Benefit: O you who believe! If you obey and fear Allaah, He will grant you Furqan – Tafseer Ibn Katheer

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِن تَتَّقُوا اللَّهَ يَجْعَل لَّكُمْ فُرْقَانًا وَيُكَفِّرْ عَنكُمْ سَيِّئَاتِكُمْ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ ذُو الْفَضْلِ الْعَظِيمِ

O you who believe! If you obey and fear Allaah, He will grant you Furqan, and will expiate for you your sins, and forgive you; and Allah is the Owner of the great bounty. (Al-Anfal 8:29)

Ibn `Abbas, As-Suddi, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, Muqatil bin Hayyan and several others said that,

(Furqan), means, `a way out’;

Mujahid added, “In this life and the Hereafter.”

In another narration, Ibn `Abbas is reported to have said, `Furqan‘ means `salvation‘ or — according to another narration — `aid’.

Muhammad bin Ishaq said that `Furqan‘ means `criterion between truth and falsehood‘.

This last explanation from Ibn Ishaq is more general than the rest that we mentioned, and it also includes the other meanings.

Certainly, those who have Taqwa of Allah by obeying what He ordained and abstaining from what he forbade, will be guided to differentiate between the truth and the falsehood. This will be a triumph, safety and a way out for them from the affairs of this life, all the while acquiring happiness in the Hereafter.

They will also gain forgiveness, thus having their sins erased, and pardon, thus having their sins covered from other people, as well as, being directed to a way to gain Allah’s tremendous rewards,

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَآمِنُوا بِرَسُولِهِ يُؤْتِكُمْ كِفْلَيْنِ مِن رَّحْمَتِهِ وَيَجْعَل لَّكُمْ نُورًا تَمْشُونَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ۚ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

O you who believe! Have Taqwa of Allah, and believe in His Messenger, He will give you a double portion of His mercy, and He will give you a light by which you shall walk (straight). And He will forgive you. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful (57:28)

Source: Tafseer Ibn Katheer, Dar-us-salam English Publication

The Believer (Mu’min) should combine between al-Khawf (Fear) and ar-Rajaa (Hope) – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lesson 51: Point 88
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

And know, may Allaah have mercy upon you, that it is befitting that the servant should always have fear and concern for as long as he remains in this world because he does not know what condition he will die upon, what conclusion he will have, knowing what state he will meet Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic even if he performed every good deed.

And it is befitting that a man who has transgressed greatly to the detriment of his own soul should not give up hope in Allaah, the Most High, at the point of death. Rather, he should have good thoughts with respect to Allaah whilst fearing his sins. So, if Allaah has mercy upon him then it is from His favour and if He punishes him then it is because of his sins.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

This is a tremendous matter and it is that the believer (mu`min) should combine al-khawf war-rajaa· (fear and hope) such that in performing his deeds he precedes between fear and hope. So he does not have fear on its own and so therefore despair of the mercy of Allaah.

He, the Most High, said:

 إِنَّهُ لَا يَيْأَسُ مِن رَّوْحِ اللَّهِ إِلَّا الْقَوْمُ الْكَافِرُونَ

Indeed no-one despairs of the mercy of Allaah except for the disbelieving people. (Soorah-Yoosuf (12), aayah 87)

And He, the Most High, said:

وَمَن يَقْنَطُ مِن رَّحْمَةِ رَبِّهِ إِلَّا الضَّالُّونَ

And who despairs of the mercy of his Lord except for those people who are astray. (Sooratul-Hijr (15), aayah 56)

He, the Most High, said:

قُلْ يَا عِبَادِيَ الَّذِينَ أَسْرَفُوا عَلَىٰ أَنفُسِهِمْ لَا تَقْنَطُوا مِن رَّحْمَةِ اللَّهِ

Say, “O my servants who have transgressed greatly against their own soulsǃ Do not despair of the mercy of Allaah.” (Sooratuz-Zumar (39), aayah 53)

So he should not fear with excessive fear, which causes him to despair of the mercy of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, for this is blameworthy fear. And likewise, he should have hope in Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, however, the hope should not take him and cause him to feel secure of the makr (plot or plan) of Allaah. Rather, he should be fearful of Allaah’s plan.

And the plan of Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, is as befits Him and it is from His perfection. It is not like the makr (plotting) of the created beings, for makr (plotting) in the language is secretly striving for some harm to come upon someone else in a hidden manner such that he is not aware of it. This is what makr means in Arabic. So if that is done for a just cause then it is justice and this is the plotting or planning of Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, for He plots against the wrongdoers and the evildoers and causes his punishment to come upon them in a way that they do not perceive and this is justice from Him, He, the Perfect. So He is praised for it but as for if causing harm to come upon someone else is not for a just cause then it is dhulm (oppression) and it is not permissible. And this is the makr (plotting) of the created beings but as for the plotting of the Creator, the Majestic and Most High, then it is something praiseworthy because it is justice and fairness from Him, He, the Perfect and Most High. So this is the difference between the two matters; between the plotting of Allaah and the plotting of the created beings.

He, the Most High, said:

وَمَكَرُوا وَمَكَرَ اللَّهُ ۖ وَاللَّهُ خَيْرُ الْمَاكِرِينَ

And they plot and Allaah plots. And Allaah is the best of those who plot(Soorah Aali `Imraan (3), aayah 54)

This is a case of recompense for them. So it is not oppression from Him, He, the Perfect and Most High. Rather it comes about as a result of their plotting. They plotted and Allaah plotted against them as a punishment for them. And this is justice from Him, He, the Perfect and Most High.

And there occurs in the hadeeth:

“One of you may act with the actions of the people of Paradise until there is not between him and it except a cubit; forearms distance and then what was written overtakes him and he acts with the actions of the people of the Fire and therefore he enters it.”

He enters the Fire on account of the fact that he has acted with the actions of the people of the Fire and the recompense comes as a result of the action. And since his conclusion was that he acted with the actions of the people of the Fire, he will enter the Fire and the opposite is the case:

“And one of you may act with the actions of the people of the Fire until there is not between him and it except a cubit; forearms distance so then what was written overtakes him and he acts with the actions of the people of the Paradise and therefore he enters it.”[1]

He enters it because he performed the actions of the people of Paradise and died upon it. So the Fire will not be entered into except on account of deeds and Paradise will not be entered into except on account of having performed deeds; and deeds are in accordance with their conclusions.

So a person must not be deceived by his own righteousness or his uprightness and therefore feel secure from deviation. How many believers and how many Muslims and how many scholars Allaah has caused them to deviate when acts of disobedience occurred from them? So a person should not feel secure about himself nor praise his own self. So he should not feel secure from deviation and so on account of it mix with the evil people and listen to them and look into matters of trials and tribulations. He should not feel secure for himself.

“The hearts of the servants are between two fingers from the fingers of the Most Merciful One.”[2]

He should not feel secure with regard to himself. And the khaleel (the especially beloved one); Ibraaheem `alayhissalaam made supplication (du`a) and said:

 وَاجْنُبْنِي وَبَنِيَّ أَن نَّعْبُدَ الْأَصْنَامَ
رَبِّ إِنَّهُنَّ أَضْلَلْنَ كَثِيرًا مِّنَ النَّاسِ

… And keep me and my children away from worshipping the idols. O my Lord they have led many of the people astray. (Soorah Ibraaheem (14), aayah 35-36) 

So a person should not feel secure for himself from being put to trial and from having an evil conclusion even if he is from the most righteous of the people. And he shouldn’t despair of the mercy of Allaah even if he is one of the worst of the disbelieving ones from the people, for Allaah may favour him with repentance so that he dies upon Islaam and therefore enters Paradise. Because as long as he is still alive then he is open to this or that. So the actions are in accordance with their conclusions.

His saying, “and he should have good thoughts with respect to Allaah and he should fear his sins.” He should think good with regard to Allaah and not despair of the mercy of Allaah.

“and he should fear his sins,” meaning he should not hope with a hope that has no fear with it. Rather, he should gather between fear and hope.

إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا يُسَارِعُونَ فِي الْخَيْرَاتِ وَيَدْعُونَنَا رَغَبًا وَرَهَبًا

They used to hasten to perform good deeds and they worshipped Us and invoked Us upon hope and fear. (Sooratul-Anbiyaa· (21), aayah 90)

They were the Prophets and they used to hasten to do good deeds and worship and invoke Allaah, raghaban (with hope); meaning hoping for His reward and rahaban (meaning fearing His punishment). So the Prophets gathered between fear and hope; they did not take one aspect and leave the other aspect. They did not take the aspect of hope and leave off the aspect of fear and they did not take up the aspect of fear and leave off the aspect of hope.

And the servant should make his thoughts about Allaah good, particularly at the point of death. The scholars said, while the person is in a state of good health, he should cause the aspect of fear to predominate as a precaution and at the point of death, he should cause the aspect of hope to predominate. Because during life he is able to act and to repent and to seek forgiveness but at the point of death, he is not able to do anything so then he should give precedence to the aspect of hope. And therefore, there occurs in the hadeeth:

“One of you should not die except that he has good thoughts with respect to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.”[3]

His saying, if Allaah has mercy upon him then it is from His favour and if He punishes him then it is on account of sin.” This is just as has preceded that Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, does not grant bliss to the people nor does He punish them except on account of their deeds.

He, the Most High, said:

وَلَا يَظْلِمُ رَبُّكَ أَحَدًا
And your Lord does not oppress anyone.
(Sooratul-Kahf (18), aayah 49)

Footnotes:

[1] Reported by al-Bukhaariyy (3,208) and (6,594) and Muslim (2,643) from a hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn Mas`ood radiyAllaahu `anhu.

[2] Reported by Muslim (2,654) from a hadeeth of `Abdullaah Ibn `Amr radiyAllaahu `anhumaa.

[3] Reported by Muslim (2,877) from a hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn `Amr radiyAllaahu `anhumaa.

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharh as-Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Buying & Selling without Deception, Oppression or Treachery – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lesson 51: Point 87
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

And know that selling and buying is lawful if it is carried out in the markets of the Muslims in accordance with the rulings of the Book and the Sunnah as long as no deception, oppression or treachery is committed, nor anything contrary to the Qur’aan or contrary to what is known.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

We hold as our belief that al-bayy` wash-shiraa· (buying and selling) is lawful.

He the, Most High, said:

وَأَحَلَّ اللَّهُ الْبَيْعَ وَحَرَّمَ الرِّبَا

Whereas Allaah has permitted trade and He has forbidden usury.
(Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 275)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَأْكُلُوا أَمْوَالَكُم بَيْنَكُم بِالْبَاطِلِ إِلَّا أَن تَكُونَ تِجَارَةً عَن تَرَاضٍ مِّنكُمْ

O you who believe, do not devour each other’s wealth unlawfully but only in lawful trade upon the basis of mutual consent between you. (Sooratun-Nisaa· (4), aayah 29)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا نُودِيَ لِلصَّلَاةِ مِن يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ فَاسْعَوْا إِلَىٰ ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَذَرُوا الْبَيْعَ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

فَإِذَا قُضِيَتِ الصَّلَاةُ فَانتَشِرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَابْتَغُوا مِن فَضْلِ اللَّهِ وَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا لَّعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

O you who believe when the call to the prayer is given on the day of Jumu`ah then proceed to the remembrance of Allaah and leave off trade. That is better for you if indeed you knew. So when the prayer is completed then disperse upon the earth and seek from the Bounty of Allaah. And remember Allaah plentifully so that you may prosper.(Sooratul-Jumu`ah (62), aayah 9-10)

Meaning of seeking bounty is to seek provision.

And He said with regard to the mosques:

 يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ فِيهَا بِالْغُدُوِّ وَالْآصَالِ 

رِجَالٌ لَّا تُلْهِيهِمْ تِجَارَةٌ وَلَا بَيْعٌ عَن ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ 

Wherein He (Allaah) is glorified in prayer in the mornings and the evenings by men who are not preoccupied by trade nor by sales away from the remembrance of Allaah… (Sooratun-Noor (24), aayah 36-37)

Laa tulheehim (they are not preoccupied, not diverted away). He did not say, “They do not buy and they do not engage in trade.” Rather, He said, “They are not diverted by their trading, away from the remembrance of Allaah.” Rather they attend the mosques and they pray along with the congregation, then they go off to their buying and their selling. And buying and selling is from the purest ways of earning if they are free from ghish (deception) and khadee`ah (trickery) and they are free from selling forbidden goods and from dealing in that which is forbidden and usury (ribaa). So if buying and selling is free of things which corrupt it, then it is from the purest means of earning.

His saying, “if the buying is done in the market places of the Muslims,” whatever is brought to the market places of the Muslims then do not ask about it because the origin is permissibility unless it is something about which it is known that it is something forbidden.

His saying, “in accordance with the ruling of the Book and the Sunnah,” such that the well-known conditions for trade are fulfilled. So if the seven well-known conditions for trade are fulfilled then the transaction is correct and what is sold is halaal (lawful). And the origin is that the market places of the Muslims are established upon that basis.[1]

His saying, “as long as no deception or oppression or treachery enters into it,” if deception enters into a transaction and an unknown factor and an element of chance then it will be forbidden (haraam) because it has become a case of gambling. Or a case of khidaa` (trickery, swindling) such that he shows something, which is not the actual reality. He shows an item in an appearance, which is not the true reality and this is called at-tadlees (giving a false impression to something) and it is manifesting an item on sale in a form which pleases the one who looks at it but when it is in it’s unapparent state something different to that.

His saying, “Adh-dhulm; as long as dhulm (oppression) does not enter into the sale,” such that the owner has been compelled and forced to sell it, that he was made to do the transaction for a business transaction can only be `an-taraadin (by mutual consent). He sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

“A business transaction can only be by mutual consent.”[2]

Allaah, the Most High, said;

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَأْكُلُوا أَمْوَالَكُم بَيْنَكُم بِالْبَاطِلِ إِلَّا أَن تَكُونَ تِجَارَةً عَن تَرَاضٍ مِّنكُمْ

O you who believe, do not devour the wealth of each other unjustly except and unless it is a business transaction by mutual consent. (Sooratun-Nisaa· (4), aayah 29)

So for the correctness of the sale, there is a condition that there is pleasure and consent of the seller and that he freely chooses to do so and is not compelled to do it because compelling him is oppression; forcing him to sell something he doesn’t want to sell. Unless the forcing him to sell is due to a right that is due such that he is a person who has debts upon him and he refuses to pay them back, for in that case, the judge or the ruler can intervene and can sell from his property what would be sufficient to pay off his debts even if he is not pleased with that because this is compulsion due to a right. And therefore, they said, “The sale of a person who does so by compulsion is not correct unless it is on account of a right; illaa bi-haqq.[3]

Footnotes:

[1] Translator’s side point: With regard to the seven well-known conditions for a business transaction to be correct,they are mentioned below very briefly:

  1. Ar-ridaa: mutual consent.
  2. Ar-rashad: the one engaged in that transaction is suitable to be involved in business transactions. So it’s not permissible for a child below the age of discernment or a foolish one who doesn’t have the mental capacity to be involved in a business transaction if their guardian does not give permission.
  3. The thing which is sold is some wealth, property from which permissible benefit can be taken.
  4. The item sold is owned by the one who is selling it or he has permission granted to him to sell it at the time of the contract by its owner or by the legislator.
  5. The ability to take and receive it.
    Translator’s side-point: On the basis of a
    hadeeth; you can’t sell a runaway slave who has run away from his master, his master can’t sell him. Even if the person could go after him and chase and maybe catch him. That is not permissible. Rather, he has to have the ability to take receipt of the item being sold.
  6. The price is something known and what is being paid for likewise is known.
  7. It is a deal, which is being concluded. It is not being made a condition for something else. 

Reference: Al-Mubdi` of Ibn Muflih, Ar-Rawd al-Murabba` and Manaar us-Sabeel.

Translator’s side point: The side examples I gave here are from the notes to Manaar us-Sabeel.

[2] Reported by Ibn Maajah and Ibn Hibbaan from Aboo Sa`eed al-Khudriyy radiyAllaahu `anhu. And Al-Busayriyy said in Misbaah Az-Zujaajah, its chain of narration is saheeh, its narrators are reliable. And Shaykh Al-Albaaniyy said it is saheeh (authentic).

[3] Translator’s side point: Saalih as-Suhaymee hafizahullaah said: “The restriction of the author in his saying that it is performed in the market places of the Muslims,” This is a point which requires examination because buying and selling is permissible even in other than the market places of the Muslims. Is it not permissible to buy and sell along with the Jews and Christians? Is it permissible or not? It is permissible that you can buy and sell and have mutual dealings and lease out and rent. This is a matter about which two people will not disagree and therefore the author rahimahullaah restricting it by his saying “in the market places of the Muslims,” I don’t see that there is a necessity for that here at this point. And rather, whoever wishes to buy and sell then let him buy and sell as he wishes in the lands of the Muslims, the lands of the Jews or the Christians, in the lands of the disbelievers, whatever. However, with the condition when that transaction does not aid them upon something false and futile or upon causing harm to the Muslims for e.g. selling weapons to a disbeliever who is at war with the Muslims, that would not be permissible.”

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharh as-Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Not making Hijrah due to being upon welfare and fearing poverty – Shaykh ‘Abdur Rahmaan al-‘Adanee

Question 15: Not making hijrah due to being upon welfare and fearing poverty

“Taking money from the disbelievers (welfare) has made many of the Muslims lazy from making hijrah, and that is because they, if they work they fall into forbidden acts, and if they make hijrah they fear poverty. Also, they claim that with this money they are able to live at ease and perform their deen. So what is your advice for these people, and is hijrah from the means for provision and what is the proof for that, and are the rituals that the Salafees do over there considered to be performing the deen?”

The Answer:

Allaah (‘Azza Wa Jall), the treasures of the heavens and the earth are in His hand, and He has guaranteed provision for His slaves as He (‘Azza Wa Jall) said in His Book:

وَمَا مِن دَابَّةٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ إِلَّا عَلَى اللَّهِ رِزْقُهَا وَيَعْلَمُ مُسْتَقَرَّهَا وَمُسْتَوْدَعَهَا ۚ كُلٌّ فِي كِتَابٍ مُّبِينٍ

“And no living creature is there on earth but its provision is due from Allaah. And He knows its dwelling place and its deposit. All is in a Clear Book.” – Hud (11):6

And as He (Subhaanahu) said:

وَكَأَيِّن مِّن دَابَّةٍ لَّا تَحْمِلُ رِزْقَهَا اللَّهُ يَرْزُقُهَا وَإِيَّاكُمْ ۚ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

“And so many a living creature there is that carries not its own provision. Allaah provides for it and for you. And He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.” – Al-Ankaboot (29):60

And Allaah (‘Azza Wa Jall) says:

وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنسَ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ
مَا أُرِيدُ مِنْهُم مِّن رِّزْقٍ وَمَا أُرِيدُ أَن يُطْعِمُونِ
إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الرَّزَّاقُ ذُو الْقُوَّةِ الْمَتِينُ

“And I created not the jinns and mankind except they should worship Me. I seek not any provision from them nor do I ask that they should feed Me. Verily, Allaah is the Provider, Possessor of power, the Most Strong.” – AdhDhaariyaat (51):56-58

So it is upon every Muslim to know that his provision has already been determined and has been written for him in a book with Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’ala) fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth, and that was also written while he was in his mother’s womb; his provision was written, and his life-span, and his deeds, and whether he would be miserable or happy. Also, the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam), he is the one who said,

Verily the spirit of purity (Jibreel) has inspired me that no soul will die except that it has fulfilled its provision and its life-span, so fear Allaah and do that which is good in seeking provision.”

