ سَمَـوَتٍ طِبَاقاً ]

(See you not how Allah has created the seven heavens one above another) (71:15), and,

[تُسَبِّحُ لَهُ السَّمَـوَتُ السَّبْعُ وَالاٌّرْضُ وَمَن فِيهِنَّ]

(The seven heavens and the earth and all that is therein, glorify him.) (17:44) Allah’s statement,

[وَمِنَ الاٌّرْضِ مِثْلَهُنَّ]

(and of the earth the like thereof.) means, He created seven earths. In the Two Sahihs, there is a Hadith that states,

«مَنْ ظَلَمَ قِيدَ شِبْرٍ مِنَ الْأَرْضِ طُوِّقَهُ مِنْ سَبْعِ أَرَضِين»

(Whoever usurps the land of somebody unjustly, even if it was a mere hand span, then his neck will be encircled with it down to the seven earths.) And in Sahih Al-Bukhari the wording is:

«خُسِفَ بِهِ إِلَى سَبْعِ أَرَضِين»

(…he will sink down to the seven earths.) In the beginning of my book, Al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah, I mentioned the various narrations for this Hadith when I narrated the story of the creation of the earth. All the thanks and praise is due to Allah. Those who explained this Hadith to mean the seven continents have brought an implausible explanation that contradicts the letter of the Qur’an and the Hadith without having proof. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat At-Talaq, all the thanks and praise is due to Allah.

The Ruling Concerning Divorce in Islaam : Ibn Baaz

[Taken from Fataawaa Islaamiyyah (3/264)]
Shaykh ‘Abdul-‘Azeez Ibn ‘Abdullaah Ibn Baaz (rahimahullaah)

[Q]: What are the valid reasons for divorce, from your point of view your Eminence?

[A]: For divorce there are many reasons: From them (i.e. the many reasons for divorce) is lack of harmony between the husband and the wife such that it does not cause love from either one for the other or from both of them. And from them is bad behaviour of the woman or lack of listening and obedience to the husband in what he commands of the good. And from them is bad behaviour of the husband and his oppressing the woman and lack of fairness/justice for her. And from them is his falling short of fulfilling her rights and her falling short of fulfilling his rights. And from this is the occurrence of wrongdoing from one of them or both of them such that the situation is made worse because of this, so the only route is divorce, and from this is the husband or the wife turning to intoxicants and smoking. And from them is the bad state of affairs between the woman and the husband’s parents or either of them, and the lack of use of wise politics in dealing with each other. And from them is the lack of the woman in caring and showing concern in cleanliness and dressing up and beautifying herself for her husband with perfume and good speech and cheerfulness when she meets her husband and when they have sexual intercourse.

The Supplication of a Menstruating Woman : Ibn Baaz

By Imaam ’Abdullaah Ibn ’Abdul ’Azeez Ibn Baaz

Question:

Is it permissible for a menstruating woman to recite the du’aa’s of the Day of ‘Arafaah despite the fact that they include aayaat from the Qur’aan?

Answer:

There is nothing wrong with the woman who is menstruating or bleeding after childbirth reciting du’aa’s that are prescribed for the rituals of Hajj. Also, according to the correct opinion, there is nothing wrong with them reading Qur’aan as well, because there is no clear saheeh report that states that the woman who is menstruating or bleeding after childbirth should not read Qur’aan. It was reported that the man who is junub (in a state of impurity following sexual activity), in particular, should not read Qur’aan whilst he is junub, because of the hadeeth of ‘Ali (may Allaah be pleased with him). With regard to the woman who is menstruating or bleeding after childbirth there is the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Umar: “The menstruating woman and the man who is junub should not read Qur’aan” – but it is da’eef (weak), because the hadeeth was reported by Ismaa’eel ibn ‘Ayyaash from the Hijaaziyeen, and he is da’eef in his reports from them. But she should read without touching the Mus-haf (copy of the Qur’aan in Arabic), from memory. In the case of the man who is junub, he should not recite Qur’an at all, either from memory or from the Mus-haf, until he has done ghusl. The difference between them is that the timespan for the one who is junub is very short, he can do ghusl straightaway, as soon as he finished having intercourse with his wife. He is not junub for long, and it is up to him when he wants to do ghusl; if he cannot find water, he can do tayammum (“dry ablution” using dust etc.) and pray and read Qur’aan. But the woman who is menstruating or bleeding after childbirth has no control over her situation – it rests with Allaah, may He be glorified. The period lasts for a number of days and nifaas (post-natal bleeding) is the same. So it is permissible for them to recite Qur’aan so that they do not forget it and so that they do not miss out on the blessings of reciting Qur’aan and learning the rules of sharee’ah from the Book of Allaah. If that is the case, then it should certainly be permissible for them to read books containing du’aas that are a mixture of aayaat and ahaadeeth, etc… this is the more correct of the two opinions of the scholars, may Allaah have mercy on them. [1]

Question:

I read some Tafseers (Qur’anic commentaries) when I am not taahir (ritually pure), such as during my monthly period. Is there any sin on me for doing that? Will I be committing a sin if I do that?

Answer:

There is no sin on the woman who is menstruating or bleeding after childbirth if she reads books of Tafseer or even if she reads Qur’aan without touching the Mus-haf, according to the more correct of the two scholarly opinions. As for the man who is junub, he should not read Qur’aan at all until he has done ghusl, but he can read books of Tafseer and hadeeth etc., without reading whatever they contain of aayaat, because of the report that nothing would stop the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) from reading Qur’aan except janaabah (being junub). According to a hadeeth narrated by Imaam Ahmad with a jayyid isnaad, he said: “As for the man who is junub, he should not read even one aayah.” [2]

Footnotes:

[1] Fataawaa Islaamiyyah (1/239)
[2] Fataawaa Islaamiyyah (1/239).