So the only provision that will come to the slave is that which has been written for him, so it is only upon him that he strive to be righteous and he hasten to do acts of obedience, and it is not permissible for him to think that his righteousness and his performance of that which Allaah has ordered is going to decrease his provision, and that his laxity and negligence and his unstableness in his deen is going to be a reason for his provision to increase.

It is upon all of us to know that hijrah for Allaah’s sake is one of the great means of provision as He (Ta’ala) said in His Noble Book:

وَمَن يُهَاجِرْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ يَجِدْ فِي الْأَرْضِ مُرَاغَمًا كَثِيرًا 

“He who emigrates in the cause of Allaah will find on earth many dwelling places and plenty of provision.” – An-Nisaa (4):100

So whoever makes hijrah for Allaah’s sake seeking the pleasure of Allaah (‘Azza Wa Jall), Allaah has promised him the good promise, provision and ease and comfort, that which will be a means to infuriate his enemies. So it is upon every Muslim to ask Allaah for a portion of His bounty, and rely upon Him, and see Him to be sufficient for him, and be modest because if he sees Allaah to be sufficient for him, then Allaah will be sufficient for him, and if he strives to be modest, then Allaah will enable him to be modest.

As for the question, “Are the rituals that the Salafees do over there considered to be performing the deen.” The answer is that the discussion about residing in the lands of the disbelievers and its ruling has preceded, so you, after examining what has preceded, will be able, Allaah (Ta’ala) willing, to give the ruling of our brothers over there.

Source Questions and answers concerning al-Hijrah – By Shaykh ‘Abdur Rahmaan al-‘Adanee

Related Link: Hijrah (Migration to Muslim Lands) – abdurrahman.org/hijrah

Aayatul-Kursi contains Ismullaahi al-Aa’tham (Allaah’s Most Greatest Name) – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

The following is excerpted from the Shaykh Uthaymeen’s explanation of Aayatul-Kursi, Translated by Dr. Saleh as-Saleh rahimahullaah

The aayah contains ismullaahi al-aa’tham (Allaah’s Most Greatest Name) affirmed in His Saying:

[ الحيُّ الَقيُّوم ]

Allaah, there is no god worthy of worship except He, the one who possesses the perfect living, and Who is established on His Own, Self-subsisting, and by Whom all things subsist.[88]

These two Names were mentioned in three places in the Qur’aan, in the two soorahs known as az-zahraawayn [89] (AlBaqarah and Aal-’Imran), and in Soorat Taha.[90]

The people of ‘ilm (ahlul-‘ilm) said: The Most Great Name of Allaah is only in these two Names since they comprise the Most Beautiful Names in their entirety, and hence the attribute of Perfection is implied in the Name [ الحيُّ ]and the attribute of ihsaan (beauty) is entailed in the Name: [ الَقيُّوم]

Footnotes:

[88] Allaah is the one who sustains, protects, prepares, and runs the affairs of all things as He wills in accordance with His Knowledge, Wisdom, and Justice.

[89] Zahraawayn (dual form of zahra): The bright ones. The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said,

“Recite the Qur’aan, for on the Day of Resurrection it will come as an intercessor for those who recite it. Recite the two bright ones, Al-Baqarah and Soorat Aal-’Imraan, for on the Day of Resurrection they will come as two clouds or two shades, or two flocks of birds in ranks, pleading for those who recite them. Recite Soorat Al-Baqarah, for to take recourse to it is a blessing and to give it up is a cause of grief, and the magicians cannot confront it.”

Reported in Saheeh Muslim (English Translation), vol. 2, no. 1757.

[90] In Al-Baqarah (2:255), in Aal-’Imraan (3:2), and in Taha (20:111).

Abu Umaamah (رضي االله عنه) reported that the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said,

“Allaah’s Most Great Name is in three soorahs in the Qur’aan, in Soorat Al-Baqarah and in Aal-’Imraan and in Soorat Taha.”

Al-Qaasim bin ‘Abdur-Rahmaan, one of the narrators of this hadeeth, searched the Qur’aan and found

Aaytul-Kursi in Soorat Al-Baqarah (2:255):
[ االلهُ لا إله إلاَّ ُ هوَ الحَيُّ القَيُّوم ]

And in Soorat Aal-’Imraan (3:2):
[ اللَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ ]

And in Soorat Taha (20:111)
[ وَعَنَتِ الْوُجُوهُ لِلْحَيِّ الْقَيُّومِ ]

Reported by al-Haakim, Ibn Maajah, at-Tabarani, at-Tahaawi, and others. Shaykh al-Albaani authenticated its isnaad (As-Silsilah As-Saheeha), vol. 2, no. 746.

Source : From the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi – By Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen. With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

Read the below excellent article:

Al Hayy, Al-Qayyoum: Two of Allaah’s names which comprise the perfection of Attributes and Actions – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

Who is it that can intercede with Allaah except with His Permission? – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

Bismillaah

The following is excerpted from the Shaykh Uthaymeen’s explanation of Aayatul-Kursi, Translated by Dr. Saleh as-Saleh rahimahullaah

[FOURTH]: In the fourth statement, Allaah, the Most High, said:

مَن ذَا الَّذِي يَشْفَعُ عِندَهُ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ
Who is it that can intercede with Him except with His Permission?

[Qur’aan, Aayatul-Kursi , Surah Al-Baqarah 2:255]

The word { ْمَن } “Who” is an interrogative noun [46] and the intended use of the interrogation in the sentence is to assert the negation [that there is none who can intercede] as evident in the affirmation phrase which followed it: { ِ إإِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ  } “Except with His Permission.” Whenever a negation takes the form of an interrogative construct, then the statement is infused with the meaning of challenge.

The Intercession (Ash-Shafaa’ah):

Regarding the saying of Allaah, the Most High:

يَشْفَعُ  }
Intercedes,”

know that:

1 . Linguistically, the term “shafaa’ah” means to make an odd number an even one.[47]

2 . Traditionally, it refers to the laying of a petition (interceding, mediating) with someone in favor of another, in procuring a benefit or warding off harm. Thus the shafaa’ah of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) for ahlul-mawqif [48] after the worry and distress which befalls them and which they are unable to bear is an intercession to ward off a harm. On the other hand, the Prophet’s shafaa’ah for ahlul-Jannah [49] to enter al-Jannah is aimed at procuring a benefit.

3. None can intercede except by Allaah’s Permission: { إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ } His Leave is kawni. [50] Even Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) who has the greatest rank with Allaah cannot intercede except with the prior leave from Allaah. He will be granted this permission after he (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) prostrates before Allaah and praises Him with the great praises and glorifications which Allaah guides him to it on that day. Then it will be said:

“ارفع رأسك وقل يُسمَع واشفَعْ تُشَف َّع.”
“Raise your head and speak; you will be listened to, intercede and your intercession will be accepted.” [51]

[It is known] that no one have a rank with Allaah greater than that of the Messenger [Muhammad صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم], nevertheless, he (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) cannot intercede except with the prior leave of Allaah. It is so because of Allaah, Most Majestic and Most High’s, perfection of Authority and hayybah.[52] The more a king’s authority becomes fully established, the more reverent and respected he becomes. People would not even speak in his court unless he speaks. Consider the Prophet’s (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) relation with his companions and which Quraysh’s [53] emissary [‘Urwah bin Mas’oud] described [after finalizing the treaty of AlHudaybiyah]: “And when they spoke to him they would lower their voices.” [54]

All of this is out of respect. You find that if a king is revered by his flock, then no one can speak in his court and in his presence because of the might of his authority. [55]

[The Conditions of Confirmed Intercession]: [56]

Allaah, (تعالى ), has made it clear that He does not permit intercession except for the one whom He approves of and whose word is acceptable to Him, and for the one He is pleased with and on whose behalf intercession shall be made. It is inevitable that Allaah is pleased with ash-shaafi’, the intercessor, and al-mashfoo’i lahu, the one on whose behalf intercession is sought.[57] Consequently, the idols of the polytheists could not intercede on their behalf with Allaah because Allaah does not approve of them. The Prophets and the righteous do not intercede on behalf of the polytheists because the latter are not approved with Allaah.

Accordingly, the conditions for the confirmed shafaa’ah are three:

1. Allaah’s permission of it.
2. Allaah being pleased with the shaafi’.
3. His approval of the one on whose behalf intercession is sought (al-mashfoo’i lahu).[58]

Footnotes:

[46] In the grammatical sense, the noun { ْمَن ] is the subject, and the term { ذَا ] is omitted for being redundant. The term { الَّذِي } “he that” is a relative pronoun standing as the predicate of the subject {مَن } “Who.” [Author’s note].

[47] Allaah (تعالى) said: { وَالشَّفْعِ وَالْوَتْرِ  }, [which means], And by the shaf’a (even) and the witr (odd) [of all the creations of Allaah]. [Qur’aan Soorat Al-Fajr (89:3)].

[48] Ahlul-Mawqif: All human beings gathered on one plane on the Day of Resurrection awaiting their accounts to be taken by Allaah. The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said, “The sun will come so close to the people that they will suffer such distress and trouble as they will not be able to tolerate it or to bear it.” The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) intercedes with Allaah to pronounce His Judgment among the people of al-Mawqif. They will be relieved from their long standing by virtue of his interceding with Allaah on their behalf. [See Saheeh alBukhaari (Arabic/English)], vol. 6, no. 236.

[49] Ahlul-Jannah: The believers who will be admitted to reside forever in al-Jannah.

[50] Kawni: Pertaining to the Universal Will of Allaah, the Most Majestic and Most Magnificent, and which is in accordance with His Foreknowledge and Wisdom. Creation, provisions, life, death, permission to intercede, and so forth exists by the Will of Allaah. Everything that Allaah Wills is certain to occur. He Willed that eemaan (belief in Allaah) and kufr (disbelief) occur, although He Loves eemaan and Hates kufr. On the other hand, the Legislative Decree (al-hukm ash-shar’i) comprises the Revealed Laws (sharee’ah) which the Messengers came with and what is stated in the Revealed Scriptures. Under this Decree, Allaah Loves that mankind believe in Him (eemaan) and does not Love for them to commit kufr. Mankind, however, may or may not believe in Allaah. In short, under His Universal Will, everything Allaah Wills is certain to pass while under the Legislative Will, what is beloved to Allaah may or may not take place.

[51] Part of a long and agreed upon hadeeth. [See Saheeh al-Bukhaari (Arabic/ English)], vol. 6, no. 3 and no. 236.

[52] Hayybah: An attribute inspiring reverence, or veneration.

[53] Quraysh is the tribe of the Prophet Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم).

[54]This is part of a long hadeeth detailing the story of the treaty of Al-Hudaybiyah. [See Saheeh al-Bukhaari, vol. 3, hadeeth 891 (English/Arabic).

[55] Kings are in need of intercessors because of the imperfection of their knowledge, might and authority. Allaah, Most Perfect in His Might, Knowledge, and Authority, is in no need for intercessors. That is why intercession with Allaah takes place only if He permits it. With kings, however, intercession is permitted with or without a king’s permission. Those close to the king, for example, may intercede without permission. [See Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen’s Al-Qawlul Mufeed ‘Alaa Kitaabit-Tawheed (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Daarul ‘Aasimah, 1st ed. 1415/1994)], vol. 1, p. 330, 332.

[56]The intercessions permitted by Allaah تعالى are six. The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) will have the privilege of making three of these intercessions. They are:

1. The Prophet’s intercession for ahlul-mawqif. This is known as the Prophet’s greatest shafaa’ah and it is part of the highest station of praise and honour (almaqaam al-mahmood) with which the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) is distinguished, and for which he will be praised by all creatures. It is mentioned in the Qur’aan [17:78].

2. The Prophet’s intercession for ahlul-Jannah to enter al-Jannah.

3. The Prophet’s (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) intercession with Allaah تعالى to reduce the punishment of his uncle, Abu Taalib because of his protection and support of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم). He will be placed in a shallow part of Hell-Fire.

The other intercessions are not restricted to the Prophet Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم). They include:

4. The Prophet’s intercession with Allaah تعالى that He does not cast into Hell the one who deserves it.

5. His intercession of taking out from Hell those admitted to it because of their sins.

6. The intercession to raise the ranks of the believers. This is the du’aa of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) to believers and by the believers for each other.

[See (1) Shaykh bin Baaz’s commentary on Ibn Taymeeyah’s Al-’Aqeedah Al-Waasitiyyah which Shaykh ‘Ali Hasan ‘Abdul Hameed compiled in his verification of Shaykh ‘AbdurRahmaan As-Sa’di’s book At-Tanbeehaat Al-lateefah ‘Ala Al-Waasitiyyah (Dammaam, Saudi Arabia: Daar Ibnul Qayyim, 1409/1989), p. 73, and (2) Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen’s Al-Qawlul-Mufeed, pp. 332-335].

The intercessions mentioned above are the ones approved by Allaah (تعالى). The annulled intercession is any intercession not approved by Allaah(تعالى ).

[57] The conditions are stated in the following aayaat:

1. Allaah (تعالى) says:

مَن ذَا الَّذِي يَشْفَعُ عِندَهُ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ
Who is he that will intercede with Him except by His permission.
[Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Baqarah (2:255)].

2. Allaah (تعالى) says:

يَوْمَئِذٍ لَّا تَنفَعُ الشَّفَاعَةُ إِلَّا مَنْ أَذِنَ لَهُ الرَّحْمَٰنُ وَرَضِيَ لَهُ قَوْلًا
On that day, no intercession shall avail, except the one for whom ar-Rahmaan has given permission and whose word is acceptable to Him. [Qur’aan, Soorat Taha (20:109)].

3. Allaah (تعالى) says:

 وَلَا يَشْفَعُونَ إِلَّا لِمَنِ ارْتَضَىٰ
And they cannot intercede except for him with whom He is pleased. [Qur’aan,Soorat Al-Anbiyaa’ (21:28)].

[58] The case of intercession on behalf of the Prophet’s uncle, Abu Taalib, is excluded and in a very limited sense from the ruling stated in Allaah’s saying:

فَمَا تَنفَعُهُمْ شَفَاعَةُ الشَّافِعِينَ
No intercession of intercessors will be of any use to them [unbelievers, polytheists].[Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Muddathir (74:48)].

Abu Taalib stood in support of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) and protected him from his enemies of Quraysh. The intercession on behalf of Abu Taalib is special for the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم). Other than this special intercession, none is allowed to intercede for a kaafir. Even Abu Taalib is not saved from the Fire of Hell. Had it not been for the intercession of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), Abu Taalib “would have been in the bottom of the (Hell) Fire,” as the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said. “Perhaps my intercession will be helpful to him on the Day of Resurrection so that he may be put in a shallow fire reaching only up to his ankles with which his brain will boil,” he (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) added. [See Saheeh al-Bukhaari, vol. 5, no. 222 and no. 224, and Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen’s Al-Qawlul Mufeed, vol. 1, p. 334].

Source : From the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi – By Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen (rahimahullah). With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

Related Links:
https://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/
https://abdurrahman.org/category/islam/intercession/

To Allaah belongs whatever is in the Heavens and the Earth – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

Bismillaah

The following is excerpted from the Shaykh Uthaymeen’s explanation of Aayatul-Kursi, Translated by Dr. Saleh as-Saleh rahimahullaah

[THIRD]: In the Third statement, Allaah (تعالى) said:

لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ

To Him belongs whatever (maa) is in the heavens [44] and whatever is on the earth. [Qur’aan, Aayatul-Kursi , Surah Al-Baqarah 2:255]

The name {ما} “maa” here is a conjunctive noun (gram. ism mawsool) taking a form of generalization. The term is used in this form in order to indicate that it comprises both the beings and their states. The meaning, therefore, is that Allaah is the One Who masters the affairs of everything in existence in the heavens and the earth: creating, sovereignty-kingship, and management.

The sentence لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ” “To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth” is a declarative clause in which the predicate (gram. khabar) { له } “To Him” has preceded the subject (gram. mubtada’) which is the conjunctive noun {ما} “Whatever”. In this way, there is a grammatical state of hasr (exclusivity, restriction) which signifies that to Him (Allaah) alone belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth. Accordingly, since creating, sovereignty-kingship, and management of affairs belong to Allaah alone, it is incumbent that we should surrender to Him alone because we are His slaves, and a slave must surrender to the One Who Owns and Masters him, Allaah, the One free of all imperfection, the Most High.

In addition, we must stand to persevere Allaah’s pre-decree because we are His possession and anything that is owned by Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, then it follows that is His right to administer its affairs as He Wills. This right is the same whether His pre-decree applies to the person himself, his family, wealth, friends, country, or the rest of mankind. The important thing is that since the dominion belongs to Allaah, then it is His exclusive right to do whatever He Wills.

In the saying of Allaah (which means), “To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth,” the term “heavens” came in the plural form [45] while the word “earth” was stated in the singular though what is meant is the plural. In this regard, the intended usage of the term “earth” refers to the jins (kind).

Footnotes:

[44] From the angels, jinn, and all that which exists, including which we have no knowledge of.

[45] The Qur’aan has stated that there are seven heavens:

قُلْ مَن رَّبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ السَّبْعِ وَرَبُّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ
Say: Who is the Rabb of the seven heavens and the Rabb of the great ‘Arsh?
[Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Mu’minoon (23:86)].

Source : From the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi – By Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen (rahimahullah). With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

Related Link: https://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/

Know that the Beginning of Islaam is Ash-Shahaadataan – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lesson 50: Points 84-86
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

[84] And know that the beginning of Islaam is the testification that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger.

[85] And that whatever Allaah says is just as He said and nothing can contradict what He says and He is true to what He has said.

[86] And to have eemaan (true faith) in all of the revealed laws.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

He rahimahullaah said, “And you should know, O Muslim, O taalib al-`ilm (seeker of knowledge),” meaning you should be certain and understand clearly “that the beginning, the first part of Islaam is the testification that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah.” These two are the first pillar from the pillars of Islaam as occurs in the hadeeth of Jibreel in which Jibreel `alayhissalaam said to the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam:

“Tell me about Islaam.” He said, “Islaam is that you testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah and that you establish the prayer and that you give the Zakaat and that you fast Ramadaan and that you perform Hajj to the house if you are able to make the way to it.”[1]

So Ash-Shahaadataan (the two testifications) are the first thing which mankind is to be called to. He sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

“I have been commanded to fight against the people until they say: “None has the right to be worshipped except Allaah”. So if they say it then they have rendered their blood and their property secure from me except on account of a right of Islaam and their reckoning will be with Allaah.”[2]

And when he (the Prophet) sent Mu`aadh to Yemen, he said to him:

“Indeed you are going to a people from the People of the Scripture, so let the first thing that you call them to be the testification that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah.”[3]

So this is the first thing, which the people are to be called to because it is the entry point into the religion of Islaam. As for those who are lax about Tawheed and do not give importance to it from the companions of the various calls and the present day methodologies utilising da`wah, then this is contrary to this tremendous fundamental principle.

And what is required with regard to the two testifications is not just to pronounce them upon the tongue. Rather, what is required is to state them upon the tongue whilst being aware of their meaning and to act in accordance with what they necessitate. However, whoever testifies that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah then it will be accepted from him. So if he is then upright upon it then he is a Muslim but if something appears from him, which contradicts them then he will be an apostate.

And the meaning of the testification that Laa ilaaha illallaah, that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah is that you hold as your belief in your heart and that you state upon your tongue and you affirm and you acknowledge that none is deserving of worship (ibaadah) except for Allaah and that everything that is worshipped besides Him is false and futile. And worship of it is false and futile.

He, the Most High, said:

ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْحَقُّ وَأَنَّ مَا يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ هُوَ الْبَاطِلُ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْكَبِيرُ

That is because Allaah, He is the one who is truly deserving of worship and those whom they worship and invoke besides Him, that is false and futile. And Allaah is the Most High and Exalted One, the Incomparably Great One.(Sooratul-Hajj (22), aayah 62)

And the meaning of the testification Anna Muhammadur-Rusoolullaah; that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah, is that you acknowledge outwardly and inwardly that he is the Messenger of Allaah. As for a person who states it upon his tongue but he does not acknowledge his messengership inwardly then this one is a munaafiq (hypocrite).

He, the Most High, said:

إِذَا جَاءَكَ الْمُنَافِقُونَ قَالُوا نَشْهَدُ إِنَّكَ لَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ إِنَّكَ لَرَسُولُهُ وَاللَّهُ يَشْهَدُ إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ لَكَاذِبُونَ

When the hypocrites come to you (Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam), they say, “We testify that you are the Messenger of Allaah.” And Allaah knows that you indeed are His Messenger and Allaah testifies that the hypocrites are certainly liars in their testifying. (Sooratul-Munaafiqoon (63), aayah 1)

 يَقُولُونَ بِأَفْوَاهِهِم مَّا لَيْسَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ

They say with their mouths that which is not in their hearts.
(Soorah Aali `Imraan (3), aayah 167)

So the meaning of the testification that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah; Muhammadur-Rusoolullaah is, in summary:

To obey him in whatever he commanded and to attest to the truth of whatever he informed of and to avoid whatever he forbade and prohibited and that Allaah should not be worshipped except with that which He legislated.

To obey him in whatever he commanded; so if the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam commanded a matter then you must comply with it.

وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَلَا مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَمْرًا أَن يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ ۗ وَمَن يَعْصِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا مُّبِينًا

And it is not for a believing man nor for a believing woman when Allaah and His Messenger have decreed a matter that they should have any choice with regard to their affair. And whoever disobeys Allaah and His Messenger then he has strayed with a clear straying. (Sooratul-Ahzaab (33), aayah 36)

To attest to the truth of whatever he informed of; he sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam informed about some affairs of the ghaib (the hidden and the unseen) of the past and the future. So, he sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam is to be believed regarding whatever he informed of and he did not speak from desires.

إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحْيٌ يُوحَىٰ

It is just revelation sent to him. (Sooratun-Najm (53), aayah 4)

So, his sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam informing about something is something true and something certain. No doubt can come upon it if it is authentic from him sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam.

As for the phrase: “and to avoid whatever he forbade and prohibited,” avoiding whatever the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam forbade and prohibited, that is His saying, He the Most High:

وَمَا آتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانتَهُوا ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ

And whatever the Messenger gives you then accept it and whatever he forbids you from, then desist and fear and be dutiful to Allaah. Indeed Allaah is severe in punishment. (Sooratul-Hashr (59), aayah 7)

“And that Allaah is not to be worshipped except with that which He legislated.” Whatever the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam legislated; conveying it from Allaah, the Majestic and Most High. And this negates innovations and newly introduced affairs and baseless practices, which the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam did not command. He sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

“Whoever does an action, which our affair is not in accordance with then it is rejected.”

“Whoever introduces into this affair of ours that which is not from it then it is rejected.”[4]

“And beware of newly introduced affairs.”

The saying of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam:

“Adhere to my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the rightly guided orthodox Khulafaa· (Caliphs) who come after me. Cling onto it and bite upon it with your pre-molar teeth. And beware of the newly introduced affairs for every newly introduced affair is a bid`ah (innovation) and every innovation is a going astray.[5]

And every `ibaadah (worship), which the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam did not legislate then it is baatilah (false and futile) and there will be no reward in doing it. Rather, there will be sin in it because it is a bid`ah (innovation) and innovation takes a person further away from Allaah and will not draw him closer to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

His saying, “And you should know that the beginning of Islaam is the testification that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger.” This is the first pillar and it is the entrance. Then after it comes the Salaah (prayer) then after it comes the Zakaat then fasting Ramadaan then Hajj to Allaah’s sacred house, then the rest of the duties and laws of the religion. All of them follow on from the two testifications; the testification that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah.

His saying, “And that whatever Allaah said then it is just as He said and none can contradict what He has said and He is true to what He has said.” Whatever Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, said then it is just as He has said. No doubt can ever come upon it. Allaah, the Most High, said:

وَمَنْ أَصْدَقُ مِنَ اللَّهِ حَدِيثًا

And who is truer in speech than Allaah. 
(Sooratun-Nisaa· (4), aayah 87)

وَمَنْ أَصْدَقُ مِنَ اللَّهِ قِيلًا

And who is truer than Allaah in saying.
(Sooratun-Nisaa· (4), aayah 122)

Meaning: no-one is truer than Allaah, the Perfect and Most High. And if Allaah, the Perfect makes a promise (wa`d) then He does not break it.

وَعْدَ اللَّهِ ۖ لَا يُخْلِفُ اللَّهُ وَعْدَهُ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

The promise of Allaah, it is a promise of Allaah, Allaah does not break His promises. However, most of mankind do not know that Allaah will certainly carry out His promise. (Sooratur-Room (30), aayah 6)

So, when He makes a promise then He does not break His promise. And if He tawa`adah (threatens) something then He may pardon, He the Perfect and Most High. So there is a difference between al-wa`d (promises) and at-tawa`ud (threats). So al-wa`d (the promise), He never breaks a promise. And as for at-tawa`ud (a threat) that He has made; al-wa`eed (a threat) then Allaah, the Majestic and Most High may pardon and overlook and may not carry out the wa`eed (threat) as a mercy from Him, He, the Perfect, and as a favour from Him, He, the Perfect and Most High.

His saying, “And to have eemaan in all of the revealed laws.” It is obligatory to have eemaan (true faith) in all of the revealed laws, which Allaah sent down to His Messengers, all of them, in general with regard to those, which have been left unspecified and specifically with regard to those that have been mentioned specifically.

قُولُوا آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْنَا وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالْأَسْبَاطِ وَمَا أُوتِيَ مُوسَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰ وَمَا أُوتِيَ النَّبِيُّونَ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُمْ وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ

Say, “We truly believe in Allaah and in whatever was sent down to us and in whatever was sent down to Ibraaheem and Ismaa`eel and Ishaaq and Ya`qoob and to the tribes and whatever was given to Moosaa and `Eesaa and whatever the Prophets were given from their Lord. We do not make any distinction between any of them and we submit as Muslims to Him.(Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 136)

قُلْ آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَمَا أُنزِلَ عَلَيْنَا وَمَا أُنزِلَ عَلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالْأَسْبَاطِ وَمَا أُوتِيَ مُوسَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰ وَالنَّبِيُّونَ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُمْ وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ

Say, “We have eemaan (we truly believe) in Allaah and in whatever was sent down to us and in whatever was sent down to Ibraaheem and Ismaa`eel and Ishaaq and Ya`qoob and to the tribes and whatever was given to Moosaa and `Eesaa and to the Prophets from their Lord. We do not make any distinction between them and we are Muslims submitting to Him. (Soorah Aali `Imraan (3), aayah 84)

So, we have eemaan (we truly believe) in all of the divine laws sent down and we truly believe that Allaah, the Majestic and Most High legislates for each time whatever is suitable for it and then He abrogates that with another revealed law, which is suitable for those who come after them. So, when Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam was sent, he came with a revealed law, which was firmly grounded and will remain until the Hour is established. It will not be abrogated and it will never be changed. It is suitable for every time and place.

Footnotes:

[1] Reported by Muslim (8) from a hadeeth of `Umar ibn al-Khattaab radiyAllaahu `anhu.

[2] Reported by Al-Bukhaariyy (25) and Muslim (22) from a hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn `Umar radiyAllaahu `anhumaa.

[3] Reported by Al-Bukhaariyy (1,395) and Muslim (19) from a hadeeth of Ibn `Abbaas radiyAllaahu `anhumaa.

[4] Translator’s side point: The checking of this has preceded and as we had before, it is reported by Al-Bukhaariyy (2,697) and Muslim (1,718) from a hadeeth from the Mother of the Believers, `Aa`ishah radiyAllaahu `anhaa.

[5] This has already preceded the checking of this and as we had before, it is reported by Imaam Ahmad, Aboo Daawood, at-Tirmithee and Ibn Maajah. It was declared saheeh (authentic) by Shaykh Al-Albaaniyy.

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
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“Verily Allaah does not sleep and it does not befit Him to sleep” – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

Bismillaah

The following is excerpted from the Shaykh Uthaymeen’s explanation of Aayatul-Kursi, Translated by Dr. Saleh as-Saleh rahimahullaah

[ لَا تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلَا نَوْمٌ ]
Neither slumber, nor sleep overtakes Him,
[Qur’aan, Aayatul-Kursi , Surah Al-Baqarah 2:255]

Allaah did not say (what means): “He does not sleep,” instead He said:{ لَا تَأْخُذُهُ } (which means) “does not overtake Him” in order to comprise the sleep that overcomes and that arising by choice. If you say, “Does not sleep,” it would imply that He does not sleep by choice. However, Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, does not sleep neither by ghalabah (overcoming) nor by choice, because sleep is an imperfect attribute which contradicts both the perfection of the Self and the perfection in relation to others.

The person who is given to sleep misses a lot of his work because of His sleeping. Consider, for example, the case of a person who has many people working for him and he sleeps a lot. He is unable to neither reckon with nor manage the business or other related matters. This is an imperfection with respect to others.

As regard to self-perfection, sleep is a deficiency because it indicates that the person’s body got tired and thus he needed the sleep as a rest from what has passed, as well as a means to renew his activity to engage in what will come ahead. That is the why the people of al-Jannah do not sleep—because of the perfection of their lives and bodies. No illness or the like touches them.

If someone says, “We know that the person who does not sleep is unable to do so because of some kind of sickness or a defect, while you say that the lack of sleep is perfection. Explain.”

We say, “This applies to the creature, and in this case perfection is a relative matter [with respect to Allaah it is perfection]. There is no doubt that the person who does not sleep because of an illness has a defect, and that is why he stays always in a state of languor and exhaustion. Thus, his welfare will not be established. This is evident from the saying of Allaah, the Most High:

[ وَجَعَلْنَا نَوْمَكُمْ سُبَاتًا ]
And have made your sleep as a thing for rest
[Qur’aan, Soorat An-Naba’ (78:9)],

meaning that sleep is something that will discontinue the hardship and tiredness. If Allaah would sleep, and far is He above such imperfection, then this would necessitate that He needs to rest. In addition, the creation will be ruined because they are in need of Him; even the sleeping person is in need of Allaah. In fact, the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) used to invoke Allaah at night when he was about to sleep:

فَإِنْ أَمْسَكْتَ نَفْسِي فَارْحَمْهَا، وَإِنْ أَرْسَلْتَهَا فَاحْفَظْهَا، بِمَا تَحْفَظُ بِهِ عِبَادَكَ الصَّالِحِين

“If You take my soul, bestow mercy on it [and forgive it, as in another narration], and if You release it then protect it as You protect your righteous slaves.” [38]

In short, it is impossible that Allaah, the One free of all imperfections and the Most High, sleeps. The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يَنَامُ وَلاَ يَنْبَغِي لَهُ أَنْ يَنَامَ
“Verily Allaah does not sleep and it does not befit Him to sleep.” [39]

The word [ ”لا يَنبَغِي “] does not befit] when used in the Qur’aan and sunnah means “the thing which is absolutely impossible to be,” as Allaah (تعالى ) said:

[ وَمَا يَنبَغِي لِلرَّحْمَٰنِ أَن يَتَّخِذَ وَلَدًا ]

But it is not befitting for (the Majesty of) ar-Rahmaan (Allaah) that He should beget a son (or offspring or children). [Qur’aan, Soorat Maryam (19:92)].

[It should be noted] that Allaah’s saying:

[ لَا تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلَا نَوْمٌ ]
Neither slumber, nor sleep overtakes Him,

signifies as-sifaat as-salbiyyah (attributes of negation: negating any imperfection and implying perfection). The rule with respect to the Names and Attributes of Allaah, the Most High, is that there is no such thing as a pure attribute of negation.[40] Indeed, when as-sifaat as-salbiyyah are mentioned, it is because they imply the perfection of the attributes that are in contradiction to those of negation.[41] So, because of the Perfection of Allaah’s Life and qayyoumiyyah,[42] then neither slumber nor sleep overtake Him.[43]

Footnotes:

[38] Saheeh al-Bukhaari (Arabic/English), vol. 8, no. 332.

[39] Saheeh Muslim (English Translation), vol. 1, no. 343.

[40] This is because mere negation does not denote any attribute, and therefore it is not considered praise. In addition, the attributes of negation are of two kinds:

1. General, and
2. Specific.

The meaning of generality in negation is that Allaah, Most High, negates all imperfections implicitly denoting that all Perfection is His. For example: Allaah, the Exalted, says:

[ لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ ], [which means], “There is nothing like unto Him.” So, there is nothing unto Him in His Knowledge, Ability, Hearing, Seeing, Might, Wisdom, Mercy, and so forth. In this general negation, Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) did not specify the negation. Accordingly, all imperfections are denied and all perfections are denoted, and it is stated that there is nothing like unto Him in all of His Perfection.

On the other hand, the specificity in negation is to negate specific allegations of imperfection. For example to deny that defects and drawbacks like forgetfulness, sleep, ignorance, having son or partner, etc. are associated with Allaah, the Exalted. Again, the Perfection is implied as against the negation. [See Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen’s Sharhul Waasitiyyah], vol. 1, pp. 145-146.

[41] For example, the negation of ignorance stands for the affirmation of Allaah’s unlimited knowledge. The negation of death, which is in contradiction of life, implies the perfection of Allaah’s attribute of Life.

[42] Qayyoumiyyah: The Attribute denoted by Allaah’s Name al-Qayyoum.

[43] The Perfection of His Life negates that Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) needs to sleep and the same is due to the Perfection of His qayyoumiyyah, as the created living creatures due to their imperfection need sleep. Although sleeping and eating may be considered as attributes of perfection with respect to man, as a person who does not sleep or eat is considered ill, they are perfection from one angle and defects from another. They are perfection in the sense that they indicate that the body is sound and healthy, and are defects because the body needs them to function. In reality, therefore, they are defects. Accordingly, the “perfection” in the created is only relevant, i.e. particular to the created, not shared by the Most Perfect, i.e. Allaah. Eating, drinking and sleeping are relative “perfections” with respect to the created and negated defects with respect to Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى).

That is why Allaah, the Most High, said about Himself:

[ وَهُوَ يُطْعِمُ وَلَا يُطْعَمُ ]
And it is He (Allaah) Who feeds and is not fed.
[Qur’aan, Soorat Al-An’aam (6:14)].

Source : From the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi – By Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen (rahimahullah). With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

Related Link: https://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/

Brief Overview of the Khaarijites (Khawaarij) الخوارج – Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

Historically, the Khawaarij are those who rebelled against ‘Ali ibn Abee Taalib (رضي االله عنه) in the 37th year of Hijrah (657 C.E.) and imputed kufr upon ‘Ali (رضي االله عنه) upon the arbitration that followed the Battle of Siffeen. They hated ‘Ali’s decision to end the fitnah which occurred with Mu’aawiyah (رضي االله عنه), calling ‘Ali’s acceptance of the arbitration a compromise. They also imputed kufr upon many of the sahaabah who accepted the arbitration. They did not even accept the whole of ‘Uthman’s (رضي االله عنه) Caliphate. This position stems from their misunderstanding of the Qur’aan. They deduced, wrongly, that major sins are kufr and thus forfeit salvation. Sin is a contradiction that nullifies faith! ‘Ali and the other sahaabah sinned in the eyes of the Khawaarij and that sufficed to nullify their state of belief! Their doctrine became famous in their rebellions against any Muslim leader who, in their eyes, committed a sin or a mistake.

The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) informed us before his death of the emergence of this sect and that,

They will kill the Muslims and leave the idolaters. Should I live until they appear, I would kill them as the killing of the nation of ‘Aad.”[103]

He (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) also said:

The Khawaarij are the dogs of the Fire.”[104]

‘Ali (رضي االله عنه) delegated ibn ‘Abbaas ( رضي االله عنهما) to call them to the truth. He succeeded in convincing several thousands of them. Those who rejected continued to spread mischief even after ‘Ali (رضي االله عنه) warned them against it. He finally fought them in the battle of an-Nahrawaan (38Hj/658) and only few of them escaped and continued the secession. ‘Ali (رضي االله عنه) was himself killed by a Kharijite by the name of Ibn Muljam. They split into many groups and today they survive in ‘Oman, Tunisia, Libya, Algeria, and in Tanzania and they are known as the Ibaadiyyah (ibadi Kharijism).

The Khawaarij sect was later influenced by scholastic theology and its principles became very close to those of the Jahmite and Mu’tazilite sects. They center upon the following matters:

(1) Imputing kufr upon ‘Ali, ‘Uthmaan and other sahaabah  (رضي االله عنهم أجمعين)

(2) The right to rebel and fight the Muslim rulers who may err or sin.

(3) Justifying the rebellion and fight against disobedient Muslims (rulers and/or ruled) and that it is permissible for them to secede from the general body of the Muslims.

(4) They believe that the Qur’aan is created.

However, the Qur’aan is the literal Word of Allaah Who uttered it in letter and sound and which He Spoke to Jibreel (alaihissalam), directly without a mediator, and who then brought it down to the Prophet Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم). The Qur’aan is neither the word of Jib reel nor the word of Prophet Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم).

(5) They distort the meanings of Allaah’s Attributes by resorting to figurative interpretation.

(6) Like the twelver Shee’ites and other deviant sects, they deny that the believers will see Allaah on the Day of Resurrection. This contradicts what is asserted in the Qur’aan and authentic sunnah.

(7) Imputing kufr on the Muslims who commit major sins.

(8) The majority of the Khawaarij deny the actual punishment in the grave that Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى ) inflicts upon those who deserve it.

The aforementioned are some of the major characteristics of the Khawaarij. I intended to give the reader some background about this very dangerous sect and which has influenced many Muslim groups and parties in our times leading to bloodshed in many parts of the Muslim World. The bloody confrontations are hard to stop in some places and that has distorted the view of Islam in many parts of the world.

The truth, however, is emerging and will inshaa’ Allaah completely emerge on the hands of the true followers of Islam who are working hard to correct this problem with the good word without compromising the ‘aqeedah nor the manhaj.

We should be able to present the truth without imitating the kuffaar and their ways. In this respect, the words of Imaam Maalik (رحمه االله) are remembered:

“Nothing will benefit this ummah to come except that which benefited its early generations.” [105]

This refers to the correct creed, methodology and righteous deeds.

Another point of benefit is that the Muslim should be aware that the principles of many of these sects are still alive and propagated by certain individuals and/or groups, and accordingly the believer must be cautious. [106]

Footnotes:

[103] An agreed upon hadeeth [i.e. reported by al-Bukhaari and Muslim]. [See Saheeh alBukhaari (Arabic/English)], vol. 9, no. 527.

[104] Reported by Ahmad, Ibn Maajah, Ibn Abee ‘Aaasim, and others. Shaykh al-Albaani authenticated the isnaad of the narration reported by Ibn Maajah and Ibn Abee ‘Aasim. He also said that the isnnad of Ahmad’s report is hasan. [See As-Sunnah by Ibn Abee ‘Aasim, no. 904, and 905], p. 424.

[105] Related by Imaam Ibn ‘Abdil-Barr in At-Tamheed (23:1).

[106] See Fathul-Baari by al-Haafith Ibn Hajar, vol. 12, pp. 282-284, 287,289 and Wasatiyyat Ahlus-Sunnah Baynal Firaq (“The Distinguished Medium Path of AhlusSunnah vis-à-vis the Sects), by Dr. Muhammad ba-Kareem ba-‘Abdullaah [Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Daarur-Raayah, 1415/1994,], pp. 290-291.

Source : Appendix B from the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi. Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

The Obligation of Giving the Zakaat – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lesson 49: Point 83
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

And the Zakaat is due upon gold, silver, dates, grain and cattle in accordance with what was stated by Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam. So if he distributes it then that is permissible and if he hands it over to the ruler then that is permissible and Allaah knows best.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

The third pillar from the pillars of Islaam is the Zakaat and it is the constant companion of the Salaat (prayer) in many of the aayahs of the Qur’aan. And the Zakaat is a known due amount from the wealth of the rich to be given to the poor. And the types of wealth upon which the Zakaat is due are  four types:

  1. An-Naqdaan (the two forms of currency); gold and silver and that which can take their place with regard to paper currency.
  2. Baheematul An-`Aam (cattle); camels and cows and sheep.
  3. Al-Khaarij minal-Ard (that which grows from the earth) with regard to grains and fruits.
  4. Urood ut-Tijaarah (merchandise); goods which are traded in and it is merchandise, which is offered for buying and selling.

These are the types of wealth upon which Zakaat is due. As for everything besides these four types of wealth, then if a person wants to give in charity from it and to donate from it then that is up to him. The door to giving in charity and donation is open wide.

His saying, So if he distributes it (the Zakaat himself) then that is permissible and if he hands it over to the ruler then that is permissible,” it is obligatory upon him to pay the Zakaat because of His saying, He, the Most High:

وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ  

And establish the prayer and give the Zakaah
(Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 43)

Aatu; meaning give it, hand it over. So it is obligatory upon the person possessing wealth that he hands it over and he is the one responsible for it. So if the ruler requests it so that he can take charge of it then it becomes obligatory to hand it over to him because obedience to him is obligatory and in order to free the one who gives it from responsibility because the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam used to send out collectors to take the Zakaat from the owners of wealth and to distribute it to those who were deserving of it. And those who are in authority take the place of the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam in that regard after him. And as for if the rulers don’t demand it then the responsibility is upon the person having the wealth.[1] [2]

Footnotes:

[1] As for the explanation of Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmee rahimahullaah then he said: “The Zakaat, which is due upon gold and silver is 1/40th i.e 2.5%.

And the nisaab (limit) (if you have that limit then it’s payable); for silver is 595 grams. As for the nisaab (limit) for gold then it is 20 mithqaals and a mithqaal is 4.23 grams. (Translator’s side point: In other words, for gold – it works out at 85 grams; if you have 85 grams or more then you have to pay Zakaat upon it).

And dates and what has their meaning such as grapes; their nisaab is 5 wasaq (loads).(Translator’s side point: They mention that as being something like 653 kg).

And likewise cereal crops such as wheat and barley and corn and millet and rice, the nisaab for each of these is also 5 loads and 1 wasaq(load) is 60 sa`as; (60 prophetic sa`as), Allaahu A`lam. 

And as for the cattle then the limits for them are well-known.

[2] Translator’s Sidepoint regarding the Zakah on merchandise, goods for trade

With regard to the 4th category of wealth i.e merchandise, goods for trade – Shaykh Fowzaan mentions here that is the view of the great majority of the scholars.

Shaykh al Fowzaan said in his book Al-Mulakhas al-Fiqhee, “More than one have quoted consensus (Ijmaa`) of the People of Knowledge that upon goods which are traded; Zakaat is obligatory upon them, if a year has passed over them.

Shaykh ul-Islaam ibn Taymiyyah said: The four Imaams and the rest of the nation except for some isolated ones are agreed that it is obligatory to pay it upon the goods for trade. And you can find the rest of the speech of Shaykh ul Islaam in Majmoo` al- Fataawa volume 25, page 15.

On the same point Imaam Ash-Shawkaanee in his book Nayl al-Awtaar, he mentioned the same view that it’s obligatory to pay Zakaat upon the goods for trade. Then later on he changed his view in other books Al-Sayl al-Jarraar and Ad-Daraaree al-Mudiyyah that he mentioned something different (changed the view and said it’s not obligatory) because trade used to occur in his time (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) in all the forms of that which was traded in and it is not reported from him anything, which would necessitate this. And Imam Shawkaanee said : “Ibn ul-Mundhir claimed that there is Ijmaa` consensus upon Zakaat being upon trade but this quote is not correct. So the first of those who disagreed with that are the Dhaahirees and they are a group from the groups of Islaam.”

Likewise, finally Shaykh Al-Albaaniyy mentioned in Tamaam ul-Minnaah that his view was, he said, “What is the truth is that the saying that Zakaat is not obligatory upon the goods for trade is what is correct because there is no proof for it from the Book or the authentic Sunnah.” And then he mentioned this saying that it being not obligatory was the saying of some of the scholars before and some of the scholars such as Ataa Abee Rabaah from the Taabi`een and Ibn Hazm and Siddeeq Hassan Khaan from the later scholars.

Side point: And likewise, Ibn Qudaamah mentioned in Al-Mughnee this as being the saying of Daawood AdhDhaahiree and also related from Imaam Maalik as one saying, W`Allaahu A`lam.

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharh as-Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/zakat

Points of Benefit Deduced from Aayatul Kursi – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

Related Points of Benefit from the Shaykh Uthaymeen’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

1. Affirming Five Names of the Names of Allaah.

Allaah, al-Hayy, al-Qayyoum, al-’Aliyy, al-’Atheem. [85]

2. Affirming that Allaah is singled out with all worship (al-uloohiyyah): He is the One Who alone has the right to be worshipped, or that He is the One who is worshipped rightfully and deservingly:

{ لا إلهَ إلاَّ ُ هوَ }
None has the right to be worshipped but He [Allaah].

3. Refuting the claim of the polytheists who affirm other gods beside Allaah.

4. Affirming the sifah (attribute) of hayaat (Life) for Allaah, and that His life is one of perfection, neither preceded by ‘adam nor coming come to naught nor characterized by imperfection. On the contrary, our life originates in ‘adam and will come to an end, and it is accompanied by imperfection. If fact, all of our life is imperfect, and that is why Allaah described it by ad-dunya. [86] The Life of Allaah, however, is perfection from all angles because of His saying: {الْحَيُّ}The Living, where the particle ال is for al-istighraaq, which comprises all the meanings of the qualities of the perfect life, as if He says, “There is no one who is truly living except He.” In fact, this is the case because there is none qualified with the life of perfection except Allaah, the Most Mighty and most Majestic.

5. Affirming the al-qayyoumiyyah [87] for Allaah (عزَّوجَلََّّ) because He said: { القَيُّوم }. Such a description does not apply to the human being. There is not any person who is established on his own nor is there anyone who takes full charge of others by whom they subsist, because there is no human being except that he is in need of others. We need workers, and they need us. We need [our] women and they need us. We need our sons and daughters and they need us. There is no one who is absolutely in full charge (giving them care, maintenance, providing for them, etc.) of others. I may be able to take charge of someone else, but in a limited sense. That is why Allaah تعالى said:

[ أَفَمَنْ هُوَ قَائِمٌ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ نَفْسٍ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ ]

Is He [Allaah] Who takes charge (guards, maintains, provides, etc.) of every person and knows all that he has earned (like any other deities who know nothing)? [Qur’aan, Soorat Ar-Ra’d (13:33)].

6. The aayah contains ismullaahi al-aa’tham (Allaah’s Most Greatest Name) affirmed in His Saying:

[ الحيُّ الَقيُّوم ]

Allaah, there is no god worthy of worship except He, the one who possesses the perfect living, and Who is established on His Own, Self-subsisting, and by Whom all things subsist.[88]

These two Names were mentioned in three places in the Qur’aan, in the two soorahs known as az-zahraawayn [89] (AlBaqarah and Aal-’Imran), and in Soorat Taha.[90]

The people of ‘ilm (ahlul-‘ilm) said: The Most Great Name of Allaah is only in these two Names since they comprise the Most Beautiful Names in their entirety, and hence the attribute of Perfection is implied in the Name [ الحيُّ ]and the attribute of ihsaan (beauty) is entailed in the Name: [ الَقيُّوم]

7. The perfection of Allaah’s Life and qayyoumiyyah such that they are free from the slightest imperfection. The evidence is in His Saying:

[ لَا تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلَا نَوْمٌ ]
Neither slumber, nor sleep overtakes Him.

Perfection may be generalized considering what is predominant or more numerous although it may be deficient in certain aspects. However, negation of imperfection means that the perfection is absolute and in every respect is free from deficiency. In this sense, the negation occurred in His Saying:

[ لَا تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلَا نَوْمٌ ]
Neither slumber, nor sleep overtakes Him.

8. Affirming as-sifaat as-salbiyyah for Allaah because of His saying:

[ لَا تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلَا نَوْمٌ ]
Neither slumber, nor sleep overtakes Him.

and His saying:

[ وَلَا يَئُودُهُ حِفْظُهُمَا ]
He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them.

The sifaat as-salbiyyah are those attributes that Allaah has denied for His Self and which imply affirming the perfection of their opposites.

9. Affirming that Sovereignty of Allaah comprehends everything. The evidence is in His Saying:

[ لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ]
To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth.

10. This Sovereignty is exclusively His. The evidence lies in the same aayah:

[ لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ]

To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth, in which the predicate (gram. khabar) { له } “To Him” has preceded the subject (gram. mubtada’) which is the conjunctive noun { ما } “Whatever”. In this way, there is a grammatical state of hasr (exclusivity, restriction) which signifies that: “To Him (Allaah) alone belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth.”

11. Affirming the heavens and the earth, as in His Saying:

[ لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ]
To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth.

The “heavens” is a number. They are seven in number and similarly is the number of the earths as proven from other texts.[91]

12. The Perfection of the Kingship of Allaah, as evident in His saying:

[ مَن ذَا الَّذِي يَشْفَعُ عِندَهُ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ ]
Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His Permission?

This Kingship of Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى ) is not the same as His all comprehensive Sovereignty. In fact, power and full kingship are more perfect than just all-comprehensive sovereignty.

13. Affirming the intercession that is approved by Allaah as evident in His saying:

[ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ ]

[None can intercede] except by Allaah’s Permission, otherwise, the exception would not be correct. Hence, had the approved intercession been not affirmed, the exception would not be correct.

14. Affirming the “Permission” which is His Command:

[ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ ]
[None can intercede] except by Allaah’s Permission.

15. Affirming the ‘ilm (Knowledge) for Allaah and that His Knowledge comprehends the past, the present, and the future. The evidence is in His Saying:

[ يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ ]

And Allaah Knows what happens to them (His creatures) in the future and what happened to them in the past.

16. Refuting the claims of the extremists from the Qadariyyah[92] by affirming Allaah’s all-encompassing Knowledge as in the statement. This constitutes a rebuttal of the extremist from the Qadariyyah who say that Allaah knows the actions of His salves only after they are carried out, denying that Allaah knowledge comprehends everything.

17. The rebuttal of the two sects, the Khawaarij [93] and the Mu’tazilah [94] by affirming the shafaa’ah. Both sects deny the general intercession approved for the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) and for others and which applies to the people who committed sin. This negation is based upon their doctrine that the person who commits a major sin and die without repenting from it will be punished in the Fire forever. The two sects differed, however, as to whether such a person is considered a kaafir, or neither a believer nor a kaafir.

The Kharijites, courageous against the truth and for it, said, “The one who commits a major sin is kaafir and no longer belongs to the fold of Islam.” The Mu’tazilites were fearful to oppose the people of ahlus-sunnah and the kharijites. They took a cowardly position and said, “We will sit in the middle of the road and say that the one who has committed a grave sin is in a position somewhere between the two; we neither say he is a believer nor a kaafir!” Both sects, however, agreed that in the hereafter he would be in the Fire of Hell forever.

That is why they denied the shafaa’ah (intercession). The generality of the aayah refutes the position held by both sects:

[ مَن ذَا الَّذِي يَشْفَعُ عِندَهُ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِه ]
Who is he that can interceded with Him except with His Permission?

18. None will ever encompass anything of Allaah’s knowledge nor of His Hearing or His Sight:

[ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ مِّنْ عِلْمِهِ إِلَّا بِمَا شَاءَ ]
And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that which He wills.

19. We comprehend no knowledge about Allaah or about His creation except that which He wills for us to know.[95]

20. Forbidding the takyeef (assigning a manner or a “how”) to the Attributes of Allaah, because He did not inform us of the how they are. So if we claim the knowledge of the kayfiyyah (i.e. the condition or the “how”) of His Attributes, then we are lying.

21. Rebutting the Mu’attilah, due to His saying:

[ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ مِّنْ عِلْمِهِ ]
And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge

This is evidence against the Mu’attilah because they say, for example, that Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) has no real Hand. This necessitates that they encompass the negation of one of His Attributes. In this respect, both sects, the Mu’attilah and the people of takyeef (Mukayyifah) lied because Allaah affirmed this Attribute (i.e. the Hand) to Himself. Accordingly, their claim that the true and real Attributes like the Hand, the Face, the Eyes, and so forth do not befit Allaah is false and void. The basis for this fact is that knowledge is of two kinds: (a) Affirmation, and (b) Negation.

Therefore, you cannot negate anything as being a quality of someone (something) except with knowledge, just like you cannot affirm anything for someone (something) except with knowledge. So if those sects would deny the realities of the aforementioned Attributes of Allaah then they must bring forth their proofs, if they are truthful. For example, Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) did not negate that the Attribute of the Hand from His Self, not even in one single aayah in the Qur’aan, nor did the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) negate this Attribute in any hadeeth, nor did the righteous predecessors (as-salaf-us-saalih). Those sects, however, utter the negation of Allaah’s true and real Hand.

22. Rebutting the position of the Mumathilah (those who liken Allaah to His creation). Since the aayah:

[ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ مِّنْ عِلْمِهِ ]
And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge.

implies a rebuttal of the Mukayyifah, then by all reason it is a rebuttal of the Mumathilah.

23. Affirming the mashee’ah (Will) for Allaah because of His saying:

[ إِلَّا بِمَا شَاءَ ]
Except that which he Wills.

24. Rebutting the Qadariyyah and the Mu’tazilah who say that Allaah, the Most High, does not Will anything as far as man is concerned.[96] This is evident in Allaah’s saying:

[ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ ]
And they will never compass…

Knowing that man’s compassing of something is from his qualities and his qualities are a creation of Allaah, [and hence man’s will is not independent from the Will of Allaah].

25. The greatness of the kursi, for His saying:

[ وَسِعَ كُرْسِيُّهُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ ]
His kursi extends over and encompasses the heavens and the earth.

26. The Greatness of the Creator of the kursi because the greatness of the created implies the Greatness of the Creator.

27. The kufr of the person who denies the heavens and the earth because this necessitates accusing Allaah of lying. As far as the earth is concerned, I believe that no one denies it [its existence]. However, as regard to the heavens, there are those who deny them saying that what is above us is boundless and limitless space, and that there is only stars and diffused dust (sadoom) or the like. There is no doubt that the one who holds to this belief is a kaafir, whether he himself believes in this or he imitates those whom he reveres from the people who hold to this belief—while knowing the truth implied from the proofs of the Qur’aan and the sunnah.

28. Affirming the Strength of Allaah, and the proof is His saying:

[ وَلَا يَئُودُهُ حِفْظُهُمَا ]
He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them.

29. Denying the mashaqah (fatigue) from Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, because of His saying:

[ وَلَا يَئُودُهُ ]
He feels no fatigue.

This is one of the sifaat as-salbiyyah just like saying of Allaah:

[ وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ وَمَا مَسَّنَا مِن لُّغُوبٍ ]

And indeed We created the heavens and the earth and all between them in six Days and nothing of fatigue touched us. [Qur’aan, Soorat Qaaf (50:38)].

30. Affirming what is implied by the above statement:

[ وَلَا يَئُودُهُ حِفْظُهُمَا ]
He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them,

from the attributes of Knowledge, Ability, Life, Mercy, Wisdom, and Strength.

31. Affirming that the heavens and the earth are in need for someone who guards them, as stated in Allaah’s saying (which means): He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them. Had it not been for the guarding and preserving of Allaah, they would have been ruined. Allaah Says:

وَلَوْلَا دَفْعُ اللَّهِ النَّاسَ بَعْضَهُم بِبَعْضٍ لَّهُدِّمَتْ صَوَامِعُ وَبِيَعٌ وَصَلَوَاتٌ وَمَسَاجِدُ يُذْكَرُ فِيهَا اسْمُ اللَّهِ كَثِيرًا

Had it not been that Allaah checks one set of people by means of another, monasteries, churches, synagogues, and masaajid (mosques), wherein the Name of Allaah is mentioned much would surely have been pulled down. [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Hajj (22:40)].[97]

And His Saying:

وَيُمْسِكُ السَّمَاءَ أَن تَقَعَ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ
He withholds the heavens from falling on the earth except by His Leave.
[Qur’aan, Sooart Al-Hajj (22:65)].

إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُمْسِكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ أَن تَزُولَا ۚ وَلَئِن زَالَتَا إِنْ أَمْسَكَهُمَا مِنْ أَحَدٍ مِّن بَعْدِهِ

Verily! Allaah grasps the heavens and the earth lest they move away from their places, and if they were to move away from their places, there is not one that can grasp them after Him. [Qur’aan, Sooart Faatir (35:41)].

32. Affirming al-’uluw ath-thaati (the Transcendence of Allaah in His Essence) and al-’uluw as-sifaati (the Transcendence of Allaah’s Attributes) because of His saying:

[ وَهُوَ الْعَلِيُّ ]
And He [Allaah] is the Most High, above everything.

33. Rebutting both the Hulooliyyah [98] and the Mu’atilah who negate this Attribute of Allaah تعالى. The Hulooliyyah say, “Allaah is not above everything but rather He is everywhere.” And the Mu’attilah, the people who deny Allaah’s Attributes, say, “He cannot be described as being High or low, to the left or the right, or as being separated from or associated with His creation.”

34. Warning against transgression upon others because of His saying:

[ وَهُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْعَظِيمُ ]
And He is the Most High, above everything, and He is the Most Great.

That is why Allaah (تعالى) said in Soorat An-Nisaa’ [(4:34)]:

فَإِنْ أَطَعْنَكُمْ فَلَا تَبْغُوا عَلَيْهِنَّ سَبِيلًا ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيًّا كَبِيرًا

And if they [women] return to obedience [to their husbands], then seek not against them means [of annoyance]. Surely, Allaah is ever Most High, above everything, Most Great.

So if you think proudly of yourself, then remember the Highness of Allaah above everything, the Most Mighty and Majestic. And if you think of yourself as being great, then remember the Greatness of Allaah.

35. Affirming the Greatness of Allaah because of His saying:

[ الْعَظِيمُ ]
The Most Great.

36. Affirming the Attribute of Perfection that is implied in the combined Attribute of Transcendence and Greatness.

37. Knowing that the mulk (Sovereignty) belongs to Allaah then:

We must not behave or act in His kingdom except in accordance with that which He is pleased, because of His saying:

[ لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ]
To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth.

The judicial rulings and decreeing amongst the people must be based upon the Judgment of Allaah. Indeed the reliance of man upon the judicial decrees laid by the created and the system of laws laid down by man is one kind of setting up rivals with Allaah (shirk billaah)[99], the Most Mighty and Most Majestic.

Contentment with the Pre-decree of Allaah, the Most Mighty and Most Majestic, because if you know that the Sovereignty exclusively belongs to Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى ) then you would say, “This is the disposal of affairs by a Sovereign in His Kingdom, and He has the right to do whatever He wants.”

[ لَا يُسْأَلُ عَمَّا يَفْعَلُ وَهُمْ يُسْأَلُونَ ]

He cannot be questioned as to what He does, while they [the creation] will be asked. [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Anbiyaa’ (21:23)].

Accordingly, this understanding was part of the condolence of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) to his daughter [following the death of her child] when he said:

“Whatever Allaah takes belongs to Him, and to Him belongs what He grants, and everything with Him has an appointed fixed term [in this world].” [100]

Man should not act conceitedly upon accomplishing something because this accomplishment is from Allaah and the Sovereignty is exclusively His.

Footnotes:

[85]The Shaykh Uthaymeen also stated that he is in doubt whether the word إله is a Name of Allaah because it is an indefinite noun (gram. nakirah).

[86] Ad-Dunya (fem. of adna): Denoting what is low or inferior.

[87] Qayyoumiyyah: One of Allaah’s Attributes implied in His Name Al-Qayyoum.

[88]Allaah is the one who sustains, protects, prepares, and runs the affairs of all things as He wills in accordance with His Knowledge, Wisdom, and Justice.

[89] Zahraawayn (dual form of zahra): The bright ones. The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said,

“Recite the Qur’aan, for on the Day of Resurrection it will come as an intercessor for those who recite it. Recite the two bright ones, Al-Baqarah and Soorat Aal-’Imraan, for on the Day of Resurrection they will come as two clouds or two shades, or two flocks of birds in ranks, pleading for those who recite them. Recite Soorat Al-Baqarah, for to take recourse to it is a blessing and to give it up is a cause of grief, and the magicians cannot confront it.”

Reported in Saheeh Muslim (English Translation), vol. 2, no. 1757.

[90] In Al-Baqarah (2:255), in Aal-’Imraan (3:2), and in Taha (20:111).

Abu Umaamah (رضي االله عنه) reported that the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said,

“Allaah’s Most Great Name is in three soorahs in the Qur’aan, in Soorat Al-Baqarah and in Aal-’Imraan and in Soorat Taha.”

Al-Qaasim bin ‘Abdur-Rahmaan, one of the narrators of this hadeeth, searched the Qur’aan and found

Aaytul-Kursi in Soorat Al-Baqarah (2:255):
[ االلهُ لا إله إلاَّ ُ هوَ الحَيُّ القَيُّوم ]

And in Soorat Aal-’Imraan (3:2):
[ اللَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ ]

And in Soorat Taha (20:111)
[ وَعَنَتِ الْوُجُوهُ لِلْحَيِّ الْقَيُّومِ ]

Reported by al-Haakim, Ibn Maajah, at-Tabarani, at-Tahaawi, and others. Shaykh al-Albaani authenticated its isnaad (As-Silsilah As-Saheeha), vol. 2, no. 746.

[91] The Shaykh (رحمه االله) made the above statement in his explanation of Soorat Al-Kahf, in the month of Rabee’ al-Awwal,1419. Evidence from the Qur’aan is in Soorat AtTalaaq (65:12) and from the sunnah as in the agreed upon hadeeth, “Whoever usurps the land of somebody unjustly, his neck will be encircled with seven earths [on the Day of Resurrection].” [See Saheeh Al-Bukhaari (Arabic/English)], vol. 3, no. 632.

[92] Those who say that whatever man does it is entirely of his own ability and free will, and that Allaah’s mashee’ah (Will) and qudrah (Ability) have no influence whatsoever on what man does. They also claim that the knowledge of Allaah does not comprehend the actions of the creation until after they are executed.

[93] Khaarijites (Ar.Khawaarij, sing. Khaariji). See Appendix B.

[94] The Mu’tazilah (from i’tazala: “to remove oneself” or “to withdraw”). See Appendix C.

[95] See both interpretations of this aayah (which means): And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that which He wills, pp. 60-61.

[96] Meaning that man has a totally independent free will and that Allaah’s Will and Power has no effect in this.

[97] See Appendix D.

[98] Hulooliyyah [from hulool (lit. “settling,” “alighting,” “lodging,” “descent,” and by extension “incarnation”]. The most common definition is that it refers to the doctrine of Divine incarnation in the human form. In mystic sufism, it refers to the Divine incarnation in the sufi saints.

Imaam Ibn Taymeeyah classified the Hulooliyyah into two kinds. The first is the specific hulool like the claim of the Christians that Allaah is incarnated in ‘Eesa (alaihissalam) and like that of the extremist raafidah and sufi mystics who claim that Allaah is incarnated in ‘Ali Ibn Abee Taalib (رضي االله عنه) and in special sufi saints, respectively. The second kind is the general hulool and it is the saying that “Allaah, in His Essence, is everywhere.” [See Al-Fataawaa], vol. 2, pp. 171-172.

[99] It could be a major or a minor form of shirk depending upon the motive behind his reliance. Al-Hamdullilaah, the author, Shaykh Muhammad bin ‘Uthaymeen (رحمه االله ) personally affirmed this explanation to me in Jamaada Al-Aakhirah, 1419Hj.

[100] An agreed upon hadeeth. [See Saheeh al-Bukhaari (Arabic/English)], vol .2, no .237.

Source : From the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi – By Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen. With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

The Obligatory Prayers are Five. There is to be no increase in them nor any reduction in their set times – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lesson 49: Point 82
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

And know that the obligatory prayers are five. There is to be no increase in them nor any reduction in their set times. And upon a journey they consist of two Rak`ahs except for the Maghrib prayer. Whoever says that they are more than five then he has innovated and whoever says that they are less than five then he has innovated. Allaah will not accept any of them unless they are performed within their times except for the one who forgets then he is excused and must perform it when he remembers it and the traveler who may combine the two prayers if he wishes.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

The five obligatory prayers have tremendous importance. And it is the second pillar (rukn) from the pillars of Islaam after the two testifications. And whoever abandons it denying its obligation then he is a kaafir (disbeliever) by consensus (Ijmaa` ) of the Muslims. And whoever abandons it takaasulan (out of laziness) whilst acknowledging that this is obligatory then he is a disbeliever upon the correct saying from the two sayings of the scholars. And the proof is his sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam’s saying:

“Between the servant and between disbelief, there is the abandonment of the prayer.”[1]

The saying of the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam:

“The covenant that is between us and them is the prayer. So whoever abandons it then he has disbelieved.”[2]

This is clear. And he did not say whoever abandoned it denying its obligation. Rather, he sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam made it general along with many evidences, which this is not the place to quote in full.

And the prayers became settled at five prayers every day and night. The Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said to Mu`aadh ibn Jabal when he sent him to Yemen:

“Let the first thing that you call them to be the testification that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah. So if they accept that from you then inform them that Allaah has made five prayers obligatory upon them.”[3]

And it was made obligatory upon the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam and upon his nation on the night of the Mi`raaj (ascent) through the Heavens, which shows its importance. They were first made obligatory as 50 in each day and night. Then the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam returned to his Lord for a reduction until Allaah made it 5 with regard to its performance and they are 50 in the balance because a single good deed is rewarded with 10 times its like. So a single prayer is for 10 prayers. So, it is multiplied to 50 prayers but as for the action then it is 5 prayers in the day and the night.

So whoever says that the prayers are more than 5 then he is a mubtadi’ (innovator) because he has added something into the religion that is not from it and whoever says that they are less than 5 as is said by a sect of the innovators and the people of misguidance that they are 3. The prayers are confirmed by the Book and the Sunnah and the consensus of the Muslims as being five prayers.

He, the Most High, said:

أَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ لِدُلُوكِ الشَّمْسِ إِلَىٰ غَسَقِ اللَّيْلِ وَقُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ ۖ إِنَّ قُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ كَانَ مَشْهُودًا

Establish the prayers from the time when the sun passes the Zenith until the darkness of the night and establish the recitation of the Qur’aan in the dawn prayer. Indeed the recitation of the Qur’aan in the dawn prayer is attended by the angels of the night and the day. (Sooratul-Israa· (17), aayah 78)

And the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam explained them by his saying and his action and they have set times.

He, the Most High, said:

إِنَّ الصَّلَاةَ كَانَتْ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ كِتَابًا مَّوْقُوتًا

The prayer is a duty prescribed for the believers at set times.
(Sooratun-Nisaa· (4), aayah 103)

Meaning: An obligatory duty at set times. Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam clearly explained them by his saying and his action. It is not permissible to take them out of their times except on the condition of a valid excuse such as he has slept or forgotten until the time finishes. So then when he remembers or wakes up it becomes obligatory for him to hasten to perform the prayer whatever time it is. He sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

“Whoever forgets a prayer or sleeps through it then let him pray it when he remembers it. There is no expiation for it except that.”[4]

And as for deliberately letting it pass beyond its time then it will not be correct from him even if he prays it because he has not prayed the prayer which Allaah commanded him with. Rather, he has just prayed a prayer in accordance with his own desires. So if he deliberately lets it go outside its time then it will not be accepted from him even if he does pray it. So what is upon him is at-tawbah (repentance), that he repents to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic and is constant upon observance of the prayer.

And the number of the rak`ahs (prayer units in each prayer) was explained by the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam. The Fajr prayer is 2 rak`ahs and the Maghrib is 3 rak`ahs because it is the odd number of prayer of the day. And the Dhuhr prayer is 4 rak`ahs and the `Asr prayer is 4 rak`ahs and the `Ishaa· prayer is 4 rak`ahs.

And when on a journey, the 4 rak`ah prayers are reduced to 2 rak`ahs; the Dhuhr prayer and the `Asr prayer and the `Ishaa· prayer as occurs in the established Sunnah from the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam. And that occurs in the Qur’aan:

وَإِذَا ضَرَبْتُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَن تَقْصُرُوا مِنَ الصَّلَاةِ

And when you travel upon the earth then there is no blame upon you if you shorten the prayer. (Sooratun-Nisaa· (4), aayah 101)

As for the Fajr (dawn) prayer then it remains as two rak`ahs and as for the Maghrib prayer then it is not shortened because it is the witr (odd numbered) prayer of the day time. So if it were shortened then the number of rak`ahs of the day time would become even. And this is how the ahaadeeth occur regarding the prayer. So it is not permissible for anyone to interfere with them; either adding or deleting or taking it out of its time.[5]

Footnotes:

[1] Reported by Muslim (82) from a hadeeth of Jaabir radiyAllaahu `anhu with the wording:

“Between a man and between shirk & kufr is the abandonment of the prayer.” 

[2] Reported by Imaam Ahmad in the Musnad and by at-Tirmithee and Ibn Maajah and an-Nasaa·ee from a hadeeth of Buraydah radiyAllaahu `anhu. And at-Tirmithee said it is hasan, saheeh (good, authentic) and it was declared authentic by Ibn Hibbaan and by al-Haakim in Al-Mustadrak.

Likewise, Shaykh Al-Albaaniyy rahimahullaah declared it saheeh also in his checking of at-Tirmithee; declared it saheeh (authentic).

[3] Reported by Al-Bukhaariyy in his saheeh; you’ll find it there in a number of places; the first of them being no. 1,395 and also reported by Muslim (19) from a hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn `Abbaas radiyAllaahu `anhumaa.

[4] Reported by Al-Bukhaariyy (597) and Muslim (684) from a hadeeth of Anas radiyAllaahu `anhu.

[5] Translator’s side point: Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmee rahimahullaah said regarding the point – Imaam al-Barbahaaree said that “whoever adds to those five or deletes from the five prayers then he has innovated”,

“As for the saying of the author here, “then he has innovated,” this is different to his usual practice for he very often uses the wording of disbelief for things which are less than full disbelief and here he used the word innovation whilst knowing that whoever says that the obligatory prayer is more than five or less then he has become a disbeliever by consensus of the People of Knowledge. This being based upon Tawaatur (something reported by huge number of people throughout the generations at every level).

And then, these five every one of them is well-known with regard to the number of its rak`ahs so the dawn prayer is 2 rak`ahs and the Dhuhr and `Asr are 4 and Maghrib is 3 and `Ishaa· is 4.

So it is not permissible when in residence to pray less than that and whoever does that claiming that the prayer has been reduced or increased then he is to be made aware of the matter if he is ignorant and if he then still persists then he has disbelieved. So the number of their rak`ahs is taken by narration, which has been passed down by generation after generation from the time of the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam to this time.

And it is not permissible to pray less than that except when on a journey in which case the 4 rak`ah prayers are reduced to 2 rak’ahs as is proven by the evidences. And whoever claims that the Maghrib prayer or the dawn prayer should be shortened then he is to be made aware and if he still persists then he becomes a disbeliever.

And likewise, their due times have been taken from what has been passed down from one whole generation to the next by transmission of the action and transmission of the saying. So every obligatory prayer from the obligatory prayers has a separate time and its time has a beginning and an end. And it is not permissible to bring it before its time nor to delay it beyond it except that it is permissible for the traveler to gather two prayers due to the ruling of his being a traveler; either delaying the earlier one to the time of the later one and that is by consensus or bringing the second one forward and praying it along with the first one in the time of the first one in the view of some of the People of Knowledge who hold that the hadeeth in that regard is authentic.

And it is permissible for a person who is ill to combine the prayers to repel difficulty which occurs with praying each obligatory prayer in its specific time.

And whoever makes just three times for prayer like the Shi`a; those who permit joining always such that they join the `Asr with the Dhuhr prayer at the time of Dhuhr and they join the `Ishaa· along with the Maghrib at the time of Maghrib based upon the saying of some of their Imaams. Then whoever does that from them and believes it’s permissible then he is an innovator astray.

Just as is also the case of one who combines `Asr along with Maghrib (the day time prayer along with the night time prayer) or who combines `Ishaa· prayer along with Fajr then he is daalun (astray) also. So therefore jam’ (combining the prayers) cannot be except two obligatory prayers, which can share in their times meaning Dhuhr prayer along with `Asr or Maghrib along with `Ishaa·.

And whoever abandons the prayer deliberately until its time has passed then he has disbelieved because of the authentic evidences which prove that. From them is his sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam’s saying:

“Between a man and between shirk and kufr is the abandonment of the prayer.” 

And from them is his saying:

“The covenant between us and them is the prayer so whoever abandons it then he has disbelieved.” 

…to the rest of the evidences.

And the jumhoor (great majority) hold that the one who abandons the prayer is not a disbeliever (meaning he abandons it out of laziness) on account of that, yet still in spite of this many of them hold that his repentance should be sought. So either he’ll repent from that otherwise he is to be executed with the prescribed punishment. And the matter there is disagreement between the people of knowledge and Allaah, the Most High, knows best. Unless he leaves it on account of a valid excuse, which is forgetfulness or sleep then it’s obligatory upon him to pray it when he remembers it because of the hadeeth of Anas ibn Maalik radiyAllaahu `anhu who said “The Prophet of Allaah sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

“Whoever forgets a prayer or sleeps through it then his expiation is to pray it when he remembers it because Allaah, the Most High says:

 وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ لِذِكْرِي

And establish the prayer for my remembrance.
(Soorah-Taa Haa (20) aayah 14)

And Allaah is the one who grants success.”

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

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To have eemaan that Allaah will punish the creation in the Fire in Shackles, Fetters & Chains – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lesson 48: Point 81
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

And to have eemaan that Allaah will punish the creation in the Fire in shackles, fetters and chains. The Fire will be inside them and above them and below them.

Whereas, the Jahmiyyah among them Hishaam al-Footee said, “Allaah will only punish them next to the Fire” in rebuttal of Allaah and His Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam.[1]

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

His saying, And to have eemaan (truly believe) that Allaah will punish the creation in the Fire in shackles, fetters and chains. The Fire will be inside them and above them and beneath them,” Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, will cause the Fire to blaze with the bodies of the disbelievers. So they are firewood for the Fire of Hell.

وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمْ وَقُودُ النَّارِ

And they (the disbelievers) are fuel for the Fire.
(Soorah-Aali `Imraan (3), aayah 10)

It will burn with them and use their bodies as fuel and Allaah’s refuge is sought.

فَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا قُطِّعَتْ لَهُمْ ثِيَابٌ مِّن نَّارٍ يُصَبُّ مِن فَوْقِ رُءُوسِهِمُ الْحَمِيمُ ..

يُصْهَرُ بِهِ مَا فِي بُطُونِهِمْ وَالْجُلُودُ 

وَلَهُم مَّقَامِعُ مِنْ حَدِيدٍ

So those who disbelieve will have garments of Fire put out for them, boiling water will be poured down from above upon their heads. It will melt their insides and their skins. And there will be for them hooked rods of iron with which they will be beaten. (Sooratul-Hajj (22), aayah 19-21)

So Allaah mentioned that the torment will occur upon the bodies of the disbelievers and that the Fire will burn with them and blaze away consuming them.

 يُصَبُّ مِن فَوْقِ رُءُوسِهِمُ الْحَمِيمُ ..

Boiling water will be poured down upon their heads from above. (Sooratul-Hajj (22), aayah 19)

From the Mu`tazilah, there are those who said, “They will not be tortured and the Fire will not blaze away burning their bodies. Rather, they will be punished by the Fire only. As for their bodies then they will not actually burn.” Whereas, Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, says in the Qur’aan that they are the Fuel of the Fire and the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

“The first of those whom the Fire will blaze on the Day of Resurrection will be the scholar who did not act upon his knowledge and the one who gave in charity who shows off in giving charity and the mujaahid (who fought in Allaah’s path) who fought to show off.”[2]

The word al-aghlaal (shackles), its meaning is that his hands will be bound to his neck and Allaah’s refuge is sought. And al-ankaal (fetters) are instruments of torture.

إِنَّا أَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ سَلَاسِلَ وَأَغْلَالًا وَسَعِيرًا

We have prepared for the disbelievers iron chains and fetters to bind their hands and a blazing Fire. (Sooratul-Insaan (76), aayah 4)

إِنَّ لَدَيْنَا أَنكَالًا وَجَحِيمًا

We have fetters and a raging Fire. (Sooratul-Muzammil (73), aayah 12)

This word al-ankaal (fetters), they are instruments of torture; Allaah’s refuge is sought. Chains and shackles and a blazing Fire. And the Fire will be in their bellies inside of them and above them and beneath them.

لَهُم مِّن جَهَنَّمَ مِهَادٌ وَمِن فَوْقِهِمْ غَوَاشٍ ۚ وَكَذَٰلِكَ نَجْزِي الظَّالِمِينَ

They (the disbelievers) will have the Hellfire as a bed. Over them, there will be coverings of Fire and likewise, We will recompense the disbelieving wrongdoers. (Sooratul-A`raaf (7), aayah 41)

Footnotes:

[1] Translator’s side point: With regard to this person mentioned here who needs refuting amongst others; Hishaam al-Footee. In the footnotes they mention that Al-Haafidh ibn Hajar said about him in Lisaan al-Mizaan; he was Hishaam ibn Umar al-Footee, he was from the companions of Al-Hudhayl and he was a caller to the position of the Mu`tazilah.

Shaykh as-Suhaymee mentions in his lectures of the explanation, he said, “His teacher was Al-Hudhayl, well-known as Al-`Allaaf and that he had this deviated belief that those who enter the Hellfire, after they have been in the Fire for some time, they will become of the same nature as the Fire so it will become natural for them to the extent that they will feel delight in the Fire. His student Hishaam al-Footee differed with his teacher, he refused to accept that they would actually enter the Fire. Rather, they will be punished next to the Fire, they will be scorched outside it.

[2] Reported by Muslim (1,905) from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiyAllaahu `anhu.

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

VisitBook Study of Sharh as-Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Travelling to The Lands Of Disbelief for Tourism, Business,Da’wah, and Marriage – Shaykh ‘Abdur Rahmaan al-‘Adane

Question 8: Travelling to the lands of disbelief for tourism, business, da’wah, and marriage

“There are some travels to the lands of disbelief that don’t include residing nor settling there, like traveling for vacation, and tourism, and traveling for business, and traveling for da’wah, or for someone who made hijrah to go get married over there.”

The Answer:

With regards to traveling for vacation and tourism we say; traveling to the lands of disbelief for those matters of daroorah (extreme necessity), like seeking treatment and such, there is no problem with this as has preceded.

As for that which is for the purpose of vacation, or tourism, or roaming around or recreation, this travel is not a travel of extreme necessity because it is possible for him to go to the Islaamic lands whose people are conservative Muslims and take vacation there, and it will be less expensive, and he will feel safe in his journey for his deen, although the advice we give is that the Muslim focus on that which benefits him, as the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam) said, “Focus on that which benefits you.”

And as for traveling to the land of disbelief and shirk for the purpose of tourism and recreation, no doubt, there is great danger in that and trial on the deen of the Muslim and on his character because of what has been mentioned. Also, in that great sums of money are wasted in these types of journeys to the lands of disbelief, and over there the temptations are intense. How often has a righteous person traveled to those lands then returned corrupted. Rather, how often has a Muslim traveled there and returned as a disbeliever.

So in brief, it is not permissible to travel to the land of disbelief for tourism, and roaming around and recreation. That is so the (person’s) deen can be protected, and so he can be saved from the means of trial, and so he can distance himself from the dangers and the evil consequences, especially since the traveler travels and searches in his journey for everything that delights him and everything that entertains him, and you know the laxity that exists in those lands for sins like drinking alcoholic beverages, and fornication, and nudity, and decadence, and the many types of abominations.

Also, those disbelievers have prepared their lands for these purposes and compete with one another in that. And, all praises are due to Allaah, the people of knowledge have given the legal verdict that it is forbidden to go to the land of the disbelievers for tourism and roaming around.

As for traveling for the purpose of business, some of the people of knowledge allow that, and some of the people of knowledge see that to be forbidden and don’t allow that because of the severe danger which the Muslim is subject to over there. Whatever the case may be, our advice is that the Muslim beware of going to the lands of disbelief for the purpose of business as much as possible because of the danger in that on the deen and on the character, and because of the great evils which have already been mentioned, especially since the one who wants to do business, he brings with him on his journey large sums of money, and you know that the abomination is at hands reach, we ask Allaah for safety and wellbeing. However, if he is going to travel for his business to one of the remote lands of the disbelievers with trustworthy company in a short time-period, in this instance it could be said to be permissible. As for most of the lands of disbelief, there is great danger in that on the deen of the Muslim.

As for the Muhaajir traveling only to get married, it appears that it is not permissible because it is not an extreme necessity, rather, he is able to marry a righteous woman over there, if one can be found, over the telephone or by the different means of communication without having to travel there because in the Muslim traveling there, as you have heard, there is danger for him, and perhaps if he goes to those lands after making hijrah from them he could long for staying there and employ different types of tricks to stay there with the argument that he is still trying to find the right wife, or with the argument that he is working for a little while so he can save money to suffice the requirements of the marriage and the journey with his family to the lands of Islaam, or with the argument that there are obstacles making it difficult to return to the land of Islaam, or because he needs some treatment or things like that, and Allaah is the one whose help is sought. So we advise that he doesn’t go for this purpose.

As for traveling to those lands for the purpose of calling to Allaah, it is well known the many proofs from the Book and the Sunnah mentioning the virtue of calling to Allaah. Allaah (‘Azza Wa Jall) said in His Book:

وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ قَوْلًا مِّمَّن دَعَا إِلَى اللَّهِ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا وَقَالَ إِنَّنِي مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ

“And who is better in speech than he who invites (men) to Allaah, and does righteous deeds, and says: ‘I am one of the Muslims.’” – Fussilat (41):33

And Allaah (‘Azza Wa Jall) says:

قُلْ هَٰذِهِ سَبِيلِي أَدْعُو إِلَى اللَّهِ ۚ عَلَىٰ بَصِيرَةٍ أَنَا وَمَنِ اتَّبَعَنِي ۖ وَسُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ وَمَا أَنَا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

“Say (O Muhammad): ‘This is my way; I invite unto Allaah with sure knowledge, I and whosoever follows me with sure knowledge. And Glorified and Exalted be Allaah. And I am not of the Mushrikoon (polytheists, pagans, idolaters and disbelievers).’” – Yusuf (12):108

And He (Subhaanahu) says:

ادْعُ إِلَىٰ سَبِيلِ رَبِّكَ بِالْحِكْمَةِ وَالْمَوْعِظَةِ الْحَسَنَةِ ۖ وَجَادِلْهُم بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ ۚ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَن ضَلَّ عَن سَبِيلِهِ ۖ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِينَ

“Invite (mankind, O Muhammad) to the Way of your Lord with wisdom and fair preaching, and argue with them in a way that is better.” – An-Nahl (16):125

So traveling to the lands of disbelief for the purpose of da’wah is considered to be a type of Jihaad, and it is fard kifaayah (obligatory on a part of the nation) upon he who is able to do that. So calling to Allaah, and instructing the people, and conveying Allaah’s message to His slaves, and removing the people from the types of darkness to the light, and explaining the good qualities of Islaam to the disbelievers, and educating the Muslims over there about the rulings of the deen, and enlightening them, and instructing them, and encouraging them to leave there and go to the lands of Islaam, no doubt, these are important matters.

The disbelievers are in need of someone to call them, especially since Islaam in the lands of disbelief has been distorted. So many of the disbelievers don’t know anything about true Islaam because of the cover-up, and misguidance, and distortion, and deterrence, and false allegations against the religion of Islaam, that it is a religion of barbarity, and savageness and backwardness.

So in brief, calling to Allaah in those lands is a matter of extreme importance because of what results because of it from benefit and guidance for the creation, in particular when sincerity, and truthfulness, and patience exists in the callers.

No doubt, by Allaah’s permission, good outcomes will occur. However, it is a must that this caller to Allaah, his da’wah must have some effect and influence, and this only happens to a man who has with him knowledge and insight; a man who knows his deen with its evidences, and he has the ability to call to it and refute the specious arguments that he comes across, along with the ability to perform that which Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’ala) has made obligatory upon him, and all of this, meaning the permissibility of going there for the purpose of da’wah, is under the condition that the caller to Allaah feels safe for himself from tribulation, for if he fears tribulation for his deen, or fears for himself falling into that which Allaah has forbidden, it is not allowed for him to travel there even if it is for the purpose of da’wah.

Source Questions and answers concerning al-Hijrah – By Shaykh ‘Abdur Rahmaan al-‘Adanee

Related Link: Hijrah (Emigration to Muslim Lands) – abdurrahman.org/hijrah

Biography of Imaam Muwaffaqud-Deen `Abdullaah ibn Ahmad ibn Qudaamah – Dawud Burbank

1. HIS LINEAGE: He was Aboo Muhammad, `Abdullaah ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Qudaamah ibn Miqdaam ibn Nasr ibn `Abdillaah ibn Hudhayfah ibn Muhammad ibn Ya`qoob ibn al-Qaasim ibn Ibraaheem ibn Ismaa`eel ibn Yahyaa ibn Muhammad ibn Saalim ibn `Abdillaah ibn `Umar ibn al-Khattaab-radiyallaahu `anhumaa.

al-Qurashee; al-Maqdisee; al-Jammaa`eelee; then ad-Dimashqee; as-Saalihee; al-Hanbalee.

al-Qurashee: He was from the tribe of Quraysh, since he was descended from `Umar-radiyallaahu `anhu – who was `Adawee (i.e. from the sub-tribe of Banoo `Adiyy who were part of Quraysh).

al-Maqdisee: His family’s ascription to ‘Baytul-Maqdis’ (Jerusalem) since they lived close to it.

al-Jammaa`eelee: In ascription to the village of Jammaa`eel where he was born; and it is a village on the hills of Nablus – a city about 40 miles north of Jerusalem in present day occupied Palestine.

ad-Dimashqee: In ascription to Damascus (in Syria) which is where his family migrated to, and where he lived for most of his life, and where he died.

as-Saalihee: In ascription to the mosque of as-Saalihiyyah.

His brother Shaykh Aboo `Umar said: “They ascribe us to ‘as-Saalihiyyah’ because we settled at the mosque of Aboo Saalih, not that we were righteous people (saalihoon).” [And this is from piety since they were indeed a family of righteousness and rectification].

al-Hanbalee: In ascription to the Hanbalee madhhab, i.e. that he learned and was an expert in the madhhab, i.e. that he learned and was an expert in the principles and details of Fiqh followed by the students of Imaam Ahmad ibn Hanbal. [and he was not a blind follower].

2. HIS BIRTH: He was born in the month of Sha`baan in the year 541H in the town of Jammaa`eel.

3. HIS FAMILY: He was from a family who were noble in their lineage, their knowledge, and their piety.

His father: Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Qudaamah was born in 491H and died in 558H. [He had his son at the age of 50]. He was one of the righteous scholars; famous for knowledge, zuhd and worship. He was the Khateeb of the mosque of Jammaa`eel. He educated his children and taught them the Qur’aan, and the hadeeth, and correct manners.

He died when Imaam Muwaffaqud-Deen was about 17 years old, so his elder son Muhammad ibn Ahmad – who was known as Aboo `Umar – continued his upbringing and education.

4. HIS EARLY YEARS, AND HIS SEEKING KNOWLEDGE, AND HIS TRAVELLING TO SEEK KNOWLEDGE:

For the first ten years of his life he remained with his family in Palestine, and he began memorization of the Qur’aan.

Then in 551H, when he was 10 years old, his father performed Hijrah (migration) with the family, fleeing from the invading Christians, and migrated to Damascus.

In Damascus he completed memorization of the Qur’aan, and he memorized a large number of ahaadeeth. Then he memorized ‘Mukhtasar al-Khiraqee’-on the Fiqh of Imaam Ahmad. (Then later in life he wrote an explanation of it in 9 volumes, called al-Mughnee).

He remained in Damascus for 10 years, and at the age of twenty he undertook his first journey in search of knowledge.

-In 561H: he travelled to the main city of knowledge and of the scholars at that time- Baghdaad. He was accompanied by his maternal cousin al-Haafidh `Abdul-Ghanee al- Maqdisee;

He inclined towards the study of Fiqh and his cousin towards hadeeth, however they accompanied each other to the lectures and acquired both;

There he studied with many of the scholars, amongst them: Shaykh `Abdul-Qaadir al-Jeelaanee (D. 561H), Ibnul-Battee, and Ibnul-Manniyy.

He remained in Baghdaad for four years. He studied ‘Mukhtasar al-Khiraqee’ under `Abdul-Qaadir al-Jeelaanee, and then the Shaykh died 50 nights after his arrival; then they studied under Ibnul-Jawzee; then he remained with Ibnul-Manniyy, and learned the Fiqh of the Hanbalee madhhab with him, and its principles, and the different sayings of the scholars- and he excelled in that.

He then returned to Damascus.

– In 567H he again travelled to Baghdaad where he remained for a year seeking knowledge.

– In 573H he travelled to Makkah to perform Hajj, and he met the people of knowledge there; amongst them al-Mubaarak ibn at-Tabbaakh.

Then after performing Hajj in 574: –

– Then from Makkah he travelled to Baghdaad – where he again remained for a year seeking knowledge.

– Then from Baghdaad he returned to Damascus where he started to write works on many branches of knowledge, the most famous of his works being ‘al-Mughnee.’

5. HIS SHAYKHS

-His Shaykhs included:

1. His father Ahmad bin Qudaamah al-Maqdisee (491-558H),
2. His elder brother Aboo `Umar Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Qudaamah al-Maqdisee (528-607H),
3. Shaykh `Abdul-Qaadir al-Jeelaanee (471-561H),
4. Ibnul-Jawzee,
5. Abul-Fath Nasr ibn Fityaan ibn Matr Ibnul-Mannee (501-583),
6. Abul-Fath Ibnul-Battee (477-564H),
7. Fakhrun-Nisaa. Shuhdah, the daughter of the Muhaddith Aboo Nasr Ahmad ibn al-Faraj AdDeenawaree – (>480-574H),
8. Shaykh Badr ibn `Abdillaah al-Badr (hafidahullaah) in his introduction to his checking of Ibn Qudaamah’s book ‘Ithbaat Sifaat-`Uluww’ gathers a list of his Shaykhs numbering 67, and then said: “and many others besides them.”

6. HIS STUDENTS: Amongst them:

1. al-Bahaa.ul-Maqdisee (d. 624H) who wrote ‘al-`Uddah Sharh al-`Umdah.’
2. Diyaa.ud-Deen al-Maqdisee (d. 643H)
3. The son of his brother: Shamsuddeen ibn Qudaamah (d. 682H)
4. al-Haafidh al-Mundhiree (d. 656H) – who wrote many works, including; ‘al-Mukhtasar Saheeh Muslim,’ ‘Mukhtasar Sunan Abee Daawood,’ ‘at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb’…Shaykh Badrul-Badr gathers the names of 44 of his students and then says: “And many others.”

7. HIS PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION AND CHARACTERISTICS:

His student ad-Diyaa. al-Maqdisee said: “He was of full height, white, with a bright face, large distinct eyes; he was so handsome that it was as if his face was radiating light; he had a broad forehead and a long beard; a straight nose and his eyebrows joined. He had a small head, slender arms and legs; and a thin body; and full senses and faculties. He was extremely intelligent; and behaved in a fine manner…”

Ibnul-Najjaar said: “al-Muwaffaq was the Imaam of the Hanbalees in the main congregational mosque of Damascus. He was fully reliable, an evidence (in narrating), noble. He had plentiful virtues; and he kept away from anything not befitting; he was pious, a worshipper.He was upon the way of the Salaf. Light and dignity could be seen upon him. A man would take benefit from seeing him even before hearing his speech.”

Ibn Katheer said: “He used to engage in optional prayers between the two night prayers (i.e. Maghrib and `Ishaa.) close to his place of prayer. Then when he had prayed the `Ishaa. prayer he would return to his house of the street of ad-Duwalla`ee by the bank of the river. He would take back with him those he could from the poor and needy, and they would eat with him, and his primary house was upon Qaasiyyoon…”

ad-Diyaa. said: “He was fine in his manners: he would hardly ever be seen except that he was smiling. He would relate incidents and joke. I heard al-Bahaa. say; When the people read with him he would joke with us, and be cheerful and at ease. Once they complained to him about some children who studied with him, so he said; “They are children. They have to have some play, and you used to be just like them.”

And al-Bahaa. described him as being courageous, and said: “He used to go forward to the enemy, and he was wounded upon his hand; and he used to take part when the army and the enemy were firing at each other.”

ad-Diyaa. said: “He used to pray with ‘Khushoo`’ (humility and attentiveness). He would hardly ever pray the Sunnah prayer before Fajr and after `Ishaa. except in his house; and between the two night prayers he used to pray four rak`ahs, reciting: ‘as-Sajdah,’ ‘Yaaseen,’ ‘ad-Dukhaan,’ and ‘Tabaarak.’ He would hardly miss out on them. He used to stand in prayer in the last hours of the night reciting 1/7th of the Qur’aan. He would sometimes raise his voice and he had a beautiful voice.”

8. SCHOLARS’ PRAISE OF HIM:

The very scholar of hadeeth, Aboo `Amr ibn as-Salaah said: “I have not seen the like of al-Muwaffaq.”

Aboo Bakr ibn Ghaneemah – the muftee of Baghdaad – said: “I do not know anyone in our time who has reached the level of ijtihaad except for al-Muwaffaq.”

Sibt ibn al-Jawzee said: “He was an Imaam in many fields. After his brother Aboo `Umar and al-`Imaad, there was no one in his time who had greater ‘zuhd’ or piety than him. He had a great deal of ‘hayaa.’ (sense of shame), and he remained aloof from this world and its people.

He was easy and mild-mannered, humble, and he had love for the poor. He was fine in manners, generous and giving, whoever saw him then it was as if he had seen one of the Companions; and it was as if light came from his face. He was plentiful in worship.”

Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah said: “After al-Awzaa`ee no one entered Shaam having more Fiqh knowledge and understanding of the religion than al-Muwaffaq.”

ad-Diyaa. al-Maqdisee said: “He was an Imaam with regard to the Qur’aan and its explanation; an Imaam in the knowledge of hadeeth and its problematic matters; an Imaam in Fiqh – indeed the outstanding scholar of his time in that; an Imaam of knowledge of the disagreements of scholars; the outstanding scholar of his time in Laws of Inheritance; an Imaam in Usoolul-Fiqh; an Imaam in Arabic Grammar; an Imaam in mathematics; an Imaam in the movements and positions of stars and planets.

Ibn Rajab al-Hanbalee said: “The Faqeeh, the Zaahid, the Imaam. Shaykhul-Islaam. The singular exception scholar.”

al-Haafidh ibn Katheer said: “Shaykhul-Islaam. An Imaam. An outstanding scholar. There was not in his time, indeed even for a long time before him, anyone having greater knowledge of Fiqh than him.”

Ibn Rajab said: “He used to closely follow the texts in the matter of al-Usool (fundamentals and belief) and in other than it. He did not hold applying any acts of worship for which there was no narration. He used to order affirmation of the texts, and leaving them as they are – with regard to what occurs in the Book and the Sunnah from ‘as-Sifaat’ (Allaah’s Attributes): Not altering them, not declaring how they are, not distorting the meaning; not interpreting them away with ‘ta’weel,’ and not negating them.”

9. HIS DEATH:

He died (rahimahullaah) on Saturday, the day of `Eidul-Fitr, in 620H, at the age of 79 in his home in Damascus. His funeral which had a huge attendance was held the next day and he was buried on the hill of Qaasiyyoon.

10. HIS WIFE, SLAVE-GIRLS AND CHILDREN:

He married his paternal cousin Maryam bint Abee Bakr ibn `Abdillaah ibn Sa`d al-Maqdisee. They had a number of children: (al-Majd) `Eesaa, Muhammad, Yahyaa, Safiyyah, and Faatimah. Then he took a slave girl, and then another. Then he married `Izziyyah- who died before him. All his sons died in his lifetime, and none of them had offspring except for `Eesaa- who had two righteous sons, however both of them died without any offspring. So the Shaykh had no remaining progeny.

11. HIS WORKS:

Dr. `Alee ibn Sa`eed al-Ghaamidee lists his work and they come to 38 in number.

Amongst his printed works are:

  • al-Mughnee in Fiqh, (9 volumes);
  • Rawdatun-Naadhir in Usoolul-Fiqh (2 volumes);
  • Kitaabut-Tawwaabeen (1 volume);
  • Dhammut-Ta’weel (booklet);
  • Ithbaat Sifaatil-`Uluww
    (1 volume with checking of Shaykh Badrul-Badr (hafidahullaah)).
  • Lum`atul-I`tiqaad
    (Printed along with the explanation of Shaykh Saalih ibn `Uthaymeen (rahimahullaah) and translated and printed with the title: Sufficiency in Creed). And (printed with the explanation of Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan (hafidahullaah): [01]

[01] Sources:

1. Ikhtiyaaraat ibn Qudaamah al-Fiqhiyyah of Dr. `Alee ibn Sa`eed al-Ghaamidee;
2. The biography of the author included in Shaykh al-Fawzaan’s explanation of Lum`atul-I`tiqaad;
3. The biography complied by Shaykh Badrul-Badr in his checking of Ithbaat Sifatil-`Uluww.

References:

1. Siyaar A`laamin-Nubalaa. (22/165-173) of Dhahabee;
2. al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah (13/99-101) of Ibn Katheer;
3. Shadharaatudh-Dhahab (5/88-92) of Ibnul-`Imaad;
4. Dhayl Tabaqaatil-Hanaabilah (2/133-149) of Ibn Rajab;
5. al-Mughnee verifiers introduction (1/6-37).

Download the original PDF Here.

Compiled and Translated by Abu Talha Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Related Links

Rhetorical Theology (al-kalaam) & Argumentation, Disputing & Self-amazement – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lesson 48: Point 80
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

And know that heresy, disbelief, doubts, innovations, misguidance and confusion about the religion have not occurred except through rhetorical theology (al-kalaam) and the people of rhetorical theology and through argumentation, debating, disputing and self-amazement. And how can a man boldly enter into debating, disputing and argumentation when Allaah, the Most High says:

مَا يُجَادِلُ فِي آيَاتِ اللَّهِ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُو

None dispute regarding the aayaat of Allaah except those who disbelieve.(Soorah-Ghaafir (40), aayah 4)

So, upon you is to submit and to be pleased and satisfied with the narrations and to withhold and remain silent.[1]

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

Explanation of this has preceded and a warning against it.[2]

His saying, “So what is upon you is to submit and to be pleased and satisfied with the narrations and to withhold and remain silent.” Upon you is to submit to the speech of Allaah and to the speech of His Messenger and to withhold from argumentation and raising doubts because that is prohibited. Indeed it will increase confusion. Take hold of the speech of Allaah and the speech of His Messenger and be satisfied with that so that you are guided and therefore be at peace from whisperings, doubts and false ideas and you will come to be upon clear insight. So Allaah sent down this Qur’aan as a clarification of everything.[3]

Footnotes:

[1] Translator’s side point: With regard to al-kalaam (rhetorical theology) then Shaykh Saalih as-Suhaymee hafizahullaah said with regard to the meaning of kalaam; it means logic.

[2] Translator’s side point: Page 125, for this 1st volume, point number 11.

Listen to these Points at the below Links:

Point 10: Al-kalaam (theological rhetoric), arguing, debating and disputing are newly introduced affairs

Point 11: Speculative speech (kalaam) about Allaah, the Most High, is an innovation and misguidance

[3] Translator’s side point: Explanation of Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmee rahimahullaah then he said: The author said, “And you should know that there has not been any heresy or any disbelief,” I say, “Restricting heresy to be a result of al-kalaam (rhetorical theology) and to the people of rhetorical theology and to the people of disputing and argumentation, this refers to what’s mostly the case. However, indeed there are cases of heresy and disbelief, which come about for other reasons besides kalaam (rhetorical theology). And we seek Allaah’s refuge from all the causes of heresy and disbelief and doubts and innovations, Aameen. However, this is what is generally the case with regard to a person who learns kalaam (rhetorical theology) and those who learn the different forms of debating and argumentation and self-amazement. And what is obligatory is to not be amazed at one’s self. And a person’s being outstanding in debating and argumentation is something which is blameworthy in the legislation unless it is to make the truth clear. And there occurs in the authentic hadeeth from the ahaadeeth of `Aa`ishah radiyAllaahu `anhaa that the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said that:

“The most hated of men to Allaah is the argumentative quarrelsome person.”

Reported by Al-Bukhaariyy (2457) and Muslim (2668).

And in the narration of At-Tirmithee:

“Allaah hates that person who is very eloquent from the men, the one who moves his tongue around just as the cows move their tongues around.”

Reported by Tirmithee (2,853) and declared saheeh (authentic) by Shaykh Al-Albaaniyy.

And then the author rahimahullaah said, How can a person be bold upon argumentation and disputing when Allaah says:

مَا يُجَادِلُ فِي آيَاتِ اللَّهِ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُو

None dispute regarding the aayaat of Allaah except those who disbelieve.(Soorah-Ghaafir (40), aayah 4)

So upon you is to submit and to be pleased and satisfied with the narrations and to withhold and be silent.”

And I say – what is befitting for the Muslim is to submit to whatever comes from Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, in His Book and upon the tongue of His Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam and to withhold and be silent whatever is besides that knowing that submission to what occurs from the bringer of the legislation sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam should be a submission of ridaa (being pleased and satisfied) and based upon acceptance and eemaan and attesting to the truth, acting upon whatever requires action from it and believing whatever it necessitates that we believe in. Allaah, the Most High said:

وَالْعَصْرِ
إِنَّ الْإِنسَانَ لَفِي خُسْرٍ
إِلَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالْحَقِّ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالصَّبْرِ

By time, mankind is in loss except those who have eemaan (truly believe) and work righteous and correct deeds and they encourage each other with the truth and they encourage each other with patience. (Sooratul-Asr, aayah 1-3)

And the meaning of `aamanoo is saddaqoo: they believe and attest to the truth.

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

jleftng>Visit : Book Study of Sharh as-Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

The Wudhoo (Ablution) – Abdul-Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee | Dawud Burbank

PURIFICATION FOR THE PRAYER (AT-TAHAARAH LISSALAAT):

From Ibn `Umar –radiyallaahu `anhumaa– who said: I heard the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) say: <<Prayer will not be accepted without purification.>> [01]

Contents:

  • The Wudoo : It’s Description
  • The Conditions (Shuroot) of Wudoo for Its Correctness
  • Obligations (Faraa’id) of Wudoo
  • Sunnahs of Wudoo
  • The Things Which Nullify the Wudoo
  • That Which the Wudoo Is Obligatory for (What Is Forbidden for the Person Whose State of Purification Is Broken)
  • That Which the Wudoo Is Recommended For

THE WUDOO·:

Its description:

From Humraan-the mawlaa (freed-slave) of `Uthmaan: that `Uthmaan ibn `Affaan radiyallaahu `anhu– called for some water for wudoo and he performed the wudoo .

So he washed his hands three times; then he washed his mouth and washed out his nose; then he washed his face three times; then he washed his right arm up to and including the elbow three times; then he washed his left arm likewise; then he wiped his head; then he washed his right foot up to and including the ankle three times; then he washed the left one likewise.

Then he said: “I saw Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) perform wudoo with the like of this wudoo of mine. Then Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said:Whoever performs wudoo like this wudoo of mine, and he prays two rak`ahs-not conversing with himself in them, then his previous sins will be forgiven for him.”” Ibn Shihaab said: “Our scholars used to say: This wudoo is the most complete wudoo which anyone can make for the Prayer.” [02]

THE CONDITIONS (SHUROOT) FOR ITS CORRECTNESS:

1- The intention (an-Niyyah):

Because of his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: Actions are but by intentions, [03] and it is not legislated to utter it in words, since it is not established from the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam).

2- Mentioning Allaah’s name (at-Tasmiyah):

Because of his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: There is no Prayer for the one who does not have wudoo, and there is no wudoo· for the one who does not mention Allaah’s name upon it.” [04]

3- Continuity (al-Muwaalaat):[05]

Because of the hadeeth of Khaalid ibn Ma`daan: [from one of the Companions of the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saw a man praying with a dry spot the size of a dirham, which water had not touched. So the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) ordered him to repeat the wudoo· and the Prayer. [06]

ITS OBLIGATIONS (FARAA’ID):

1- Washing the face, and from it is washing the mouth (al-Madmadah) and washing out the nose (al-Istinshaaq).
2- Washing the two arms up to the elbows.[07]
3- Wiping the whole of the head; and the ears are from the head.
4- Washing the feet up to and including the ankles: because of His Saying -He the Most High:

[..and your feet up to and including the ankles].
[Sooratul-Maa·idah (5):6]

[[Meaning: O you who believe! When you stand to pray, wash your faces and your arms up to and including the elbows, and wipe your heads,]]

As for the washing of the mouth (al-Madmadah) and the washing out of the nose (alIstinshaaq) being from the face, such that they are obligatory, then this is because Allaah -the Perfect- commanded the washing of the face in His Mighty Book; and it is established that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) continually practised that in every wudoo, and it was reported by all those who reported his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) wudoo· and explained its description. So this shows that the washing of the face which has been commanded in the Qur’aan includes washing the mouth and washing out the nose. [08]

And there occurs a command for the two of them in his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “When one of you performs wudoo, then let him put water into his nose and then let him blow it out.”,[09] and his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “Exert in sniffing water into the nose, unless you are fasting”,[10] and his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “When you perform wudoo, then wash your mouth.” [11]

As for the obligation of wiping over the whole of the head, then this is because the command in the Qur’aan to wipe is left unspecified (mujmal). So the Sunnah is referred to for its clarification, and it is established in the two Saheehs and elsewhere that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) wiped the whole of his head. So this contains a proof that it is obligatory to wipe the head completely.

So then if it is said: It is established from a hadeeth of al-Mugheerah that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) wiped over his forelock and upon his turban (`imaamah), then the response is: he only restricted himself to wiping the forelock because he completed the rest of the wiping of the head upon the turban, and we hold this as our saying; and there is no proof in it for the permissibility of limiting the wiping to the forelock, or to a part of the head, without completing it upon the turban.[12]

So in summary it is obligatory to wipe the whole of the head; and the person who wipes may wipe upon the head only, or upon the turban only, or upon the head and turban. All of this is authentic and established.

As for the two ears being from the head, such that it is obligatory to wipe them, then it is because of his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “The two ears are from the head.” [13]

7- Rubbing the wetted fingers through the beard:

Because of the hadeeth of Anas ibn Maalik radiyallaahu `anhu that when Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) performed wudoo he used to take a handful of water and enter it under his chin, and he would rub it through his beard, and say “This is what my Lord -the Mighty and Majestic- has commanded.” [14]

8- Entering the wet fingers between the fingers and toes:

Because of his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “Complete the wudoo·, and rub between the fingers and toes, and exert in entering water into the nose unless you are fasting.”[15]

ITS SUNNAHS:

1- The siwaak (tooth-stick):

From Aboo Hurayrah radiyallaahu `anhu who said: Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said:

“If it were not that I would make a difficulty upon my nation I would have commanded them to use the siwaak with every wudoo·.”[16]

2- Washing the hands three times at the beginning of the wudoo·:

Because of what is established from `Uthmaan -radiyallaahu `anhu, that when he showed how the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) performed wudoo·, he washed his hands three times.[17]

3- Combining the washing of the mouth and the washing of the nose three times, each with a single handful:

Because of what occurs in the hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn Zayd -radiyallaahu `anhu when he taught the people how Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) performed the wudoo·: that he washed his mouth and washed his nose from a single handful, and he did that three times.[18]

4- Exerting in these two, for the one who is not fasting:

Because of his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “Exert in sniffing water into the nose, unless you are fasting.”[19]

5- Giving precedence to the right side over the left side:

Because of the hadeeth of `Aa·ishah –radiyallaahu `anhaa-: “Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) used to like to begin with the right side, when putting on shoes, and when combing his hair, and in his purification, and in all his affairs.”[20]

And because of what occurs in the hadeeth of `Uthmaan, when he showed how the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) performed wudoo·: that he washed the right side and then the left.

6- Rubbing (water upon the body parts):

Because of the hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn Zayd: that two thirds of a handful of water was brought to the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) so he rubbed his forearms.[21]

7- Washing three times:

Because of the hadeeth of `Uthmaan: that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) performed the wudoo, washing each part three times; and it is authentic that he (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) performed wudoo· washing each part once; and washing each part twice. [22]

And it is recommended to repeat the wiping of the head sometimes: because of what is authentic from `Uthmaan that he performed wudoo·, and he wiped his head three times, and he said: “I saw Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) perform wudoo· like this.”[23]

8- (Keeping to) the order (at-Tarteeb):

Since this was what Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) generally did, as is reported by those who reported his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) wudoo·.

However it is authentic from al-Miqdaam ibn Ma`deekarib: “That he brought some water for wudoo· for Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) So he performed wudoo·, and he washed his hands three times, and he washed his face three times; then he washed his forearms three times; then he washed his mouth and washed out his nose three times; then he wiped his head and his ears…”, the hadeeth.[24]

9- Making supplication (du`aa·) after it:

Because of his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying:

“There is not one of you who performs wudoo·, and completes the wudoo·, and then says:

أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إلَّا اللهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ، وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ

(Ashhadu an laa ilaaha illallaah, wahdahu laa shareeka lahu, wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan `abduhu wa rasooluhu)

‘I testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, alone, having no partner; and I testify that Muhammad is His Slave and His Messenger’,

except that the eight gates of Paradise are opened for him: he may enter through whichever of them he pleases.”[25]

at-Tirmidhee added:

اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْنِي مِنَ التَّوَّابِينَ وَاجْعَلْنِي مِنَ الْمُتَطَهِّرِينَ

(Allaahummaj `alnee minat-Tawwaabeena waj`alnee minal- Mutatahhireen)

‘O Allaah! Make me from those who constantly repent, and make me from those who purify themselves.’[26]

And from Aboo Sa`eed that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said:

“Whoever performs wudoo· and says:

سبْحانَك اللَّهُمّ وبحَمْدكَ أشْهدُ أنْ لا إله إلا أنْت أسْتغْفِركَ وَأتَوبُ إليْك

(Subhaanakallaahumma wa bihamdika, ashhadu an laa ilaaha illaa Anta, astaghfiruka wa atoobu ilaika)

‘ I declare You free of all imperfections, and all praise is for You. I testify that none has the right to be worshipped but you. I seek Your forgiveness, and I turn in repentance to You’,

then it is written upon a parchment, then it is sealed with a seal, and it is not broken until the Day of Resurrection.”[27]

10- Praying the two rak`ahs after it – because of the saying of `Uthmaan, after he taught them the description of the wudoo· of Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam)

“I saw the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) perform wudoo· with the like of this wudoo·, and the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said: “Whoever performs wudoo· with the like of this wudoo·; then he stands and prays two rak`ahs, not conversing with himself in them, then his previous sins are forgiven.”[28]

And from Aboo Hurayrah: that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said to Bilaal, at the time of the Dawn Prayer: “O Bilaal! Tell me about the action which you have done in Islaam which gives you the most hope, for I have heard your footsteps in front of me in Paradise.”

He said: “I have not done any action which gives me greater hope than the fact that I have never purified myself at any hour of the night or the day except that I prayer what was written for me to pray with that purification.”[29]

THE THINGS WHICH NULLIFY THE WUDOO·:

1. That which comes out of the two pathways (the genitals and the anus) from excrement, urine, and wind.

Due to the Saying of Allaah- the Most High:

[[Meaning: Or if one of you comes from the toilet]],
[Sooratul-Maa·idah (5):6]

and it is an expression which means relieving oneself.

And due to the saying of the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) “Allaah will not accept the Prayer of any one of you who breaks his purification until he performs wudoo·.”

So a man from Hadramawt said: “What is ‘breaking purification’ (hadath), O Aboo Hurayrah?’’ He said: “Breaking wind noiselessly or with a sound.’’[30]

It is likewise nullified by discharge of pre-seminal fluid (al-Madhee) and al-Wadee.[31]

From Ibn `Abbaas -radiyallaahu `anhu)maa- who said: “al-Manee, and al-Wadee and al-Madhee. As for al-Manee (semen) then it is that which necessitates taking a bath (ghusl). As for ‘al-Wadee’ and al-Madhee (pre-seminal fluid), then he said: Wash your penis, or the parts of your penis, and perform the wudoo as you would do for the Prayer.’’ [32]

2. Sleep which overwhelms, such that no consciousness remains with him, whether he is sitting with his buttocks firmly on the ground or not.

Because of the hadeeth of Safwaan ibn `Assaal who said: “Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) used to command us that when we were on a journey that we should not take off our leather socks for three days along with their nights, except from janaabah. [33] However from excrement, and urine, and sleep.” [34]

So the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) equated sleep with urinating and voiding excrement. From `Alee radiyallaahu `anhu who said “The eye is the tying string (wikaa·) for the anus (as-Sah), so whoever sleeps then let him perform wudoo·.”[35]

And the wikaa·, with a kasrah on the waaw, is the string which is used to tie a leather bag.

And the sah, with a fathah on the seen -which is without dots, and with a kasrah on the haah -which is without shaddah is the anus. And the meaning is that being awake is the tying-string for the anus, i.e. guarding that which is contained within it from coming out, since as long as he is awake he will feel that which comes out from it. [36]

3. Loss of consciousness through intoxication or illness:

Because unconsciousness through these causes is more profound than when it results from sleep.[37]

4. Touching the uncovered genitals, if it is done with desire:

Because of his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “Whoever touches his penis, then let him perform wudoo·”[38]

And his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “Is it not except a part of you.” [39] So it is just a part of you if there is no desire attached to the touching, because in this condition it is possible to see the resemblance of touching that part with touching any other part of the body. Contrary to when he touches it with desire, for then touching it will not resemble touching any other part, because that will not normally be connected to desire. And this matter is clear, as you can see.[40]

5. Eating camel meat:

Because the hadeeth of al-Baraa· ibn `Aazib -radiyallaahu `anhu(maa)- who said: Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said: “Perform wudoo· from camel meat, and do not perform wudoo· from meat of sheep.”[41]

And from Jaabir ibn Samurahradiyallaahu `anhu : That a man asked the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) Should I perform wudoo· from eating the meat of sheep?” He said: “If you wish then perform wudoo·, and if you wish then don’t perform wudoo·.” He said: “Should I perform wudoo· from the meat of camels. He said: “ Yes, perform wudoo· from the meat of camels.” [42]

THAT WHICH THE WUDOO· IS OBLIGATORY FOR (WHAT IS FORBIDDEN FOR THE PERSON WHOSE STATE OF PURIFICATION IS BROKEN):

1. The Prayer:

Because of His Saying, He -the Most High:

[[Meaning: O you who believe! When you stand up intending to pray, then wash your faces…]], the Aayah. [Sooratul Maa·idah (5):6]

Due to the saying of the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) that Allaah will not accept a Prayer without Purification.” [43]

2. Performing Tawaaf around the House:

Due to his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “Tawaaf around the House is Prayer, except that Allaah has made speech permissible in it.”[44]

THAT WHICH THE WUDOO· IS RECOMMENDED FOR:

1. The remembrance of Allaah- the Mighty and Majestic:

Because of the hadeeth of al-Muhaajir ibn Qunfudh, that he gave the greeting of Salaam to the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) whilst he was urinating, and he did not respond to him until he had performed wudoo·. Then he responded to him, and he said:

“I was not prevented from responding to you except by the fact that I disliked to make mention of Allaah except upon purification..”[45]

2. Sleep:

Because of what al-Baraa· ibn Aazib -radiyallaahu `anhu(maa)- said: The Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said:

“When one of you go to your bed then perform wudoo as you would perform wudoo· for the prayer. Then lie down upon your right-hand side, then say:

“O Allaah I have submitted my soul to You, and I have turned my face to You, and I have entrusted my affair to You, and I have placed my dependence upon You, hoping and having fear in You. There is no shelter and no place of safety from You except towards You. O Allaah, I believe in Your Book which You sent down and in Your Prophet who You sent.”

So if you die on that night of yours , then you will be upon the fitrah (the true Religion), and make them the last things you speak with.”[46]

3. The Junub (The person who is in a state of Janaabah):

When he wants to eat or drink or sleep or repeat the act of intercourse: From `Aa·ishah- radiyallaahu `anhaa- that she said that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) when he was junub, and he wanted to eat or sleep, would perform wudoo· in the way in which he performed wudoo· for the Prayer. [47]

And from `Ammaar ibn Yaasir -radiyallaahu `anhu(maa)- that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) gave concession for the junub, when he wanted to eat or drink or sleep, that he could perform wudoo· in the manner in which he performs wudoo· for the Prayer.[48]

And from Aboo Sa`eedradiyallaahu `anhu from the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) that he said:

“When one of you has relations with his wife and then he wants to repeat, then let him perform wudoo·.”[49]

4. Before taking a ghusl (bath), whether it is one which is obligatory or one which is recommended:

From `Aa·ishah- radiyallaahu `anhaa- who said:

‘‘When Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) used to take a bath from janaabah he would begin with washing his hands. Then he would pour water with his right hand over his left hand and wash his genitals, then he would perform wudoo· in the manner in which he performed wudoo· for the Prayer.’[50]

5. Eating that which has been touched by fire (eating cooked food):

Because of the hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrahradiyallaahu `anhu who said: I heard Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “Perform wudoo· from that which has been touched by fire.”[51]

And it is taken to be a recommendation because of the hadeeth of `Ammaar ibn `Umayyah ad-Damree who said: I saw the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) cutting some meat from the shoulder of a sheep and he ate from it, then he was called to the Prayer. So he got up, and threw down the knife, and prayed and he did not perform wudoo·.[52]

6. For every Prayer:

Because of the hadeeth of Buraydah radiyallaahu `anhu who said: ‘The Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) used to perform wudoo· for every Prayer. Then, when it was the Day of the Conquest, he performed wudoo·, and he wiped over his leather socks, and he prayed the Prayers with a single wudoo·. So `Umar said to him: “O Messenger of Allaah! You have done something which you had not used to do.” So he said: “ I did it deliberately, O `Umar.”[53]

7. Every time that purification is broken:

Because of the hadeeth of Buraydah radiyallaahu `anhu who said Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) entered the morning one day, and he called for Bilaal, and said:

“O Bilaal on account of what have you preceded me in Paradise? Last night I entered Paradise and I heard the sound of your footsteps in front of me.”

Bilaal said: “O Messenger of Allaah! I have never given the adhaan except that I prayed two rak`ahs; and my purification was never broken except that I then performed wudoo·. So Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said: “Because of this.”[54]

8. From vomiting:

Because of the hadeeth of Ma`daan ibn Abee Talhah: from Abud-Dardaa·: that Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) vomited, so he broke his fast, and he performed wudoo·. He said: So I met Thawbaan in the mosque of Damascus, and I mentioned that to him. So he said: ‘He has spoken the truth. I poured the water out for him to make wudoo·.’[55]

9. Whoever carries a dead person:

Because of his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “Whoever washes a dead person, then let him take a bath; and whoever carries him, then let him perform wudoo·.”[56]

Footnotes:

[01] Saheeh: Mukhtasar Muslim (104); Muslim (1/204/224), at-Tirmidhee (1/3/1)

[02] Agreed upon: Muslim (1/204/226)-and this is his wording, al-Bukhaaree (1/266/164), Aboo Daawwood (1/180/ 106), an-Nasaa.ee (1/64).

[03] Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (1/9/1), Muslim (3/1515/1907), Aboo Daawood (6/284/2186), at-Tirmidhee (3/100/1698), Ibn Maajah (2/1413/4227), an-Nasaa·ee (1/59).

[04] Hasan: Saheeh Ibn Maajah (320); Aboo Daawood (1/174/101), Ibn Maajah (1/140/399).

[05] Shaikh al-Fawzaan said in ‘Tasheelul-Ilmaam’ (1/147):

“The jurists say ‘al-Muwaalaat’ (continuity) is that the person does not delay washing a body part to such an extent that the previous one has dried-in a moderate amount of time. So if he delays it until the previous body part has become dry, then it is obligatory upon him to repeat (the whole wudoo) [transl.].

[06]Saheeh: Saheeh Abee Daawood (no. 161); Aboo Daawood (1/296/175).

[07] ash-Shaafi`ee said in ‘al-Umm’ (1/25):

“The washing of the arms will not be sufficiently accomplished at all unless it includes everything which lies between the tips of the fingers up to the washing of the elbows; and it will not be sufficient until he washes the front, the back, and the sides of them; such that he washes them completely. If he leaves anything from this, even a small amount, it will not suffice.”

[08] as-Saylul-Jarraar (1/81)

[09] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (no. 443); Aboo Daawood (1/234/140), an-Nasaa·ee (1/66).

[10] Saheeh: Saheeh Abee Daawood (no. 129); Aboo Daawood (1/236/142)

[11] Saheeh: Saheeh Abee Daawood (no. 131); Aboo Daawood (1/236/144)

[12] Tafseer Ibn Katheer (2/24)-with slight paraphrasing.

[13] Saheeh: Saheeh Ibn Maajah (no. 357); Ibn Maajah (1/152/443)

[14] Saheeh: al-Irwaa· (no. 92); Aboo Daawood (1/243/145), al-Bayhaqee (1/54).

[15] Saheeh: Saheeh Abee Daawood (no. 129); Aboo Daawood (1/236/142)

[16] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (5317); Ahmad (1/294/171)

[17] Agreed upon: Muslim (1/204/226)-and this is his wording; al-Bukhaaree (1/266/164), Aboo Daawood (1/180/106), an-Nasaa.ee (1/64).

[18] Saheeh: Mukhtasar Muslim (no. 125); Muslim (1/210/235)

[19] Saheeh: Saheeh Abee Daawood (no. 129); Aboo Daawood (1/236/142)

[20] Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (1/269/168), Muslim (1/226/268) and (11/199/4122), an-Nasaa.ee (1/78).

[21] Its chain of narration is ‘Saheeh’, Saheeh Ibn Khuzaymah (1/62/118)

[22] Hasan Saheeh: Saheeh Abee Daawood (no.124); al-Bukhaaree (1/258/158) from a hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn Zayd; and Aboo Daawood (1/230/136) and at-Tirmidhee (1/31/43) reported it from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah.

[23] Hasan Saheeh: Saheeh Abee Daawood no.101); Aboo Daawood (1/188/110)

[24] Saheeh: Saheeh Abee Daawood: (no. 112); Aboo Daawood (1/211/121)

[25] Saheeh: Mukhtasar Muslim (143); Muslim (1/209/234).

[26] Saheeh: Saheeh at- Tirmidhee (no. 48); at-Tirmidhee (1/38/55)

[27] Saheeh: at-Targheeb (no. 220); al-Haakim (1/564); and there is nothing authentic concerning supplication during the wudoo

[28] Agreed upon: Muslim (1/204/226)-and this is his wording, al-Bukhaaree (1/266/164), Aboo Daawood (1/180/106), an-Nasaa.ee (1/64)

[29] Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (3/34/1149), Muslim (4/1910/2457)

[30] Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (1/234/no.135), al-Bayhaqee(1/117), Ahmad (2/75/352), and the basis of the hadeeth occurs with others without the addition: Muslim (1/204/no. 225),Aboo Daawood (1/87/60), and at-Tirmidhee (1/150/76).

[31] Wadee is a thick white fluid which may come out after urination (Fiqhus-Sunnah: 1/24)

[32] Saheeh:…al-Bayhaqee (1/115).

[33] The state resulting from sexual intercourse, wet-dreams, or orgasm, and which necessitates a bath (ghusl).(transl.)

[34] Hasan: Saheeh Sunanin-Nasaa.ee(123), Sunan at-Tirmidhee (1/65/69), Sunan an-Nasaa.ee (1/84).

[35] Hasan: Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah (386), Sunan Ibn Maajah (1/161/477), Sunan Abee Daawood (1/347/200) with its like.

[36] Naylul-Awtaar: (1/242).

[37] Ibn al-Mundhir in ‘al-Awsat’ (1/155),and an-Nawawee in his explanation of Saheeh Muslim mention that there is consensus (ijmaa`) of the scholars that unconsciousness nullifies the wudoo (transl.)

[38] Saheeh: Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah (388), Sunan Abee Daawood (1/307/179), Sunan Ibn Maajah (1/161/479), Sunan an-Nasaa·ee (1/100), Sunan at-Tirmidhee (1/55/no.82)-with the addition :” …so let him not pray until he has performed wudoo·.”

[39] Saheeh: Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah (392), Sunan Abee Daawood (1/312/180), Sunan Ibn Maajah (1/163/483), Sunan an-Nasaa·ee (1/101), ), Sunan at-Tirmidhee (1/56/85).

[40] Tamaamul-Minnah (p. 103).

[41] Saheeh: Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah (401), Sunan Abee Daawood (1/315/182), Sunan at-Tirmidhee (1/54/81), Sunan Ibn Maajah (1/166/494)-in abridged form.

[42]Saheeh: Mukhtasar Muslim: (no.146), Muslim (1/275/360).

[43] Saheeh: Mukhtasar Muslim (104); Muslim (1/204/224), at-Tirmidhee (1/3/1)

[44] Saheeh: [Saheehul-Jaami`is-Sagheer (3954)], Sunan at-Tirmidhee (2/217/967)

[45] Saheeh: Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah (28), Sunan Abee Daawood (1/34/17), Sunan Ibn Maajah (1/126/350), Sunan an-Nasaa.ee (1/37), and he does not report the portion traced back to the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam )

[46] Agreed upon: Saheehul-Bukhaaree (11/109/6311), Muslim (4/2081/271).

[47] Saheeh: [Abridgement of Muslim (162), Muslim (1/248-22-305), Sunan an-Nasaa·ee (1/138), Sunan Abee Daawood (1/374/221)

[48] Saheeh: Sunan Abee Daawood (1/375/222). – Declared da`eef (weak) by Shaikh al-Albaanee because of a hidden defect (`illah) [Da`eef Sunan Abee Daawood: (no.29)] (transl.)

[49] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami`is-Sagheer (263), Muslim (1/249/308), Sunan Abee Daawood (1/371/217), Sunan atTirmidhee (1/94/141), Sunan an-Nasaa·ee (1/142), Sunan Ibn Maajah (1/193/587).

[50] Saheeh:[Abridgement of Muslim (155), Saheeh Muslim (1/253/316)

[51] Saheeh:[Abridgement of Muslim (147), Saheeh Muslim (1/272/352), Sunan an-Nasaa.ee (1/105)

[52] Saheeh: [Abridgement (148), Saheeh Muslim (1/274-93-355),

[53] Saheeh: Mukhtasar Muslim (142); Muslim (1/232/277), Aboo Daawood (1/292/171), at-Tirmidhee (1/42/61), anNasaa.ee (1/86)

[54] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (7894); at-Tirmidhee (5/282/3772)

The full answer of Bilaal as reported by at-Tirmidhee was: “O Messenger of Allaah! I never gave the adhaan except that I prayed two rak`ahs; and I never broke my purification except that I then performed wudoo, and I held that Allaah was due two rak`ahs from me.’’

[55] Its chain of narration is Saheeh: Tamaamul-Minnah (p.111); at-Tirmidhee (1/58/87), Aboo Daawood (7/8/2364)- and he does not have: “and he performed wudoo”

[56] Saheeh: al-Janaa·iz (53): Ahmad (2/145/486), Ibn Hibbaan (191/751), al-Bayhaqee (1/300), at-Tirmidhee (2/231/998), with its meaning; and what is apparent from the order is that it brings about obligation. However we do not say that because of the hadeeth of Ibn `Abbaas that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said: “You do not have to take the bath for washing your dead, when you have washed him; for your dead person is not impure. So it is sufficient for you to wash your hands.” It was reported by al-Haakim (1/386), and al-Bayhaqee (3/398). Slightly adapted from ‘Ahkaamul-Janaa·iz’ of al-Albaanee (p. 53)

SourceAl-Wajeez, The Book Of Purification  –  Abdul-`Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee, Translated by Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank .

An excellent book on the rules and regulations of various acts of worship, with evidences from the Book and Sunnah. This chapter deals with water and aspects of purification, wudhoo, ghusl, the toilet etc

Tahara Index Pagehttps://abdurrahman.org/tahara-purification/

Affirmation of Ar-Ru’yah (Seeing Allaah in the Hereafter) – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lesson 48: Point 79
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

And know that the first ones who will see Allaah, the Most High, in Paradise are the blind then the men then the women with the eyes of their heads just as Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said, “You shall certainly see your Lord just as you see the moon on the night when it is full. You will not have any difficulty in seeing Him. It is obligatory to have eemaan in this and denying it is disbelief.”

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

The topic of affirmation of ar-ru’yah (seeing Allaah, the Most High, in the Hereafter) has preceded and this is re-emphasis of what has preceded and as for this order, which the author mentioned then it needs a proof. [1]

Listen/Read @
The true believers will see their Lord on the Day of Resurrection openly with their eyes

Footnotes:

[1] Translator’s side point: The hadeeth in that regard that we had before in the book with regard to seeing Allaah, the Most High in the Hereafter, not with regard to the order is the hadeeth of Jaabir radiyAllaahu `anhu, reported by Al-Bukhaariyy (554) and Muslim (633).

And on this specific point, the point of this order that those who will see Allaah first are the blind then the men then the women, the one doing the footnotes in one of the versions Khaalid ar-Raddaadi, he said,

“There occurs in this regard a hadeeth which is traced back to the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam but it is not authentic. It was mentioned by Ad-Dailamee in his book Firdaws ul-Akhbaar from Samurah ibn Jundub from him tracing back to the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam but it’s not authentic. And also al-Laalikaa`ee in his book As-Sunnah quoted this with a weak chain of narration as being the saying of Al-Hasan al-Basree; the Taabi`ee.”

Shaykh Saalih as-Suhaymee hafizahullaah said in explanation of this point,

“The author rahimahullaah made clear that whoever denies seeing the Creator has disbelieved. This ruling is a general ruling because whoever denies a matter which is known necessarily from the religion then he’s a disbeliever. As for the person who is overcome by a false doubt (shubhah) and he doesn’t know how to resolve this doubt or he resolves it with a mistake then this is a different matter. Those matters that a person does based upon a false doubt that comes upon him and is not able to arrive at what is correct in the matter then we leave his affair to Allaah. However, if he is a person who knowingly denies these matters then he has disbelieved.”

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharh as-Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Tidings at the Point of Death – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lesson 48: Point 78
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

And know that there are three forms of address for the tidings that are given when one dies.

It may be said, “Receive good tidings O beloved one of Allaah, of Allaah’s pleasure and of Paradise” or

it may be said, “Receive good tidings O servant of Allaah of Paradise on account of Islaam” or

it may be said, “Receive tidings O enemy of Allaah, of Allaah’s anger and of the Fire.”

This was the saying of Ibn Abbaas radiyAllaahu `anhumaa.[1]

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

The person who is dying whether he is a believer or a disbeliever, will be given tidings at the point of death. So, if he is a believer, he will be given good tidings of Allaah’s mercy and of Paradise. And if he is a disbeliever, he will be given tidings of Allaah’s anger and of the Fire. So, he will not actually die till he knows where he will be and it will not be possible for him to repent or to free himself or to increase in righteous deeds. This is what occurs in the hadeeth that:

“Whoever loves to meet Allaah then Allaah will love to meet him.” So `A`ishah said, “Oh Messenger of Allaah, all of us dislike death.” Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said, “That is not the case, O `A`ishah but rather the believer at the point of death will be given good tidings and so therefore, he will love to meet Allaah and so Allaah will love to meet him. Whereas, the disbeliever will be given tidings of the Fire so therefore, he will hate the meeting with Allaah so Allaah will hate to meet him.”[2]

And He, the Most High, said:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا رَبُّنَا اللَّهُ ثُمَّ اسْتَقَامُوا فَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ

Those who said, “Our Lord is Allaah” and then they remain upright then there will be no fear upon them nor shall they grieve. (Sooratul-Ahqaaf (46), aayah 13)

And He, the Most High, said:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا رَبُّنَا اللَّهُ ثُمَّ اسْتَقَامُوا تَتَنَزَّلُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ أَلَّا تَخَافُوا وَلَا تَحْزَنُوا وَأَبْشِرُوا بِالْجَنَّةِ الَّتِي كُنتُمْ تُوعَدُونَ 

Those who said, “Our Lord is Allaah” then they remained upright then the angels will descend upon them saying, “Fear not and do not grieve and receive glad tidings of Paradise, which you were promised.” (Soorah-Fussilat (41), aayah 30)

And He, the Most High, said:

وَلَوْ تَرَىٰ إِذْ يَتَوَفَّى الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا ۙ الْمَلَائِكَةُ يَضْرِبُونَ وُجُوهَهُمْ وَأَدْبَارَهُمْ وَذُوقُوا عَذَابَ الْحَرِيقِ

And if you could see when the angels take the souls of the disbelievers striking their faces and their backs saying, “Taste the punishment of the Blazing Fire.” (Sooratul-Anfaal (8), aayah 50)

Footnotes:

[1] Translator’s side point: In some of the versions, the wording is as it occurs here and in some of them, the order is slightly different and instead of the second phrase, in some versions it has instead, “Receive glad tidings O servant of Allaah of Paradise after intiqaam (vengeance) has been taken upon you,” W`Allaahu A`lam.

[2] Reported by Al-Bukhaariyy (6,507) and Muslim  (2,683) from a hadeeth of `Ubaadah ibn asSaamit radiyAllaahu `anhu and also reported by al-Bukhaariyy with a disconnected chain with the same reference (6,507) and by Muslim (2,684) from a hadeeth of `Aa`ishah radiyAllaahu `anhaa.

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharh as-Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree